Science.gov

Sample records for advanced design features

  1. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  2. Escalator design features evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Deshpande, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Escalators are available with design features such as dual speed (90 and 120 fpm), mat operation and flat steps. These design features were evaluated based on the impact of each on capital and operating costs, traffic flow, and safety. A human factors engineering model was developed to analyze the need for flat steps at various speeds. Mat operation of escalators was found to be cost effective in terms of energy savings. Dual speed operation of escalators with the higher speed used during peak hours allows for efficient operation. A minimum number of flat steps required as a function of escalator speed was developed to ensure safety for the elderly.

  3. PHISICS: New Features and Advancements

    SciTech Connect

    C. Rabiti; Y. Wang; G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; J. Cogliati; A. Alfonsi; A. EPiney; T. Grimmett

    2011-06-01

    The PHISICS (Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for INL Code System) software is under an intensive development at INL. In the last months new features have been added and improvements of the previously existing one performed. The modular approach has created a friendly development environment that allows a quick expansion of the capabilities. In the last months a little amount of work has been dedicated to the improvement of the spherical harmonics based nodal transport solver while the implementation of a solver based on the self adjoint formulation of the discrete ordinate is in the test phase on structured mesh. PHISICS now include a depletion solver with the option to use two different algorithms for the solution of the Bateman equation: the Taylor development of the exponential matrix and the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method. The coupling with RELAP5 is also available at least in the steady state search mode. The coupling between RELAP5 and PHISICS can also take advantage of the new cross section interpolation module so that the coupling could be performed using an arbitrary number of energy groups.

  4. Advanced wind turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, P.M.; Jaffrey, A.

    1995-09-01

    Garrad Hassan have a project in progress funded by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to assess the prospects and cost benefits of advanced wind turbine design. In the course of this work, a new concept, the coned rotor design, has been developed. This enables a wind turbine system to operate in effect with variable rotor diameter augmenting energy capture in light winds and shedding loads in storm conditions. Comparisons with conventional design suggest that a major benefit in reduced cost of wind generated electricity may be possible.

  5. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  6. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg. This paper will address the construction details for the GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh panel configurations. These are ultimately sized to provide 75 Watts and 119 Watts respectively for smallsats or may be used as modular building blocks for larger systems. GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh coupons have been fabricated and tested to successfully demonstrate critical performance parameters and results are also provided here.

  7. Feature-based tolerancing for advanced manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W.; Kirk, W.J. III; Simons, W.R.; Ward, R.C.; Brooks, S.L.

    1994-11-01

    A primary requirement for the successful deployment of advanced manufacturing applications is the need for a complete and accessible definition of the product. This product definition must not only provide an unambiguous description of a product`s nominal shape but must also contain complete tolerance specification and general property attributes. Likewise, the product definition`s geometry, topology, tolerance data, and modeler manipulative routines must be fully accessible through a robust application programmer interface. This paper describes a tolerancing capability using features that complements a geometric solid model with a representation of conventional and geometric tolerances and non-shape property attributes. This capability guarantees a complete and unambiguous definition of tolerances for manufacturing applications. An object-oriented analysis and design of the feature-based tolerance domain was performed. The design represents and relates tolerance features, tolerances, and datum reference frames. The design also incorporates operations that verify correctness and check for the completeness of the overall tolerance definition. The checking algorithm is based upon the notion of satisfying all of a feature`s toleranceable aspects. Benefits from the feature-based tolerance modeler include: advancing complete product definition initiatives, incorporating tolerances in product data exchange, and supplying computer-integrated manufacturing applications with tolerance information.

  8. Clinicopathologic Features of Advanced Squamous NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Socinski, Mark A; Obasaju, Coleman; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Bonomi, Philip; Bunn, Paul; Kim, Edward S; Langer, Corey J; Natale, Ronald B; Novello, Silvia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pérol, Maurice; Reck, Martin; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Reynolds, Craig H; Spigel, David R; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Wakelee, Heather; Mayo, Carlos; Thatcher, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. NSCLC accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers, and the prognosis for advanced-stage disease is typically poor. In recent years, the importance of histologic subtypes of NSCLC has been recognized, and the distinction between squamous and other NSCLC histologic subtypes is now critical to patient management. Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) represents approximately 25% to 30% of NSCLC. The prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC is poorer for those with sqCLC than for those with adenocarcinoma. This is partly due to a number of clinical characteristics that distinguish sqCLC from other NSCLC histologic subtypes, such as smoking history, comorbid diseases, age, and molecular profile. Together, these factors make sqCLC an especially challenging disease to manage. Herein, we review some of the key clinicopathologic features of sqCLC. Understanding these features to optimally address many of the unique therapeutic challenges of this disease is likely to be central to ultimately improving outcomes for patients with squamous NSCLC. PMID:27296106

  9. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  10. New Design Feature in Virginia's Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Monica McTeague

    A study of new design features for public schools was conducted to determine what specific design features were being implemented in Virginia's schools. This report summarizes the major trends in facility design that were discovered in the following areas: safety and security features; classroom space; technology areas; administrative spaces;…

  11. Advanced Querying Features for Disease Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    Most automated disease surveillance systems notify users of increases in the prevalence of reports in syndrome categories and allow users to view patient level data related to those increases. Occasionally, a more dynamic level of control is required to properly detect an emerging disease in a community. Dynamic querying features are invaluable when using existing surveillance systems to investigate outbreaks of newly emergent diseases or to identify cases of reportable diseases within data being captured for surveillance. The objective of the Advance Querying Tool (AQT) is to build a more flexible query interface for most web-based disease surveillance systems. This interface allows users to define and build their query as if they were writing a logical expression for a mathematical computation. The AQT allows users to develop, investigate, save, and share complex case definitions. It provides a flexible interface that accommodates both advanced and novice users, checks the validity of the expression as it is built, and marks errors for users. PMID:23569575

  12. MEGARA cryostat advanced design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar; Velázquez, M.; Gil de Paz, A.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Cedazo, R.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2014-08-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit and Multi-Object Spectrograph designed for the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias) 10.4m telescope in La Palma. MEGARA project has already passed preliminary design review and the optics critical design review, first-light it is expected to take place at the end of 2016. MEGARA is a development under a GRANTECAN contract. In this paper we summarize the current status of the LN2 open-cycle cryostat which has been designed by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and emphasize the key parts of the system that have updated since the Preliminary Design, the main activities related to acceptance, integration, fabrication and maintenance plans which fit into the overall structure of the management plan of MEGARA are also described. The cryogenic work package of MEGARA has completed all the design stages and is ready for its Critical Design Review and then proceed to fabrication.

  13. Integration of Supportive Design Features and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Ahmadi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Integrating supportive design features and technology into the home are excellent ways to plan to make a home "age-friendly." When an immediate need occurs for eliminating barriers in an existing home, supportive design features and technology will most often need to be examined, and some form of implementation will need to take place. While…

  14. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  15. Advanced thrust chamber designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, F. J.; Leach, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    A regeneratively cooled thrust chamber has been designed and fabricated, consisting of an inner TD nickel liner which was spin formed, welded, and machined and an outer shell of electroformed nickel. Coolant channels were produced in the outer surface of the inner liner by the electric discharge machining process before electroforming the shell. Accessory manifolds and piping were attached by welding. Manufacturing processes employed are described.

  16. A Meta-Analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to…

  17. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash. PMID:24961785

  18. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  19. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  20. Advances in Ureteral Stent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denstedt, John D.

    2007-04-01

    Ureteral stents are commonly used in urolithiasis patients for relief of obstruction or in association with stone treatments such as ureteroscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. There are currently many different bulk materials and coatings available for the manufacture of ureteral stents, however the ideal material has yet to be discovered. All potential biomaterials must undergo rigorous physical and biocompatibility testing before commercialization and use in humans. Despite significant advances in basic science research involving biocompatibility issues and biofilm formation, infection and encrustation remain associated with the use of biomaterials in the urinary tract. There have been many significant advances in the design of ureteral stents in recent years and these will be highlighted along with a discussion of future aspects of biomaterials and use of stents in association with urolithiasis.

  1. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  2. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  3. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

  4. Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.

  5. Recent Development of the Two-Stroke Engine. II - Design Features. 2; Design Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, J.

    1945-01-01

    Completing the first paper dealing with charging methods and arrangements, the present paper discusses the design forms of two-stroke engines. Features which largely influence piston running are: (a) The shape and surface condition of the sliding parts. (b) The cylinder and piston materials. (c) Heat conditions in the piston, and lubrication. There is little essential difference between four-stroke and two-stroke engines with ordinary pistons. In large engines, for example, are always found separately cast or welded frames in which the stresses are taken up by tie rods. Twin piston and timing piston engines often differ from this design. Examples can be found in many engines of German or foreign make. Their methods of operation will be dealt with in the third part of the present paper, which also includes the bibliography. The development of two-stroke engine design is, of course, mainly concerned with such features as are inherently difficult to master; that is, the piston barrel and the design of the gudgeon pin bearing. Designers of four-stroke engines now-a-days experience approximately the same difficulties, since heat stresses have increased to the point of influencing conditions in the piston barrel. Features which notably affect this are: (a) The material. (b) Prevailing heat conditions.

  6. Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Kramer

    1999-11-17

    The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and

  7. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  8. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

  9. Advanced absorber assembly design for breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Birney, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced absorber assembly design has been developed for breeder reactor control rod applications that provides for improved in-reactor performance, longer lifetimes, and reduced fabrication costs. The design comprises 19 vented pins arranged in a circular array inside of round duct tubes. The absorber material is boron carbide; cladding and duct components are constructed from the modified Type 316 stainless steel alloy. Analyses indicate that this design will scram 30 to 40% faster than the reference FFTF absorber assembly. The basic design characteristics of this advanced FFTF absorber assembly are applicable to large core breeder reactor design concepts.

  10. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  11. A survey on methods of design features identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    It is widely accepted that design features are one of the most attractive integration method of most fields of engineering activities such as a design modelling, process planning or production scheduling. One of the most important tasks which are realized in the integration process of design and planning functions is a design translation meant as design data mapping into data which are important from process planning needs point of view, it is manufacturing data. A design geometrical shape translation process can be realized with application one of the following strategies: (i) designing with previously prepared design features library also known as DBF method it is design by feature, (ii) interactive design features recognition IFR, (iii) automatic design features recognition AFR. In case of the DBF method design geometrical shape is created with design features. There are two basic approaches for design modelling in DBF method it is classic in which a part design is modelled from beginning to end with application design features previously stored in a design features data base and hybrid where part is partially created with standard predefined CAD system tools and the rest with suitable design features. Automatic feature recognition consist in an autonomic searching of a product model represented with a specific design representation method in order to find those model features which might be potentially recognized as design features, manufacturing features, etc. This approach needs the searching algorithm to be prepared. The searching algorithm should allow carrying on the whole recognition process without a user supervision. Currently there are lots of AFR methods. These methods need the product model to be represented with B-Rep representation most often, CSG rarely, wireframe very rarely. In the IFR method potential features are being recognized by a user. This process is most often realized by a user who points out those surfaces which seem to belong to a

  12. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  13. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  14. Design of an Advanced Expander Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John C.; Tabata, William K.

    1993-01-01

    The final design of the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is discussed. The AETB is a cryogenic rocket ground test unit being designed and built for NASA to enable validation of mission-focused technologies for advanced space engines. Based on the split expander cycle, it will operate at a nominal thrust of 20,000 lbf, a chamber pressure of 1200 psia, and may be operated off-design over a wide range of throttling conditions and mixture ratios. The design approach and configuration of the major components are described.

  15. The Process of Designing Task Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Malcolm Bauer, from Education Testing Services, provides his comments on the Focus article in this issue of "Measurement" entitled : "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games" (Russell G. Almond, Yoon Jeon Kim, Gertrudes Velasquez, Valerie J. Shute). Bauer begins his remarks by noting…

  16. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  17. Design features of fans, blowers, and compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisinoff, N. P.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

    Fan engineering and compression machines are discussed. Basic aspects of fan performance and design are reviewed, and the design and performance characteristics of radial-flow fans, axial-flow fans, and controllable pitch fans are examined in detail. Air-conditioning systems are discussed, and noise, vibration, and mechanical considerations in fans are extensively examined. The thermodynamic principles governing compression machines are reviewed, and piston compressors, rotary compressors, blowers, and centrifugal compressors are discussed.

  18. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  19. Developments at the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    2003-01-01

    A report presents background and historical information, as of August 1998, on the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) at Ames Research Center. The ADTT is characterized as an activity initiated to facilitate improvements in aerospace design processes; provide a proving ground for product-development methods and computational software and hardware; develop bridging methods, software, and hardware that can facilitate integrated solutions to design problems; and disseminate lessons learned to the aerospace and information technology communities.

  20. Hairy cell leukemia: clinical features and therapeutic advances.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Golomb, H M

    1987-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder which has been extensively studied over the past decade. Much has been learned regarding the diagnosis, natural history, biology, and treatment of this unique neoplasm. The disease most commonly affects middle aged men and characteristic clinical features include splenomegaly, cytopenias, and usually the presence in the peripheral blood of distinctive 'hairy cells' with irregular cytoplasmic projections. Diagnosis can usually be confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. Although the natural history can be extremely variable among patients, complications are usually referable to the cytopenias, with anemia and infection being most frequent. In addition to pyogenic infections, patients are susceptible to unusual organisms including atypical mycobacterium, legionella, and fungi. The requirement of red blood cell transfusion, severe granulocytopenia or thrombocytopenia, frequent infections, or painful splenomegaly are all indications for treatment. Splenectomy is the standard initial treatment of choice. However, in the past few years there have been exciting major advances in the therapeutic modalities for HCL. Recombinant alpha-interferon is highly effective, with beneficial responses occurring in close to 90% of patients. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved the use of interferon for HCL. This represents the first time a biological response modifier has been approved for the treatment of human disease. In addition, preliminary results with the adenosine deaminase inhibitor, 2'deoxycoformycin (dcf), have been encouraging. Further clinical trials are required in order to determine the optimal sequential treatment strategy for HCL. The exact mechanisms of action of both interferon and dcf in HCL remain to be elucidated. A better understanding of the unusual features of the hairy cell and the underlying biological effect of these two agents in HCL may have important applications in other

  1. Designing attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Chang, Jen-Wei; Lee, Chun-Chia

    2013-06-01

    Gamification design is considered as the predictor of collaborative storytelling websites' success. Although aforementioned studies have mentioned a broad range of factors that may influence gamification, they neither depicted the actual design features nor relative attractiveness among them. This study aims to identify attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites. We first constructed a hierarchical system structure of gamification design of collaborative storytelling websites and conducted a focus group interview with eighteen frequent users to identify 35gamification features. After that, this study determined the relative attractiveness of these gamification features by administrating an online survey to 6333 collaborative storytelling websites users. The results indicated that the top 10 most attractive gamification features could account for more than 50% of attractiveness among these 35 gamification features. The feature of unpredictable time pressure is important to website users, yet not revealed in previous relevant studies. Implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:23438264

  2. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section... § 211.42 Design and construction features. (a) Any building or buildings used in the manufacture... sampling, testing, or examination by the quality control unit before release for manufacturing or...

  3. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  4. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  5. Simulator design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    This simulation design task completion report documents the simulation techniques associated with the network models of both the Interim Service ISDN (integrated services digital network) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures. The ISIS network model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communication satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete events simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  6. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  7. Designing for safety in the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.M.; West, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source is a major new research facility proposed by the Department of Energy for construction over the next six years. The unique set of nuclear safety features selected to give the recently completed conceptual design a high degree of safety are identified and discussed.

  8. 50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

  9. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P; Sherwin, R

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  10. Technical Workshop: Advanced Helicopter Cockpit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemingway, J. C. (Editor); Callas, G. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Information processing demands on both civilian and military aircrews have increased enormously as rotorcraft have come to be used for adverse weather, day/night, and remote area missions. Applied psychology, engineering, or operational research for future helicopter cockpit design criteria were identified. Three areas were addressed: (1) operational requirements, (2) advanced avionics, and (3) man-system integration.

  11. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  12. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  13. The development and features of the Spanish prehospital advanced triage method (META) for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Garijo Gonzalo, Gracia; Martinez Monzon, Carlos; Pelaez Corres, Nieves; Rodriguez Soler, Alberto; Turegano Fuentes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text describes the process of development of the new Spanish Prehospital Advanced Triage Method (META) and explain its main features and contribution to prehospital triage systems in mass casualty incidents. The triage META is based in the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, patient's anatomical injuries and mechanism of injury. It is a triage method with four stages including early identification of patients with severe trauma that would benefit from a rapid evacuation to a surgical facility and introduces a new patient flow by-passing the advanced medical post to improve evacuation. The stages of triage META are: I) Stabilization triage that classifies patients according to severity to set priorities for initial emergency treatment; II) Identifying patients requiring urgent surgical treatment, this is done at the same time than stage I and creates a new flow of patients with high priority for evacuation; III) Implementation of Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols to patients previously classified according to stablished priority; and IV) Evacuation triage, stablishing evacuation priorities in case of lacks of appropriate transport resources. The triage META is to be applied only by prehospital providers with advanced knowledge and training in advanced trauma life support care and has been designed to be implemented as prehospital procedure in mass casualty incidents (MCI). PMID:27130042

  14. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  15. Critical Features of Engineering Design in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asunda, Paul A.; Hill, Roger B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find critical features of engineering design that can be incorporated within technology education learning activities, and develop a rubric for assessing these features. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with three professors actively involved in engineering education. Supporting documents such…

  16. Design Concept for Garbage Bin with Situation Awareness Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supattatham, Montri; Papasratorn, Borworn

    Many measures to prevent wide-spread of communicable diseases depends on embedded IT into objects found in public places. This makes it possible to have objects with awareness on surrounding environment, or having situation awareness. This paper presents design concept to add situation awareness features to automatic garbage bin. There are three design levels for including situation awareness features with garbage bin. From awareness goals, required features are identified. Perception, comprehension, and projection are then aligned with the required features, in order to have desired awareness. Automatic garbage bin is implemented using design specification from the proposed design concept. Result from convenience sampling survey reveals that users are satisfied with the implemented garbage bin.

  17. Aerodynamic Design Study of Advanced Multistage Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Medd, Adam J.; Dang, Thong Q.

    2002-01-01

    As a direct response to the need for further performance gains from current multistage axial compressors, an investigation of advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to compact, high-efficiency, and wide-operability configurations is being pursued. Part I of this report describes the projected level of technical advancement relative to the state of the art and quantifies it in terms of basic aerodynamic technology elements of current design systems. A rational enhancement of these elements is shown to lead to a substantial expansion of the design and operability space. Aerodynamic design considerations for a four-stage core compressor intended to serve as a vehicle to develop, integrate, and demonstrate aerotechnology advancements are discussed. This design is biased toward high efficiency at high loading. Three-dimensional blading and spanwise tailoring of vector diagrams guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to manage the aerodynamics of the high-loaded endwall regions. Certain deleterious flow features, such as leakage-vortex-dominated endwall flow and strong shock-boundary-layer interactions, were identified and targeted for improvement. However, the preliminary results were encouraging and the front two stages were extracted for further aerodynamic trimming using a three-dimensional inverse design method described in part II of this report. The benefits of the inverse design method are illustrated by developing an appropriate pressure-loading strategy for transonic blading and applying it to reblade the rotors in the front two stages of the four-stage configuration. Multistage CFD simulations based on the average passage formulation indicated an overall efficiency potential far exceeding current practice for the front two stages. Results of the CFD simulation at the aerodynamic design point are interrogated to identify areas requiring additional development. In spite of the significantly higher aerodynamic loadings, advanced CFD

  18. Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Informatics Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This is a description of the software design for the 2013 edition of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Informatics computer assembly. The Informatics system is an optional part of the space suit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and caution and warning information. In the future it will display maps with GPS position data, and video and still images captured by the astronaut.

  19. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-08-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  20. ESD protection design for advanced CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin B.; Wang, Gewen

    2001-10-01

    ESD effects in integrated circuits have become a major concern as today's technologies shrink to sub-micron/deep- sub-micron dimensions. The thinner gate oxide and shallower junction depth used in the advanced technologies make them very vulnerable to ESD damages. The advanced techniques like silicidation and STI (shallow trench insulation) used for improving other device performances make ESD design even more challenging. For non-silicided technologies, a certain DCGS (drain contact to gate edge spacing) is needed to achieve ESD hardness for nMOS output drivers and nMOS protection transistors. The typical DCGS values are 4-5um and 2-3um for 0.5um and 0.25um CMOS, respectively. The silicidation reduces the ballast resistance provided by DCGS with at least a factor of 10. As a result, scaling of the ESD performance with device width is lost and even zero ESD performance is reported for standard silicided devices. The device level ESD design is focused in this paper, which includes GGNMOS (gate grounded NMOS) and GCNMOS (gate coupled NMOS). The device level ESD testing including TLP (transmission line pulse) is given. Several ESD issues caused by advanced technologies have been pointed out. The possible solutions have been developed and summarized including silicide blocking, process optimization, back-end ballasting, and new protection scheme, dummy gate/n-well resistor ballsting, etc. Some of them require process cost increase, and others provide novel, compact, and simple design but involving royalty/IP (intellectual property) issue. Circuit level ESD design and layout design considerations are covered. The top-level ESD protection strategies are also given.

  1. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  2. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  3. Advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been concieved which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  4. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  5. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, C. F., Jr.; Huettig, F. R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. The reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  6. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Huettig, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  7. Design of the advanced regional aircraft, the DART-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, Steve; Gislason, Jason; Huffstetler, Mark; Mann, Jon; Withers, Ashley; Zimmerman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The need for regional aircraft stems from the problem of hub airport congestion. Regional travel will allow a passenger to commute from one spoke city to another spoke city without entering the congested hub airport. In addition, those people traveling longer routes may begin the flight at home instead of traveling to the hub airport. At this time, there is no American aerospace company that produces a regional transport for under 100 passengers. The intention of the Developmental Advanced Regional Transport (DART-75) is to fill this void with a modern, efficient regional aircraft. This design achieves the efficiency through a number of advanced features including three lifting surfaces, partial composite construction, and an advanced engine design. Efficiency is not the only consideration. Structural integrity, fatigue life, ease of maintenance, passenger comfort and convenience, and environmental aspects must all be considered. These factors force the design team to face many tradeoffs that are studied to find the best solution. The final consideration that cannot be overlooked is that of cost. The DART-75 is a 75-passenger medium-range regional transport intended for spoke-to-spoke, spoke-to-hub, and some hub-to-hub operations. Included are the general descriptions of the structures, weight and balance, stability and control, performance, and engine design.

  8. Advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed by GTE Government Systems and the University of Colorado in support of the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program is summarized. Two levels of research were undertaken. The first dealt with providing interim services Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) satellite (ISIS) capabilities that accented basic rate ISDN with a ground control similar to that of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The ISIS Network Model development represents satellite systems like the ACTS orbiting switch. The ultimate aim is to move these ACTS ground control functions on-board the next generation of ISDN communications satellite to provide full-service ISDN satellite (FSIS) capabilities. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design are obtainable from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models of the major subsystems of the ISDN communications satellite architecture. Discrete event simulation experiments would generate data for analysis against NASA SCAR performance measure and the data obtained from the ISDN satellite terminal adapter hardware (ISTA) experiments, also developed in the program. The Basic and Option 1 phases of the program are also described and include the following: literature search, traffic mode, network model, scenario specifications, performance measures definitions, hardware experiment design, hardware experiment development, simulator design, and simulator development.

  9. Fast SIFT design for real-time visual feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Liang-Chi; Chang, Tian-Sheuan; Chen, Jiun-Yen; Chang, Nelson Yen-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Visual feature extraction with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is widely used for object recognition. However, its real-time implementation suffers from long latency, heavy computation, and high memory storage because of its frame level computation with iterated Gaussian blur operations. Thus, this paper proposes a layer parallel SIFT (LPSIFT) with integral image, and its parallel hardware design with an on-the-fly feature extraction flow for real-time application needs. Compared with the original SIFT algorithm, the proposed approach reduces the computational amount by 90% and memory usage by 95%. The final implementation uses 580-K gate count with 90-nm CMOS technology, and offers 6000 feature points/frame for VGA images at 30 frames/s and ∼ 2000 feature points/frame for 1920 × 1080 images at 30 frames/s at the clock rate of 100 MHz. PMID:23743775

  10. Advanced surface design for logistics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim R.; Hansen, Scott D.

    The development of anthropometric arm/hand and tool models and their manipulation in a large system model for maintenance simulation are discussed. The use of Advanced Surface Design and s-fig technology in anthropometrics, and three-dimensional graphics simulation tools, are found to achieve a good balance between model manipulation speed and model accuracy. The present second generation models are shown to be twice as fast to manipulate as the first generation b-surf models, to be easier to manipulate into various configurations, and to more closely approximate human contours.

  11. Advanced Avionics Breadboard Executive Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The advanced avionics breadboard (AAB) executive evolved from an effort to design and develop an avionics system. This executive is unique in that it supervises a triple redundant avionics computer system. Three IBM System 4 Pi/CP computers, operating synchronously and executing identical software, comprise the central processors which route data to and from a data bus via an input/output controller. The executive's basic function is to provide application programs with an efficient software structure within which to perform specific avionics application tasks. Although implemented in a triplex data management system, the AAB executive contains the flexibility to be adapted to other systems with minimal change.

  12. ASDA - Advanced Suit Design Analyzer computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Conger, Bruce C.; Iovine, John V.; Chang, Chi-Min

    1992-01-01

    An ASDA model developed to evaluate the heat and mass transfer characteristics of advanced pressurized suit design concepts for low pressure or vacuum planetary applications is presented. The model is based on a generalized 3-layer suit that uses the Systems Integrated Numerical Differencing Analyzer '85 in conjunction with a 41-node FORTRAN routine. The latter simulates the transient heat transfer and respiratory processes of a human body in a suited environment. The user options for the suit encompass a liquid cooled garment, a removable jacket, a CO2/H2O permeable layer, and a phase change layer.

  13. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  14. Structural health monitoring feature design by genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Dustin Y.; Todd, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time damage and performance information for civil, aerospace, and other high-capital or life-safety critical structures. Conventional data processing involves pre-processing and extraction of low-dimensional features from in situ time series measurements. The features are then input to a statistical pattern recognition algorithm to perform the relevant classification or regression task necessary to facilitate decisions by the SHM system. Traditional design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms can be an expensive and time-consuming process requiring extensive system knowledge and domain expertise. Genetic programming, a heuristic program search method from evolutionary computation, was recently adapted by the authors to perform automated, data-driven design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms for statistical pattern recognition applications. The proposed method, called Autofead, is particularly suitable to handle the challenges inherent in algorithm design for SHM problems where the manifestation of damage in structural response measurements is often unclear or unknown. Autofead mines a training database of response measurements to discover information-rich features specific to the problem at hand. This study provides experimental validation on three SHM applications including ultrasonic damage detection, bearing damage classification for rotating machinery, and vibration-based structural health monitoring. Performance comparisons with common feature choices for each problem area are provided demonstrating the versatility of Autofead to produce significant algorithm improvements on a wide range of problems.

  15. NASA/USRA University advanced design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, Michael F.; Prussing, John

    1989-01-01

    The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program for the 1988 to 1989 academic year is reviewed. The University's design project was the Logistics Resupply and Emergency Crew Return System for Space Station Freedom. Sixty-one students divided into eight groups, participated in the spring 1989 semester. A presentation prepared by three students and a graduate teaching assistant for the program's summer conference summarized the project results. Teamed with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the University received support in the form of remote telecon lectures, reference material, and previously acquired applications software. In addition, a graduate teaching assistant was awarded a summer 1989 internship at MSFC.

  16. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  17. Spectral feature design in high dimensional multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The High resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is designed to acquire images simultaneously in 192 spectral bands in the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers wavelength region. It will make possible the collection of essentially continuous reflectance spectra at a spectral resolution sufficient to extract significantly enhanced amounts of information from return signals as compared to existing systems. The advantages of such high dimensional data come at a cost of increased system and data complexity. For example, since the finer the spectral resolution, the higher the data rate, it becomes impractical to design the sensor to be operated continuously. It is essential to find new ways to preprocess the data which reduce the data rate while at the same time maintaining the information content of the high dimensional signal produced. Four spectral feature design techniques are developed from the Weighted Karhunen-Loeve Transforms: (1) non-overlapping band feature selection algorithm; (2) overlapping band feature selection algorithm; (3) Walsh function approach; and (4) infinite clipped optimal function approach. The infinite clipped optimal function approach is chosen since the features are easiest to find and their classification performance is the best. After the preprocessed data has been received at the ground station, canonical analysis is further used to find the best set of features under the criterion that maximal class separability is achieved. Both 100 dimensional vegetation data and 200 dimensional soil data were used to test the spectral feature design system. It was shown that the infinite clipped versions of the first 16 optimal features had excellent classification performance. The overall probability of correct classification is over 90 percent while providing for a reduced downlink data rate by a factor of 10.

  18. Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, Ellen

    1998-07-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  19. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  20. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  1. Enteroviral encephalitis in children: clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment advances

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shikha; Patel, Bhupeswari; Bhatt, Girish Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) have emerged as one of the important etiological agents as a causative organism for encephalitis, especially in children and adults. After the first report of EV encephalitis cases in 1950s, there have been increasing reports of regular outbreaks of EV encephalitis worldwide. Enteroviruses are RNA viruses of the family Picornaviridae that consists of more than 100 serotypes, which are characterized by a single positive-strand genomic RNA. The clinical features are pleomorphic and can be accompanied by mucocutaneous manifestations or isolated encephalitis only. The incidence of encephalitis in EV infection is reported to be about 3% and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. A number of newer therapeutic agents have been used in EV encephalitis with variable results. This review will focus on clinical features, pathophysiology, and newer treatment modality in EV encephalitis. PMID:25175874

  2. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Neutronic Core Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan; Holcomb, David Eugene; Varma, Venugopal Koikal

    2012-01-01

    The AHTR is a 3400 MW(t) FHR class reactor design concept intended to serve as a central generating station type power plant. While significant technology development and demonstration remains, the basic design concept appears sound and tolerant of much of the remaining performance uncertainty. No fundamental impediments have been identified that would prevent widespread deployment of the concept. This paper focuses on the preliminary neutronic design studies performed at ORNL during the fiscal year 2011. After a brief presentation of the AHTR design concept, the paper summarizes several neutronic studies performed at ORNL during 2011. An optimization study for the AHTR core is first presented. The temperature and void coefficients of reactivity are then analyzed for a few configurations of interest. A discussion of the limiting factors due to the fast neutron fluence follows. The neutronic studies conclude with a discussion of the control and shutdown options. The studies presented confirm that sound neutronic alternatives exist for the design of the AHTR to maintain full passive safety features and reasonable operation conditions.

  3. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  4. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, L; Wong, J; Li, R

    2014-06-15

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications.

  5. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external tomore » Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.« less

  6. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, Victor; Allen, James; Lantz, Jeffery; Priddy, Brian; & Westling, Belinda

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  7. View of landscape design feature in Hinkley Square. Note reconstructed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of landscape design feature in Hinkley Square. Note reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 2 on left and Building No. 3 on right. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. View of Hinkley Square. Note boulders as landscape design features ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hinkley Square. Note boulders as landscape design features and reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 2 on left and Building No. 3 on right. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8 and 10 at Parking Area No. 8. Note placement of boulders and staircase to Building No. 32 at rear. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. View of hillside and designed landscape features between Buildings No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hillside and designed landscape features between Buildings No. 32, 33, and 19 from left to right. Looking northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8, at left, and 10. Note staircase to Building No. 32 at rear. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  13. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  14. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  15. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  16. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  17. Update on quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, S. M.; Barton, M. A.; Bell, A. S.; Beveridge, N.; Bland, B.; Brummitt, A. J.; Cagnoli, G.; Cantley, C. A.; Carbone, L.; Cumming, A. V.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, R. M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Hammond, G. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayler, T. M.; Heptonstall, A.; Heefner, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hough, J.; Jones, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kumar, R.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Martin, I. W.; Murray, P. G.; O'Dell, J.; Plissi, M. V.; Reid, S.; Romie, J.; Robertson, N. A.; Rowan, S.; Shapiro, B.; Speake, C. C.; Strain, K. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torrie, C.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vecchio, A.; Wilmut, I.

    2012-12-01

    We describe the design of the suspension systems for the major optics for Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The design is based on that used in GEO600—the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector, with further development to meet the more stringent noise requirements for Advanced LIGO. The test mass suspensions consist of a four-stage or quadruple pendulum for enhanced seismic isolation. To minimize suspension thermal noise, the final stage consists of a silica mirror, 40 kg in mass, suspended from another silica mass by four silica fibres welded to silica ears attached to the sides of the masses using hydroxide-catalysis bonding. The design is chosen to achieve a displacement noise level for each of the seismic and thermal noise contributions of 10-19 m/√Hz at 10 Hz, for each test mass. We discuss features of the design which has been developed as a result of experience with prototypes and associated investigations.

  18. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  19. View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8 and 10. Note placement of boulders at rear, staircase in foreground is seen in HABS CA-2783-39. Building No. 10 on left and Building No. 8 on right. Looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. On-Line NDE for Advanced Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Inanc, F.; Thompson, R. B.; Junker, W. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Beatty, J. M.; Arlia, N. G.

    2003-03-01

    This expository paper introduces the concept of on-line sensor methodologies for monitoring the integrity of components in next generation power systems, and explains general benefits of the approach, while describing early conceptual developments of suitable NDE methodologies. The paper first explains the philosophy behind this approach (i.e. the design-for-inspectability concept). Specifically, we describe where and how decades of accumulated knowledge and experience in nuclear power system maintenance are utilized in Generation IV power system designs, as the designs are being actively developed, in order to advance their safety and economy. Second, we explain that Generation IV reactor design features call for the replacement of the current outage-based maintenance by on-line inspection and monitoring. Third, the model-based approach toward design and performance optimization of on-line sensor systems, using electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and radiation detectors, will be explained. Fourth, general types of NDE inspections that are considered amenable to on-line health monitoring will be listed. Fifth, we will describe specific modeling developments to be used for radiography, EMAT UT, and EC detector design studies.

  1. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  2. Cost effectiveness of operator features in equipment design.

    PubMed

    Williams, J C

    1983-06-01

    In design negotiation, the attribution of credible values to the incorporation or deletion of operator features allows engineers the freedom to judge the overall effect of human factors recommendations in relation to the achievement of a design specification. Likewise in the development phase, product planners frequently need more precise statements about productivity, training needs and general operational performance than, "it will be greater/less, worse/better than...". The method described utilises measured and synthetic data, learning theory and Markov processes to calculate the likelihood of operator task failure. These failure rates are then treated via filter factors derived from the application of the Nominal Groups Technique to give a global statement of the likelihood of operator failure resulting in unscheduled calls for service. Using the relationship between the cost of service calls and the overall life cost of developing, manufacturing, marketing and supporting a leased product, it is then possible to place credible values on the design features in question. Thus during the design process it becomes feasible to calculate the likely effects of human factors recommendations and modifications in relation to manufacturing costs, and thereby facilitate rational assessment of their implementation on a sound economic basis. This technique has been used to considerable effect, and represents a useful additional tool for the human factors practitioner in the design negotiation process. Further developments and refinements are planned, and it is anticipated that a similar technique will shortly be available to enable assessment of the effectiveness of product training programmes and job aids. PMID:15676470

  3. An Advanced Tool for Control System Design and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, Joachim; Lohmann, Heinz

    2006-07-01

    The detailed engineering for control systems is usually supported by CAD Tools creating the relevant logic diagrams including software parameters and signal cross references. However at this stage of the design an early V and V process for checking out the functional correctness of the design is not available. The article describes the scope and capabilities of an advanced control system design tool which has the embedded capability of a stand-alone simulation of complex logic structures. The tool provides the following features for constructing logic diagrams for control systems: - Drag and Drop construction of logic diagrams using a predefined symbol sets; - Cross reference facility; - Data extraction facility; - Stand-alone simulation for Logic Diagrams featuring: On the fly changes, signal line animation, value boxes and mini trends etc. - Creation and on-line animation of Compound Objects (Handler); - Code Generation Facility for Simulation; - Code Generation Facility for several control systems. The results of the integrated simulation based V and V process can be used further for initial control system configuration and life cycle management as well as for Engineering Test Bed applications and finally in full Scope Replica Simulators for Operator Training. (authors)

  4. Design and fabrication of an advanced, lightweight, high stiffness, railgun barrel concept

    SciTech Connect

    Vrable, D.L.; Rosenwasser, S.N.; Korican, J.A. )

    1991-01-01

    An advanced lightweight and high stiffness railgun barrel design and incorporates several new design features and advanced materials is being developed by SPARTA, Inc. The program is sponsored by the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center ARDEC and by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The railgun is 7 m long and has a 90 mm round bore. It is designed to accommodate both solid and plasma armatures. Muzzle energies are expected in the range of 9 to 15 MJ. Analysis and final design has been completed and the barrel and other railgun subassemblies are in the fabrication stage at SPARTA, Inc. in San Diego, California. Initial testing will be conducted at Maxwell Laboratories Green Farm facility in September 1990 and will subsequently be shipped to the ARDEC Railgun Laboratory in October 1990 for full power operation and testing. This paper discusses the design features and fabrication approaches for this high performance, lightweight railgun barrel system.

  5. Design Advances in Particulate Systems for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Catarina; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Mano, João F

    2016-07-01

    The search for more efficient therapeutic strategies and diagnosis tools is a continuous challenge. Advances in understanding the biological mechanisms behind diseases and tissues regeneration have widened the field of applications of particulate systems. Particles are no more just protective systems for the encapsulated drugs, but they play an active role in the success of the therapy. Moreover, particles have been explored for innovative purposes as templates for cells growth and as diagnostic tools. Until few years ago the most relevant parameters in particles formulation were the chemistry and the size. Currently, it is known that other physical characteristics can remarkably affect the performance of particulate systems. Particles with non-conventional shapes exhibit advantages due to the increasing circulation time in blood stream, less clearance by the immune system and more efficient cell internalization and trafficking. Creation of compartments has been found useful to control drug release, to tune the transport of substances across biological barriers, to supply the target with more than one bioactive agent or even to act as theranostic systems. It is expected that such complex shaped and compartmentalized systems improve the therapeutic outcomes and also the patient's compliance, acting as advanced devices that serve for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of the disease, combining agents of very different features, at the same time. In this review, we overview and analyse the most recent advances in particle shape and compartmentalization and applications of newly designed particulate systems in the biomedical field. PMID:27332041

  6. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  7. Micromechanics Based Design/Analysis Codes for Advanced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced high temperature Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) hold an enormous potential for use in aero and space related applications specifically for propulsion system components. Consequently, this has led to a multitude of research activities pertaining to fabrication, testing and modeling of these materials. The efforts directed at the development of ceramic matrix composites have focused primarily on improving the properties of the constituents as individual phases. It has, however, become increasingly clear that for CMC to be successfully employed in high temperature applications, research and development efforts should also focus on optimizing the synergistic performance of the constituent phases within the as-produced microstructure of the complex shaped CMC part. Despite their attractive features, the introduction of these materials in a wide spectrum of applications has been excruciatingly slow. The reasons are the high costs associated with the manufacturing and a complete experimental testing and characterization of these materials. Often designers/analysts do not have a consistent set of necessary properties and design allowables to be able to confidently design and analyze structural components made from these composites. Furthermore, the anisotropy of these materials accentuates the burden both on the test engineers and the designers by requiring a vastly increased amount of data/characterization compared to conventional materials.

  8. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L.; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:26680591

  9. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:26680591

  10. Advanced technology's impact on compressor design and development - A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  11. Advanced technologies impact on compressor design and development: A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  12. Design features of the Orion satellite antenna subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterfield, T. R.

    The ORION satellites (first launch 1994) will provide flexible, high capacity Ku-band communications between and within North America and Europe. Four-fold frequency re-use allows the provision of thirty-four transponders per spacecraft, with two-way networking traffic to 1.2 meter rooftop Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT). This paper provides an overview of the communications antenna subsystem and highlights some of the novel and sophisticated design features. These include the following: numerically shaped, gridded reflectors; computer optimized multi-horn feed geometry; feed coefficients optimized under mutual coupling; reconfigurable beams via on-board switching; very low thermal-distortion reflectors; novel sunshield design; and two-axis boresight trimming. Selected analyses and measurement results available at the time of writing are presented.

  13. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  14. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  15. Application features and considerations in advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.F.; Rajan, J.B.; Lee, T.S.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries, major efforts have focussed on improving specific energy, specific power, cycle life, and cost. Nonetheless, other battery characteristics related to application needs are also important features which must be considered during the battery development process. This paper describes various application features and improvements incorporated in these advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries. Their volumetric energy density and packaging flexibility are presented: their charged-stand capabilities and energy efficiencies are reported; and development work on the safe control of battery off-gases and the implementation of single-point watering systems is discussed.

  16. Advanced Design Mixer Pump Tank 18 Design Modifications Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, B.J.

    2002-12-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is preparing to retrieve high level waste (HLW) from Tank 18 in early FY03 to provide feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and to support tank closure in FY04. As part of the Tank 18 project, WSRC will install a single Advanced Design Mixer Pump (ADMP) in the center riser of Tank 18 to mobilize, suspend, and mix radioactive sludge in preparation for transfer to Tank 7. The use of a single ADMP is a change to the current baseline of four (4) standard slurry pumps used during previous waste retrieval campaigns. The ADMP was originally conceived by Hanford and supported by SRS to provide a more reliable and maintainable mixer pump for use throughout the DOE complex. The ADMP underwent an extensive test program at SRS between 1998 and 2002 to assess reliability and hydraulic performance. The ADMP ran for approximately 4,200 hours over the four-year period. A detailed tear down and inspection of the pump following the 4,2 00-hour run revealed that the gas mechanical seals and anti-friction bearings would need to be refurbished/replaced prior to deployment in Tank 18. Design modifications were also needed to meet current Authorization Basis safety requirements. This report documents the modifications made to the ADMP in support of Tank 18 deployment. This report meets the requirements of Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Milestone 3591.4-1, ''Issue Report on Modifications Made to the ADMP,'' contained in Technical Task Plan (TTP) SR16WT51, ''WSRC Retrieval and Closure.''

  17. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  18. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, 1989 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are to experimentally confirm several advanced design concepts on the Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS). The advanced design concepts were identified as potential improvements by Madison Magnetics, Inc. (MMI) during 1984 and 1985 studies of an MSBS utilizing 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in an airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. This study confirmed several advanced design concepts on magnetic suspension and balance systems. The 1989 MSBS redesign is based on the results of these experiments. Savings of up to 30 percent in supporting magnet ampere meters and 50 percent in energy stored over the 1985 design were achieved.

  19. Three-dimensional viscous design methodology for advanced technology aircraft supersonic inlet systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. H.

    1983-01-01

    A broad program to develop advanced, reliable, and user oriented three-dimensional viscous design techniques for supersonic inlet systems, and encourage their transfer into the general user community is discussed. Features of the program include: (1) develop effective methods of computing three-dimensional flows within a zonal modeling methodology; (2) ensure reasonable agreement between said analysis and selective sets of benchmark validation data; (3) develop user orientation into said analysis; and (4) explore and develop advanced numerical methodology.

  20. The Advanced Light Source: Technical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1984-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation source consisting of a 50-MeV linear accelerator, a 1.3-GeV 'booster' synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines, as shown in Figure 1. As an introduction to a detailed description of the Advanced Light Source, this section provides brief discussions on the characteristics of synchrotron radiation and on the theory of storage rings. Appendix A contents: Introduction to Synchrotron-Radiation Sources; Storage Ring; Injection System; Control System; Insertion Devices; Photon Beam Lines; and References.

  1. Advanced integrated solution for MEMS design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liateni, Karim; Moulinier, David; Affour, Bachar; Boutamine, H.; Karam, Jean Michel; Veychard, D.; Courtois, Bernard; Cao, Ariel D.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated solution for the development of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems which covers component libraries, design tools and designs methodologies which are used in conjunction with conventional design automation tools. This solutio enables system houses in wireless and optical communications and consumers electronics markets to reduce their internal development costs and significantly accelerate their product development cycles.

  2. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  3. Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

  4. Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

  5. Salient electrical design features of the Magat hydroelectric project

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.; Samorio, R.

    1987-06-01

    The Magat River Multipurpose project on the Luzon grid of the National Power Corporation of the Philippines consists of a four unit 450 MVA powerplant placed in service towards end of year 1983 and early 1984, providing an additional installed capacity of 360 MW to the existing generation peak capacity of 2478 MW (1) of the Luzon grid, which is the country's largest grid with an installed capacity of 3906 MW, the other two being those of Visayas and Mindanao with a total installed capacity of 1095 MW. This paper describes the salient features of the electrical design including the main generation and station service single line schemes, the principal equipment parameters and layout, control and protection schemes and grounding system of the power plant.

  6. Advances in technologies and study design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Completion of the initial draft sequence of the human genome was the proving ground for and has ushered in significant advancements in technology of increasing sophistication and ever increasing amounts of data. Often, this combination has a multiplicative effect of stimulating research groups to co...

  7. Launch vehicle payload adapter design with vibration isolation features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gareth R.; Fadick, Cynthia M.; Fram, Bryan J.

    2005-05-01

    Payloads, such as satellites or spacecraft, which are mounted on launch vehicles, are subject to severe vibrations during flight. These vibrations are induced by multiple sources that occur between liftoff and the instant of final separation from the launch vehicle. A direct result of the severe vibrations is that fatigue damage and failure can be incurred by sensitive payload components. For this reason a payload adapter has been designed with special emphasis on its vibration isolation characteristics. The design consists of an annular plate that has top and bottom face sheets separated by radial ribs and close-out rings. These components are manufactured from graphite epoxy composites to ensure a high stiffness to weight ratio. The design is tuned to keep the frequency of the axial mode of vibration of the payload on the flexibility of the adapter to a low value. This is the main strategy adopted for isolating the payload from damaging vibrations in the intermediate to higher frequency range (45Hz-200Hz). A design challenge for this type of adapter is to keep the pitch frequency of the payload above a critical value in order to avoid dynamic interactions with the launch vehicle control system. This high frequency requirement conflicts with the low axial mode frequency requirement and this problem is overcome by innovative tuning of the directional stiffnesses of the composite parts. A second design strategy that is utilized to achieve good isolation characteristics is the use of constrained layer damping. This feature is particularly effective at keeping the responses to a minimum for one of the most important dynamic loading mechanisms. This mechanism consists of the almost-tonal vibratory load associated with the resonant burn condition present in any stage powered by a solid rocket motor. The frequency of such a load typically falls in the 45-75Hz range and this phenomenon drives the low frequency design of the adapter. Detailed finite element analysis is

  8. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. Wan, B.; Hu, L.; Hu, C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M.; Shi, Y.

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  9. Advances in Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) is a core methodology of the Learning Sciences. Historically rooted as a movement away from the methods of experimental psychology, it is a means to develop "humble" theory that takes into account numerous contextual effects for understanding how and why a design supported learning. DBR involves iterative…

  10. A Design Heritage-Based Forecasting Methodology for Risk Informed Management of Advanced Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, Gaspare; Fragola, Joseph R.

    1999-01-01

    promise is not fulfilled at all. Decision makers in advanced technology areas have always known to discount the performance claims of a design to a degree in proportion to its stage of development, and at times have preferred the more mature design over the one of lesser maturity even with the latter promising substantially better performance once fielded. As with the broader measures of performance this has also been true for projected reliability performance. Paper estimates of potential advances in design reliability are to a degree uncertain in proportion to the maturity of the features being proposed to secure those advances. This is especially true when performance-enhancing features in other areas are also planned to be part of the development program.

  11. Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable

  12. Real World Projects in an Advanced Instructional Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Chatervert, Lake, Kristy; Wilson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This design case focuses on the redesign of Advanced Instructional Design, a capstone course taught in a Midwestern university's Masters of Training and Development program. The goal of the course was to have students integrate knowledge and skills from previous courses including needs assessment, introduction to instructional design, and program…

  13. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  14. Advanced solar concentrator: Preliminary and detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Maraschin, R. A.; Matsushita, M. T.; Erskine, D.; Carlton, R.; Jakovcevic, A.; Yasuda, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    A single reflection point focusing two-axis tracking paraboloidal dish with a reflector aperture diameter of approximately 11 m has a reflective surface made up of 64 independent, optical quality gores. Each gore is a composite of a thin backsilvered mirror glass face sheet continuously bonded to a contoured substrate of lightweight, rigid cellular glass. The use of largely self-supporting gores allows a significant reduction in the weight of the steel support structure as compared to alternate design concepts. Primary emphasis in the preliminary design package for the low-cost, low-weight, mass producible concentrator was placed on the design of the higher cost subsystems. The outer gore element was sufficiently designed to allow fabrication of prototype gores.

  15. Advanced nursing practice: old hat, new design.

    PubMed

    De Grasse, C; Nicklin, W

    2001-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses positively impact the delivery of healthcare and client outcomes. However, in the past these positions have been seen to have variable value and were often vulnerable during budget cuts. Lack of a clear advanced nursing practice (ANP) framework probably contributed to the compromised effectiveness of these roles and evolution of roles with different titles, scopes of practice and reporting structures. To build the foundation for developing an ANP framework, a task force at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) conducted a literature review related to ANP roles and completed a review of all clinical nursing roles at TOH. In addition, focus groups with nurses and other health professionals elicited ANP perceptions. The ANP framework includes a standardized job description that details competencies under five role components: clinical practice; consultation; research; education; and, leadership. Recommendations for assessment, implementation and evaluation of ANP roles are identified. The process undertaken by our ANP task force proved to be thorough and sound in developing a framework within which to move forward with ANP role implementation throughout TOH. This article, describing the process, may assist other organizations in defining ANP roles to better meet patient needs in changing health care environments. PMID:11803945

  16. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  17. Advanced airfoil design empirically based transonic aircraft drag buildup technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, W. D., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    To systematically investigate the potential of advanced airfoils in advance preliminary design studies, empirical relationships were derived, based on available wind tunnel test data, through which total drag is determined recognizing all major aircraft geometric variables. This technique recognizes a single design lift coefficient and Mach number for each aircraft. Using this technique drag polars are derived for all Mach numbers up to MDesign + 0.05 and lift coefficients -0.40 to +0.20 from CLDesign.

  18. Advanced cell designs for welded arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliano, M.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    1982-08-01

    In this paper the authors present some solar cell design innovations and associated process technology which can result in practical welded contacts for interconnection into arrays. The principal problem with welded contacts on solar cells relates to electrical and mechanical damage to the shallow diffused front junction of the cell. Design approaches are presented which result in a deeper pn junction under the weld contact point. This moves the location of the junction to a safer distance below the region of heat and pressure resulting from the welding operation. The methods presented can be used with various welding techniques including parallel gap welding, ultrasonic welding, laser spot welding or thermo-compression bonding. Design approaches include the development of a eutectic bonding technique to provide weldable contacts on front and back of the solar cell, as well as a novel integral feedthrough approach which permits welding of both contacts on the back of the cell.

  19. SCW Pressure-Channel Nuclear Reactor Some Design Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro, Igor L.; Khan, Mosin; Hopps, Victory; Jacobs, Chris; Patkunam, Ruban; Gopaul, Sandeep; Bakan, Kurtulus

    Concepts of nuclear reactors cooled with water at supercritical pressures were studied as early as the 1950s and 1960s in the USA and Russia. After a 30-year break, the idea of developing nuclear reactors cooled with SuperCritical Water (SCW) became attractive again as the ultimate development path for water cooling. The main objectives of using SCW in nuclear reactors are: 1) to increase the thermal efficiency of modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) from 30-35% to about 45-48%, and 2) to decrease capital and operational costs and hence decrease electrical energy costs (˜1000 US/kW or even less). SCW NPPs will have much higher operating parameters compared to modern NPPs (pressure about 25 MPa and outlet temperature up to 625°C), and a simplified flow circuit, in which steam generators, steam dryers, steam separators, etc., can be eliminated. Also, higher SCW temperatures allow direct thermo-chemical production of hydrogen at low cost, due to increased reaction rates. Pressure-tube or pressure-channel SCW nuclear reactor concepts are being developed in Canada and Russia for some time. Some design features of the Canadian concept related to fuel channels are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that the development of SCW pressure-tube nuclear reactors is feasible and significant benefits can be expected over other thermal-energy systems.

  20. Advanced ERS design using computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Melhem, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    There are two schools of thought regarding pressure relief design, shortcut/simplified methods and detailed methods. The shortcut/simplified methods are mostly applicable to non-reactive systems. These methods use direct scale-up techniques to obtain a vent size. Little useful information can be obtained for reaction data such as onset temperatures, activation energy, decompositon stoichiometry, etc. In addition, this approach does not readily provide the ability to perform what-if and sensitivity analysis or data that can be used for post-release mitigation design. The detailed approach advocates a more fundamental approach to pressure relief design, especially for reactive systems. First, the reaction chemistry is qualified using small scale experiments and then this data is coupled with fluid dynamics to design the emergency relief system. In addition to vent sizing information, this approach provides insights into process modification and refinement as well as the establishment of a safe operating envelope. This approach provides necessary flow data for vent containment design (if required), structural support, etc. This approach also allows the direct evaluation of design sensitivity to variables such as temperature, pressure, composition, fill level, etc. on vent sizing while the shortcut approach requires an additional experiment per what-if scenario. This approach meets DIERS technology requirements for two-phase flow and vapor/liquid disengagement and exceeds it in many key areas for reacting systems such as stoichiometry estimation for decomposition reactions, non-ideal solutions effects, continuing reactions in piping and vent containment systems, etc. This paper provides an overview of our proposed equation of state based modeling approach and its computer code implementation. Numerous examples and model validations are also described. 42 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Reconfigurable Advanced Receiver Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jianjing

    2005-01-01

    While the demand for real-time broadband information access has grown and continues to grow at a rapid Pace, the need for a reconfigurable receiver system has increased. To achieve the goal to communicate with multiple shuttles at a time, a filter bank in polyphase structure is introduced. This paper presents the design and implementation for high-speed, high-performance, and fixed-point polyphase filter banks. The polyphase filter structure is designed such that the use of a fixed-point system has minimum impact on the performance of the filter. The final hardware implementation is done on a Xilinx FPGA chip.

  2. Advances in electrometer vacuum tube design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Single-ended, miniature-cathode tube with a relatively low grid current level is constructed. Adequate cathode temperature at relatively low heater power drain is provided by designing the supporting spacers to provide a square cathode hole. Method of assembling the mount and bonding the elements is discussed.

  3. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  4. The Design Features of the National Writing Project's New Teacher Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heenan, Barbara; Houghton, Nina

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the key design features of the new teacher support programs that emerged from the National Writing Project (NWP) New Teacher Initiative (NTI). As the New Teacher Initiative unfolded, a number of design features appeared frequently and consistently across the sites. This report explains how these design features of the NTI are…

  5. Chemical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fifth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to chemical features of the soil. Upon completing the four day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) list macro- and micro-nutrients, (2) define pH and its effect on plants, (3) outline Cation Exchange of the soil,…

  6. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  7. Advanced Behavioral Applications in Schools: A Review of R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies: An Applied Behavior Analysis Systems Approach"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies" is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS[R]) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include…

  8. Recent advances in NADH electrochemical sensing design.

    PubMed

    Radoi, Antonio; Compagnone, Dario

    2009-09-01

    NADH electrochemical sensor development has been one of the most studied areas of bioelectroanalysis because of the ubiquity of NAD(P)H based enzymatic reactions in nature. The different solutions proposed are still far from the realisation of the "ideal" NADH sensor and the research area is still challenging. The principles and the recent approaches in NADH electrochemical sensing design are reported in this review. An overview of selected examples and novel sensor materials for the electrocatalysis of NADH is given with emphasis on the appropriate design to obtain improved performances. The literature data taken in consideration has been grouped depending on the strategy used in: surface modified electrodes for NADH sensing, surface redox mediated NADH probes, and bulk modified electrodes for the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH. A list of already reported dehydrogenase-based biosensors is also given. PMID:19608463

  9. Radiation design considerations for advanced Jupiter spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Koprowski, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers one aspect of the complex radiation design considerations for planetary spacecraft, namely the approach used for solving the effects of radiation on materials problems. An overview of the approach developed at JPL for Voyager, and currently being used on Galileo, is treated briefly. Examples of the postulated Jovian charged particle levels are given. The types of computer analyses codes used, the mass shielding techniques that evolved and the recommended shielding techniques for future planetary spacecraft are treated.

  10. Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.

  11. Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J. W.; Corletti, M. M.; Hayashi, Y.

    2003-11-12

    A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once actuated, depend only on natural forces such as gravity and natural circulation to perform all required safety functions. These passive safety systems result in increased plant safety and have also significantly simplified plant systems and equipment, resulting in simplified plant operation and maintenance. The AP600 meets NRC deterministic safety criteria and probabilistic risk criteria with large margins. A summary comparison of key passive safety system design features is provided in Table 1. These key features are discussed due to their importance in affecting the key thermal-hydraulic phenomenon exhibited by the passive safety systems in critical areas. The scope of some of the design changes to the AP600 is described. These changes are the ones that are important in evaluating the passive plant design features embodied in the certified AP600 standard plant design. These design changes are incorporated into the AP1000 standard plant design that Westinghouse is certifying under 10 CFR Part 52. In conclusion, this report describes the results of the representative design certification activities that were partially supported by the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These activities are unique to AP1000, but are representative of research activities that must be driven to conclusion to realize successful licensing of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States.

  12. Advanced design methodologies and novel applications of reflectarray antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayeri, Payam

    Reflectarray antennas combine the numerous advantages of printed antenna arrays and reflector antennas and create a hybrid high-gain antenna with a low-profile, low-mass, and diversified radiation performance. Reflectarrays are now emerging as the new generation of high-gain antennas for long-distance communications. In this dissertation, some advanced concepts demonstrating novel features of reflectarray antennas are presented. • First, various approaches for radiation analysis of reflectarray antennas are described and implemented. Numerical results are then presented for a variety of systems and the advantages, limitations, and accuracy of these approaches are discussed and compared with each other. • A broadband technique by using sub-wavelength elements is proposed and prototypes are fabricated and tested. This technique enables the reflectarray to achieve a significant bandwidth improvement with no additional cost. • Infrared reflectarrays antennas are studied for possible applications in concentrating solar power systems. Material losses, an important design issue at infrared frequencies, are investigated and reflectarrays consisted of dielectric resonant elements are proposed with low-loss features at infrared. • Multi-beam reflectarray antennas are studied and it is demonstrated that by optimizing the phase of the elements, a desirable multi-beam performance can be achieved using a single-feed. Local and global phase-only optimization techniques have been implemented. Two Ka-band quad-beam prototypes with symmetric and asymmetric beams have been fabricated and tested. • Different approaches for beam-scanning with reflectarray antennas are also reviewed and it is shown that for moderately wide angle beam-scanning, utilizing a feed displacement technique is more suitable than an aperture phase tuning approach. A feed displacement beam-scanning design with novel aperture phase distribution is proposed for the reflectarray antenna, and is further

  13. Acoustical features of two Mayan monuments at Chichen Itza: Accident or design?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2002-11-01

    Chichen Itza dominated the early postclassic Maya world, ca. 900-1200 C.E. Two of its colossal monuments, the Great Ball Court and the temple of Kukulkan, reflect the sophisticated, hybrid culture of a Mexicanized Maya civilization. The architecture seems intended for ceremony and ritual drama. Deducing ritual practices will advance the understanding of a lost civilization, but what took place there is largely unknown. Perhaps acoustical science can add value. Unexpected and unusual acoustical features can be interpreted as intriguing clues or irrelevant accidents. Acoustical advocates believe that, when combined with an understanding of the Maya worldview, acoustical features can provide unique insights into how the Maya designed and used theater spaces. At Chichen Itza's monuments, sound reinforcement features improve rulers and priests ability to address large crowds, and Ball Court whispering galleries permit speech communication over unexpectedly large distances. Handclaps at Kukulkan stimulate chirps that mimic a revered bird (''Kukul''), thus reinforcing cultic beliefs. A ball striking playing field wall stimulates flutter echoes at the Great Ball Court; their strength and duration arguably had dramatic, mythic, and practical significance. Interpretations of the possible mythic, magic, and political significance of sound phenomena at these Maya monuments strongly suggests intentional design.

  14. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  15. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  16. New and Improved Integrated Optical Design Analysis (IODA) Software Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troy, Edward; Moore, James D., Jr.; Montgomery, Edward E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New features have been added to IODA to support testing of lightweight optics. Algorithms have been developed to predict actuator influence functions and positions to correct for gravity loading effects. New features have also been added to import measured test data and to compare measured data with predicted data.

  17. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  18. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    The analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs for the development of photovoltaic modules is presented. Analytical models are developed to test optical, thermal, electrical and structural properties of the various encapsulation systems. Model data is compared to relevant test data to improve model accuracy and develop general principles for the design of photovoltaic modules.

  19. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  20. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  1. Advancements in ion diode and triode design.

    PubMed

    Cavenago, M

    2014-02-01

    Selfconsistent laminar flow models, which enable to predict the optimal cathode and anode geometry in simple diodes, must be modified to account for the anode aperture and the effect of other electrodes. An equation for charge coupled to arbitrary laminar flows is here first presented and its numerical solutions are obtained with a new method, based on mesh transformations. It is found that a close match to theoretical flows requires an increase of the simple diode voltage v0 by an amount vδ, which, for a typical case designed for zero exit angle condition, are v0 = 0.7465 and vδ = 0.0294 in adimensional units. States "in" and "out" for the anode lens are also shown, where "out" is a new and nonlinear solution for the beam expansion in a drift tube. PMID:24593456

  2. Advancements in ion diode and triode design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenago, M.

    2014-02-01

    Selfconsistent laminar flow models, which enable to predict the optimal cathode and anode geometry in simple diodes, must be modified to account for the anode aperture and the effect of other electrodes. An equation for charge coupled to arbitrary laminar flows is here first presented and its numerical solutions are obtained with a new method, based on mesh transformations. It is found that a close match to theoretical flows requires an increase of the simple diode voltage v0 by an amount vδ, which, for a typical case designed for zero exit angle condition, are v0 = 0.7465 and vδ = 0.0294 in adimensional units. States "in" and "out" for the anode lens are also shown, where "out" is a new and nonlinear solution for the beam expansion in a drift tube.

  3. Drop Accidents in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Addressed by Design Features and or Design Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    2000-01-06

    A variety of drop shear or impact scenarios have been identified for the Canister Storage Building. Some of these are being addressed by new calculations or require no specific action. This document describes five of them which are addressed by design features and/or existing design calculations. For each of the five a position is stated indicating the reason for assurance that the safety functions of the MCO will not be jeopardized by the accident. Following the position is a description of the basis for that position.

  4. Systems design of advanced gear steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, John Patrick

    A new generation of Ni-Co secondary hardening gear steels has been developed using a systems approach. These high toughness ultrahigh-strength martensitic steels show great promise for demanding gear applications. Quantitative science-based modeling was used to create prototype alloys of superior strength and fatigue resistance over conventional steels. Carburizing and strengthening models were developed to relate processing parameters to microstructure and microstructure to strength. The failure of the DICTRA software to accurately predict the carburizing behavior of Ni-Co steels led to a series of experiments to refine its kinetic database. New carbon diffusivities were calculated from the concentration gradients of carburized model alloys, resulting in a significant improvement of simulation accuracy. A structure/property model was created to equate the strength of a secondary hardening steel to the sum of the effects of solid solution, precipitates, dislocation density, and the substructure of the lath martensite matrix. The strengthening model was subsequently combined with the carburizing simulations to predict the hardness gradient in a case-hardened alloy based upon initial carburizing conditions. In addition, existing precipitation theory was used in conjunction with the microstructure/strength relationship to simulate the evolution of material hardness during secondary hardening. The creation of three prototype gear steels began with the use of the strengthening model to establish the carbon and alloying element contents required to reach the core and case hardness objectives of 50 and 70 HRC respectively. The design approach also included the establishment of proper transformation and solution temperatures and the maximization of the efficiency of the Msb2C carbide strengthening dispersion. The core hardnesses of the C3-A and B prototypes significantly exceeded the design goal. A reduction in core carbon content from 0.16 to 0.12 weight percent was

  5. CFD analyses for advanced pump design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, F. J.; Choi, S.-K.; Govindan, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    As one of the activities of the NASA/MSFC Pump Stage Technology Team, the present effort was focused on using CFD in the design and analysis of high performance rocket engine pumps. Under this effort, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was used for various inducer and impeller flow field calculations. An existing algebraic grid generation procedure was-extended to allow for nonzero blade thickness, splitter blades, and hub/shroud cavities upstream or downstream of the (main) blades. This resulted in a fast, robust inducer/impeller geometry/grid generation package. Problems associated with running a compressible flow code to simulate an incompressible flow were resolved; related aspects of the numerical algorithm (viz., the matrix preconditioning, the artificial dissipation, and the treatment of low Mach number flows) were addressed. As shown by the calculations performed under the present effort, the resulting code, in conjunction with the grid generation package, is an effective tool for the rapid solution of three-dimensional viscous inducer and impeller flows.

  6. Advanced ROICs design for cooled IR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zécri, Michel; Maillart, Patrick; Sanson, Eric; Decaens, Gilbert; Lefoul, Xavier; Baud, Laurent

    2008-04-01

    The CMOS silicon focal plan array technologies hybridized with infrared detectors materials allow to cover a wide range of applications in the field of space, airborne and grounded-based imaging. Regarding other industries which are also using embedded systems, the requirements of such sensor assembly can be seen as very similar; high reliability, low weight, low power, radiation hardness for space applications and cost reduction. Comparing to CCDs technology, excepted the fact that CMOS fabrication uses standard commercial semiconductor foundry, the interest of this technology used in cooled IR sensors is its capability to operate in a wide range of temperature from 300K to cryogenic with a high density of integration and keeping at the same time good performances in term of frequency, noise and power consumption. The CMOS technology roadmap predict aggressive scaling down of device size, transistor threshold voltage, oxide and metal thicknesses to meet the growing demands for higher levels of integration and performance. At the same time infrared detectors manufacturing process is developing IR materials with a tunable cut-off wavelength capable to cover bandwidths from visible to 20μm. The requirements of third generation IR detectors are driving to scaling down the pixel pitch, to develop IR materials with high uniformity on larger formats, to develop Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) and dual band technologies. These needs in IR detectors technologies developments associated to CMOS technology, used as a readout element, are offering new capabilities and new opportunities for cooled infrared FPAs. The exponential increase of new functionalities on chip, like the active 2D and 3D imaging, the on chip analog to digital conversion, the signal processing on chip, the bicolor, the dual band and DTI (Double Time Integration) mode ...is aiming to enlarge the field of application for cooled IR FPAs challenging by the way the design activity.

  7. SP-100 advanced radiator designs for thermoelectric and Stirling applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarty, M. P.; Determan, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced radiator designs employing carbon-carbon liquid metal heat pipe technology, which significantly reduce the mass of the heat rejection subsystem for high temperature space technology systems such as the SP-100 are discussed. This technology is being developed to address the need for lightweight heat transfer components and structures for space applications. Heat pipe and subsystem designs were optimized for thermoelectric- and Stirling-engine-based SP-100 system designs. A multiple, deployed-petal radiator concept was selected for the heat rejection subsystem design as it provided minimum mass. Radiator stowage in the space transportation system cargo bay and deployment schemes were investigated for each of the optimized designs.

  8. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  9. Even when physicians adopt e-prescribing, use of advanced features lags.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Joy M

    2010-07-01

    Physician practice adoption of electronic prescribing has not guaranteed that individual physicians will routinely use the technology, particularly the more advanced features the federal government is promoting with financial incentives, according to a new national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Slightly more than two in five physicians providing office-based ambulatory care reported that information technology (IT) was available in their practice to write prescriptions in 2008, the year before implementation of federal incentives. Among physicians with e-prescribing capabilities, about a quarter used the technology only occasionally or not at all. Moreover, fewer than 60 percent of physicians with e-prescribing had access to three advanced features included as part of the Medicare and Medicaid incentive programs--identifying potential drug interactions, obtaining formulary information and transmitting prescriptions to pharmacies electronically--and less than a quarter routinely used all three features. Physicians in practices using electronic medical records exclusively were much more likely to report routine use of e-prescribing than physicians with stand-alone e-prescribing. systems. Other gaps in adoption and routine use of e-prescribing also exist, most notably between physicians in larger and smaller practices PMID:20653118

  10. Do Particular Design Features Assist People with Aphasia to Comprehend Text? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lucy; Read, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much of the evidence underlying guidelines for producing accessible information for people with aphasia focuses on client preference for particular design features. There is limited evidence regarding the effects of these features on comprehension. Aims: To examine the effects of specific design features on text comprehension. It was…

  11. Binding the Electronic Book: Design Features for Bibliophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Stan; Uszkalo, Kirsten C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for the electronic book based on discussions with frequent book readers. We adopted a conceptual framework for this project consisting of a spectrum of possible designs, with the conventional bound book at one difference pole, and the laptop computer at the other; the design activity then consisted of appropriately…

  12. Synthetic biology: advancing the design of diverse genetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Hsiang; Wei, Kathy Y.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    A main objective of synthetic biology is to make the process of designing genetically-encoded biological systems more systematic, predictable, robust, scalable, and efficient. The examples of genetic systems in the field vary widely in terms of operating hosts, compositional approaches, and network complexity, ranging from a simple genetic switch to search-and-destroy systems. While significant advances in synthesis capabilities support the potential for the implementation of pathway- and genome-scale programs, several design challenges currently restrict the scale of systems that can be reasonably designed and implemented. Synthetic biology offers much promise in developing systems to address challenges faced in manufacturing, the environment and sustainability, and health and medicine, but the realization of this potential is currently limited by the diversity of available parts and effective design frameworks. As researchers make progress in bridging this design gap, advances in the field hint at ever more diverse applications for biological systems. PMID:23413816

  13. Extrapyramidal features in advanced Down's syndrome: clinical evaluation and family history.

    PubMed Central

    Vieregge, P; Ziemens, G; Freudenberg, M; Piosinski, A; Muysers, A; Schulze, B

    1991-01-01

    Extrapyramidal, frontal release, and other neurological signs were studied in 54 demented and non-demented patients with Down's syndrome (DS). Fourteen patients were demented and five showed extrapyramidal signs, mainly of the rigid-hypokinetic spectrum and similar to Parkinsonian features in advanced Alzheimer's disease (AD). None of the non-demented patients had Parkinsonian signs. The mean age of the demented DS patients with extrapyramidal signs was significantly higher than that of the patients without. Frontal release signs were present in demented and non-demented patients. A questionnaire showed no increase in either the proportion of early- or senile-onset dementia or Parkinsonism among first- and second-degree relatives of DS patients. Parkinsonian signs appear to be present at a lower frequency in DS than in advanced AD. A speculative hypothesis about a gene dosage effect of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in preventing toxic radical formation in the substantia nigra of DS patients is presented. PMID:1826326

  14. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  15. WRAP 2A advanced conceptual design report comments

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1994-10-04

    This report contains the compilation of the 393 comments that were submitted during the review of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A. The report was prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Englewood, Colorado for the United States Department of Energy. The review was performed by a variety of organizations identified in the report. The comments were addressed first by the Westinghouse cognizant engineers and then by the Raytheon cognizant engineers, and incorporated into the final issue of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report.

  16. Directed molecular evolution to design advanced red fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Subach, Fedor V; Piatkevich, Kiryl D; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins have become indispensable imaging tools for biomedical research. continuing progress in fluorescence imaging, however, requires probes with additional colors and properties optimized for emerging techniques. Here we summarize strategies for development of red-shifted fluorescent proteins. We discuss possibilities for knowledge-based rational design based on the photochemistry of fluorescent proteins and the position of the chromophore in protein structure. We consider advances in library design by mutagenesis, protein expression systems and instrumentation for high-throughput screening that should yield improved fluorescent proteins for advanced imaging applications. PMID:22127219

  17. SU-E-QI-20: A Review of Advanced PET and CT Image Features for the Evaluation of Tumor Response

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To review the literature in using quantitative PET and CT image features for the evaluation of tumor response. Methods: We reviewed and summarized more than fifty papers that use advanced, quantitative PET/CT image features for the evaluation of tumor response. We also discussed future works on extracting disease-specific features, combining multiple and complementary features in response modeling, delineating tumor in multimodality images, and exploring biological explanations of these advanced features. Results: Advanced PET image features considering spatial information, such as tumor volume, tumor shape, total glycolytic volume, histogram distance, and texture features (characterizing spatial distribution of FDG uptake) have been found more informative than the traditional SUVmax for the prediction of tumor response. Advanced CT features, including volumetric, attenuation, morphologic, structure, and texture descriptors, have also been found advantage over the traditional RECIST and WHO criteria in certain tumor types. Conclusions: Advanced, quantitative FDG PET/CT image features have been shown promising for the evaluation of tumor response. With the emerging multi-modality imaging performed at multiple time points for each patient, it becomes more important to analyze the serial images quantitatively, select and combine both complementary and contradictory information from various sources, for accurate and personalized evaluation of tumor response to therapy.

  18. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Summer Conference: NASA/USRA University Advanced Aeronautics Design Program and Advanced Space Design Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was established in 1984 as an attempt to add more and better design education to primarily undergraduate engineering programs. The original focus of the pilot program encompassing nine universities and five NASA centers was on space design. Two years later, the program was expanded to include aeronautics design with six universities and three NASA centers participating. This year marks the last of a three-year cycle of participation by forty-one universities, eight NASA centers, and one industry participant. The Advanced Space Design Program offers universities an opportunity to plan and design missions and hardware that would be of usc in the future as NASA enters a new era of exploration and discovery, while the Advanced Aeronautics Design Program generally offers opportunities for study of design problems closer to the present time, ranging from small, slow-speed vehicles to large, supersonic and hypersonic passenger transports. The systems approach to the design problem is emphasized in both the space and aeronautics projects. The student teams pursue the chosen problem during their senior year in a one- or two-semester capstone design course and submit a comprehensive written report at the conclusion of the project. Finally, student representatives from each of the universities summarize their work in oral presentations at the Annual Summer Conference, sponsored by one of the NASA centers and attended by the university faculty, NASA and USRA personnel and aerospace industry representatives. As the Advanced Design Program has grown in size, it has also matured in terms of the quality of the student projects. The present volume represents the student work accomplished during the 1992-1993 academic year reported at the Ninth Annual Summer Conference hosted by NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, June 14-18, 1993.

  19. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1982-01-01

    An analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs was developed. From these methods design sensitivities are established for the development of photovoltaic module criteria and the definition of needed research tasks. Analytical models were developed to perform optical, thermal, electrical and analyses on candidate encapsulation systems. From these analyses several candidate systems were selected for qualification testing. Additionally, test specimens of various types are constructed and tested to determine the validity of the analysis methodology developed. Identified deficiencies and/or discrepancies between analytical models and relevant test data are corrected. Prediction capability of analytical models is improved. Encapsulation engineering generalities, principles, and design aids for photovoltaic module designers is generated.

  20. Advanced radial inflow turbine rotor program: Design and dynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The advancement of small, cooled, radial inflow turbine technology in the area of operation at higher turbine inlet temperature is discussed. The first step was accomplished by designing, fabricating, and subjecting to limited mechanical testing an advanced gas generator rotating assembly comprising a radial inflow turbine and two-stage centrifugal compressor. The radial inflow turbine and second-stage compressor were designed as an integrally machined monorotor with turbine cooling taking place basically by conduction to the compressor. Design turbine inlet rotor gas temperature, rotational speed, and overall gas generator compressor pressure ratio were 1422 K (2560 R), 71,222 rpm, and 10/1 respectively. Mechanical testing on a fabricated rotating assembly and bearing system covered 1,000 cold start/stop cycles and three spins to 120 percent design speed (85,466 rpm).

  1. Utilizing object-oriented design to build advanced optimization strategies with generic implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, M.S.; Hart, W.E.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Romero, V.J.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    the benefits of applying optimization to computational models are well known, but their range of widespread application to date has been limited. This effort attempts to extend the disciplinary areas to which optimization algorithms may be readily applied through the development and application of advanced optimization strategies capable of handling the computational difficulties associated with complex simulation codes. Towards this goal, a flexible software framework is under continued development for the application of optimization techniques to broad classes of engineering applications, including those with high computational expense and nonsmooth, nonconvex design space features. Object-oriented software design with C++ has been employed as a tool in providing a flexible, extensible, and robust multidisciplinary toolkit with computationally intensive simulations. In this paper, demonstrations of advanced optimization strategies using the software are presented in the hybridization and parallel processing research areas. Performance of the advanced strategies is compared with a benchmark nonlinear programming optimization.

  2. Advanced Turbine Systems Program: Conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Objective is to provide the conceptual design and product development plant for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000 (secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS). This report addresses the remaining 7 of the 9 subtasks in Task 8, Design and Test of Critical Components: catalytic combustion, recuperator, high- temperature turbine disc, advanced control system, and ceramic materials.

  3. The influence of the design features on optical sorter effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Nikita A.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-05-01

    Paper deals with investigation of factors which may have a significant negative impact on the process of mineral raw material enrichment by optical sorting method. The studies were conducted using experimental setup which is a prototype of an optical sorter for sorting mineral objects of small size. Special software was developed in the LabVIEW for experimental setup control and analysis of experimental results. The impact of illumination features, as well as used lens were analyzed.

  4. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  5. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  6. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  7. Cost and accuracy of advanced breeding trial designs in apple

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Julia M; Evans, Kate M; Hardner, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Trialing advanced candidates in tree fruit crops is expensive due to the long-term nature of the planting and labor-intensive evaluations required to make selection decisions. How closely the trait evaluations approximate the true trait value needs balancing with the cost of the program. Designs of field trials of advanced apple candidates in which reduced number of locations, the number of years and the number of harvests per year were modeled to investigate the effect on the cost and accuracy in an operational breeding program. The aim was to find designs that would allow evaluation of the most additional candidates while sacrificing the least accuracy. Critical percentage difference, response to selection, and correlated response were used to examine changes in accuracy of trait evaluations. For the quality traits evaluated, accuracy and response to selection were not substantially reduced for most trial designs. Risk management influences the decision to change trial design, and some designs had greater risk associated with them. Balancing cost and accuracy with risk yields valuable insight into advanced breeding trial design. The methods outlined in this analysis would be well suited to other horticultural crop breeding programs. PMID:27019717

  8. Design aspects of the XV-15 advanced technology blade program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. E.; Alexander, H. R.; Maisel, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the design of a tiltrotor blade for application to the XV-15 research demonstration aircraft. The design features 43 deg nonlinear twist and nonuniform tapered planform. The structure is composite with extensive use of graphite in the primary structure. Instrumentation and wiring is encapsulated in the composite structure during the cure cycle. The tip shell is removable, providing access to the tracking and balance weights. This feature provides research facility of alternate tip configurations. The cuff is similarly removable. The graphite epoxy system used is high strain American Cyanamid's Celion 6000ST/Cycom 950. This is the first application of this material in rotor blades.

  9. Design features and results from fatigue reliability research machines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The design, fabrication, development, operation, calibration and results from reversed bending combined with steady torque fatigue research machines are presented. Fifteen-centimeter long, notched, SAE 4340 steel specimens are subjected to various combinations of these stresses and cycled to failure. Failure occurs when the crack in the notch passes through the specimen automatically shutting down the test machine. These cycles-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop a probabilistic S-N diagram. These diagrams have many uses; a rotating component design example given in the literature shows that minimum size and weight for a specified number of cycles and reliability can be calculated using these diagrams.

  10. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  11. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  12. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  13. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  14. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  15. Aircraft-crash-locating transmitter features design improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoli, R.; Ulrich, B. R.

    1971-01-01

    Crash locater is automatically ejected from aircraft at time of crash and begins transmitting at emergency radio frequencies monitored by all airports and airport control towers. Advantages are smaller size, simpler design and installation, extended transmitting range and life, greater deployment reliability and increased crash resistance.

  16. A Comparison of Student and Instructor Preferences for Design and Pedagogy Features in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiaolin Charlene

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the preferences of instructors and students for design and pedagogy features of online instruction at the post-secondary level. Features were identified through a comprehensive literature review combined with focus groups. Each feature was subjected to review by subject matter experts to validate the differentiation between…

  17. An integrated database with system optimization and design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabyan, A.; Nikravesh, P. E.; Vincent, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    A customized, mission-specific relational database package was developed to allow researchers working on the Mars oxygen manufacturing plant to enter physical description, engineering, and connectivity data through a uniform, graphical interface and to store the data in formats compatible with other software also developed as part of the project. These latter components include an optimization program to maximize or minimize various criteria as the system evolves into its final design; programs to simulate the behavior of various parts of the plant in Martian conditions; an animation program which, in different modes, provides visual feedback to designers and researchers about the location of and temperature distribution among components as well as heat, mass, and data flow through the plant as it operates in different scenarios; and a control program to investigate the stability and response of the system under different disturbance conditions. All components of the system are interconnected so that changes entered through one component are reflected in the others.

  18. Interactive Universal Design Kiosks: Explanations About Social Inclusion Features in Architectural Design.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto; Picceli, Angélica Fátima Baldin; Sabino, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a set of self-supporting and illuminated panels that work together but independently in order to emphasize the explanation of building features and activities that are based on Universal Design guidelines. The exhibition is based on two structures that are arranged in semi-circles (A and B). They are integrated to form a carpeted path where the visitor will be gradually exposed to the concepts related to the principles of Universal Design. Following the sequence of three-dimensional objects and swivelling box elements that support the tactile information on the subject, it is expected that visitors become familiar with each of the principles being demonstrated. Operated by a control system consisting of keys with colour signage, textures and high relief, the panel on the control table allows the user to choose information about paired relationships between some of seven principles contained in printed images about the architectural design on the set of panels. The effectiveness of the composition can be verified by the time people remain enough to hear, see and touch the kiosks for all the information, or by successive visits users make to the setting. PMID:27534281

  19. Advanced hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of the advanced hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber design analysis program. The primary objectives of this program were to: (1) provide an in-depth analytical investigation to develop thrust chamber cooling and fatigue life limitations of an advanced, high pressure, high performance H2/O2 engine design of 20,000-pounds (88960.0 N) thrust; and (2) integrate the existing heat transfer analysis, thermal fatigue and stress aspects for advanced chambers into a comprehensive computer program. Thrust chamber designs and analyses were performed to evaluate various combustor materials, coolant passage configurations (tubes and channels), and cooling circuits to define the nominal 1900 psia (1.31 x 10 to the 7th power N/sq m) chamber pressure, 300-cycle life thrust chamber. The cycle life capability of the selected configuration was then determined for three duty cycles. Also the influence of cycle life and chamber pressure on thrust chamber design was investigated by varying in cycle life requirements at the nominal chamber pressure and by varying the chamber pressure at the nominal cycle life requirement.

  20. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Heidbrink, W W; Wan, B; von Hellermann, M G; Zhu, Y; Gao, W; Wu, C; Li, Y; Fu, J; Lyu, B; Yu, Y; Shi, Y; Ye, M; Hu, L; Hu, C

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented. PMID:25430314

  1. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  2. Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor

    2012-05-31

    Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.

  3. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  4. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  5. Preliminary aerodynamic design considerations for advanced laminar flow aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Yip, Long P.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Modern composite manufacturing methods have provided the opportunity for smooth surfaces that can sustain large regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) boundary layer behavior and have stimulated interest in developing advanced NLF airfoils and improved aircraft designs. Some of the preliminary results obtained in exploratory research investigations on advanced aircraft configurations at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed. Results of the initial studies have shown that the aerodynamic effects of configuration variables such as canard/wing arrangements, airfoils, and pusher-type and tractor-type propeller installations can be particularly significant at high angles of attack. Flow field interactions between aircraft components were shown to produce undesirable aerodynamic effects on a wing behind a heavily loaded canard, and the use of properly designed wing leading-edge modifications, such as a leading-edge droop, offset the undesirable aerodynamic effects by delaying wing stall and providing increased stall/spin resistance with minimum degradation of laminar flow behavior.

  6. Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  7. Exploring design features for enhancing players' challenge in strategy games.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Wen, Ming-Hui; Wu, Muh-Cherng

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines how to make a player feel more challenged in a strategic computer game. It is hypothesized that information availability and resource advantage affect play difficulty, which in turn affects the challenge experienced. The difficulty of play can be defined in terms of the mental workload that players experience and the physical effort that players exert. Forty-five male college and graduate students participated in a 3 x 3 (information availability x resource advantage) between-subjects factorial design experiment. This experiment measured player mental workload, physical effort, and challenge. The results indicate that information availability affects player mental workload, and resource advantage affects levels of player physical effort, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between mental workload and challenge was found to be an inverted U-shaped curve; in other words, too much or too little mental workload may decrease player challenge. The relationship between physical effort and challenge exhibited similar characteristics. PMID:17594263

  8. An advanced Ni-Cd battery cell design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of an advanced Ni-Cd space battery cell design continues to prove very promising. High oxygen/hydrogen gas recombination rates (currently up to a C/5 charge rate) and increased electrolyte activation level tolerance (currently up to 5.6 grams Ah of positive capacity) were demonstrated by test. A superior performance, extended life battery cell offering advantages should soon be available for mission applications

  9. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes progress made in the advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. The topics of the report include selection of the Allison GFATS, castcool technology development for industrial engines test plan and schedule, code development and background gathering phase for the ultra low NOx combustion technology task, active turbine clearance task, and water vapor/air mixture cooling of turbine vanes task.

  10. AGBT Advanced Counter-Rotating Gearbox Detailed Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, D. C.; Sundt, C. V.; Mckibbon, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    An Advanced Counter-Rotating (CR) Gearbox was designed and fabricated to evaluate gearbox efficiency, durability and weight characteristics for emerging propfan-powered airplanes. Component scavenge tests showed that a constant volume collector had high scavenge effectiveness, which was uneffected by added airflow. Lubrication tests showed that gearbox losses could be reduced by controlling the air/oil mixture and by directing the oil jets radially, with a slight axial component, into the sun/planet gears.

  11. Aircraft systems design studies employing advanced transport technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, B.; Pearce, C.; Quartero, C.; Taylor, A.

    1972-01-01

    System and design integration studies are presented to define and assess the application of the advanced technology most likely to result in a superior next generation, high subsonic/sonic conventional takeoff and landing transport aircraft system. It is concluded that the new technologies can be directed toward the achievement of improved economy and performance. These benefits may be used to compensate for the penalties associated with reduced noise requirements anticipated to make future aircraft ecologically acceptable.

  12. 3D-profile measurement of advanced semiconductor features by reference metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami; Lorusso, Gian F.; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2016-03-01

    A method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the 3D-profile measurement using TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) images is proposed to standardize 3D-profile measurement through reference metrology. The proposed method has been validated for profiles of Si lines, photoresist features and advanced-FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features in our previous investigations. However, efficiency of 3D-profile measurement using TEM is limited by measurement time including processing of the sample. In this article, we demonstrate a novel on-wafer 3D-profile metrology as "FIB-to-CDSEM method" with FIB (Focused Ion Beam) slope cut and CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Secondary Electron Microscope) measuring. Using the method, a few micrometer wide on a wafer is coated and cut by 45 degree slope using FIB tool. Then, the wafer is transferred to CD-SEM to measure the cross section image by top down CD-SEM measurement. We apply FIB-to-CDSEM method to CMOS sensor device. 3D-profile and 3D-profile parameters such as top line width and side wall angles of CMOS sensor device are evaluated. The 3D-profile parameters also are measured by TEM images as reference metrology. We compare the 3D-profile parameters by TEM method and FIB-to-CDSEM method. The average values and correlations on the wafer are agreed well between TEM and FIB-to- CDSEM methods.

  13. Effect of LEO cycling on 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, low earth-orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte, (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick, (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management, and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion. Six 125-Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they don't have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test. The cells have accumulated about 4700 LEO cycles (60 percent DOD 10 C). There have been no cell failures; the catalyzed wall wick cells, however, are performing better.

  14. Effect of LEO cycling on 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell, is to store and deliver energy for long term, low earth-orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte, (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick, (3) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management, and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they don't have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test. The cells have accumulated about 4700 LEO cycles (60 percent DOD 10 C). There have been no cell failures, the catalyzed wall wick cells however, are performing better.

  15. Validation test of 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the advanced design nickel-hydrogen cell is presented. An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design, which are not incorporated in state-of-the-art design cells, are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they do not have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test at the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, IN, under a NASA Lewis Research Center contract. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 19000 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. Two of the noncatalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9588 and 13,900).

  16. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  17. Advanced 3D inverse method for designing turbomachine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, T.

    1995-10-01

    To meet the goal of 60% plant-cycle efficiency or better set in the ATS Program for baseload utility scale power generation, several critical technologies need to be developed. One such need is the improvement of component efficiencies. This work addresses the issue of improving the performance of turbo-machine components in gas turbines through the development of an advanced three-dimensional and viscous blade design system. This technology is needed to replace some elements in current design systems that are based on outdated technology.

  18. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  19. Advanced 3D inverse method for designing turbomachine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, T.

    1995-12-31

    To meet the goal of 60% plant-cycle efficiency or better set in the ATS Program for baseload utility scale power generation, several critical technologies need to be developed. One such need is the improvement of component efficiencies. This work addresses the issue of improving the performance of turbo-machine components in gas turbines through the development of an advanced three-dimensional and viscous blade design system. This technology is needed to replace some elements in current design systems that are based on outdated technology.

  20. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  1. Advanced Tie Feature Matching for the Registration of Mobile Mapping Imaging Data and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jende, P.; Peter, M.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping's ability to acquire high-resolution ground data is opposing unreliable localisation capabilities of satellite-based positioning systems in urban areas. Buildings shape canyons impeding a direct line-of-sight to navigation satellites resulting in a deficiency to accurately estimate the mobile platform's position. Consequently, acquired data products' positioning quality is considerably diminished. This issue has been widely addressed in the literature and research projects. However, a consistent compliance of sub-decimetre accuracy as well as a correction of errors in height remain unsolved. We propose a novel approach to enhance Mobile Mapping (MM) image orientation based on the utilisation of highly accurate orientation parameters derived from aerial imagery. In addition to that, the diminished exterior orientation parameters of the MM platform will be utilised as they enable the application of accurate matching techniques needed to derive reliable tie information. This tie information will then be used within an adjustment solution to correct affected MM data. This paper presents an advanced feature matching procedure as a prerequisite to the aforementioned orientation update. MM data is ortho-projected to gain a higher resemblance to aerial nadir data simplifying the images' geometry for matching. By utilising MM exterior orientation parameters, search windows may be used in conjunction with a selective keypoint detection and template matching. Originating from different sensor systems, however, difficulties arise with respect to changes in illumination, radiometry and a different original perspective. To respond to these challenges for feature detection, the procedure relies on detecting keypoints in only one image. Initial tests indicate a considerable improvement in comparison to classic detector/descriptor approaches in this particular matching scenario. This method leads to a significant reduction of outliers due to the limited availability

  2. An integrated computer system for preliminary design of advanced aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Sobieszczanski, J.; Landrum, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A progress report is given on the first phase of a research project to develop a system of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) which is intended to automate to the largest extent possible the preliminary and detailed design of advanced aircraft. The approach used is to build a pilot system and simultaneously to carry out two major contractual studies to define a practical IPAD system preparatory to programing. The paper summarizes the specifications and goals of the IPAD system, the progress to date, and any conclusion reached regarding its feasibility and scope. Sample calculations obtained with the pilot system are given for aircraft preliminary designs optimized with respect to discipline parameters, such as weight or L/D, and these results are compared with designs optimized with respect to overall performance parameters, such as range or payload.

  3. The design of an advanced CCD timing generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guimei; Wu, Songbo; Wan, Min; Bao, Bin; Deng, JueQiong; Duan, Jing

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes how to design and develop an advanced Charge Coupled Device (CCD) timing generator which can obtain high precise CCD output signals. Above all, theory of the design and implementation of CCD timing generator is introduced based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices in detail. Secondly, it studies and analyzes the influencing factors that the waveform of CCD driving timing signals have on qualities of CCD output signals, which contain duty-cycle of HCCD clock, positive width of RST, signal-skew and delays among these signals. Then some skills are presented to improve and optimize the design in the phase of coding, compiling and placement and routing, which include code constraint, incremental placement and so on. Finally, simulation and verification of the design are performed with simulation tools, and hardware tests are carried out and experiment results are proved by oscilloscope.

  4. Micalastic high-voltage insulation: Design features and experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, A.

    1981-12-01

    High-quality mica, carefully selected epoxy resins and a well-matched vacuum/pressure impregnation process determine the characteristics of the MICALASTIC insulation for large turbine-generators. Logical development and process manufacturing quality control have led to an insulation system of high quality and operating reliability. The first winding of a turbine-generator being impregnated and cured under vacuum with solvent-free synthetic resin in 1958 was designed for 10.5 kV rated voltage. Ever since, Siemens AG and Kraftwerk Union AG have used this type of insulation for all direct-cooled windings and also for an increasing number of indirect-cooled windings. At present, 240 turbine-generators with a total of more than 115,000 MVA output have been built. Since 1960, this insulation system has been registered for Siemens AG under the trade name MICALASTIC. The stator windings of the largest, single-shaft generators to date, rated 1560 MVA, 27 kV, has been built with MICALASTIC insulation.

  5. Aerodynamic Design Study of an Advanced Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An Advanced Active Twist Rotor (AATR) is currently being developed by the U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. As a part of this effort, an analytical study was conducted to determine the impact of blade geometry on active-twist performance and, based on those findings, propose a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR. The process began by creating a baseline design which combined the dynamic design of the original Active Twist Rotor and the aerodynamic design of a high lift rotor concept. The baseline model was used to conduct a series of parametric studies to examine the effect of linear blade twist and blade tip sweep, droop, and taper on active-twist performance. Rotor power requirements and hub vibration were also examined at flight conditions ranging from hover to advance ratio = 0.40. A total of 108 candidate designs were analyzed using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) code. The study concluded that the vibration reduction capabilities of a rotor utilizing controlled, strain-induced twisting are enhanced through the incorporation of blade tip sweep, droop, and taper into the blade design, while they are degraded by increasing the nose-down linear blade twist. Based on the analysis of rotor power, hub vibration, and active-twist response, a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR consisting of a blade with approximately 10 degrees of linear blade twist and a blade tip design with 30 degree sweep, 10 degree droop, and 2.5:1 taper ratio over the outer five percent of the blade is proposed.

  6. New statistical features for the design of fiber optic statistical mode sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendioglu, Hasan S.; Yildirim, Tulay; Toker, Onur; Fidanboylu, Kemal

    2013-08-01

    Novel statistical features are proposed for the design of fiber optic statistical mode sensors. The statistical features are radial pth order moments, more precisely first and second order moments. These new features are compared with correlation and image difference features which were reported in the literature earlier. The fiber optic statistical mode sensor experiments are conducted for different applied loads and the corresponding images are captured using the CCD camera. Different statistical features such as image differencing, correlation, first moment and second moment are extracted from the captured images. These features are compared with each other in terms of different characteristics such as precision error, non-linearity, and hysteresis. It is shown that the first and second order moment statistical features are better alternatives for the design of statistical mode sensors, when precision and linearity characteristics are more important than the hysteresis characteristic.

  7. Wireless Hearing Aid System Simulations using Advanced Design System™: A Behavioral Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Singh Rana, Ram; Bin, Tang; Liang, Zhang; Hari Krishna, Garg; De Yun, Wang

    2005-01-01

    The stringent requirements on size and power consumption constrain the conventional hearing aid devices from providing the patients an economic and user friendly solution, specifically for better noise cancellation. With the advancements in technologies such as integrated circuits design, wireless communications and digital signal processing techniques, the wireless hearing aids having multi-microphones, analog, digital and mixed signals and radio frequency signals processing circuits, DSP and programmable units seem to be promising to provide enhanced performance. The focus of this paper is about the system simulation of a typical wireless hearing aid using Agilent Advanced Design System™. The behavioral modeling features are exploited to enable the whole system simulations including electro-acoustic transducers. A few system level simulation results are included. PMID:17282359

  8. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  9. The DARPA compact superconducting x-ray lithography source features. [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, R. ); Kalsi, S. ); Leung, E. . Space Systems Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Under DARPA sponsorship, a compact Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source (SXLS) is being designed and built by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with industry participation from Grumman Corporation and General Dynamics. This source is optimized for lithography work for sub-micron high density computer chips, and is about the size of a billiard table (1.5 m {times} 4.0 m). The machine has a racetrack configuration with two 180{degree} bending magnets being designed and built by General Dynamics under a subcontract with Grumman Corporation. The machine will have 18 photon ports which would deliver light peaked at a wave length of 10 Angstroms. Grumman is commercializing the SXLS device and plans to book orders for delivery of industrialized SXLS (ISXLS) versions in 1995. This paper will describe the major features of this device. The commercial machine will be equipped with a fully automated user-friendly control systems, major features of which are already working on a compact warm dipole ring at BNL. This ring has normal dipole magnets with dimensions identical to the SXLS device, and has been successfully commissioned. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Design feasibility of an advanced technology supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Research and development programs provide confidence that technology is in-hand to design an economically attractive, environmentally sound supersonic cruise aircraft for commercial operations. The principal results of studies and tests are described including those which define the selection of significant design features. These typically include the results of: (1) wind-tunnel tests, both subsonic and supersonic, (2) propulsion performance and acoustic tests on noise suppressors, including forward-flight effects, (3) studies of engine/airframe integration, which lead to the selection of engine cycles/sizes to meet future market, economic, and social requirements; and (4) structural testing.

  11. Updated Assessment of an Open Rotor Airplane Using an Advanced Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Application of open rotor propulsion systems (historically referred to as "advanced turboprops" or "propfans") to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation's environmental impact have renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Over the last few years, NASA has revived and developed analysis capabilities to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion systems. These efforts have been described in several previous papers along with initial results from applying these capabilities. The initial results indicated that open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicated that current noise regulations can be met with modern baseline blade designs. Improved blades incorporating low-noise features are expected to result in even lower noise levels. This paper describes improvements to the initial assessment, plus a follow-on study using a more advanced open rotor blade design to power the advanced singleaisle transport. The predicted performance and environmental results of these two advanced open rotor concepts are presented and compared.

  12. Forest fire advanced system technology (FFAST) conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. David; Warren, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service completed a conceptual design study that defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s. Potential system configuration options in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include airborne mounted, thermal infrared (IR) linear array detectors, automatic onboard georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communications links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. The conceptual design study defined the preferred system configuration that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  13. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  14. Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Advanced (Non-Light Water) Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, Mark; Kinsey, Jim

    2015-03-01

    In July 2013, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a joint initiative to address a key portion of the licensing framework essential to advanced (non-light water) reactor technologies. The initiative addressed the “General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,” Appendix A to10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 50, which were developed primarily for light water reactors (LWRs), specific to the needs of advanced reactor design and licensing. The need for General Design Criteria (GDC) clarifications in non-LWR applications has been consistently identified as a concern by the industry and varied stakeholders and was acknowledged by the NRC staff in their 2012 Report to Congress1 as an area for enhancement. The initiative to adapt GDC requirements for non-light water advanced reactor applications is being accomplished in two phases. Phase 1, managed by DOE, consisted of reviews, analyses and evaluations resulting in recommendations and deliverables to NRC as input for NRC staff development of regulatory guidance. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed this technical report using technical and reactor technology stakeholder inputs coupled with analysis and evaluations provided by a team of knowledgeable DOE national laboratory personnel with input from individual industry licensing consultants. The DOE national laboratory team reviewed six different classes of emerging commercial reactor technologies against 10 CFR 50 Appendix A GDC requirements and proposed guidance for their adapted use in non-LWR applications. The results of the Phase 1 analysis are contained in this report. A set of draft Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) has been proposed for consideration by the NRC in the establishment of guidance for use by non-LWR designers and NRC staff. The proposed criteria were developed to preserve the underlying safety bases expressed by the original GDC, and recognizing that advanced reactors may take

  15. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

  16. Numerical optimization design of advanced transonic wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, G. B.; Holst, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient and versatile technique for use in the design of advanced transonic wing configurations has been developed. A reliable and fast transonic wing flow-field analysis program, TWING, has been coupled with a modified quasi-Newton method, unconstrained optimization algorithm, QNMDIF, to create a new design tool. Fully three-dimensional wing designs utilizing both specified wing pressure distributions and drag-to-lift ration minimization as design objectives are demonstrated. Because of the high computational efficiency of each of the components of the design code, in particular the vectorization of TWING and the high speed of the Cray X-MP vector computer, the computer time required for a typical wing design is reduced by approximately an order of magnitude over previous methods. In the results presented here, this computed wave drag has been used as the quantity to be optimized (minimized) with great success, yielding wing designs with nearly shock-free (zero wave drag) pressure distributions and very reasonable wing section shapes.

  17. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  18. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.0

    2002-06-13

    Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools is a 5-level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c)Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the processmore » of having MEMS fabricated at SNL e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with the software AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. NOTE: THE CUSTOMER MUST PURCHASE HIS/HER OWN COPY OF AutoCAD TO USE WITH THESE FILES.« less

  19. Initial performance of advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been conceived which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge and improve thermal management. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  20. Initial performance of advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel hydrogen cells were conceived which should improve the life cycle at deep depths of discharge and improve thermal management. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) the use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  1. Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors: Design, Specifications and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Insertion of new types of commercial, high volumetric efficiency wet tantalum capacitors in space systems requires reassessment of the existing quality assurance approaches that have been developed for capacitors manufactured to MIL-PRF-39006 requirements. The specifics of wet electrolytic capacitors is that leakage currents flowing through electrolyte can cause gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure and rupture of the case. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. This presentation gives a review of specifics of the design, performance, and potential reliability risks associated with advanced wet tantalum capacitors. Problems related to setting adequate requirements for DPA, leakage currents, hermeticity, stability at low and high temperatures, ripple currents for parts operating in vacuum, and random vibration testing are discussed. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  2. Recent advances in cardiac SPECT instrumentation and system design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in clinical cardiac SPECT instrumentation are reviewed from a systems perspective. New hardware technologies include pixelated scintillator and semiconductor detector elements; photodetectors such as position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), avalanche photodiodes (APD) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM); and novel cardiac collimation methods. There are new approaches for positioning detectors and controlling their motion during cardiac imaging. Software technology advances include iterative image reconstruction with modeling of Poisson statistics and depth-dependent collimator response. These new technologies enable faster acquisitions, the lowering of administered activity and radiation dose, and improved image resolution. Higher sensitivity collimators are a significant factor enabling faster acquisitions. Several clinical systems incorporating new technologies are discussed and different system designs can achieve similar performance. With detector elements such as APDs, SiPMs and semiconductors that are insensitive to magnetic fields, the potential for cardiac SPECT imagers that are MRI compatible opens up new frontiers in clinical cardiac research and patient care. PMID:23832650

  3. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  4. Validation test of 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the advanced design nickel-hydrogen cell is presented. An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel Ni-H cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous O and H flow within the cell, while maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack to accommodate Ni electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of Ni electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated; the catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 19,000 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. Two of the noncatalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9588 and 13,900).

  5. Co-Simulation for Advanced Process Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for clean, affordable, and secure energy is arguably the most important challenge facing the world today. Fossil fuels can play a central role in a portfolio of carbon-neutral energy options provided CO{sub 2} emissions can be dramatically reduced by capturing CO{sub 2} and storing it safely and effectively. Fossil energy industry faces the challenge of meeting aggressive design goals for next-generation power plants with CCS. Process designs will involve large, highly-integrated, and multipurpose systems with advanced equipment items with complex geometries and multiphysics. APECS is enabling software to facilitate effective integration, solution, and analysis of high-fidelity process/equipment (CFD) co-simulations. APECS helps to optimize fluid flow and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance. APECS offers many advanced capabilities including ROMs, design optimization, parallel execution, stochastic analysis, and virtual plant co-simulations. NETL and its collaborative R&D partners are using APECS to reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing high-efficiency, zero-emission power plants with CCS.

  6. Advanced integrated spectrometer designs for miniaturized optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, B. I.; Považay, B.; Chang, L.; Alex, A.; Wörhoff, K.; de Ridder, R. M.; Drexler, W.; Pollnau, M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinical applications that revolutionized in vivo medical diagnostics. Nevertheless, its current limitations owing to cost, size, complexity, and the need for accurate alignment must be overcome by radically novel approaches. Exploiting integrated optics, the central components of a spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system can be integrated on a chip. Arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometers with their high spectral resolution and compactness are excellent candidates for on-chip SD-OCT systems. However, specific design-related issues of AWG spectrometers limit the performance of on-chip SD-OCT systems. Here we present advanced AWG designs which could overcome the limitations arising from free spectral range, polarization dependency, and curved focal plane of the AWG spectrometers. Using these advanced AWG designs in an SD-OCT system can provide not only better overall performance but also some unique aspects that a commercial system does not have. Additionally, a partially integrated OCT system comprising an AWG spectrometer and an integrated beam splitter, as well as the in vivo imaging using this system are demonstrated.

  7. Advances in designs for Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Gould, Heath; Zhong, Kate

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development. PMID:23383393

  8. Recent advances in the understanding of Quaternary periglacial features of the English Channel coastlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murton, Julian B.; Lautridou, Jean-Pierre

    2003-02-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of Quaternary periglaciation of the English Channel coastlands concern laboratory modelling of periglacial processes, dating of periglacial sediments and the distribution of permafrost during marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 2. Modelling studies have successfully simulated (i) ice segregation in chalk in artificial permafrost, (ii) periglacial solifluction of natural slope sediments, and (iii) soft-sediment deformation during thaw of ice-rich soil. The resultant structures and deposits in these experiments have similarities with naturally brecciated chalk, solifluction deposits and involutions, respectively, along the English Channel coastlands, providing insights into their genesis and palaeoenvironmental significance.Dating of periglacial sediments is based on radiocarbon assays of organic material in head deposits, luminescence measurements of loess and coversand, and mammalian biostratigraphy in raised-beach and associated slope deposits. Most age estimates fall within MOIS 2, although some are within MOIS 6 and possibly other cold stages.Maps reconstructing the distribution of permafrost during MOIS 2 vary in detail. The precise distribution of permafrost remains to be established owing to problems of (i) imprecise dating in the context of climatic instability, (ii) uncertain palaeoclimatic significance of particular periglacial structures and (iii) sparse data on the age and distribution of relict periglacial features.The wider significance of periglacial processes to the evolution of the Channel coastlands is speculated to involve rapid valley development by flowing water in areas of moist, frost-susceptible bedrock that has been brecciated by ice segregation.

  9. [Study on endoscopic features in responders to systemic chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Yasutake, K; Tokisue, M; Masuda, T; Ono, S; Yoshimura, Y; Yasutake, K; Imamura, Y; Oya, M; Matsushita, K

    1990-10-20

    We studied the endoscopic features in 6 cases of advanced gastric cancer responded to chemotherapy. Patient characteristics were as follows. [table; see text] Age 43-77 (mean 63 years old) Endoscopic type Mean duration of PR was 26.6 weeks. The process of the improvement of primary lesion as judged by endoscopic findings were as follows. Firstly getting flat of wall, secondly reduction in size of ulcer, and lastly changing into scar. Number of reported cases including our case No. 6 which are diagnosed as scar endoscopically after chemotherapy and are operated successfully has been increasing. Most of them showed scar macroscopically with wide and irregular surface. Especially our case No. 6 showed keloidal scar. In these cases, the histological improvement into grade 2-3 was observed in scared tissue. Sooner or later, such a process of endoscopic improvement was observed 4-8 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. Unless the endoscopic improvement was observed 8 weeks after initiation, regimen of chemotherapy should be changed into others. PMID:2148178

  10. Critical Features of Engineering Design in Technology Education. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asunda, Paul A.; Hill, Roger B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find critical features of engineering design that can be incorporated within technology education learning activities, and develop a rubric for assessing these features. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with three professors actively involved in engineering education. Supporting documents such…

  11. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  12. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  13. Life-cycle cost analysis of advanced design mixer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    This analysis provides cost justification for the Advanced Design Mixer Pump program based on the cost benefit to the Hanford Site of 4 mixer pump systems defined in terms of the life-cycle cost.A computer model is used to estimate the total number of service hours necessary for each mixer pump to operate over the 20-year retrieval sequence period for single-shell tank waste. This study also considered the double-shell tank waste retrieved prior to the single-shell tank waste which is considered the initial retrieval.

  14. Design features of the GTD 8000 and GTD 15000 marine gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Viktor I.

    1992-06-01

    An account is given of the design features and performance of the GTD 8000 and GTD 15000 marine gas turbines, whose simple-cycle thermodynamic efficiencyis of the order of 34-35 percent. A development history is presented for the component design improvements through which such performance levels were achieved. Attention is given to the counterflow combustor, bearings, and high pressure compressor/turbine spool rotor joint assembly features. These powerplants are suitable for hydrofoil and hovercraft applications.

  15. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team indicates

  16. Recent advances in the design of distributed embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay, John S.

    2002-08-01

    The network-centric 'system-of-systems' concept popular in current defense programs has been viewed from a very functional perspective. However, the heart of such a system is going to be an embedded software infrastructure of unprecedented complexity, and the technology for developing and testing this software needs as much if not more immediate attention than the concept of operations for the envisioned applications. Such an embedded software system will need to be infinitely scalable, modular, verifiable, and distributed, yet satisfy the myriad hard real-time performance constraints imposed by each of perhaps many different device types and service demands. It is suggested here that the only path to a robust design methodology for such systems is with model-based design. Model-based embedded system design is the focus of the Model-Based Integration of Embedded Software (MoBIES) program, currently underway at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), managed by the author. This paper will motivate the model-based approach to large-scale embedded software design and explain how projects funded under MoBIES are contributing to the development of interoperable model-based design tool components. An application for such technology is provided in the context of digital flight control systems for aggressive aircraft maneuvers, which is the subject of another DARPA sponsored program, Software-Enabled Control (SEC).

  17. Magnetic design of the advanced light source elliptical wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Akre, J.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Jackson, T.; Minamihara, Y.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-06-01

    An elliptical wiggler has been designed for installation in the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The design has been optimized for the production of circularly polarized light in the 50 eV to 10 KeV energy range. The device will be 3.4 m long consisting of vertical and horizontal periodic structures. The period length for both is 20 cm. The vertical structure is a hybrid permanent magnet design which produces a peak field of 2.0 T. The horizontal magnetic structure is an iron core electromagnetic design shifted longitudinally by one-quarter period relative to the vertical structure; it has a peak field of 0.095 T. The polarity of the horizontal field can be switched at a rate of up to 1 Hz, which results in a modulation of the chirality of the circularly polarized radiation on-axis. This paper discusses the magnetic design and presents the results of radiation spectra calculations used for determining optimal field parameter settings.

  18. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  19. Conceptual design of the advanced marine reactor MRX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-02-01

    Design studies on the advanced marine reactors have been done continuously since 1983 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in order to develop attractive marine reactors for the next generation. At present, two marine reactor concepts are being formulated. One is 100 MWt MRX (Marine Reactor X) for an icebreaker and the other is 300 kWe DRX (Deep-sea Reactor X) for a deep-sea research vessel. They are characterized by an integral type pressurized water reactor (PWR) built-in type control rod drive mechanisms, a water-filled container and a passive decay heat removal system, which realize highly passive safe and compact reactors. This paper is a detailed report including all major results of the MRX design study.

  20. Optimal design application on the advanced aeroelastic rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, F. S.; Jones, R.

    1985-01-01

    The vibration and performance optimization procedure using regression analysis was successfully applied to an advanced aeroelastic blade design study. The major advantage of this regression technique is that multiple optimizations can be performed to evaluate the effects of various objective functions and constraint functions. The data bases obtained from the rotorcraft flight simulation program C81 and Myklestad mode shape program are analytically determined as a function of each design variable. This approach has been verified for various blade radial ballast weight locations and blade planforms. This method can also be utilized to ascertain the effect of a particular cost function which is composed of several objective functions with different weighting factors for various mission requirements without any additional effort.

  1. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Violette, John A.; Sullivan, William E.; Turnberg, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the design analysis of a very thin, highly swept, propeller blade to be used in the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) test program. The report includes: design requirements and goals, a description of the blade configuration which meets requirements, a description of the analytical methods utilized/developed to demonstrate compliance with the requirements, and the results of these analyses. The methods described include: finite element modeling, predicted aerodynamic loads and their application to the blade, steady state and vibratory response analyses, blade resonant frequencies and mode shapes, bird impact analysis, and predictions of stalled and unstalled flutter phenomena. Summarized results include deflections, retention loads, stress/strength comparisons, foreign object damage resistance, resonant frequencies and critical speed margins, resonant vibratory mode shapes, calculated boundaries of stalled and unstalled flutter, and aerodynamic and acoustic performance calculations.

  2. Optimizing advanced propeller designs by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.

  3. Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters with application to advanced propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.

  4. Design of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight particle fuel tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the newly formed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the next generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature monitoring and control combined with on-line fission product monitoring of the sweep gas. The final design phase has just been completed on the first experiment (AGR-1) in this series and the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation. This paper discusses the development of the experimental hardware and support system designs and the status of the experiment.

  5. Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pijawka, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.

  6. Neutrophilic leukocytosis in advanced stage polycythemia vera: hematopathologic features and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Boiocchi, Leonardo; Gianelli, Umberto; Iurlo, Alessandra; Fend, Falko; Bonzheim, Irina; Cattaneo, Daniele; Knowles, Daniel M; Orazi, Attilio

    2015-11-01

    Polycythemia vera in 20-30% of cases progresses towards post-polycythemic myelofibrosis, an advanced phase characterized by decreased red blood cells counts and increasing splenomegaly with extramedullary hematopoiesis. There is evidence that the presence of neutrophilic leukocytosis at polycythemia vera disease outset is associated with an increased risk of recurrent thrombosis. However, its clinical significance when developing later in the course of the disease is not well defined. Over a period of 8 years we identified from the files of two reference centers 10 patients (7M/3F, median age: 68 years) who developed persistent absolute leukocytosis ≥ 13 × 10⁹/l (median: 25.1 × 10⁹/l; range: 16.1-89.7 × 10⁹/l) at or around the time of diagnosis of post-polycythemic myelofibrosis (median interval from diagnosis:0 months; range: -6/31) and persisted for a median period of 13 months. Peripheral blood smears showed numerous neutrophils without dysplastic features and, in four, ≥ 10% immature myeloid precursors. In five cases, corresponding marrow specimens obtained at or immediately after the onset of leukocytosis showed a markedly increased myeloid:erythroid ratio due to granulocytic proliferation. No change in JAK2 and BCR-ABL1 status or cytogenetic evolution was associated with the development of leukocytosis. The mutational status of CSF3R, SETBP1, and SRSF2, genes associated with other chronic myeloid neoplasms where neutrophilic leukocytosis occurs, was investigated but all cases showed wild-type only alleles. Four patients died after developing leukocytosis and one experienced worsening disease. Compared with a control group of post-polycythemic myelofibrosis patients (n=23) who never developed persistent leukocytosis, patients with leukocytosis showed higher white blood cells counts and a shorter overall survival. This is the first study describing the development of significant neutrophilic leukocytosis during advanced stages of polycythemia vera

  7. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  8. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

  9. Application of advanced high speed turboprop technology to future civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    With an overall goal of defining the needs and requirements for short-haul transport aircraft research and development, the objective of this paper is to determine the performance and noise impact of short-haul transport aircraft designed with an advanced turboprop propulsion system. This propulsion system features high-speed propellers that have more blades and reduced diameters. Aircraft are designed for short and medium field lengths; mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) are used as performance measures. The propeller diameter was optimized to minimize DOC. Two methods are employed to estimate the weight of the acoustic treatment needed to reduce interior noise to an acceptable level. Results show decreasing gross weight, block fuel, DOC, engine size, and optimum propfan diameter with increasing field length. The choice of acoustic treatment method has a significant effect on the aircraft design.

  10. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) pitch change actuator and control design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Carvalho, P.; Cutler, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the high inherent efficiency previously demonstrated by low speed turboprop propulsion systems may now be extended to today's higher speed aircraft if advanced high-speed propeller blades having thin airfoils and aerodynamic sweep are utilized. Hamilton Standard has designed a 9-foot diameter single-rotation Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) which will be tested on a static test stand, in a high speed wind tunnel and on a research aircraft. The major objective of this testing is to establish the structural integrity of large-scale Prop-Fans of advanced construction in addition to the evaluation of aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic design. This report describes the operation, design features and actual hardware of the (LAP) Prop-Fan pitch control system. The pitch control system which controls blade angle and propeller speed consists of two separate assemblies. The first is the control unit which provides the hydraulic supply, speed governing and feather function for the system. The second unit is the hydro-mechanical pitch change actuator which directly changes blade angle (pitch) as scheduled by the control.

  11. Design and integration of a solar AMTEC power system with an advanced global positioning satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.; Hunt, M.E.; Determan, W.R.; HoSang, P.A.; Schuller, M.

    1996-12-31

    A 1,200-W solar AMTEC (alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion) power system concept was developed and integrated with an advanced global positioning system (GPS) satellite. The critical integration issues for the SAMTEC with the GPS subsystems included (1) packaging within the Delta 2 launch vehicle envelope, (2) deployment and start-up operations for the SAMTEC, (3) SAMTEC operation during all mission phases, (4) satellite field of view restrictions with satellite operations, and (5) effect of the SAMTEC requirements on other satellite subsystems. The SAMTEC power system was compared with a conventional planar solar array/battery power system to assess the differences in system weight, size, and operations. Features of the design include the use of an advanced multitube, vapor anode AMTEC cell design with 24% conversion efficiency, and a direct solar insolation receiver design with integral LiF salt canisters for energy storage to generate power during the maximum solar eclipse cycle. The modular generator design consists of an array of multitube AMTEC cells arranged into a parallel/series electrical network with built-in cell redundancy. The preliminary assessment indicates that the solar generator design is scalable over a 500 to 2,500-W range. No battery power is required during the operational phase of the GPS mission. SAMTEC specific power levels greater than 5 We/kg and 160 We/m{sup 2} are anticipated for a mission duration of 10 to 12 yr in orbits with high natural radiation backgrounds.

  12. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  13. Ambient response of a unique performance-based design building with dynamic response modification features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet; Huang, Moh; Shakal, Antony; Hooper, John; Klemencic, Ron

    2012-01-01

    A 64-story, performance-based design building with reinforced concrete core shear-walls and unique dynamic response modification features (tuned liquid sloshing dampers and buckling-restrained braces) has been instrumented with a monitoring array of 72 channels of accelerometers. Ambient vibration data recorded are analyzed to identify modes and associated frequencies and damping. The low-amplitude dynamic characteristics are considerably different than those computed from design analyses, but serve as a baseline against which to compare with future strong shaking responses. Such studies help to improve our understanding of the effectiveness of the added features to the building and help improve designs in the future.

  14. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  15. Exploration of Advanced Probabilistic and Stochastic Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the three year research effort was to explore advanced, non-deterministic aerospace system design methods that may have relevance to designers and analysts. The research pursued emerging areas in design methodology and leverage current fundamental research in the area of design decision-making, probabilistic modeling, and optimization. The specific focus of the three year investigation was oriented toward methods to identify and analyze emerging aircraft technologies in a consistent and complete manner, and to explore means to make optimal decisions based on this knowledge in a probabilistic environment. The research efforts were classified into two main areas. First, Task A of the grant has had the objective of conducting research into the relative merits of possible approaches that account for both multiple criteria and uncertainty in design decision-making. In particular, in the final year of research, the focus was on the comparison and contrasting between three methods researched. Specifically, these three are the Joint Probabilistic Decision-Making (JPDM) technique, Physical Programming, and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory. The next element of the research, as contained in Task B, was focused upon exploration of the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) methodology developed at ASDL, especially with regards to identification of research needs in the baseline method through implementation exercises. The end result of Task B was the documentation of the evolution of the method with time and a technology transfer to the sponsor regarding the method, such that an initial capability for execution could be obtained by the sponsor. Specifically, the results of year 3 efforts were the creation of a detailed tutorial for implementing the TIES method. Within the tutorial package, templates and detailed examples were created for learning and understanding the details of each step. For both research tasks, sample files and

  16. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Green, L.; Griewank, A.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that by using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g., O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  17. Advanced Silicon Solar Cell Device Physics and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deceglie, Michael Gardner

    A fundamental challenge in the development and deployment of solar photovoltaic technology is a reduction in cost enabling direct competition with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. A key driver in this cost reduction is optimized device efficiency, because increased energy output leverages all photovoltaic system costs, from raw materials and module manufacturing to installation and maintenance. To continue progress toward higher conversion efficiencies, solar cells are being fabricated with increasingly complex designs, including engineered nanostructures, heterojunctions, and novel contacting and passivation schemes. Such advanced designs require a comprehensive and unified understanding of the optical and electrical device physics at the microscopic scale. This thesis focuses on a microscopic understanding of solar cell optoelectronic performance and its impact on cell optimization. We consider this in three solar cell platforms: thin-film crystalline silicon, amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions, and thin-film cells with nanophotonic light trapping. The work described in this thesis represents a powerful design paradigm, based on a detailed physical understanding of the mechanisms governing solar cell performance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of understanding not just the individual mechanisms, but also their interactions. Such an approach to device optimization is critical for the efficiency and competitiveness of future generations of solar cells.

  18. Design and development of advanced adaptive polymer lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Freddie

    The dissertation presented here describes advancements made in adaptive polymer lens design and implementation. Singlets and doublets lenses were constructed for visible, short- wavelength infrared (SWIR), and middle-wavelength infrared (MWIR) applications. The lenses are implemented in a variety of tactical imaging systems to demonstrate their performance. A process was developed that defines the allowable fabrication variables, first for APL singlets and then for APL doublets. A first-order finite element model is described that enables going from an optical design to APL fabrication. This model was then extended to the design of fluidic doublets, which are equivalent to their two-element glass counter-parts. Two constant volume fluidic chambers were enclosed by three flexible membranes resulting in a variable focal length doublet. Chromatic focal shift was then used to compare numerical modeling to experimentally measured results. These same tools, methodology, and process were lastly used in the definition and fabrication of the SWIR and MWIR adaptive polymer lens for tactical systems. Imaging and illumination systems are presented, based on these lensesnotably an adaptive zoom imaging system, in the MWIR. This is the first known instance of such a system in this band.

  19. Design of advanced ultrasonic transducers for welding devices.

    PubMed

    Parrini, L

    2001-11-01

    A new high frequency ultrasonic transducer has been conceived, designed, prototyped, and tested. In the design phase, an advanced approach was used and established. The method is based on an initial design estimate obtained with finite element method (FEM) simulations. The simulated ultrasonic transducers and resonators are then built and characterized experimentally through laser interferometry and electrical resonance spectra. The comparison of simulation results with experimental data allows the parameters of FEM models to be adjusted and optimized. The achieved FEM simulations exhibit a remarkably high predictive potential and allow full control of the vibration behavior of the transducer. The new transducer is mounted on a wire bonder with a flange whose special geometry was calculated by means of FEM simulations. This flange allows the transducer to be attached on the wire bonder, not only in longitudinal nodes, but also in radial nodes of the ultrasonic field excited in the horn. This leads to a total decoupling of the transducer to the wire bonder, which has not been achieved so far. The new approach to mount ultrasonic transducers on a welding device is of major importance, not only for wire bonding, but also for all high power ultrasound applications and has been patented. PMID:11800125

  20. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  1. Conceptual design of a solar electric advanced Stirling power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. A.; Brown, A. T.

    1987-02-01

    The objective is to develop a high confidence conceptual design for a free-piston Stirling engine based system designed to deliver 25 kW of three-phase electric power to a utility grid when coupled to the 11 meter Test Bed Concentrator (TBC) at SNLA. Further objectives include a design life of 60,000 hours, minimum life cycle cost and dynamic balancing. The approach used to achieve these objectives is to utilize a hermetically sealed Stirling hydraulic concept based on technology developed to an advanced level during the past 19 years for an artificial heart power source. Such engines and critical metal bellows components have demonstrated operating times in the desired range. This approach provides full film hydraulic lubrication of all sliding parts, simple construction with conventional manufacturing tolerances, proven hydraulically coupled counterbalancing, and simple but effective power control to follow insolation variations. Other advantages include use of commercially available hydraulic motors and rotary alternators which can be placed on the ground to minimize suspended weight. The output from several engine/concentrator modules can be directed to one large motor/alternator for further cost savings. Three monthly progress reports for the same period, January 1 to January 31, 1987, are compiled within this document.

  2. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. government announced in February 2006 the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) based on a fast spectrum is one of the three major technologies to be demonstrated in GNEP. In FY06, a pre-conceptual design study was performed to develop an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) that supports development of a prototype full-scale ABR, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR were (1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics (TRU) as part of an advanced fuel cycle, (2) to qualify the TRU-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR, (3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these objectives, core design and fuel cycle studies were performed to develop ABTR core designs, which can accommodate the expected changes of the TRU feed and the conversion ratio. Various option and trade-off studies were performed to determine the appropriate power level and conversion ratio. Both ternary metal alloy (U-TRU-10Zr) and mixed oxide (UO{sub 2}-TRUO{sub 2}) fuel forms have been considered with TRU feeds from weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and TRU recovered from light water reactor spent fuel (LWR-SF). Reactor performances were evaluated in detail including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow, power distribution, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficient, reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins, and spent fuel characteristics. Trade-off studies on power level suggested that about 250 MWt is a reasonable compromise to allow a low project cost, at the same time providing a reasonable prototypic irradiation environment for demonstrating

  3. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A. ); Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P. . Langley Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  4. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-12-31

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  5. Features and Initial Results of the DIII-D Advanced Tokamak Radiative Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. O'Neill; A.S. Bozek; M.E. Friend; C.B. Baxi; E.E. Reis; M.A. Mahdavi; D.G. Nilson; S.L. Allen; W.P. West

    1999-11-01

    The Radiative Divertor Program of DIII-D is in its final phase with the installation of the cryopump and baffle structure (Phase 1B Divertor) in the upper inner radius of the DIII-D vacuum vessel at the end of this calendar year. This divertor, in conjunction with the Advanced Divertor and the Phase 1A Divertor, located in the lower and upper outer radius of the DIII-D vacuum vessel respectively, provides pumping for density control of the plasma while minimizing the effects on the core confinement. Each divertor consists of a cryobelium cooling ring and a shielded protective structure. The cryo/helium-cooled pumps of all three diverters exhaust helium from the plasma. The protective shielded structure or baffle structure, in the case of the diverters located at the top of the vacuum vessel, provides baffling of neutral charged particles and minimize the flow of impurities back into the core of the plasma. The baffles, which consist of water-cooled panels that allow for the attachment of tiles of various sizes and shapes, house gas puff systems. The intent of the puffing systems is to inject gas in and around the divertor to minimize the heat flux on specific areas on the divertor and its components. The reduction of the heat flux on the divertor minimizes the impurities that are generated from excess heat on divertor components, specifically tiles. Experiments involving the gas puff systems and the divertor structures have shown the heat flux can be spread over a large area of the divertor, reducing the peak heat flux in specific areas. The three diverters also incorporate a variety of diagnostic tools such as halo current monitors, magnetic probes and thermocouples to monitor certain plasma characteristics as well as determine the effectiveness of the cryopumps and baffle configurations. The diverters were designed to optimize pumping performance and to withstand the electromagnetic loads from both halo currents and toroidal induced currents. Incorporated also

  6. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  7. Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Propulsion Design Options Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Future propulsion options for advanced single-aisle transports have been investigated in a number of previous studies by the authors. These studies have examined the system level characteristics of aircraft incorporating ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) turbofans (direct drive and geared) and open rotor engines. During the course of these prior studies, a number of potential refinements and enhancements to the analysis methodology and assumptions were identified. This paper revisits a previously conducted UHB turbofan fan pressure ratio trade study using updated analysis methodology and assumptions. The changes incorporated have decreased the optimum fan pressure ratio for minimum fuel consumption and reduced the engine design trade-offs between minimizing noise and minimizing fuel consumption. Nacelle drag and engine weight are found to be key drivers in determining the optimum fan pressure ratio from a fuel efficiency perspective. The revised noise analysis results in the study aircraft being 2 to 4 EPNdB (cumulative) quieter due to a variety of reasons explained in the paper. With equal core technology assumed, the geared engine architecture is found to be as good as or better than the direct drive architecture for most parameters investigated. However, the engine ultimately selected for a future advanced single-aisle aircraft will depend on factors beyond those considered here.

  8. Optical design and characterization of an advanced computational imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, R. Hamilton; Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Raskar, Ramesh; Shi, Boxin; Barsi, Christopher; Zhao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    We describe an advanced computational imaging system with an optical architecture that enables simultaneous and dynamic pupil-plane and image-plane coding accommodating several task-specific applications. We assess the optical requirement trades associated with custom and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) optics and converge on the development of two low-cost and robust COTS testbeds. The first is a coded-aperture programmable pixel imager employing a digital micromirror device (DMD) for image plane per-pixel oversampling and spatial super-resolution experiments. The second is a simultaneous pupil-encoded and time-encoded imager employing a DMD for pupil apodization or a deformable mirror for wavefront coding experiments. These two testbeds are built to leverage two MIT Lincoln Laboratory focal plane arrays - an orthogonal transfer CCD with non-uniform pixel sampling and on-chip dithering and a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) with advanced on-chip per-pixel processing capabilities. This paper discusses the derivation of optical component requirements, optical design metrics, and performance analyses for the two testbeds built.

  9. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  10. A status review of the advanced technology features available for the Enhanced T-base Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F.; Demint, P.D.; Hebble, T.L.; Klages, E.J.; Rasnick, W.H.; Williams, R.R.

    1989-12-15

    The purpose of the Enhanced T-base Project (which is often referred to as PFMS'') is to acquire hardware and software modifications for existing T-base lathes that will significantly improve the ability of these machines to produce precision workpiece. The design objective is to obtain a manufacturing system that is capable of producing hemishell workpieces to significantly higher tolerance with an accompanying low level of process variability (with 3--5 {omega} goals of {plus minus}0.0005 in. on contour and {plus minus}0.001 in. on wall). A new T-base lathe and one retro-fit system will be fabricated which incorporate the necessary special features required to meet the project goals. The new lathe provides a test bed to demonstrate the achievable system capabilities while the retro-fit package offers a mechanism for exhibiting the effects of the system enhancements on existing T-base lathes. After the new machine and retro-fit system have been thoroughly evaluated, additional systems will be obtained to upgrade an appropriate number of machine tools.

  11. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Linear Accelerator: design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator (linac) system consists of a 200-MeV, 2856-MHz S-band electron linac and a 2-radiation-length- thick tungsten target followed by a 450-MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past two years to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies, and to provide beam for the experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA, and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described, and its operation and performance are discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Advanced ICRF antenna design for R-TOKAMAK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kako, E.; Ando, R.; Ichimura, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Amano, T.; Watari, T.

    1986-01-01

    The advanced ICRF antennas designed for the R-TOKAMAK (a proposal in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University) are described. They are a standard loop antenna and a panel heater antenna for fast wave heating, and a waveguide antenna for ion Bernstein wave heating. The standard loop antenna is made of Al-alloy and has a simple structure to install because of radioactivation by D-T neutrons. For high power heating, a new type antenna called Panel heater antenna is proposed. It has a wide radiation area and is able to select a parallel wave number k. The field pattern of the panel heater antenna is measured. The feasibility of the waveguide antenna is discussed for ion Bernstein wave heating. The radiation from the aperture of the double ridge waveguide is experimentally estimated with a load simulating the plasma.

  13. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  14. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  15. Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Wilson Jr, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The project supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in identifying and evaluating the regulatory implications concerning the control and protection systems proposed for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP, using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology, is to provide commercial industries with electricity and high-temperature process heat for industrial processes such as hydrogen production. Process heat temperatures range from 700 to 950 C, and for the upper range of these operation temperatures, the modular HTGR is sometimes referred to as the Very High Temperature Reactor or VHTR. Initial NGNP designs are for operation in the lower temperature range. The defining safety characteristic of the modular HTGR is that its primary defense against serious accidents is to be achieved through its inherent properties of the fuel and core. Because of its strong negative temperature coefficient of reactivity and the capability of the fuel to withstand high temperatures, fast-acting active safety systems or prompt operator actions should not be required to prevent significant fuel failure and fission product release. The plant is designed such that its inherent features should provide adequate protection despite operational errors or equipment failure. Figure 1 shows an example modular HTGR layout (prismatic core version), where its inlet coolant enters the reactor vessel at the bottom, traversing up the sides to the top plenum, down-flow through an annular core, and exiting from the lower plenum (hot duct). This research provided NRC staff with (a) insights and knowledge about the control and protection systems for the NGNP and VHTR, (b) information on the technologies/approaches under consideration for use in the reactor and process heat applications, (c) guidelines for the design of highly integrated control rooms, (d) consideration for modeling of control and protection system designs for

  16. The Halogen Bond in the Design of Functional Supramolecular Materials: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Halogen bonding is an emerging noncovalent interaction for constructing supramolecular assemblies. Though similar to the more familiar hydrogen bonding, four primary differences between these two interactions make halogen bonding a unique tool for molecular recognition and the design of functional materials. First, halogen bonds tend to be much more directional than (single) hydrogen bonds. Second, the interaction strength scales with the polarizability of the bond-donor atom, a feature that researchers can tune through single-atom mutation. In addition, halogen bonds are hydrophobic whereas hydrogen bonds are hydrophilic. Lastly, the size of the bond-donor atom (halogen) is significantly larger than hydrogen. As a result, halogen bonding provides supramolecular chemists with design tools that cannot be easily met with other types of noncovalent interactions and opens up unprecedented possibilities in the design of smart functional materials. This Account highlights the recent advances in the design of halogen-bond-based functional materials. Each of the unique features of halogen bonding, directionality, tunable interaction strength, hydrophobicity, and large donor atom size, makes a difference. Taking advantage of the hydrophobicity, researchers have designed small-size ion transporters. The large halogen atom size provided a platform for constructing all-organic light-emitting crystals that efficiently generate triplet electrons and have a high phosphorescence quantum yield. The tunable interaction strengths provide tools for understanding light-induced macroscopic motions in photoresponsive azobenzene-containing polymers, and the directionality renders halogen bonding useful in the design on functional supramolecular liquid crystals and gel-phase materials. Although halogen bond based functional materials design is still in its infancy, we foresee a bright future for this field. We expect that materials designed based on halogen bonding could lead to

  17. Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

  18. TMT DMs final design and advanced prototyping results at Cilas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, Jean-Christophe; Bastard, Arnaud; Boyer, Corinne; Cornette, Sébastien; Cousty, Raphaël.; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilbert, Xavier; Gourdet, Benoit; Grasser, Régis; Groeninck, Denis; Guillemard, Claude; Herriot, Glen; Iannacone, Albert; Jeulin, Antoine; Moreau, Aurélien; Pagès, Hubert; Wang, Lianqi

    2012-07-01

    In order to prepare for the construction phase of the two Deformable Mirrors (DMs), which will be used in the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system, Cilas has advanced the design of these two large size piezo DMs and has manufactured and tested a scaled demonstration prototype. The work done allowed significant reduction of the risks related to the demanding specifications of the TMT DMs; the main issues were: (i) Large pupil (up to 370 mm) and high order (up to 74x74); (ii) Relatively low operational temperature (DMs working at -30°C) (iii) New piezo material. It is important to develop such a prototype to take into account these three specifications all together (dimension, low temperature and new piezo material). The new prototype is a 6x60 actuators and has the same characteristics as the future TMT DMs. In this paper, we give the conclusions of the work through the presentation of the following items: (i) Design and finite element analysis of the two DMs and prototype; (ii) Test results obtained with the prototype with validation of the finite element analysis and compliance with the TMT AO specifications; (iii) Special focus on thermal behavior, actuator reliability and shape at rest stability.

  19. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  20. Advanced modeling and simulation to design and manufacture high performance and reliable advanced microelectronics and microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2007-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.

  1. Design and Implementation of a Laboratory-Based Drug Design and Synthesis Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Ashok; Stephens, Mark; Mitchell, Sheila L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide students with an opportunity to participate in medicinal chemistry research within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Design. We designed and implemented a 3-course sequence in drug design or drug synthesis for pharmacy students consisting of a 1-month advanced elective followed by two 1-month research advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). To maximize student involvement, this 3-course sequence was offered to third-year and fourth-year students twice per calendar year. Assessment. Students were evaluated based on their commitment to the project’s success, productivity, and professionalism. Students also evaluated the course sequence using a 14-item course evaluation rubric. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Students found the experience to be a valuable component of their pharmacy curriculum. Conclusion. We successfully designed and implemented a 3-course research sequence that allows PharmD students in the traditional 4-year program to participate in drug design and synthesis research. Students report the sequence enhanced their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills and helped them develop as independent learners. Based on the success achieved with this sequence, efforts are underway to develop research APPEs in other areas of the pharmaceutical sciences. PMID:25995518

  2. Antenna Design Considerations for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakula, Casey J.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios

    2015-01-01

    NASA is designing an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU)to support future manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A key component of the AEMU is the communications assembly that allows for the wireless transfer of voice, video, and suit telemetry. The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) currently used on the International Space Station (ISS) contains a radio system with a single omni-directional resonant cavity antenna operating slightly above 400 MHz capable of transmitting and receiving data at a rate of about 125 kbps. Recent wireless communications architectures are calling for the inclusion of commercial wireless standards such as 802.11 that operate in higher frequency bands at much higher data rates. The current AEMU radio design supports a 400 MHz band for low-rate mission-critical data and a high-rate band based on commercial wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to support video, communication with non-extravehicular activity (EVA) assets such as wireless sensors and robotic assistants, and a redundant path for mission-critical EVA data. This paper recommends the replacement of the existing EMU antenna with a new antenna that maintains the performance characteristics of the current antenna but with lower weight and volume footprints. NASA has funded several firms to develop such an antenna over the past few years, and the most promising designs are variations on the basic patch antenna. This antenna technology at UHF is considered by the authors to be mature and ready for infusion into NASA AEMU technology development programs.

  3. Conventional and advanced MRI features of pediatric intracranial tumors: supratentorial tumors.

    PubMed

    Borja, Maria J; Plaza, Michael J; Altman, Nolan; Saigal, Gaurav

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our objective is to review the imaging characteristics and applications of conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques of supratentorial intracranial masses in the pediatric population. Specifically, we review astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, primary neuroectodermal tumors, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, gangliogliomas, arachnoid cysts, and choroid plexus and pineal region masses. CONCLUSION. Advanced imaging methods, such as MR spectroscopy, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, diffusion-tensor imaging, and tractography, help develop a more accurate differential diagnosis and aid in planning tumor treatment. PMID:23617516

  4. Advanced nebulizer designs employing vibrating mesh/aperture plate technologies for aerosol generation.

    PubMed

    Waldrep, J C; Dhand, R

    2008-04-01

    Recent technological advances and improved nebulizer designs have overcome many limitations of jet nebulizers. Newer devices employ a vibrating mesh or aperture plate (VM/AP) for the generation of therapeutic aerosols with consistent, increased efficiency, predominant aerosol fine particle fractions, low residuals, and the ability to nebulize even microliter volumes. These enhancements are achieved through several different design features and include improvements that promote patient compliance, such as compact design, portability, shorter treatment durations, and quiet operation. Current VM/AP devices in clinical use are the Omron MicroAir, the Nektar Aeroneb, and the Pari eFlow. However, some devices are only approved for use with specific medications. Development of "smart nebulizers" such as the Respironics I-neb couple VM technologies with coordinated delivery and optimized inhalation patterns to enhance inhaled drug delivery of specialized, expensive formulations. Ongoing development of advanced aerosol technologies should improve clinical outcomes and continue to expand therapeutic options as newer inhaled drugs become available. PMID:18393813

  5. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  6. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    PubMed

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database. PMID:25680220

  7. The design and implementation of image query system based on color feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xu-Dong; Jia, Da-Chun; Li, Lin

    2013-07-01

    ASP.NET technology was used to construct the B/S mode image query system. The theory and technology of database design, color feature extraction from image, index and retrieval in the construction of the image repository were researched. The campus LAN and WAN environment were used to test the system. From the test results, the needs of user queries about related resources were achieved by system architecture design.

  8. Comparison of conceptual designs for 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion systems for dish electric application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) Project is managed by NASA Lewis Research Center through a cooperative interagency agreement with DOE. Conceptual designs for the ASCS's were completed under parallel contracts in 1987 by Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) of Latham, NY, and Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Richland, WA. Each design features a free-piston Stirling engine, a liquid metal heat pipe receiver, and a means to provide about 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid while meeting DOE's long term performance and cost goals. An independent assessment showed that both designs are manufacturable and have the potential to easily meet DOE's long term cost goals.

  9. Comparison of conceptual designs for 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion systems for dish electric applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) Project is managed by NASA Lewis Research Center through a cooperative interagency agreement with DOE. Conceptual designs for the ASCS's were completed under parallel contracts in 1987 by Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) of Latham, NY, and Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Richland, WA. Each design features a free-piston Stirling engine, a liquid metal heat pipe receiver, and a means to provide about 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid while meeting DOE's long term performance and cost goals. An independent assessment showed that both designs are manufacturable and have the potential to easily meet DOE's long term cost goals.

  10. Patients Presenting with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Epidemiological Features by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged ≥ 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease. PMID:26839469

  11. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender…

  12. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  13. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  14. Neural network classification of autoregressive features from electroencephalogram signals for brain computer interface design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Nai-Jen; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we have designed a two-state brain-computer interface (BCI) using neural network (NN) classification of autoregressive (AR) features from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals extracted during mental tasks. The main purpose of the study is to use Keirn and Aunon's data to investigate the performance of different mental task combinations and different AR features for BCI design for individual subjects. In the experimental study, EEG signals from five mental tasks were recorded from four subjects. Different combinations of two mental tasks were studied for each subject. Six different feature extraction methods were used to extract the features from the EEG signals: AR coefficients computed with Burg's algorithm, AR coefficients computed with a least-squares (LS) algorithm and adaptive autoregressive (AAR) coefficients computed with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. All the methods used order six applied to 125 data points and these three methods were repeated with the same data but with segmentation into five segments in increments of 25 data points. The multilayer perceptron NN trained by the back-propagation algorithm (MLP-BP) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to classify the computed features into different categories that represent the mental tasks. We compared the classification performances among the six different feature extraction methods. The results showed that sixth-order AR coefficients with the LS algorithm without segmentation gave the best performance (93.10%) using MLP-BP and (97.00%) using LDA. The results also showed that the segmentation and AAR methods are not suitable for this set of EEG signals. We conclude that, for different subjects, the best mental task combinations are different and proper selection of mental tasks and feature extraction methods are essential for the BCI design.

  15. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase II-Air Training Command, Military Airlift Command, and Strategic Air Command [and] Phase III-Electronic Warfare Trainers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Hubbard, David C.

    This document consists of an interim report and a final report which describe the second and third phases of a project designed to determine the utility and utilization of sophisticated hardware and software capabilities known as advanced instructional features (AIFs). Used with an aircrew training device (ATD), AIFs permit a simulator instructor…

  16. Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minyard, Glen E.; Lambarski, Timothy J.

    1997-02-01

    The Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems contract is a Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) cost-shared contract under Phase 4A1 for Product Driven Systems and Component Technologies. Phase 4A1 has the goals to improve the cost-effectiveness and manufacturing efficiency of PV end-products, optimize manufacturing and packaging methods, and generally improve balance-of-system performance, integration and manufacturing. This contract has the specific goal to reduce the installed PV system life cycle costs to the customer with the ultimate goal of increasing PV system marketability and customer acceptance. The specific objectives of the project are to develop certified, standardized, modular, pre-engineered products lines of our main stand-alone systems, the Modular Autonomous PV Power Supply (MAPPS) and PV-Generator Hybrid System (Photogenset). To date, we have designed a 200 W MAPPS and a 1 kW Photogenset and are in the process of having the MAPPS certified by Underwriters Laboratories (UL Listed) and approved for hazardous locations by Factory Mutual (FM). We have also developed a manufacturing plan for product line expansion for the MAPPS. The Photogenset will be fabricated in February 1997 and will also be UL Listed. Functionality testing will be performed at NREL and Sandia with the intentions of providing verification of performance and reliability and of developing test-based performance specifications. In addition to an expansion on the goals, objectives and status of the project, specific accomplishments and benefits are also presented in this paper.

  17. Advancements in design of an autonomous satellite docking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Anthony B.; Tchoryk, Peter, Jr.; Pavlich, Jane C.; Ritter, Greg A.; Wassick, Gregory J.

    2004-08-01

    The past five years has witnessed a significant increase in the attention given to on-orbit satellite docking and servicing. Recent world events have proven how we have come to rely on our space assets, especially during times of crisis. It has become abundantly clear that the ability to autonomously rendezvous, dock, inspect and service both military and civilian assets is no longer a nicety, but a necessity. Reconnaissance and communications satellites, even the space shuttle and International Space Station, could benefit from this capability. Michigan Aerospace Corporation, with funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has been refining a compact, light, compliant soft-docking system. Earlier prototypes have been tested on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) flat-floor as well as on the Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) KC-135 micro-gravity aircraft. Over the past year, refinements have been made to the mechanism based on the lessons learned from these tests. This paper discusses the optimal design that has resulted.

  18. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  19. Advanced Biomatrix Designs for Regenerative Therapy of Periodontal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.H.; Park, C.H.; Perez, R.A.; Lee, H.Y.; Jang, J.H.; Lee, H.H.; Wall, I.B.; Shi, S.; Kim, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes loss of the tooth-supporting apparatus, including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. A broad range of treatment options is currently available to restore the structure and function of the periodontal tissues. A regenerative approach, among others, is now considered the most promising paradigm for this purpose, harnessing the unique properties of stem cells. How to make full use of the body’s innate regenerative capacity is thus a key issue. While stem cells and bioactive factors are essential components in the regenerative processes, matrices play pivotal roles in recapitulating stem cell functions and potentiating therapeutic actions of bioactive molecules. Moreover, the positions of appropriate bioactive matrices relative to the injury site may stimulate the innate regenerative stem cell populations, removing the need to deliver cells that have been manipulated outside of the body. In this topical review, we update views on advanced designs of biomatrices—including mimicking of the native extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stimulation, activating cell-driven matrices, and delivering bioactive factors in a controllable manner—which are ultimately useful for the regenerative therapy of periodontal tissues. PMID:25139364

  20. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  1. Advanced fiber optic face plate quality detector design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Su, Liping; Zhao, Jingxia

    2010-10-01

    A fiber optic face plate is defined by a plurality of fibers of transparent material that are fused and compressed together to transmit an image from one end to another end. Fiber optic face plates exhibit utility in the image intensifiers, cathoderay tubes, and other media displays. In this paper, the design of an advanced fiber optic face plate quality detector is presented. Modern optoelectronic imaging techniques are being used to form fiber optic plate transmission images that are suitable for analyzing the quality parameters of fiber optic face plate. The diffusing light from a halogen lamp is condensed by condenser lens then through a fiber optic face plate, a set of lenses are used to magnify the transmission image, a computer controls a long linear CCD to scan the transmission image, a data grabber captures the CCD's output data and the computer transforms the data into frame image for further analysis. Digital image processing techniques are adopted to analyze the transmission image to obtain the required quality parameters. The image analysis software combines the API that a company provided and programed API is used to acquire the quality parameter that a relevant criteria required. With the long linear CCD scanning and image analysis being computerized, it accomplishes the detection of quality parameters of fiber optic face plates automaticly. The detector can replace the manual detection method and can be widely used for the quality detection of fiber optic face plate. Manufacturers of fiber optic face plates can benefit from the detector for quality control.

  2. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  3. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  4. UNIQUE FEATURES IN MAGNET DESIGNS FOR R AND D ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    MENG,W.; JAIN, A.; GANETIS, G.; KAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LONGO, C.; MAHLER, G.; POZDEYEV, E.; TUOZZOLO, J.

    2007-06-25

    In this paper we describe the unique features and analysis techniques used on the magnets for a R&D Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) [1] under construction at the Collider Accelerator Department at BNL. The R&D ERL serves as a test-bed for future BNL ERLs, such as an electron-cooler-ERL at RHIC [2] and a future 20 GeV ERL electron-hadron at eRHIC [3]. Here we present select designs of various dipole and quadruple magnets which are used in Z-bend merging systems [4] and the returning loop, 3-D simulations of the fields in aforementioned magnets, particle tracking analysis, and the magnet's influence on beam parameters. We discuss an unconventional method of setting requirements on the quality of magnetic field and transferring them into measurable parameters as well as into manufacturing tolerances. We compare selected simulation with results of magnetic measurements. A 20 MeV R&D ERL (Fig. 1) is in an advanced phase of construction at the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL, with commissioning planned for early 2009. In the R&D ERL, an electron beam is generated in a 2 MeV superconducting RF photo-gun, next is accelerated to 20 MeV in a 5 cell SRF linac, subsequently passed through a return loop, then decelerated to 2 MeV in the SRF linac, and finally is sent to a beam dump. The lattice of the R&D ERL is designed with a large degree of flexibility to enable the covering of a vast operational parameter space: from non-achromatic lattices to achromatic with positive, zero and negative R56 parameter. It also allows for large range tunability of Rlz and lattice RS4 parameters (which are important for transverse beam-break-up instability). Further details of the R&D ERL can be found elsewhere in these proceedings [5]. The return loop magnets are of traditional design with the following exceptions: (a) The bending radius of the 60{sup o} dipole magnets is 20 cm, which is rather small. We use 15{sup o} edges on both sides of the dipoles to split very strong focusing evenly

  5. Investigation of the Flow Physics Driving Stall-Side Flutter in Advanced Forward Swept Fan Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Albert J.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Bakhle, Milind A.; Stefko, George; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2003-01-01

    Flutter-free operation of advanced transonic fan designs continues to be a challenging task for the designers of aircraft engines. In order to meet the demands of increased performance and lighter weight, these modern fan designs usually feature low-aspect ratio shroudless rotor blade designs that make the task of achieving adequate flutter margin even more challenging for the aeroelastician. This is especially true for advanced forward swept designs that encompass an entirely new design space compared to previous experience. Fortunately, advances in unsteady computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques over the past decade now provide an analysis capability that can be used to quantitatively assess the aeroelastic characteristics of these next generation fans during the design cycle. For aeroelastic applications, Mississippi State University and NASA Glenn Research Center have developed the CFD code TURBO-AE. This code is a time-accurate three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes unsteady flow solver developed for axial-flow turbomachinery that can model multiple blade rows undergoing harmonic oscillations with arbitrary interblade phase angles, i.e., nodal diameter patterns. Details of the code can be found in Chen et al. (1993, 1994), Bakhle et al. (1997, 1998), and Srivastava et al. (1999). To assess aeroelastic stability, the work-per-cycle from TURBO-AE is converted to the critical damping ratio since this value is more physically meaningful, with both the unsteady normal pressure and viscous shear forces included in the work-per-cycle calculation. If the total damping (aerodynamic plus mechanical) is negative, then the blade is unstable since it extracts energy from the flow field over the vibration cycle. TURBO-AE is an integral part of an aeroelastic design system being developed at Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services for flutter and forced response predictions, with test cases from development rig and engine tests being used to validate its predictive

  6. Identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks for advanced light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating passive and inherent safety options for Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs). A major activity in 1989 includes identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks, both existing and proposed, for ALWRs. Preliminary results of this work are reported herein. This activity is part of a larger effort by the US Department of Energy, reactor vendors, utilities, and others in the United States to develop improved LWRs. The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) program and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) program have as goals improved, commercially available LWRs in the early 1990s. The Advanced Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ASBWR) program and the AP-600 program are developing more advanced reactors with increased use of passive safety systems. It is planned that these reactors will become commercially available in the mid 1990s. The ORNL program is an exploratory research program for LWRs beyond the year 2000. Desired long-term goals for such reactors include: (1) use of only passive and inherent safety, (2) foolproof against operator errors, (3) malevolence resistance against internal sabotage and external assault and (4) walkaway safety. The acronym ''PRIME'' (Passive safety, Resilient operation, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended (walkaway) safety) is used to summarize these desired characteristics. Existing passive and inherent safety options are discussed in this document.

  7. Multiple approaches to valuation of conservation design and low-impact development features in residential subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Troy; Tyndall, John C; Thompson, Janette; Kliebenstein, James; Colletti, Joe P

    2012-08-15

    Residents, developers and civic officials are often faced with difficult decisions about appropriate land uses in and around metropolitan boundaries. Urban expansion brings with it the potential for negative environmental impacts, but there are alternatives, such as conservation subdivision design (CSD) or low-impact development (LID), which offer the possibility of mitigating some of these effects at the development site. Many urban planning jurisdictions across the Midwest do not currently have any examples of these designs and lack information to identify public support or barriers to use of these methods. This is a case study examining consumer value for conservation and low-impact design features in one housing market by using four different valuation techniques to estimate residents' willingness to pay for CSD and LID features in residential subdivisions. A contingent valuation survey of 1804 residents in Ames, IA assessed familiarity with and perceptions of subdivision development and used an ordered value approach to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. A majority of residents were not familiar with CSD or LID practices. Residents indicated a willingness to pay for most CSD and LID features with the exception of clustered housing. Gender, age, income, familiarity with LID practices, perceptions of attractiveness of features and the perceived effect of CSD and LID features on ease of future home sales were important factors influencing residents' willingness to pay. A hypothetical referendum measured willingness to pay for tax-funded conservation land purchases and estimated that a property tax of around $50 would be the maximum increase that would pass. Twenty-seven survey respondents participated in a subsequent series of experimental real estate negotiations that used an experimental auction mechanism to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. Participants indicated that clustered housing (with interspersed preserved forest

  8. Application of advanced electronics to a future spacecraft computer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Advancements in hardware and software technology are summarized with specific emphasis on spacecraft computer capabilities. Available state of the art technology is reviewed and candidate architectures are defined.

  9. Variable stream control engine concept for advanced supersonic aircraft: Features and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Variable Stream Control Engine is studied for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. Significant environmental and performance improvements relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines are cited. Two separate flow streams, each with independent burner and nozzle systems are incorporated within the engine. By unique control of the exhaust temperatures and velocities in two coannular streams, significant reduction in jet noise is obtained.

  10. Cohesion Features in ESL Reading: Comparing Beginning, Intermediate and Advanced Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia; Bilki, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study of English as a second language (ESL) reading textbooks investigates cohesion in reading passages from 27 textbooks. The guiding research questions were whether and how cohesion differs across textbooks written for beginning, intermediate, and advanced second language readers. Using a computational tool called Coh-Metrix, textual…

  11. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  12. Integrated design and analysis of advanced airfoil shapes for gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.A.; Rooney, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integral process in the mechanical design of gas turbine airfoils is the conversion of hot or running geometry into cold or as-manufactured geometry. New and advanced methods of design and analysis must be created that parallel new and technologically advanced turbine components. In particular, to achieve the high performance required of today's gas turbine engines, the industry is forced to design and manufacture increasingly complex airfoil shapes using advanced analysis and modeling techniques. This paper describes a method of integrating advanced, general purpose finite element analysis techniques in the mechanical design process.

  13. Trench Advance By the Subduction of Buoyant Features - Application to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, S. D. B.; Fourel, L.; Morra, G.

    2014-12-01

    Most subduction trenches retreat, not only today but throughout the Cenozoic. However, a few trenches clearly advance during part of the evolution, including Izu-Bonin Marianas (IBM) and Kermadec. Trench retreat is well understood as a basic consequence of slab pull, but it is debated what causes trench advance. The IBM trench underwent a complex evolution: right after its initiation, it rotated clockwise, leading to very fast retreat in the north and slow retreat in the south. But since 10-15 Ma, IBM trench motions have switched to advance at the southern end, and since 5 Ma also the northern end is advancing. Based on 2-D subduction models, it has been proposed proposed that the change in age of the subducting plate at the IBM trench (from 40-70 m.y. at the initiation of the trench 45 m.y. ago to 100-140 m.y. lithosphere subducting at the trench today) and its effect on plate strength could explain the transition from trench retreat to trench advance, and that the age gradient (younger in the north and older in the south) could explain the rotation of the trench. However, with new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where we can include such lateral age gradients, we find that this does not yield the observed behaviour. Instead, we propose an alternative mechanism, involving the subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench and show that it can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  14. Pediatric Cerebellar Tumors: Emerging Imaging Techniques and Advances in Understanding of Genetic Features.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Cerebellar tumors are the most common group of solid tumors in children. MR imaging provides an important role in characterization of these lesions, surgical planning, and postsurgical surveillance. Preoperative imaging can help predict the histologic subtype of tumors, which can provide guidance for surgical planning. Beyond histology, pediatric brain tumors are undergoing new classification schemes based on genetic features. Intraoperative MR imaging has emerged as an important tool in the surgical management of pediatric brain tumors. Effective understanding of the imaging features of pediatric cerebellar tumors can benefit communication with neurosurgeons and neuro-oncologists and can improve patient management. PMID:27423803

  15. Advanced atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion design: internally circulating AFBC. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keairns, D.L.; Altiner, H.K.; Hamm, J.R.; Ahmed, M.M.; Weeks, K.D.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Kececioglu, I.; Ulerich, N.H.; Yang, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report defines and characterizes an advanced, industrial, fluidized-bed combustion concept - the internally circulating AFBC - having superior performance and cost characteristics. The internally circulating AFBC incorporates four major innovative features (single fuel feed; jet-attrition-controlled sulfur removal; multiple air staging; and high-velocity, single vessel integral design using draft tube circulation) to achieve: high boiler thermal efficiency (approaching 90% through integral design, high combustion efficiency, and low sorbent consumption); fuel flexibility (single coal feed point, coal size up to nominal 2 in, flexible air distribution, capability of feeding and combusting gaseous and liquid fuels); high reliability (simplified fuel feed and solids handling); turndown flexibility (degree and ease of turndown achieved by integral segmented bed, staged air distribution); low sorbent requirements for high SO/sub 2/ control (Ca/S <2 for greater than 90% removal using jet-attrition-controlled sulfur removal); low NO/sub x/ emissions (0.1 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu through multiple stages of air injection and capability of maintaining high carbon content); compact design (single, shop-fabricated, rail-shippable units with capacity up to 150 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr for high-velocity operation); and low cost (simplified, integral function design with high efficiency). Westinghouse concludes that the internally circulating AFBC concept has great potential for industrial market acceptance because of its effective performance and high reliability at low steam generation costs. The concept merits further development to evolve its innovative features further and to determine its commercial design configuration and operating conditions.

  16. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified tritium hydride bed development, Part 2 - Experimental validation of key conceptual design features

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, K.J.; Morgan, G.A.

    2015-03-15

    The Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed is an interim replacement for the first generation (Gen1) process hydride beds currently in service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. 3 new features are implemented in the TECH Mod hydride bed prototype: internal electric cartridge heaters, porous divider plates, and copper foam discs. These modifications will enhance bed performance and reduce costs by improving bed activation and installation processes, in-bed accountability measurements, end-of-life bed removal, and He-3 recovery. A full-scale hydride bed test station was constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to evaluate the performance of the prototype TECH Mod hydride bed. Controlled hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption/ desorption experiments were conducted to validate that the conceptual design changes have no adverse effects on the gas transfer kinetics or H{sub 2} storage/release properties compared to those of the Gen1 bed. Inert gas expansions before, during, and after H{sub 2} flow tests were used to monitor changes in gas transfer rates with repeated hydriding/de-hydriding of the hydride material. The gas flow rates significantly decreased after initial hydriding of the material; however, minimal changes were observed after repeated cycling. The data presented herein confirm that the TECH Mod hydride bed would be a suitable replacement for the Gen1 bed with the added enhancements expected from the advanced design features. (authors)

  17. Design features of the radioactive Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    During 1983, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a program with the principal objective of testing the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) process in actual radioactive operations. This activity, termed the Radioactive LFCM (RLFCM) Operations is being conducted in existing shielded hot-cell facilities in B-Cell of the 324 Building, 300 Area, located at Hanford, Washington. This report summarizes the design features of the RLFCM system. These features include: a waste preparation and feed system which uses pulse-agitated waste preparation tanks for waste slurry agitation and an air displacement slurry pump for transferring waste slurries to the LFCM; a waste vitrification system (LFCM) - the design features, design approach, and reasoning for the design of the LFCM are described; a canister-handling turntable for positioning canisters underneath the RLFCM discharge port; a gamma source positioning and detection system for monitoring the glass fill level of the product canisters; and a primary off-gas treatment system for removing the majority of the radionuclide contamination from the RLFCM off gas. 8 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Advanced signal processing method for ground penetrating radar feature detection and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Venkatachalam, Anbu Selvam; Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on new signal processing algorithms customized for an air coupled Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system targeting highway pavements and bridge deck inspections. The GPR hardware consists of a high-voltage pulse generator, a high speed 8 GSps real time data acquisition unit, and a customized field-programmable gate array (FPGA) control element. In comparison to most existing GPR system with low survey speeds, this system can survey at normal highway speed (60 mph) with a high horizontal resolution of up to 10 scans per centimeter. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of subsurface media, the GPR signal processing is important but challenging. In this GPR system, an adaptive GPR signal processing algorithm using Curvelet Transform, 2D high pass filtering and exponential scaling is proposed to alleviate noise and clutter while the subsurface features are preserved and enhanced. First, Curvelet Transform is used to remove the environmental and systematic noises while maintain the range resolution of the B-Scan image. Then, mathematical models for cylinder-shaped object and clutter are built. A two-dimension (2D) filter based on these models removes clutter and enhances the hyperbola feature in a B-Scan image. Finally, an exponential scaling method is applied to compensate the signal attenuation in subsurface materials and to improve the desired signal feature. For performance test and validation, rebar detection experiments and subsurface feature inspection in laboratory and field configurations are performed.

  19. Advanced simulation technology for etching process design for CMOS device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    Plasma etching is a critical process for the realization of high performance in the next generation of CMOS devices. To predict and control fluctuations in the etching properties accurately during mass production, it is essential that etching process simulation technology considers fluctuations in the plasma chamber wall conditions, the effects of by-products on the critical dimensions, the Si recess dependence on the wafer open area ratio and local pattern structure, and the time-dependent plasma-induced damage distribution associated with the three-dimensional feature scale profile at the 100 nm level. This consideration can overcome the issues with conventional simulations performed under the assumed ideal conditions, which are not accurate enough for practical process design. In this article, these advanced process simulation technologies are reviewed, and, from the results of suitable process simulations, a new etching system that automatically controls the etching properties is proposed to enable stable CMOS device fabrication with high yields.

  20. Design, Development, And Testing of Umbilical System Mechanisms for the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, Alan C.; Melton, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is an un-piloted, vertical take-off, horizontal landing spacecraft. The purpose of the X-33 program is to demonstrate technologies that will dramatically lower the cost of access to space. The rocket-powered X-33 will reach an altitude of up to 100 km and speeds between Mach 13 and 15. Fifteen flight tests are planned, beginning in 2000. Some of the key technologies demonstrated will be the linear aerospike engine, improved thermal protection systems, composite fuel tanks and reduced operational timelines. The X-33 vehicle umbilical connections provide monitoring, power, cooling, purge, and fueling capability during horizontal processing and vertical launch operations. Two "rise-off" umbilicals for the X-33 have been developed, tested, and installed. The X-33 umbilical systems mechanisms incorporate several unique design features to simplify horizontal operations and provide reliable disconnect during launch.

  1. Small-break loss-of-coolant accidents in the updated PIUS 600 advanced reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.; Harmony, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    The PIUS advanced reactor is a 640-MWe pressurized water reactor developed by Asea Brown Boveri (ABB). A unique feature of the PIUS concept is the absence of mechanical control and shutdown rods. Reactivity is normally controlled by coolant boron concentration and the temperature of the moderator coolant. ABB submitted the PIUS design to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for preapplication review, and Los Alamos supported the NRC`s review effort. Baseline analyses of small-break initiators at two locations were performed with the system neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis code TRAC-PF1/MOD2. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to explore the robustness of the PIUS concept to severe off-normal conditions having a very low probability of occurrence.

  2. Design, Development,and Testing of Umbillical System Mechanisms for the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, Alan C.; Melton, Gregory S.

    1999-01-01

    The X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is an un-piloted, vertical take-off, horizontal landing spacecraft. The purpose of the X-33 program is to demonstrate technologies that will dramatically lower the cost of access to space. The rocket-powered X-33 will reach an altitude of up to 100 km and speeds between Mach 13 and 15. Fifteen flight tests are planned, beginning in 2000. Some of the key technologies demonstrated will be the linear aerospike engine, improved thermal protection systems, composite fuel tanks and reduced operational timelines. The X-33 vehicle umbilical connections provide monitoring, power, cooling, purge, and fueling capability during horizontal processing and vertical launch operations. Two "rise-ofF' umbilicals for the X-33 have been developed, tested, and installed. The X-33 umbilical systems mechanisms incorporate several unique design features to simplify horizontal operations and provide reliable disconnect during launch.

  3. Through the Past Decade: How Advanced Energy Design Guides have influenced the Design Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Athalye, Rahul A.

    2015-07-31

    Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) were originally developed intended to provide a simple approach to building professionals seeking energy efficient building designs better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Since its first book was released in 2004, the AEDG series provided inspiration for the design industry and were seen by designers as a starting point for buildings that wished to go beyond minimum codes and standards. In addition, U.S. Department of Energy’s successful Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program leveraged many of the recommendations from the AEDGs to achieve 50% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 for prototypical designs of large commercial entities in the retail, banking and lodging sectors. Low-energy technologies and strategies developed during the CBP process have been applied by commercial partners throughout their national portfolio of buildings. Later, the AEDGs served as the perfect platform for both Standard 90.1 and ASHRAE’s high performance buildings standard, Standard 189.1. What was high performance a few years ago, however, has become minimum code today. Indeed, most of the prescriptive envelope component requirements in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 are values recommended in the 50% AEDGs several years ago. Similarly, AEDG strategies and recommendations have penetrated the lighting and HVAC sections of both Standard 189.1 and Standard 90.1. Finally, as we look to the future of codes and standards, the AEDGs are serving as a blueprint for how minimum code requirements could be expressed. By customizing codes to specific building types, design strategies tailored for individual buildings could be prescribed as minimum code, just like in the AEDGs. This paper describes the impact that AEDGs have had over the last decade on the design industry and how they continue to influence the future of codes and Standards. From design professionals to code officials, everyone in the building industry has been affected by the AEDGs.

  4. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  5. The U5.0 undulator design for the advanced light source at LBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.; Savoy, R.

    1990-05-01

    The U5.0 undulator, currently under design, is the first in a series of insertion devices planned for the Advanced Light Source at LBL. U5.0 parameters include a 5-cm period and a 5-m length with an 0.837-T maximum field at a 14-mm gap. A hybrid configuration utilizing NdFeB permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur poles is used for the magnetic structure. Construction is modular with many pole assemblies attached to a pole mount, which in turn is fastened onto one of the backing beams. Vertical field integral correction at the ends is accomplished with permanent magnet rotators. The support structure features a four-post configuration, a rigid base with three kinematic floor supports, and two rigid 5-m long backing beams that fit within the 2.4-m-high accelerator enclosure. The drive system is computer-controlled using a stepper motor and shaft encoder coupled to a roller-screw/nut and chain drive train. Vacuum chamber design is a rigid configuration with a 10 mm vertical by 218 mm horizontal aperture of 5.5 m length. Chamber fabrication features a two-piece welded chamber of 5083 H321 aluminum. Pumping is with ion and titanium sublimation pumps.

  6. The U5. 0 undulator design for the advanced light source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.; Savoy, R.

    1989-08-01

    The U5.0 undulator, currently under design, is the first in a series of insertion devices planned for the Advanced Light Source at LBL. U5.0 parameters include a 5 cm period, 5 m length with a 0.837 T maximum field at a 14 mm gap. A hybrid configuration utilizing Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material and Vanadium Permendur poles is used for the magnetic structure. Construction is modular with many pole assemblies attached to a pole mount, which in turn is fastened onto one of the backing beams. Vertical field integral correction at the ends is with permanent magnet rotators. The supports structure features a 4-post configuration, a rigid base with 3 kinematic floor supports and 2 rigid 5 m long backing beams that fit within the 2.4 m high accelerator enclosure. The drive system is computer controlled utilizing a stepper motor and shaft encode coupled to a roller-screw/nut and chain drive train. Vacuum chamber design is a rigid configuration with a 10 mm vertical by 218 mm horizontal aperture of 5.5 m length. Chamber fabrication features a two-piece welded chamber of 5083 H321 aluminum. Pumping is with ion and titanium sublimation pumps. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Mutagenicity of smoke condensates from Canadian cigarettes with different design features.

    PubMed

    Mladjenovic, Nemanja; Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Soo, Evelyn C

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge regarding the impact of different cigarette designs on the toxicological properties of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This study used the Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay to examine the mutagenic activity of mainstream CSCs from 11 commercial Canadian cigarette brands with different design features or tobacco blend. The brands were selected to include design features that are common for cigarettes sold in the Canadian market, as well as cigarettes with alternate filters (charcoal or MicroBlue™), the super slim design, and cigarettes containing mixed blends of different tobacco types. CSCs were obtained using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) smoking regimes, and mutagenic activity was assessed using Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5185. Comparisons of the commercial brands to the Kentucky 3R4F, the Canadian Monitor 8 reference and a Canadian best seller revealed no significant reduction in CSC mutagenicity for cigarettes with alternate filters. However, the super slim design did afford some reduction in mutagenic potency. Nevertheless, since the study did not attempt to evaluate the impact of the cigarette designs on human health at the individual or population level, the super slim cigarettes cannot be considered 'reduced-harm' cigarettes. PMID:24321849

  8. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays. PMID:26218496

  9. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  10. Advanced data management design for autonomous telerobotic systems in space using spaceborne symbolic processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Andre

    1987-01-01

    The use of computers in autonomous telerobots is reaching the point where advanced distributed processing concepts and techniques are needed to support the functioning of Space Station era telerobotic systems. Three major issues that have impact on the design of data management functions in a telerobot are covered. It also presents a design concept that incorporates an intelligent systems manager (ISM) running on a spaceborne symbolic processor (SSP), to address these issues. The first issue is the support of a system-wide control architecture or control philosophy. Salient features of two candidates are presented that impose constraints on data management design. The second issue is the role of data management in terms of system integration. This referes to providing shared or coordinated data processing and storage resources to a variety of telerobotic components such as vision, mechanical sensing, real-time coordinated multiple limb and end effector control, and planning and reasoning. The third issue is hardware that supports symbolic processing in conjunction with standard data I/O and numeric processing. A SSP that currently is seen to be technologically feasible and is being developed is described and used as a baseline in the design concept.

  11. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris advanced design project in support of solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett; Chinnock, Paul; Kutz, Bjoern

    1992-01-01

    This paper is regarding a project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a NASA/Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines has allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

  12. NREL Advanced Research Turbine (ART) Aerodynamic Design of ART-2B Rotor Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.A.

    2000-09-05

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) installed two Advanced Research Turbines (ART) at the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, to use as full-scale test beds for ongoing research efforts, including three-dimensional blade aerodynamics and the effects of various control methods on turbine loads and performance. The Westinghouse WWG-0600 was selected as a baseline configuration for the ART turbines. The first turbine, ART-1, is currently operational and has been used to collect a baseline set of performance and loads data. A second turbine, ART-2A, incorporates several major modifications and may be upgraded further to a configuration designated aRT-2B. Possible features of the ART-2B turbine include a multi-degree of freedom hum and newly designed rotor blades. Global energy concepts, L.L.C. provided engineering support to NREL in designing the components for the ART-2B turbine. This document provides a summary of work performed by GEC on the aerodynamic design of ART-2B rotor blades.

  13. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, February 1995--April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Research continued on the design of advanced turbine systems. This report describes the design and test of critical components such as blades, materials, cooling, combustion, and optical diagnostics probes.

  14. Innovative wet FGD design features at Kentucky Utilities` Ghent Generating Station, Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, M.A.; Mitchell, D.

    1995-06-01

    To meet Phase I requirements of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments, Kentucky Utilities (KU) elected to retrofit a wet limestone, forced oxidized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on their Ghent Generating Station, Unit 1 (500 MW). This FGD system has been designed with several innovative features to enhance SO{sub 2} removal and reduce overall project cost. Organic acids have been incorporated to increase SO{sub 2} removal from 90% to 95%. Also, this Phase I project is designed to accommodate a second FGD to be built at the same site. This will allow both units to share common spare equipment, including a common spare absorber. A wet gypsum stack-out pond is being used in lieu of dewatering equipment. This paper discusses these innovative features from both a performance and an economic standpoint.

  15. Design of the advanced commode-shower chair for spinal cord-injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Malassigné, P; Nelson, A L; Cors, M W; Amerson, T L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this development project was to design a new commode-shower chair that can be safely used by individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and their caregivers. The need for this new design was consumer-driven. Patients and caregivers identified the following fatal flaws in the commode-shower chairs used in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) centers: 1) risk for patient falls during transfers, propelling, and while leaning over for showering; 2) risk for pressure ulcers due to inadequate padding and seat positioning for lengthy bowel care regimes; 3) inadequate caregiver access to the perianal area of the patient to perform bowel care procedures; and, 4) wheel-related inability to properly position the chair directly over the toilet. The new, self-propelled chair addresses each of these concerns. Lockable, swing-away, pivoting armrests and improved, lever-activated brakes were designed to facilitate safe transfers. An innovative foot-lift was invented to facilitate washing of feet. Larger handrims were designed to aid in propulsion in wet environments. To prevent pressure ulcers, a chair frame and padding combination was designed to facilitate a seating position that optimally distributes body weight to prevent the development of pressure ulcers in the sacral and ischial areas. To address the common risk of heel ulcers, footrests, featuring edgeless, rounded heel cups, were designed. A new tubular chair frame, a new seat and smaller wheels were designed to enhance caregiver access and ensure proper chair positioning over the toilet. Following its successful clinical evaluation at the Milwaukee and Tampa VA Medical SCI Centers, the Advanced commode-shower chair is being patented by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VA has partnered with Everest & Jennings, to make this chair available commercially. PMID:10917269

  16. The effects of sign design features on bicycle pictorial symbols for bicycling facility signs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyunghui; Rogoff, Aaron; Smith-Jackson, Tonya

    2013-11-01

    The inanimate bicycle symbol has long been used to indicate the animate activity of bicycling facility signs. In contrast, either the inanimate bicycle symbol or the animate bicycle symbol has been used interchangeably for the standard pavement symbols in bike lanes. This has led to confusion among pedestrians and cyclists alike. The purpose of this study was to examine two different designs (inanimate symbol vs. animate symbol) involved in the evaluation of perceived preference and glance legibility, and investigate sign design features on bicycle pictorial symbols. Thirty-five participants compared current bicycle signs (inanimate symbols) to alternative designs (animate symbols) in a controlled laboratory setting. The results indicated that the alternative designs (animate symbols) showed better performance in both preference and glance legibility tests. Conceptual compatibility, familiarity, and perceptual affordances were found to be important factors as well. PMID:23623234

  17. Designing and Testing Contols to Mitigate Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.; Stol, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads of wind turbines. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we show the design and simulation testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control design methods.

  18. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  19. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  20. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, design, construction and testing requirements are defined for developing an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is composed of the advanced cab and visual system and the rotorcraft system motion generator, and is part of an existing simulation facility. User's applications for the simulator include rotorcraft design development, product improvement, threat assessment, and accident investigation.

  1. Structural and piping issues in the design certification of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Terao, D.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design certification of structures and piping for evolutionary and passive advanced light water reactors. Advanced reactor designs are based on a set of assumed site-related parameters that are selected to envelop a majority of potential nuclear power plant sites. Multiple time histories are used as the seismic design basis in order to cover the majority of potential sites in the US. Additionally, design are established to ensure that surface motions at a particular site will not exceed the enveloped standard design surface motions. State-of-the-art soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses have been performed for the advanced reactors, which include structure-to-structure interaction for all seismic Category 1 structures. Advanced technology has been utilized to exclude the dynamic effects of pipe rupture from structural design by demonstrating that the probability of pipe rupture is extremely low. For piping design, the advanced reactor vendors have developed design acceptance criteria (DAC) which provides the piping design analysis methods, design procedures, and acceptance criteria. In SECY-93-087 the NRC staff recommended that the Commission approve the approach to eliminate the OBE from the design of structures and piping in advanced reactors and provided guidance which identifies the necessary changes to existing seismic design criteria. The supplemental criteria address fatigue, seismic anchor motion, and piping stress limits when the OBE is eliminated.

  2. Prognosis and Clinicopathologic Features of Patients With Advanced Stage Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) Mutant and IDH Wild-Type Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Lipika; Govindan, Aparna; Sheth, Rahul A.; Nardi, Valentina; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Faris, Jason E.; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Ryan, David P.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Allen, Jill N.; Murphy, Janet E.; Saha, Supriya K.; Hong, Theodore S.; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Chong, Dawn Q.; Deshpande, Vikram; Borger, Darrell R.; Iafrate, A. John; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Zheng, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic impact of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), and limited data exist in patients with advanced-stage disease. Similarly, the clinical phenotype of patients with advanced IDH mutant (IDHm) ICC has not been characterized. In this study, we report the correlation of IDH mutation status with prognosis and clinicopathologic features in patients with advanced ICC. Methods. Patients with histologically confirmed advanced ICC who underwent tumor mutational profiling as a routine part of their care between 2009 and 2014 were evaluated. Clinical and pathological data were collected by retrospective chart review for patients with IDHm versus IDH wild-type (IDHwt) ICC. Pretreatment tumor volume was calculated on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Of the 104 patients with ICC who were evaluated, 30 (28.8%) had an IDH mutation (25.0% IDH1, 3.8% IDH2). The median overall survival did not differ significantly between IDHm and IDHwt patients (15.0 vs. 20.1 months, respectively; p = .17). The pretreatment serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level in IDHm and IDHwt patients was 34.5 and 118.0 U/mL, respectively (p = .04). Age at diagnosis, sex, histologic grade, and pattern of metastasis did not differ significantly by IDH mutation status. Conclusion. The IDH mutation was not associated with prognosis in patients with advanced ICC. The clinical phenotypes of advanced IDHm and IDHwt ICC were similar, but patients with IDHm ICC had a lower median serum CA19-9 level at presentation. Implications for Practice: Previous studies assessing the prognostic impact of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) mainly focused on patients with early-stage disease who have undergone resection. These studies offer conflicting results. The target population for clinical trials of IDH inhibitors is patients with

  3. Magnetic Feature Tracking in the SDO Era: Past Sacrifices, Recent Advances, and Future Possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Van Kooten, S.

    2014-12-01

    When implementing computer vision codes, a common reaction to the high angular resolution and the high cadence of SDO's image products has been to reduce the resolution and cadence of the data so that it "looks like" SOHO data. This can be partially justified on physical grounds: if the phenomenon that a computer vision code is trying to detect was characterized in low-resolution, low cadence data, then the higher quality data may not be needed. But sacrificing at least two, and sometimes all four main advantages of SDO's imaging data (the other two being a higher duty cycle and additional data products) threatens to also discard the perhaps more subtle discoveries waiting to be made: a classic baby-with-the-bath-water situation. In this presentation, we discuss some of the sacrifices made in implementing SWAMIS-EF, an automatic emerging magnetic flux region detection code for SDO/HMI, and how those sacrifices simultaneously simplified and complicated development of the code. SWAMIS-EF is a feature-finding code, and we will describe some situations and analyses in which a feature-finding code excels, and some in which a different type of algorithm may produce more favorable results. In particular, because the solar magnetic field is irreducibly complex at the currently observed spatial scales, searching for phenomena such as flux emergence using even semi-strict physical criteria often leads to large numbers of false or missed detections. This undesirable behavior can be mitigated by relaxing the imposed physical criteria, but here too there are tradeoffs: decreased numbers of missed detections may increase the number of false detections if the selection criteria are not both sensitive and specific to the searched-for phenomenon. Finally, we describe some recent steps we have taken to overcome these obstacles, by fully embracing the high resolution, high cadence SDO data, optimizing and partially parallelizing our existing code as a first step to allow fast

  4. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  5. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  6. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  7. Green Infrastructure Design Based on Spatial Conservation Prioritization and Modeling of Biodiversity Features and Ecosystem Services.

    PubMed

    Snäll, Tord; Lehtomäki, Joona; Arponen, Anni; Elith, Jane; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-02-01

    There is high-level political support for the use of green infrastructure (GI) across Europe, to maintain viable populations and to provide ecosystem services (ES). Even though GI is inherently a spatial concept, the modern tools for spatial planning have not been recognized, such as in the recent European Environment Agency (EEA) report. We outline a toolbox of methods useful for GI design that explicitly accounts for biodiversity and ES. Data on species occurrence, habitats, and environmental variables are increasingly available via open-access internet platforms. Such data can be synthesized by statistical species distribution modeling, producing maps of biodiversity features. These, together with maps of ES, can form the basis for GI design. We argue that spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) methods are effective tools for GI design, as the overall SCP goal is cost-effective allocation of conservation efforts. Corridors are currently promoted by the EEA as the means for implementing GI design, but they typically target the needs of only a subset of the regional species pool. SCP methods would help to ensure that GI provides a balanced solution for the requirements of many biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitat types) and ES simultaneously in a cost-effective manner. Such tools are necessary to make GI into an operational concept for combating biodiversity loss and promoting ES. PMID:26395184

  8. Green Infrastructure Design Based on Spatial Conservation Prioritization and Modeling of Biodiversity Features and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snäll, Tord; Lehtomäki, Joona; Arponen, Anni; Elith, Jane; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-02-01

    There is high-level political support for the use of green infrastructure (GI) across Europe, to maintain viable populations and to provide ecosystem services (ES). Even though GI is inherently a spatial concept, the modern tools for spatial planning have not been recognized, such as in the recent European Environment Agency (EEA) report. We outline a toolbox of methods useful for GI design that explicitly accounts for biodiversity and ES. Data on species occurrence, habitats, and environmental variables are increasingly available via open-access internet platforms. Such data can be synthesized by statistical species distribution modeling, producing maps of biodiversity features. These, together with maps of ES, can form the basis for GI design. We argue that spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) methods are effective tools for GI design, as the overall SCP goal is cost-effective allocation of conservation efforts. Corridors are currently promoted by the EEA as the means for implementing GI design, but they typically target the needs of only a subset of the regional species pool. SCP methods would help to ensure that GI provides a balanced solution for the requirements of many biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitat types) and ES simultaneously in a cost-effective manner. Such tools are necessary to make GI into an operational concept for combating biodiversity loss and promoting ES.

  9. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1995-04-01

    Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in providing enhanced understanding of conventional and advanced materials processing operations. Development and application of mathematical models and computer simulation techniques can provide a quantitative understanding of materials processes and will minimize the need for expensive and time consuming trial- and error-based product development. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, high performance computing and simulation are expected to play a key role in supporting the improvements required in advanced material syntheses and processing by lessening the dependence on expensive prototyping and re-tooling. Many of these numerical models are highly compute-intensive. It is not unusual for an analysis to require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. For example, to accurately simulate the heat transfer in a 1-m{sup 3} block using a simple computational method requires 10`2 arithmetic operations per second of simulated time. For a computer to do the simulation in real time would require a sustained computation rate 1000 times faster than that achievable by current supercomputers. Massively parallel computer systems, which combine several thousand processors able to operate concurrently on a problem are expected to provide orders of magnitude increase in performance. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in materials processing at ORNL. Continued development of computational techniques and algorithms utilizing the massively parallel computers will allow the simulation of conventional and advanced materials processes in sufficient generality.

  10. Design of an oxygen turbopump for use in an Advanced Expander Test Bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattison, William W.; Cooley, Christine B.; Carek, Jerry

    1993-01-01

    A liquid oxygen (LOX) turbopump with a gaseous hydrogen turbine drive was designed for the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB), which is a technology test bed to develop future space engines. This turbopump features a single stage, full admission, high reaction turbine: a three-bladed axial flow inducer, a high efficiency single stage centrifugal pump with an integrally shrouded impeller; an interpropellant seal package with an oxygen vaporizer; and a subcritical rotor with two ball bearings for axial loads and one roller bearing for turbine radial loads. Material selections were based on compatibility with operating fluids and temperatures. The pump was designed to operate over a 20:1 power range with a maximum performance point of 283.0 GPM of liquid oxygen at a pump discharge pressure of 2198 psia, and a shaft speed of 47,914 rpm. The split expander cycle engine and the performance it requires of the LOX turbopump is discussed as well as the design of the turbopump components.

  11. Design considerations of advanced supercritical low drag suction airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, W.; Reed, H. L.; Dagenhart, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Supercritical low drag suction laminar flow airfoils were laid out for shock-free flow at design freestream Mach = 0.76, design lift coefficient = 0.58, and t/c = 0.13. The design goals were the minimization of suction laminarization problems and the assurance of shock-free flow at freestream Mach not greater than design freestream Mach (for design lift coefficient) as well as at lift coefficient not greater than design lift coefficient (for design freestream Mach); this involved limiting the height-to-length ratio of the supersonic zone at design to 0.35. High design freestream Mach numbers result with extensive supersonic flow (over 80% of the chord) on the upper surface, with a steep Stratford-type rear pressure rise with suction, as well as by carrying lift essentially in front- and rear-loaded regions of the airfoil with high static pressures on the carved out front and rear lower surface.

  12. Design Features and Commissioning of the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J. Chung, K.; H. An, Y.; K. Jung, B.; Y. Lee, H.; C., Sung; S. Na, Y.; S. Hahm, T.; S. Hwang, Y.

    2013-03-01

    A new spherical torus called VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) is designed, constructed and successfully commissioned at Seoul National University. A unique design feature of the VEST is two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which can provide sufficient magnetic fluxes to initiate tokamak plasmas while keeping a low aspect ratio configuration in the central region. According to initial double null merging start-up scenario using the partial solenoid coils, appropriate power supplies for driving a toroidal field coil, outer poloidal field coils, and the partial solenoid coils are fabricated and successfully commissioned. For reliable start-up, a pre-ionization system with two cost-effective homemade magnetron power supplies is also prepared. In addition, magnetic and spectroscopic diagnostics with appropriate data acquisition and control systems are well prepared for initial operation of the device. The VEST is ready for tokamak plasma operation by completing and commissioning most of the designed components.

  13. Some novel design features of the LBL metal vapor vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The family of MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) high current metal ion sources developed at LBL over the past several years has grown to include a number of different source versions with a wide range of some of the design and operational parameters. The MicroMEVVA source is a particularly compact version, about 2 cm diameter and 10 cm long, while the MEVVA IV weighs some 30 kG. MEVVAs IV and V incorporate multiple cathode assemblies (16 and 18 separate cathodes, respectively), and the operating cathode can be switched rapidly and without down-time. The new MEVVA V embodiment is quite compact considering its broad beam (10 cm), high voltage (100 kV) and multiple cathode features. The large-area extractor grids used in the MEVVA V were fabricated using a particularly simple technique, and they are clamped into position and so can be changed simply and quickly. The electrical system used to drive the arc is particularly simple and incorporates several attractive features. In this paper we review and describe a number of the mechanical and electrical design features that have been developed for these sources. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Housing Stakeholder Preferences for the "Soft" Features of Sustainable and Healthy Housing Design in the UK.

    PubMed

    Prochorskaite, Agne; Couch, Chris; Malys, Naglis; Maliene, Vida

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognised that the quantity and sustainability of new homes in the UK need to increase. However, it is important that sustainable housing is regarded holistically, and not merely in environmental terms, and incorporates elements that enhance the quality of life, health and well-being of its users. This paper focuses on the "soft" features of sustainable housing, that is, the non-technological components of sustainable housing and neighbourhood design that can impact occupants' health and well-being. Aims of the study are to ascertain the relative level of importance that key housing stakeholders attach to these features and to investigate whether the opinions of housing users and housing providers are aligned with regards to their importance. An online survey was carried out to gauge the level of importance that the key stakeholders, such as housing users, local authorities, housing associations, and developers (n = 235), attach to these features. Results revealed that while suitable indoor space was the feature regarded as most important by all stakeholders, there were also a number of disparities in opinion between housing users and housing providers (and among the different types of providers). This implies a scope for initiatives to achieve a better alignment between housing users and providers. PMID:26751465

  15. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  16. Advanced Turbine Systems Program, Conceptual Design and Product Development. Task 6, System definition and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The strategy of the ATS program is to develop a new baseline for industrial gas turbine systems for the 21st century, meeting the buying criteria of industrial gas turbine end users, and having growth potential. These criteria guided the Solar ATS Team in selecting the system definition described in this Topical Report. The key to selecting the ATS system definition was meeting or exceeding each technical goal without negatively impacting other commercial goals. Among the most crucial goals are the buying criteria of the industrial gas turbine market. Solar started by preliminarily considering several cycles with the potential to meet ATS program goals. These candidates were initially narrowed based on a qualitative assessment of several factors such as the potential for meeting program goals and for future growth; the probability of successful demonstration within the program`s schedule and expected level of funding; and the appropriateness of the cycle in light of end users` buying criteria. A first level Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis then translated customer needs into functional requirements, and ensured favorable interaction between concept features. Based on this analysis, Solar selected a recuperated cycle as the best approach to fulfilling both D.O.E. and Solar marketing goals. This report details the design and analysis of the selected engine concept, and explains how advanced features of system components achieve program goals. Estimates of cost, performance, emissions and RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability) are also documented in this report.

  17. Design Features of Drug-Drug Interaction Trials Between Antivirals and Oral Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Ruben C; Arya, Vikram; Younis, Islam R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the major design features of drug-drug interaction trials between antiviral medications (AVs) and oral contraceptives (OCs). Information on these trials (n = 27) was collected from approved drug labels and clinical pharmacology reviews conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The primary objective of all trials was to evaluate changes in OC exposure following the coadministration of AVs. In addition, an evaluation of potential pharmacodynamic interaction was performed in 10 of these trials. Twenty-two trials were open label with a fixed-sequence design, and 5 trials used a double-blind crossover design. The trials were conducted using one, two, or three 28-day ovulatory cycles in 10, 8, and 9 trials, respectively. Only 1 trial enrolled HIV-infected women. The median number of women in a trial was 20 (range, 12 to 52). Norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol (EE) combination was the most commonly used OC (n = 16, 59%) followed by norgestimate/EE (n = 9, 33%). Labeling recommendations were based on exposure changes in 25 cases and on safety observations in the trial in 2 cases. In conclusion, a wide variety of trial designs was used, and there is no preferred design. The answer to the exposure question can be achieved using multiple designs. PMID:26384089

  18. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  19. System requirements and design features of Space Station Remote Manipulator System mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Hayes, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a long robotic arm for handling large objects/payloads on the International Space Station Freedom. The mechanical components of the SSRMS include seven joints, two latching end effectors (LEEs), and two boom assemblies. The joints and LEEs are complex aerospace mechanisms. The system requirements and design features of these mechanisms are presented. All seven joints of the SSRMS have identical functional performance. The two LEES are identical. This feature allows either end of the SSRMS to be used as tip or base. As compared to the end effector of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, the LEE has a latch and umbilical mechanism in addition to the snare and rigidize mechanisms. The latches increase the interface preload and allow large payloads (up to 116,000 Kg) to be handled. The umbilical connectors provide power, data, and video signal transfer capability to/from the SSRMS.

  20. Design of vector quantizer for image compression using self-organizing feature map and surface fitting.

    PubMed

    Laha, Arijit; Pal, Nikhil R; Chanda, Bhabatosh

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new scheme of designing a vector quantizer for image compression. First, a set of codevectors is generated using the self-organizing feature map algorithm. Then, the set of blocks associated with each code vector is modeled by a cubic surface for better perceptual fidelity of the reconstructed images. Mean-removed vectors from a set of training images is used for the construction of a generic codebook. Further, Huffman coding of the indices generated by the encoder and the difference-coded mean values of the blocks are used to achieve better compression ratio. We proposed two indices for quantitative assessment of the psychovisual quality (blocking effect) of the reconstructed image. Our experiments on several training and test images demonstrate that the proposed scheme can produce reconstructed images of good quality while achieving compression at low bit rates. Index Terms-Cubic surface fitting, generic codebook, image compression, self-organizing feature map, vector quantization. PMID:15462140

  1. An analytical study for the design of advanced rotor airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical study has been conducted to design and evaluate two airfoils for helicopter rotors. The best basic shape, designed with a transonic hodograph design method, was modified to meet subsonic criteria. One airfoil had an additional constraint for low pitching-moment at the transonic design point. Airfoil characteristics were predicted. Results of a comparative analysis of helicopter performance indicate that the new airfoils will produce reduced rotor power requirements compared to the NACA 0012. The hodograph design method, written in CDC Algol, is listed and described.

  2. Conceptual design features of the Kalimer-600 sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Dohee; Kim, Yeong-Il; Kim, Seong-O; Lee, Jae-Han; Lee, Yong-Bum; Jeong, Hae-Yong

    2007-07-01

    An advanced sodium cooled fast reactor concept, KALIMER-600, has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to satisfy the Gen-IV technology goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economics and proliferation resistance. The concept enables an efficient utilization of uranium resources and a reduction of the radioactive waste. The core design has been developed with a strong emphasis on a proliferation resistance by adopting a single enrichment fuel without blanket assemblies. In addition, a passive residual heat removal system, shortened intermediate heat-transport system piping and seismic isolation have been realized in the reactor system design as enhancements to its safety and economics. The inherent safety characteristics of the KALIMER-600 design were verified through a safety analysis of its bounding events. The results for various unprotected events imply that the KALIMER-600 design can accommodate all the analyzed ATWS events. This self-regulation capability of the power without a scram is mainly attributed to the inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms implemented in the metal fuel core design and completely passive decay heat removal system. (authors)

  3. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  4. Iodine atoms: a new molecular feature for the design of potent transthyretin fibrillogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Teresa; Nieto, Joan; Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Gales, Luis; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Barluenga, José; Pérez, Juan J; Vázquez, Jesús T; Centeno, Nuria B; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Damas, Ana M; Planas, Antoni; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and other small organic molecules to TTR binding channel results in tetramer stabilization which prevents amyloid formation in an extent which is proportional to the binding constant. Up to now, TTR aggregation inhibitors have been designed looking at various structural features of this binding channel others than its ability to host iodine atoms. In the present work, greatly improved inhibitors have been designed and tested by taking into account that thyroid hormones are unique in human biochemistry owing to the presence of multiple iodine atoms in their molecules which are probed to interact with specific halogen binding domains sitting at the TTR binding channel. The new TTR fibrillogenesis inhibitors are based on the diflunisal core structure because diflunisal is a registered salicylate drug with NSAID activity now undergoing clinical trials for TTR amyloid diseases. Biochemical and biophysical evidence confirms that iodine atoms can be an important design feature in the search for candidate drugs for TTR related amyloidosis. PMID:19125186

  5. Iodine Atoms: A New Molecular Feature for the Design of Potent Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Gales, Luis; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Barluenga, José; Pérez, Juan J.; Vázquez, Jesús T.; Centeno, Nuria B.; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Damas, Ana M.; Planas, Antoni; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and other small organic molecules to TTR binding channel results in tetramer stabilization which prevents amyloid formation in an extent which is proportional to the binding constant. Up to now, TTR aggregation inhibitors have been designed looking at various structural features of this binding channel others than its ability to host iodine atoms. In the present work, greatly improved inhibitors have been designed and tested by taking into account that thyroid hormones are unique in human biochemistry owing to the presence of multiple iodine atoms in their molecules which are probed to interact with specific halogen binding domains sitting at the TTR binding channel. The new TTR fibrillogenesis inhibitors are based on the diflunisal core structure because diflunisal is a registered salicylate drug with NSAID activity now undergoing clinical trials for TTR amyloid diseases. Biochemical and biophysical evidence confirms that iodine atoms can be an important design feature in the search for candidate drugs for TTR related amyloidosis. PMID:19125186

  6. Practical applications that require some of the more advanced features of current visual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Scott J.; Feng, Xiaofan; Speigle, Jon M.

    2002-06-01

    While the use of visual models for assessing all aspects of the imaging chain is steadily increasing, one hindrance is the complexity of these models. This has impact in two ways - not only does it take longer to run the more complex visual model, making it difficult to place into optimization loops, but it also takes longer to code, test, and calibrate the model. As a result, a number of shortcut models have been proposed and used. Some of the shortcuts involve more efficient frequency transforms, such as using a Cartesian separable wavelet, while other types of shortcuts involve omitting the steps required to simulate certain visual mechanisms, such as masking. A key example of the latter is spatial CIELAB, which only models the opponent color CSFs and does not model the spatial frequency channels. Watson's recent analysis of the Modelfest data showed that while a multi-channel model did give the best performance, versions dispensing with the complex frequency bank and just using frequency attenuation did nearly as well. Of course, the Modelfest data addressed detection of a signal on a uniform field, so no masking properties were probed. On the other end of complexity is the model by D'Zmura, which not only includes radial and orientation channels, but also the interactions between the channels in both luminance and color. This talk will dissect several types of practical distortions that require more advanced visual models. One of these will be the need for orientation channels to predict edge jaggies due to aliasing. Other visual mechanisms in search of an exigent application that we will explore include cross luminance-chrominance masking and facilitation, local contrast, and cross-channel masking.

  7. Design Impacts of Stochastically-Varying Input Parameters on Advanced Thermoelectric Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.

    2007-06-30

    Advanced, direct thermal energy conversion technologies are receiving increased research attention in order to recover waste thermal energy in advanced vehicles and industrial processes. Advanced thermoelectric (TE) systems necessarily require integrated system-level analyses to establish accurate optimum system designs. Past system-level design and analysis has relied on well-defined deterministic input parameters even though many critically important environmental and system design parameters in the above mentioned applications are often randomly variable, sometimes according to complex relationships, rather than discrete, well-known deterministic variables. This work describes new research and development creating techniques and capabilities for probabilistic design and analysis of advanced TE power generation systems to quantify the effects of randomly uncertain design inputs in determining more robust optimum TE system designs and expected outputs. Selected case studies involving stochastic TE .material properties and coupled multi-variable stochasticity in key environmental and design parameters are presented and discussed to demonstrate key impacts from considering stochastic design inputs on the TE design optimization process. Critical findings show that: 1) stochastic Gaussian input distributions may produce Gaussian or non-Gaussian outcome probability distributions for critical TE design parameters, and 2) probabilistic input considerations can create design effects that warrant significant modifications to deterministically-derived optimum TE system designs. Magnitudes and directions of these design modifications are quantified for selected TE system design analysis cases.

  8. Chemometric design to explore pharmacophore features of BACE inhibitors for controlling Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Tabassum; Mukherjee, Arup; Saha, Achintya

    2015-02-01

    The β-amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme (BACE) has been conceived to be an attractive therapeutic target to control Alzheimer's disease (AD). Validated ligand-based pharmacophore mapping was combined with 3D QSAR modeling approaches that include CoMFA, CoMSIA and HQSAR techniques to identify structural and physico-chemical requirements for a potential BACE inhibitor using a database containing 980 structurally diverse compounds, assembled from different reports. A structure-based docking technique was also used to validate the features obtained from the ligand-based models, which were further used to screen the database of compounds designed by a de novo approach. Contour maps of 3D QSAR models, CoMFA (R(2) = 0.880, se = 0.402, Q(2) = 0.596, Rpred(2) = 0.713,) and CoMSIA (R(2) = 0.903, se = 0.362, Q(2) = 0.578, Rpred(2) = 0.715), and a pharmacophore space model (R(2) = 0.833, rmsd = 1.578, Q(2) = 0.845, Rpred(2) = 0. 764) depict that the models are robust and provide an explanation of the important features such as steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, positive ionization, hydrogen bond acceptor and donor properties, which play important roles for interaction with the receptor site cavity. The HQSAR study (R(2) = 0.823, se = 0.488, Q(2) = 0.823, Rpred(2) = 0.768) and de novo design, which generate new fragments, illustrated the important molecular fingerprints for inhibition. The docking study elucidated the important interactions between the amino acid residues (Gly11, Thr72, Asp228, Gly230, Thr231, Arg235) at the catalytic site of the receptor and the ligand, indicating the structural requirements of the inhibitors. The de novo designed molecules were further screened for ADMET properties, and ligand-receptor interactions of the top hits were analysed by molecular docking to explore pharmacophore features of BACE inhibitors. PMID:25435329

  9. Design Features and Capabilities of the First Materials Science Research Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettigrew, P. J.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Cobb, S. D.; Holloway, T.; Kitchens, L.

    2003-01-01

    The First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will offer many unique capabilities and design features to facilitate a wide range of materials science investigations. The initial configuration of MSRR-1 will accommodate two independent Experiment Modules (EMS) and provide the capability for simultaneous on-orbit processing. The facility will provide the common subsystems and interfaces required for the operation of experiment hardware and accommodate telescience capabilities. MSRR1 will utilize an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with an Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for vibration isolation of the facility.

  10. DESIGN SAFETY FEATURES OF THE BNL HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    GINSBERG,T.; CICCARELLI,G.; BOCCIO,J.

    2000-06-11

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) was used to perform hydrogen deflagration and detonation experiments at temperatures to 650 K. Safety features that were designed to ensure safe and reliable operation of the experimental program are described. Deflagration and detonation experiments have been conducted using mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam. Detonation cell size measurements were made as a function of mixture composition and thermodynamic gas conditions. Deflagration-to-detonation transition experiments were also conducted. Results of the experimental program are presented, and implications with respect to hydrogen safety are discussed.

  11. Effect of design features on performance of a double-annular ram-induction combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive test program was undertaken to determine the effect of many design features such as the size and number of air scoops, and the type of diffuser airflow distribution to use to optimize performance of a double-annular ram-induction combustor of 94 cm outer diameter. Six combustor configurations were tested. It was found that a snouted double annular combustor built with 256 ram-induction air scoops with a combustor open area giving a total pressure loss of 5.0 percent at a diffuser inlet Mach number of 0.25 gave the best overall performance of the configurations tested.

  12. Design features of implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Pitkin, M.

    2013-01-01

    In direct skeletal attachment (DSA) of limb prostheses, a construct is implanted into an amputee’s residuum bone and protrudes out of the residuum’s skin. This technology represents an alternative to traditional suspension of prostheses via various socket systems, with clear indications when the sockets cannot be properly fitted. Contemporary DSA was invented in the 1990s, and several implant systems have been introduced since then. The current review is intended to compare the design features of implants for DSA whose use in humans or in animal studies has been reported in the literature. PMID:23554122

  13. NASA/USRA advanced design program activity, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrity, J. Lewis; Patel, Suneer

    1992-01-01

    The School of Textile and Fiber Engineering continued to pursue design projects with the Mechanical Engineering School giving the students an outstanding opportunity to interact with students from another discipline. Four problems were defined which had aspects which would be reasonably assigned to an interdisciplinary team. The design problems are described. The projects included lunar preform manufacturing, dust control for Enabler, an industrial sewing machine variable speed controllor, Enabler operation station, and design for producing fiberglass fabric in a lunar environment.

  14. The BWR advanced fuel design experience using Studsvik CMS

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovine, A.S.; Gibbon, S.H.; Wiksell, G.

    1996-12-31

    The current trend within the nuclear industry is to maximize generation by extending cycle lengths and taking outages as infrequently as possible. As a result, many utilities have begun to use fuel designed to meet these more demanding requirements. These fuel designs are significantly more heterogeneous in mechanical and neutronic detail than prior designs. The question arises as to how existing in-core fuel management codes, such as Studsvik CMS perform in modeling cores containing these designs. While this issue pertains to both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), this summary focuses on BWR applications.

  15. Advanced software design and standards for traffic signal control

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, D.; Hendrickson, C. )

    1992-05-01

    Improves traffic management and control systems are widely reported to be cost-effective investments. Simply retiming signals can provide significant benefits by reducing vehicle stops, travel times, and fuel consumption. The installation of advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) can provide even greater savings. However, many hardware and software obstacles have impeded the actual implementation of advanced traffic management systems. The general hardware and software limitations of current traffic signal control technology are reviewed in this paper. The impact of these deficiencies is discussed in the context of three example applications. Based on this discussion, the paper identifies several computing issues that should be addressed in order to reduce the effort involved with integrating existing traffic control devices. Adoption of standard industrial control computing platforms and development of new communication and software engineering models are recommendrecommended.

  16. Analysis and design of advanced composite bounded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in the analysis of adhesive-bonded joints are presented with particular emphasis on advanced composite structures. The joints analyzed are of double-lap, single-lap, scarf, stepped-lap and tapered-lap configurations. Tensile, compressive, and in-plane shear loads are covered. In addition to the usual geometric variables, the theory accounts for the strength increases attributable to adhesive plasticity (in terms of the elastic-plastic adhesive model) and the joint strength reductions imposed by imbalances between the adherends. The solutions are largely closed-form analytical results, employing iterative solutions on a digital computer for the more complicated joint configurations. In assessing the joint efficiency, three potential failure modes are considered. These are adherend failure outside the joint, adhesive failure in shear, and adherend interlaminar tension failure (or adhesive failure in peel). Each mode is governed by a distinct mathematical analysis and each prevails throughout different ranges of geometric sizes and proportions.

  17. Feature, design intention and constraint preservation for direct modeling of 3D freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak; Shimada, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Direct modeling has recently emerged as a suitable approach for 3D free-form shape modeling in industrial design. It has several advantages over the conventional, parametric modeling techniques, including natural user interactions, as well as the underlying, automatic feature-preserving shape deformation algorithms. However, current direct modeling packages still lack several capabilities critical for product design, such as managing aesthetic design intentions, and enforcing dimensional, geometric constraints. In this paper, we describe a novel 3D surface editing system capable of jointly accommodating aesthetic design intentions expressed in the form of surface painting and color-coded annotations, as well as engineering constraints expressed as dimensions. The proposed system is built upon differential coordinates and constrained least squares, and is intended for conceptual design that involves frequent shape tuning and explorations. We also provide an extensive review of the state-of-the-art direct modeling approaches for 3D mesh-based, freeform surfaces, with an emphasis on the two broad categories of shape deformation algorithms developed in the relevant field of geometric modeling. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Advances in pulsed-power-driven radiography system design.

    SciTech Connect

    Portillo, Salvador; Hinshelwood, David D.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Cordova, Steve Ray; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Weber, Bruce V.; Welch, Dale Robert; Shelton, Bradley Allen; Sceiford, Matthew E.; Cooperstein, Gerald; Gignac, Raymond Edward; Puetz, Elizabeth A.; Rose, David Vincent; Barker, Dennis L.; Van De Valde, David M.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Wilkins, Frank Lee; Molina, Isidro; Jaramillo, Deanna M.; Swanekamp, Stephen Brian; Commisso, Robert J.; Bailey, Vernon Leslie; Maenchen, John Eric; Johnson, David Lee; Griffin, Fawn A.; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Smith, Ian

    2004-07-01

    Flash x-ray radiography has undergone a transformation in recent years with the resurgence of interest in compact, high intensity pulsed-power-driven electron beam sources. The radiographic requirements and the choice of a consistent x-ray source determine the accelerator parameters, which can be met by demonstrated Induction Voltage Adder technologies. This paper reviews the state of the art and the recent advances which have improved performance by over an order of magnitude in beam brightness and radiographic utility.

  19. Design and fabrication of advanced EUV diffractive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2003-11-16

    As extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography approaches commercial reality, the development of EUV-compatible diffractive structures becomes increasingly important. Such devices are relevant to many aspects of EUV technology including interferometry, illumination, and spectral filtering. Moreover, the current scarcity of high power EUV sources makes the optical efficiency of these diffractive structures a paramount concern. This fact has led to a strong interest in phase-enhanced diffractive structures. Here we describe recent advancements made in the fabrication of such devices.

  20. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  1. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  2. Advanced design for lightweight structures: Review and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Daniel F. O.; Tavares, S. M. O.; da Silva, Lucas F. M.; Moreira, P. M. G. P.; de Castro, Paulo M. S. T.

    2014-08-01

    Current demand for fuel efficient aircraft has been pushing the aeronautical sector to develop ever more lightweight designs while keeping safe operation and required structural strength. Along with light-weighting, new structural design concepts have also been established in order to maintain the aircraft in service for longer periods of time, with high reliability levels. All these innovations and requirements have led to deeply optimized aeronautical structures contributing to more sustainable air transport. This article reviews the major design philosophies which have been employed in aircraft structures, including safe-life, fail-safe and damage tolerance taking into account their impact on the structural design. A brief historical review is performed in order to analyse what led to the development of each philosophy. Material properties are related to each of the design philosophies. Damage tolerant design has emerged as the main structural design philosophy in aeronautics, requiring deep knowledge on materials fatigue and corrosion strength, as well as potential failure modes and non-destructive inspection techniques, particularly minimum detectable defect and scan times. A discussion on the implementation of structural health monitoring and self-healing structures within the current panorama of structures designed according to the damage tolerant philosophy is presented. This discussion is aided by a review of research on these two subjects. These two concepts show potential for further improving safety and durability of aircraft structures.

  3. Advanced Simulation and Computing Co-Design Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, James A.; Hoang, Thuc T.; Kelly, Suzanne M.; McPherson, Allen; Neely, Rob

    2015-11-01

    This ASC Co-design Strategy lays out the full continuum and components of the co-design process, based on what we have experienced thus far and what we wish to do more in the future to meet the program’s mission of providing high performance computing (HPC) and simulation capabilities for NNSA to carry out its stockpile stewardship responsibility.

  4. Advanced Compressor Designs for High Energy Petawatt Pulse Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D N; Wattellier, B; Barty, C P J

    2003-09-09

    We discuss compressor designs for a proposed multikilojoule, sub-picosecond beamline at the National Ignition Facility. A novel grating configuration reduces the size of the compressor chamber. Optimization of the design leads to a 4.7 x 1.4 x 0.4 m{sup 3} minimum compressor volume.

  5. Design of Unstructured Adaptive (UA) NAS Parallel Benchmark Featuring Irregular, Dynamic Memory Accesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Hui-Yu; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe the design of a new method for the measurement of the performance of modern computer systems when solving scientific problems featuring irregular, dynamic memory accesses. The method involves the solution of a stylized heat transfer problem on an unstructured, adaptive grid. A Spectral Element Method (SEM) with an adaptive, nonconforming mesh is selected to discretize the transport equation. The relatively high order of the SEM lowers the fraction of wall clock time spent on inter-processor communication, which eases the load balancing task and allows us to concentrate on the memory accesses. The benchmark is designed to be three-dimensional. Parallelization and load balance issues of a reference implementation will be described in detail in future reports.

  6. Design of free patterns of nanocrystals with ad hoc features via templated dewetting

    SciTech Connect

    Aouassa, M.; Berbezier, I.; Favre, L.; Ronda, A.; Bollani, M.; Sordan, R.; Delobbe, A.; Sudraud, P.

    2012-07-02

    Design of monodisperse ultra-small nanocrystals (NCs) into large scale patterns with ad hoc features is demonstrated. The process makes use of solid state dewetting of a thin film templated through alloy liquid metal ion source focused ion beam (LMIS-FIB) nanopatterning. The solid state dewetting initiated at the edges of the patterns controllably creates the ordering of NCs with ad hoc placement and periodicity. The NC size is tuned by varying the nominal thickness of the film while their position results from the association of film retraction from the edges of the lay out and Rayleigh-like instability. The use of ultra-high resolution LMIS-FIB enables to produce monocrystalline NCs with size, periodicity, and placement tunable as well. It provides routes for the free design of nanostructures for generic applications in nanoelectronics.

  7. Advances in the molecular design of potential anticancer agents via targeting of human telomeric DNA.

    PubMed

    Maji, Basudeb; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-06-21

    Telomerases are an attractive drug target to develop new generation drugs against cancer. A telomere appears from the chromosomal termini and protects it from double-stranded DNA degradation. A short telomere promotes genomic instability, like end-to-end fusion and regulates the over-expression of the telomere repairing enzyme, telomerase. The telomerase maintains the telomere length, which may lead to genetically abnormal situations, leading to cancer. Thus, the design and synthesis of an efficient telomerase inhibitor is a viable strategy toward anticancer drugs development. Accordingly, small molecule induced stabilization of the G-quadruplex structure, formed by the human telomeric DNA, is an area of contemporary scientific art. Several such compounds efficiently stabilize the G-quadruplex forms of nucleic acids, which often leads to telomerase inhibition. This Feature article presents the discovery and development of the telomere structure, function and evolution in telomere targeted anticancer drug design and incorporates the recent advances in this area, in addition to discussing the advantages and disadvantages in the methods, and prospects for the future. PMID:24695755

  8. AEOSS design guide for system analysis on Advanced Earth-Orbital Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hwa-Ping

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Earth Orbital Spacecraft System (AEOSS) enables users to project the requried power, weight, and cost for a generic earth-orbital spacecraft system. These variables are calculated on the component and subsystem levels, and then the system level. The included six subsystems are electric power, thermal control, structure, auxillary propulsion, attitude control, and communication, command, and data handling. The costs are computed using statistically determined models that were derived from the flown spacecraft in the past and were categorized into classes according to their functions and structural complexity. Selected design and performance analyses for essential components and subsystems are also provided. AEOSS has the feature permitting a user to enter known values of these parameters, totally and partially, at all levels. All information is of vital importance to project managers of subsystems or a spacecraft system. AEOSS is a specially tailored software coded from the relational database program of the Acius; 4th Dimension with a Macintosh version. Because of the licensing agreement, two versions of the AEOSS documents were prepared. This version AEOSS Design Guide, is for users to exploit the full capacity of the 4th Dimension. It is for a user who wants to alter or expand the program structures, the program statements, and the program procedures. The user has to possess a 4th Dimension first.

  9. Experimental designs and their recent advances in set-up, data interpretation, and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Dejaegher, Bieke; Heyden, Yvan Vander

    2011-09-10

    In this review, the set-up and data interpretation of experimental designs (screening, response surface, and mixture designs) are discussed. Advanced set-ups considered are the application of D-optimal and supersaturated designs as screening designs. Advanced data interpretation approaches discussed are an adaptation of the algorithm of Dong and the estimation of factor effects from supersaturated design results. Finally, some analytical applications in separation science, on the one hand, and formulation-, product-, or process optimization, on the other, are discussed. PMID:21632194

  10. Specification, Design, and Analysis of Advanced HUMS Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of domain-specific architectures for HUMS. In particular, we looked at using scenario-based approach for the design and designed a language for describing such architectures. The language is now being used in all aspects of our HUMS design. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1) We have employed scenarios in the development of HUMS in three main areas. They are: (a) To improve reusability by using scenarios as a library indexing tool and as a domain analysis tool; (b) To improve maintainability by recording design rationales from two perspectives - problem domain and solution domain; (c) To evaluate the software architecture. 2) We have defined a new architectural language called HADL or HUMS Architectural Definition Language. It is a customized version of xArch/xADL. It is based on XML and, hence, is easily portable from domain to domain, application to application, and machine to machine. Specifications written in HADL can be easily read and parsed using the currently available XML parsers. Thus, there is no need to develop a plethora of software to support HADL. 3) We have developed an automated design process that involves two main techniques: (a) Selection of solutions from a large space of designs; (b) Synthesis of designs. However, the automation process is not an absolute Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach though it uses a knowledge-based system that epitomizes a specific HUMS domain. The process uses a database of solutions as an aid to solve the problems rather than creating a new design in the literal sense. Since searching is adopted as the main technique, the challenges involved are: (a) To minimize the effort in searching the database where a very large number of possibilities exist; (b) To develop representations that could conveniently allow us to depict design knowledge evolved over many years; (c) To capture the required information that aid the

  11. Preliminary design features of the RASCAL - A NASA/Army rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Jacobsen, Robert A.; Eshow, Michelle M.; Hindson, William S.; Doane, Douglas H.

    1992-01-01

    Salient design features of a new NASA/Army research rotorcraft - the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) - are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these programs together with other critical constraints on the design of the research system, including safety-of-flight. Research program schedules demand a phased development approach, wherein specific research capability milestones are met and flight research projects are flown throughout the complete development cycle of the RASCAL. This development approach is summarized, and selected features of the research system are described. The research system includes a full-authority, programmable, fault-tolerant/fail-safe, fly-by-wire flight control system and a real-time obstacle detection and avoidance system which will generate low-latitude guidance commands to the pilot on a wide field-of-view, color helmet-mounted display.

  12. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ([minus]60[degrees]F) temperatures.

  13. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ({minus}60{degrees}F) temperatures.

  14. Preliminary design features of the RASCAL: A NASA /Army rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Jacobsen, Robert A.; Eshow, Michelle M.; Hindson, William S.; Doane, Douglas H.

    1993-01-01

    Salient design features of a new NASA/Army research rotorcraft - the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) - are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these programs together with other critical constraints on the design of the research system, including safety-of-flight. Research program schedules demand a phased development approach, wherein specific research capability milestones are met and flight research projects are flown throughout the complete development cycle of the RASCAL. This development approach is summarized, and selected features of the research system are described. The research system includes a full-authority, programmable, fault-tolerant/fail-safe, fly-by-wire flight control system and a real-time obstacle detection and avoidance system which will generate low-altitude guidance commands to the pilot on a wide field-of-view, color helmet-mounted display.

  15. Impact of burner design features on sooting in residential oil fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McNeill, F.; Celebi, Y.; Wegrzyn, J.

    1986-11-01

    This report describes the results of a study on soot production by residential oil burners with an emphasis on condensing system applications. The work has followed a related study at Brookhaven National Laboratory completed in June 1984. Work in the current project has been aimed at the effects of specific burner design features on soot. Soot production during burner startup and shutdown has been shown to be significant for heat exchanger fouling in some systems. A new method has been developed for measuring transient smoke involving a multipass light extinction technique. A general review of soot measurement techniques and the details of the system used in the experimental work are included. Specific burner design features evaluated include high static discharge pressure fans, high startup excess air, nozzle and fuel line heating, burner heat pressure drop, and fuel flow control. Both high pressure fans and high startup excess air were found to significantly improve startup behavior. This result is consistent with simple flow models in which a furnace or boiler system is related to a cavity resonator. Measurements showed that nozzle heating can significantly improve spray droplet size distribution. Tests in both condensing and non-condensing systems indicated that a commercial nozzle heater reduces smoke over the first two minutes of operation. The effect was most significant at low excess air.

  16. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  17. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  18. Diffusive Barrier and Getter Under Waste Packages VA Reference Design Feature Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-05-24

    This technical document evaluates those aspects of the diffusive barrier and getter features which have the potential for enhancing the performance of the Viability Assessment Reference Design and are also directly related to the key attributes for the repository safety strategy of that design. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the radionuclide migration rates through the diffusive barrier were determined through the application of the one-dimensional, advection/dispersion/diffusion equation. The results showed that because advective flow described by the advection-dispersion equation dominates, the diffusive barrier feature alone would not be effective in retarding migration of radiocuclides. However, if the diffusive barrier were combined with one or more features that reduced the potential for advection, then transport of radionuclides would be dominated by diffusion and their migration from the EBS would be impeded. Apatite was chosen as the getter material used for this report. Two getter configurations were developed, Case 1 and Case 2. As in the evaluation of the diffusive barrier, the effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the migration of radionuclides through the getter are evaluated. However, in addition to these mechanisms, the one-dimensional advection/dispersion/diffusion model is modified to include the effect of sorption on radionuclide migration rates through the sorptive medium (getter). As a result of sorption, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, and the average linear velocity are effectively reduced by the retardation factor. The retardation factor is a function of the getter material's dry bulk density, sorption coefficient and moisture content. The results of the evaluation showed that a significant delay in breakthrough through the getter can be achieved if the thickness of the getter barrier is increased.

  19. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  20. Design and novel type of a magnetorheological damper featuring piston bypass hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a novel type of magnetorheological (MR) damper configuration from which an excellent ride comfort can be achieved without using a sophisticated controller scheme. The proposed novel MR damper is featured by piston bypass holes to achieve low slope of the damping force in the pre-yield (low-piston-velocity) region and high magnitude of the damping force in the post-yield (high-piston-velocity) region. A mathematical model for the damping force of the proposed MR damper is formulated followed by the investigation on damping characteristics with respect to several geometrical design parameters such as the number of piston bypass hole, the diameter of the hole, the gap size of the orifice, the orifice length, the diameter of the bobbin, and the height of the coil. After selecting the main design parameters from the simulation results, numerical simulations for the damping force characteristics are conducted with eight design parameter sets to evaluate the significant effect on the damping force performance. The proposed MR dampers are then manufactured with the same design parameter sets and the damping force characteristics are experimentally obtained and compared with the analytical simulation results. It is identified from the parametric investigations that the size and the number of the piston bypass hole are very important on damping force characteristics of the proposed MR damper.

  1. Environmental Designs for Reading from Imaging Workstations: Ergonomic and Architectural Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Steven C.; Horii, Howard N.; Mun, Seong K.; Benson, Harold R.; Zeman, Robert K.

    1989-05-01

    Despite the rapid progress made in the electronic design of imaging workstations for medicine, much less effort has gone into the design of environments in which such systems will be used. Based on studies of radiologist film reading sessions, considerable time will be spent working at such viewing systems. If the rooms in which the workstations are placed are not conducive to comfortable work, it will certainly not favor electronic viewing over film reading. In examining existing reading environments, it is also apparent that they are not optimum, even for film. Since some of the problems for film and electronic viewing overlap, such as heat generation (by the alternators, viewboxes, or workstation electronics) and glare from light sources, it should be possible to develop solutions which are applicable to both environments or to rooms which will feature both viewing systems. This paper will discuss some of the approaches to designing environments in which viewing of images is supported by the room architecture and engineering and not degraded by it. To illustrate these points, a design based on the constraint of a real room size and available architectural materials will be developed.

  2. The ergonomics of computer aided design within advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    John, P A

    1988-03-01

    Many manufacturing companies have now awakened to the significance of computer aided design (CAD), although the majority of them have only been able to purchase computerised draughting systems of which only a subset produce direct manufacturing data. Such companies are moving steadily towards the concept of computer integrated manufacture (CIM), and this demands CAD to address more than draughting. CAD architects are thus having to rethink the basic specification of such systems, although they typically suffer from an insufficient understanding of the design task and have consequently been working with inadequate specifications. It is at this fundamental level that ergonomics has much to offer, making its contribution by encouraging user-centred design. The discussion considers the relationships between CAD and: the design task; the organisation and people; creativity; and artificial intelligence. It finishes with a summary of the contribution of ergonomics. PMID:15676646

  3. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A.; Minning, C.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical models were developed to perform optical, thermal, electrical and structural analyses on candidate encapsulation systems. Qualification testing, specimens of various types, and a finalized optimum design are projected.

  4. ABWR (advanced boiling water reactor) Design Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ABWR Design Verification Program is aimed at restoring confidence in the US licensing process by demonstrating its workability by obtaining USNRC preapproval of GE's ABWR Standard Plant. The purpose of this work is to achieve full NRC approval of the ABWR through the award of an NRC Staff final design approval (FDA) and design certification. The approach is to (1) establish a licensing basis with the NRC Staff for the ABWR, (2) prepare and submit, for NRC Staff review, an SSAR to obtain an FDA, and (3) participate in a rulemaking process to obtain certification of the ABWR design. This program was initiated August 27, 1986. This report, the fourth annual progress report, summarizes progress on this program from October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. 9 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. 50 MW, 35 GHz Gyroklystron Design for Advanced Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjona, Melany; Lawson, Wes

    1999-11-01

    We present the design results for a 50 MW, 35 GHz, 4-cavity gyroklystron system. We present both the design of the double-anode magnetron injection gun and the microwave circuit. The gun produces a 500 kV, 300 A beam with a velocity ratio of 1.5 and an axial spread of about 5The interaction efficiency is near 4050 dB. Details of the simulations, including sensitivity studies, will be given in the talk.

  6. Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education: Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J., Ed.; Kozma, Robert B., Ed.

    This collection of essays consists of current work that addresses the challenge not just to put the newest technologies in schools, but to identify advanced ways to design and use these new technologies to advance learning. These essays are intended for science and mathematics educators, educational and cognitive researchers, instructional…

  7. Advanced Information Technology in Simulation Based Life Cycle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.

    2003-01-01

    In this research a Collaborative Optimization (CO) approach for multidisciplinary systems design is used to develop a decision based design framework for non-deterministic optimization. To date CO strategies have been developed for use in application to deterministic systems design problems. In this research the decision based design (DBD) framework proposed by Hazelrigg is modified for use in a collaborative optimization framework. The Hazelrigg framework as originally proposed provides a single level optimization strategy that combines engineering decisions with business decisions in a single level optimization. By transforming this framework for use in collaborative optimization one can decompose the business and engineering decision making processes. In the new multilevel framework of Decision Based Collaborative Optimization (DBCO) the business decisions are made at the system level. These business decisions result in a set of engineering performance targets that disciplinary engineering design teams seek to satisfy as part of subspace optimizations. The Decision Based Collaborative Optimization framework more accurately models the existing relationship between business and engineering in multidisciplinary systems design.

  8. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Cigarette Design Feature Influence on ISO TNCO Yields.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Heard, Kimberly A; Lancaster, Vicki A; Bravo, Roberto; Watson, Clifford; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-20

    The aim of this study is to explore how differences in cigarette physical design parameters influence tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (TNCO) yields in mainstream smoke (MSS) using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) smoking regimen. Standardized smoking methods were used to evaluate 50 U.S. domestic brand cigarettes and a reference cigarette representing a range of TNCO yields in MSS collected from linear smoking machines using a nonintense smoking regimen. Multivariate statistical methods were used to form clusters of cigarettes based on their ISO TNCO yields and then to explore the relationship between the ISO generated TNCO yields and the nine cigarette physical design parameters between and within each cluster simultaneously. The ISO generated TNCO yields in MSS are 1.1-17.0 mg tar/cigarette, 0.1-2.2 mg nicotine/cigarette, and 1.6-17.3 mg CO/cigarette. Cluster analysis divided the 51 cigarettes into five discrete clusters based on their ISO TNCO yields. No one physical parameter dominated across all clusters. Predicting ISO machine generated TNCO yields based on these nine physical design parameters is complex due to the correlation among and between the nine physical design parameters and TNCO yields. From these analyses, it is estimated that approximately 20% of the variability in the ISO generated TNCO yields comes from other parameters (e.g., filter material, filter type, inclusion of expanded or reconstituted tobacco, and tobacco blend composition, along with differences in tobacco leaf origin and stalk positions and added ingredients). A future article will examine the influence of these physical design parameters on TNCO yields under a Canadian Intense (CI) smoking regimen. Together, these papers will provide a more robust picture of the design features that contribute to TNCO exposure across the range of real world smoking patterns. PMID:27222918

  9. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic-composite nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordstrom, K. E.; Marsh, A. H.; Sargisson, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual studies were conducted to assess the impact of incorporating advanced technologies in the nacelles of a current wide-bodied transport and an advanced technology transport. The improvement possible in the areas of fuel consumption, flyover noise levels, airplane weight, manufacturing costs, and airplane operating cost were evaluated for short and long-duct nacelles. Use of composite structures for acoustic duct linings in the fan inlet and exhaust ducts was considered as well as for other nacelle components. For the wide-bodied transport, the use of a long-duct nacelle with an internal mixer nozzle in the primary exhaust showed significant improvement in installed specific fuel consumption and airplane direct operating costs compared to the current short-duct nacelle. The long-duct mixed-flow nacelle is expected to achieve significant reductions in jet noise during takeoff and in turbo-machinery noise during landing approach. Recommendations were made of the technology development needed to achieve the potential fuel conservation and noise reduction benefits.

  10. Preconceptual design requirements for the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.; Goldstein, S.A.; Cereghino, S.J.; MacLeod, G.

    1998-09-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source represents the next step in providing the US Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray source for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation, Inertial Confinement Fusion, and Weapon Physics Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories` Z Accelerator provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. The X-1 plan follows a strategy based on scaling the 2 MJ x-ray output on Z via a 3-fold increase in z-pinch load current. The large volume (>5 cm{sup 3}), high temperature (>150 eV), temporally long (>10 ns) hohlraums are unique outside of underground nuclear weapon testing. Analytical scaling arguments and hydrodynamic simulations indicate that these hohlraums at temperatures of 230--300 eV will ignite thermonuclear fuel and drive the reaction to a yield of 200 to 1,000 MJ in the laboratory. X-1 will provide the high-fidelity experimental capability to certify the survivability and performance of non-nuclear weapon components in hostile radiation environments. Non-ignition sources will provide cold x-ray environments (<15 keV), and high yield fusion burn sources will provide high fidelity warm x-ray environments (15 keV--80 keV).

  11. A Review of Advanced Sewer System Design Technologies (WERF Report INFR4SG09d)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: This document seeks to collect into one place current and new technologies about sewerage system design. The document organizes the information found in the 295 documents that were reviewed into six subject areas: Advanced Onsite Technologies; Alternative Wastewater C...

  12. Noble metals-compatible melter features development Phase 1: Establishing functional and design criteria and design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M.R.; Siemens, D.H.; Chapman, C.C.

    1996-03-01

    Premature failures have occurred in melters at Japan`s Tokai Mockup Facility and at the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) PAMELA plant during processing of feeds with high levels of noble metals. Melter failure was due to the accumulation of an electrically conductive, noble metals-containing precipitates in the glass, that then resulted in short circuiting of the electrodes. A comparison was made of the anticipated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed with the feeds processed in the FRG and Japanese melters. The evaluation showed that comparable levels of noble metals and other potential precipitate-forming components (e.g. Cr/Fe/Ni-spinels) exist in the HWVP feed. As a result, the HWVP project made a decision to modify the present reference melter design to include features to prevent the precipitation and accumulation or otherwise accommodate precipitated phases on a routine basis without loss of production capacity.

  13. Design Features and Initial RF Performance of a Gradient Hardened 17 GHz TW Linac Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    2009-01-22

    To avoid surface erosion damage and to assist in studying RF breakdown thresholds in 17 GHz TW linac structures, a gradient hardened structure has been fabricated with high temperature brazed and machined stainless steel surfaces located in the peak E-field region of the beam apertures and the peak H-field regions of the input coupler cavity. The microwave design parameters and physical dimensions of this 22 cavity, 120 degree phase advance structure were chosen to allow the high gradient performance to be compared against a similar design all-copper structure that has been tested in a dual ring, power recirculating amplifier system. The final design parameters of the gradient hardened structure are discussed; the influence of stainless steel RF losses on the power buildup of the resonant ring and on the structure gradient distribution are described; waveforms are shown of the unique ability of the power amplifier to rapidly quench RF breakdown discharges in the linac structure by automatically sensing and redirecting the RF source power to a matched load; and preliminary test results during high power RF processing of the gradient hardened linac structure are presented.

  14. Design Features and Initial RF Performance of a Gradient Hardened 17 GHz TW Linac Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    2009-01-01

    To avoid surface erosion damage and to assist in studying RF breakdown thresholds in 17 GHz TW linac structures, a gradient hardened structure has been fabricated with high temperature brazed and machined stainless steel surfaces located in the peak E-field region of the beam apertures and the peak H-field regions of the input coupler cavity. The microwave design parameters and physical dimensions of this 22 cavity, 120 degree phase advance structure were chosen to allow the high gradient performance to be compared against a similar design all-copper structure that has been tested in a dual ring, power recirculating amplifier system. The final design parameters of the gradient hardened structure are discussed; the influence of stainless steel RF losses on the power buildup of the resonant ring and on the structure gradient distribution are described; waveforms are shown of the unique ability of the power amplifier to rapidly quench RF breakdown discharges in the linac structure by automatically sensing and redirecting the RF source power to a matched load; and preliminary test results during high power RF processing of the gradient hardened linac structure are presented.

  15. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  16. Three-Dimensional Elastomeric Scaffolds Designed with Cardiac-Mimetic Structural and Mechanical Features

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Rebekah A.; Jean, Aurélie; Park, Hyoungshin; Wu, Patrick B.; Hsiao, James; Engelmayr, George C.; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs, at the interface of material science, biology, engineering, and medicine, have the capacity to improve outcomes for cardiac patients by providing living cells and degradable biomaterials that can regenerate the native myocardium. With an ultimate goal of both delivering cells and providing mechanical support to the healing heart, we designed three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric scaffolds with (1) stiffnesses and anisotropy mimicking explanted myocardial specimens as predicted by finite-element (FE) modeling, (2) systematically varied combinations of rectangular pore pattern, pore aspect ratio, and strut width, and (3) structural features approaching tissue scale. Based on predicted mechanical properties, three scaffold designs were selected from eight candidates for fabrication from poly(glycerol sebacate) by micromolding from silicon wafers. Large 20×20 mm scaffolds with high aspect ratio features (5:1 strut height:strut width) were reproducibly cast, cured, and demolded at a relatively high throughput. Empirically measured mechanical properties demonstrated that scaffolds were cardiac mimetic and validated FE model predictions. Two-layered scaffolds providing fully interconnected pore networks were fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly. C2C12 myoblasts cultured on one-layered scaffolds exhibited specific patterns of cell elongation and interconnectivity that appeared to be guided by the scaffold pore pattern. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured on two-layered scaffolds for 1 week were contractile, both spontaneously and in response to electrical stimulation, and expressed sarcomeric α-actinin, a cardiac biomarker. This work not only demonstrated several scaffold designs that promoted functional assembly of rat heart cells, but also provided the foundation for further computational and empirical investigations of 3D elastomeric scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23190320

  17. Natural environment design criteria for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) definition and preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. M.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    This document provides the natural environment design criteria requirements for use in the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) definition and preliminary design studies. The atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic environments, meteoroids, radiation, magnetic fields, and physical constants are all addressed. This information will enable all groups involved in the definition and preliminary design studies to proceed with a common and consistent set of natural environment criteria requirements.

  18. Simulation models and designs for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, G.N.; Kramer, S.J.; Tam, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Process designs and economics were developed for three grass-roots indirect Fischer-Tropsch coal liquefaction facilities. A baseline and an alternate upgrading design were developed for a mine-mouth plant located in southern Illinois using Illinois No. 6 coal, and one for a mine-mouth plane located in Wyoming using Power River Basin coal. The alternate design used close-coupled ZSM-5 reactors to upgrade the vapor stream leaving the Fischer-Tropsch reactor. ASPEN process simulation models were developed for all three designs. These results have been reported previously. In this study, the ASPEN process simulation model was enhanced to improve the vapor/liquid equilibrium calculations for the products leaving the slurry bed Fischer-Tropsch reactors. This significantly improved the predictions for the alternate ZSM-5 upgrading design. Another model was developed for the Wyoming coal case using ZSM-5 upgrading of the Fischer-Tropsch reactor vapors. To date, this is the best indirect coal liquefaction case. Sensitivity studies showed that additional cost reductions are possible.

  19. Advanced microgrid design and analysis for forward operating bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasoner, Jonathan

    This thesis takes a holistic approach in creating an improved electric power generation system for a forward operating base (FOB) in the future through the design of an isolated microgrid. After an extensive literature search, this thesis found a need for drastic improvement of the FOB power system. A thorough design process analyzed FOB demand, researched demand side management improvements, evaluated various generation sources and energy storage options, and performed a HOMERRTM discrete optimization to determine the best microgrid design. Further sensitivity analysis was performed to see how changing parameters would affect the outcome. Lastly, this research also looks at some of the challenges which are associated with incorporating a design which relies heavily on inverter-based generation sources, and gives possible solutions to help make a renewable energy powered microgrid a reality. While this thesis uses a FOB as the case study, the process and discussion can be adapted to aide in the design of an off-grid small-scale power grid which utilizes high-penetration levels of renewable energy.

  20. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  1. Newman Unit 1 advanced solar repowering advanced conceptual design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    The Newman Unit 1 solar repowering design is a water/steam central receiver concept supplying superheated steam. The work reported is to develop a refined baseline conceptual design that has potential for construction and operation by 1986, makes use of existing solar thermal technology, and provides the best economics for this application. Trade studies performed in the design effort are described, both for the conceptual design of the overall system and for the subsystem conceptual design. System-level functional requirements, design, operation, performance, cost, safety, environmental, institutional, and regulatory considerations are described. Subsystems described include the collector, receiver, fossil energy, electrical power generating, and master control subsystems, site and site facilities. The conceptual design, cost, and performance of each subsystem is discussed at length. A detailed economic analysis of the repowered unit is made to realistically assess the economics of the first repowered unit using present cost data for a limited production level for solar hardware. Finally, a development plan is given, including the design, procurement, construction, checkout, startup, performance validation, and commercial operation. (LEW)

  2. Advanced Design Heat PumpRadiator for EVA Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Passow, Christian; Phillips, Scott; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Absorption cooling using a LiCl/water heat pump can enable lightweight and effective thermal control for EVA suits without venting water to the environment. The key components in the system are an absorber/radiator that rejects heat to space and a flexible evaporation cooling garment that absorbs heat from the crew member. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of the absorber/radiator and evaporation cooling garment. New design concepts and fabrication approaches will significantly reduce the mass of the absorber/radiator. We have also identified materials and demonstrated fabrication approaches for production of a flexible evaporation cooling garment. Data from tests of the absorber/radiator s modular components have validated the design models and allowed predictions of the size and weight of a complete system.

  3. Advanced two-stage compressor program design of inlet stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryce, C. A.; Paine, C. J.; Mccutcheon, A. R. S.; Tu, R. K.; Perrone, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of an inlet stage for a two-stage, 10/1 pressure ratio, 2 lb/sec flow rate compressor is discussed. Initially a performance comparison was conducted for an axial, mixed flow and centrifugal second stage. A modified mixed flow configuration with tandem rotors and tandem stators was selected for the inlet stage. The term conical flow compressor was coined to describe a particular type of mixed flow compressor configuration which utilizes axial flow type blading and an increase in radius to increase the work input potential. Design details of the conical flow compressor are described.

  4. Thermal design for the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafal, Marc D.

    1998-08-01

    The advanced camera for surveys (ACS) is a third generation science instrument scheduled for installation into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the third servicing mission scheduled for 1999. ACS, along with the previously installed space telescope imaging spectrograph and near IR camera/multi-object spectrograph, consume significantly more power than the first generation of instruments. Additionally, the larger apertures of these instruments make parallel operations scientifically exciting. These parallel operations demand that all of the instruments operate in their highest power states simultaneously for extended periods of time. These and other factors have resulted in much higher temperatures inside the aft shroud where the ACS will be installed. As a result, new approaches are required to transfer heat inside the instrument and reject it away from the telescope. This paper describes the unique thermal systems required by the ACS. These include capillary pump loops and flexible and rigid heat pipes.

  5. Red Fluorescent Proteins: Advanced Imaging Applications and Future Design

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Subach, Oksana M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years a large series of the advanced red-shifted fluorescent proteins (RFPs) has been developed. These enhanced RFPs provide new possibilities to study biological processes at the levels ranging from single molecules to whole organisms. Herein the relationship between the properties of the RFPs of different phenotypes and their applications to various imaging techniques are described. Existing and emerging imaging approaches are discussed for conventional RFPs, far-red FPs, RFPs with a large Stokes shift, fluorescent timers, irreversibly photoactivatable and reversibly photo-switchable RFPs. Advantages and limitations of specific RFPs for each technique are presented. Recent progress in understanding the chemical transformations of red chromophores allows the future RFP phenotypes and their respective novel imaging applications to be foreseen. PMID:22851529

  6. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  7. Dynamics and Control of Orbiting Space Structures NASA Advanced Design Program (ADP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    The report summarizes the advanced design program in the mechanical engineering department at Vanderbilt University for the academic years 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Approximately 100 students participated in the two years of the subject grant funding. The NASA-oriented design projects that were selected included lightweight hydrogen propellant tank for the reusable launch vehicle, a thermal barrier coating test facility, a piezoelectric motor for space antenna control, and a lightweight satellite for automated materials processing. The NASA supported advanced design program (ADP) has been a success and a number of graduates are working in aerospace and are doing design.

  8. Extraction of Airport Features from High Resolution Satellite Imagery for Design and Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Chris; Qiu, You-Liang; Jensen, John R.; Schill, Steven R.; Floyd, Mike

    2001-01-01

    The LPA Group, consisting of 17 offices located throughout the eastern and central United States is an architectural, engineering and planning firm specializing in the development of Airports, Roads and Bridges. The primary focus of this ARC project is concerned with assisting their aviation specialists who work in the areas of Airport Planning, Airfield Design, Landside Design, Terminal Building Planning and design, and various other construction services. The LPA Group wanted to test the utility of high-resolution commercial satellite imagery for the purpose of extracting airport elevation features in the glide path areas surrounding the Columbia Metropolitan Airport. By incorporating remote sensing techniques into their airport planning process, LPA wanted to investigate whether or not it is possible to save time and money while achieving the equivalent accuracy as traditional planning methods. The Affiliate Research Center (ARC) at the University of South Carolina investigated the use of remotely sensed imagery for the extraction of feature elevations in the glide path zone. A stereo pair of IKONOS panchromatic satellite images, which has a spatial resolution of 1 x 1 m, was used to determine elevations of aviation obstructions such as buildings, trees, towers and fence-lines. A validation dataset was provided by the LPA Group to assess the accuracy of the measurements derived from the IKONOS imagery. The initial goal of this project was to test the utility of IKONOS imagery in feature extraction using ERDAS Stereo Analyst. This goal was never achieved due to problems with ERDAS software support of the IKONOS sensor model and the unavailability of imperative sensor model information from Space Imaging. The obstacles encountered in this project pertaining to ERDAS Stereo Analyst and IKONOS imagery will be reviewed in more detail later in this report. As a result of the technical difficulties with Stereo Analyst, ERDAS OrthoBASE was used to derive aviation

  9. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  10. Progress in Conceptual Design and Analysis of Advanced Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will give information on Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Technology Development, including it's objectives and how they will be met. In addition, it will also present recent highlights including the Lift-Offset Civil Design and it's study conclusions, as well as, the LCTR2 Propulsion Concept's study conclusions. Recent publications and future publications will also be discussed.

  11. Learning Design Research: Advancing Pedagogies in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobozy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Learning design research (LDR) is establishing itself as a separate and specialised field of educational research. Worldwide, technology-mediated learning experiences in higher and further education are on the increase. LDR investigates their success in providing effective outcomes-based and personalised learning experiences. This paper reports on…

  12. Design and performance verification of advanced multistage depressed collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Ramins, P.

    1975-01-01

    Design and performance of a small size, 4 stage depressed collector are discussed. The collector and a spent beam refocusing section preceding it are intended for efficiency enhancement of octave bandwidth, high CW power traveling wave tubes for use in ECM.

  13. Recent advances in the design and development of soft drugs.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, P; Bodor, N

    2014-06-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the field of soft drug development as collected and reviewed for the 9th Retrometabolism-Based Drug Design and Targeting Conference. Soft drugs are still often confused with prodrugs because they both require metabolic transformations; however, they are conceptual opposites: whereas, prodrugs are pharmacologically inactive and are converted by a predictable mechanism to the active drug, soft drugs are active therapeutic agents as such and are designed to undergo a predictable and controllable metabolic deactivation after exerting their desired therapeutic effect. Several rationally designed soft drug examples including clinically approved ones (e.g., clevidipine, esmolol, landiolol, loteprednol etabonate, and remifentanil) as well as others that have reached clinical investigations within different therapeutic areas (e.g., budiodarone, naronapride, remimazolam, tecarfarine) are briefly summarized. Anesthesiology, which requires a high degree of pharmacologic control during the surgical procedure to maintain the anesthetic state together with a quick return to responsiveness at the end of this procedure, is a particularly well-suited area for soft drug development. Several new initiatives (e.g., MOC-etomidate, AZD3043) are focused in this area; they are also briefly reviewed. Finally, just as there are many 'accidental' prodrugs, there are 'accidental' soft drugs too: i.e., therapeutics that were not intentionally designed to be soft drugs, but turned out to be essentially soft drugs. Some examples, such as articaine or methylphenidate, are briefly reviewed. PMID:24974571

  14. Conceptual Design Method Developed for Advanced Propulsion Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth; Barnhart, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a contract with the NASA Lewis Research Center, a simple, accurate method of predicting the performance characteristics of a nozzle design has been developed for use in conceptual design studies. The Nozzle Performance Analysis Code (NPAC) can predict the on- and off-design performance of axisymmetric or two-dimensional convergent and convergent-divergent nozzle geometries. NPAC accounts for the effects of overexpansion or underexpansion, flow divergence, wall friction, heat transfer, and small mass addition or loss across surfaces when the nozzle gross thrust and gross thrust coefficient are being computed. NPAC can be used to predict the performance of a given nozzle design or to develop a preliminary nozzle system design for subsequent analysis. The input required by NPAC consists of a simple geometry definition of the nozzle surfaces, the location of key nozzle stations (entrance, throat, exit), and the nozzle entrance flow properties. NPAC performs three analysis "passes" on the nozzle geometry. First, an isentropic control volume analysis is performed to determine the gross thrust and gross thrust coefficient of the nozzle. During the second analysis pass, the skin friction and heat transfer losses are computed. The third analysis pass couples the effects of wall shear and heat transfer with the initial internal nozzle flow solutions to produce a system of equations that is solved at steps along the nozzle geometry. Small mass additions or losses, such as those resulting from leakage or bleed flow, can be included in the model at specified geometric sections. A final correction is made to account for divergence losses that are incurred if the nozzle exit flow is not purely axial.

  15. Comparison of conceptual designs for 25 kWe Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems for dish electric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaltens, R.K.; Schreiber, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) Project is managed by NASA Lewis Research Center through a cooperative Interagency Agreement with DOE. Conceptual designs for the ASCS's were completed under parallel contracts in 1987 by Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) of Latham, NY, and Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Richland, WA. Each design features a free-piston Stirling engine, a liquid metal heat pipe receiver, and a means to provide about 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid while meeting DOE's long term performance and cost goals. An independent assessment showed that both designs are manufacturable and have the potential to easily meet DOE's long term cost goals. 9 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Recent Advances in Ligand-Based Drug Design: Relevance and Utility of the Conformationally Sampled Pharmacophore Approach

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Chayan; Coop, Andrew; Polli, James E.; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of three-dimensional (3D) structures of potential drug targets, ligand-based drug design is one of the popular approaches for drug discovery and lead optimization. 3D structure-activity relationships (3D QSAR) and pharmacophore modeling are the most important and widely used tools in ligand-based drug design that can provide crucial insights into the nature of the interactions between drug target and ligand molecule and provide predictive models suitable for lead compound optimization. This review article will briefly discuss the features and potential application of recent advances in ligand-based drug design, with emphasis on a detailed description of a novel 3D QSAR method based on the conformationally sample pharmacophore (CSP) approach (denoted CSP-SAR). In addition, data from a published study is used to compare the CSP-SAR approach to the Catalyst method, emphasizing the utility of the CSP approach for ligand-based model development. PMID:20807187

  17. Design and fabrication of advanced hybrid circuits for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Moss, J.; Freytag, D.R.; Nelson, D.; Yim, A.; Lo, C.C.

    1987-10-01

    Current design and fabrication techniques of hybrid devices are explained for the Drift Chamber and the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC. Methods of developing layouts, ranging from hand-cut templates to advanced designs utilizing CAD tools with special hybrid design software were applied. Physical and electrical design rules for good yield and performance are discussed. Fabrication and assembly of the SLD hybrids are described. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints is reported. The program consists of two concurrent tasks: (1) design and test of specific built up attachments; and (2) evaluation of standard advanced bonded joint concepts. A data base for the design and analysis of advanced composite joints for use at elevated temperatures (561K (550 deg F)) to design concepts for specific joining applications, and the fundamental parameters controlling the static strength characteristics of such joints are evaluated. Data for design and build GR/PI of lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Results for compression and interlaminar shear strengths of Celion 6000/PMR-15 laminates are given. Static discriminator test results for type 3 and type 4 bonded and bolted joints and final joint designs for TASK 1.4 scale up fabrication and testing are presented.

  19. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  20. Toward the commoditization of translational genomic research: Design and implementation features of the Galaxy genomic workbench.

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Ross; Taylor, James; Qiu, Weiliang; Nekrutenko, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Although there is now plenty of genomic data and no shortage of analysis methods for translational genomic research, many biologists do not have efficient and transparent access to the computational resources they need. No single data resource or analysis application is ever likely to efficiently address all aspects of any individual researcher’s needs, so most researchers are forced to manually integrate data and outputs from multiple resources. The inevitable heterogeneity of data formats and of command syntax between data resources and software applications presents a major obstacle, particularly to those biologists lacking practical informatics skills. We describe some design and implementation features of an open-source application that supports the integration of the best available third-party genomics software applications, data and annotation resources into a coherent framework, substantially overcoming many practical challenges associated with actually doing translational genomic research. PMID:21347127

  1. Effectiveness of training in organizations: a meta-analysis of design and evaluation features.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Winfred; Bennett, Winston; Edens, Pamela S; Bell, Suzanne T

    2003-04-01

    The authors used meta-analytic procedures to examine the relationship between specified training design and evaluation features and the effectiveness of training in organizations. Results of the meta-analysis revealed training effectiveness sample-weighted mean ds of 0.60 (k = 15, N = 936) for reaction criteria, 0.63 (k = 234, N = 15,014) for learning criteria, 0.62 (k = 122, N = 15,627) for behavioral criteria, and 0.62 (k = 26, N = 1,748) for results criteria. These results suggest a medium to large effect size for organizational training. In addition, the training method used, the skill or task characteristic trained, and the choice of evaluation criteria were related to the effectiveness of training programs. Limitations of the study along with suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:12731707

  2. Design features of on-line anatomy information resources: a comparison with the Digital Anatomist.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S.; Brinkley, J. F.; Rosse, C.

    1999-01-01

    In order to update the design of the next generation of the Digital Anatomist, we have surveyed teaching assistants who have used the Digital Anatomist for learning and teaching anatomy as medical students, and have also examined available anatomy web sites with sufficient content to support learning. The majority of web sites function in an atlas mode and provide for the identification of structures. These atlases incorporate a variety of features for interactivity with 2D images, some of which are not available in the Digital Anatomist. The surveys suggest that the greatest need is for on-line access to comprehensive and detailed anatomical information and for the development of knowledge-based methods that allow the direct manipulation of segmented 3D graphical models by the user. The requirement for such interactivity is a comprehensive symbolic model of the physical organization of the body that can support inference. Images Fig 1 PMID:10566421

  3. Advanced Aerodynamic Design of Passive Porosity Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Viken, Sally A.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes aerodynamic design work aimed at developing a passive porosity control effector system for a generic tailless fighter aircraft. As part of this work, a computational design tool was developed and used to layout passive porosity effector systems for longitudinal and lateral-directional control at a low-speed, high angle of attack condition. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted using the NASA Langley computational fluid dynamics code USM3D, in conjunction with a newly formulated surface boundary condition for passive porosity. Results indicate that passive porosity effectors can provide maneuver control increments that equal and exceed those of conventional aerodynamic effectors for low-speed, high-alpha flight, with control levels that are a linear function of porous area. This work demonstrates the tremendous potential of passive porosity to yield simple control effector systems that have no external moving parts and will preserve an aircraft's fixed outer mold line.

  4. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  5. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, V2.1

    2002-02-04

    SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers intornal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standardmore » Parts Library) d) Facilitate the process of having MEMS fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Nole that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of Aut0CAD to use with these files.« less

  6. Design, analysis, and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Minning, C.

    1982-01-01

    Design sensitivities are established for the development of photovoltaic module criteria and the definition of needed research tasks. The program consists of three phases. In Phase I, analytical models were developed to perform optical, thermal, electrical, and structural analyses on candidate encapsulation systems. From these analyses several candidate systems will be selected for qualification testing during Phase II. Additionally, during Phase II, test specimens of various types will be constructed and tested to determine the validity of the analysis methodology developed in Phase I. In Phse III, a finalized optimum design based on knowledge gained in Phase I and II will be developed. All verification testing was completed during this period. Preliminary results and observations are discussed. Descriptions of the thermal, thermal structural, and structural deflection test setups are included.

  7. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1985-11-01

    Methods have been developed to aid the photovoltaic manufacturer in the design of modules which will optimize the use of materials and method of manufacture for novel encapsulation schemes. Methods are described for using master curves to enable the design of modules which will withstand pressure loading from wind and/or precipitation as well as stress produced from diurnal and seasonal thermal cycling. Analysis methods using finite element modeling are presented to examine maximum electric field concentrations dependent on the geometry of cells and interconnects. Techniques for determining the operating temperature and optical efficiency of panels are presented. Several novel methods of manufacturing modules are described. Experimental results in the use of conductive polymers in photovoltaic cells as AR coatings, conductivity enhancers and passivation coatings are discussed.

  8. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  9. Designing for Small Volume Assembly of Advanced Electronics Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.; Bonner, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a general methodology to Design for Producibility and Reliability (DFPAR) for very small volume production runs. In cases where the entire volume for fabrication is less than five products, traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) is inadequate due to reliance on statistics of much larger volumes and the Central Limit Theorem. Data acquisition for process parameter estimation from such a small sample size is difficult; however, it is critical to producing high reliability product.

  10. Integrating valve-inspired design features into poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel scaffolds for heart valve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Xu, Bin; Puperi, Daniel S; Yonezawa, Aline L; Wu, Yan; Tseng, Hubert; Cuchiara, Maude L; West, Jennifer L; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2015-03-01

    The development of advanced scaffolds that recapitulate the anisotropic mechanical behavior and biological functions of the extracellular matrix in leaflets would be transformative for heart valve tissue engineering. In this study, anisotropic mechanical properties were established in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels by crosslinking stripes of 3.4 kDa PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) within 20 kDa PEGDA base hydrogels using a photolithographic patterning method. Varying the stripe width and spacing resulted in a tensile elastic modulus parallel to the stripes that was 4.1-6.8 times greater than that in the perpendicular direction, comparable to the degree of anisotropy between the circumferential and radial orientations in native valve leaflets. Biomimetic PEG-peptide hydrogels were prepared by tethering the cell-adhesive peptide RGDS and incorporating the collagenase-degradable peptide PQ (GGGPQG↓IWGQGK) into the polymer network. The specific amounts of RGDS and PEG-PQ within the resulting hydrogels influenced the elongation, de novo extracellular matrix deposition and hydrogel degradation behavior of encapsulated valvular interstitial cells (VICs). In addition, the morphology and activation of VICs grown atop PEG hydrogels could be modulated by controlling the concentration or micro-patterning profile of PEG-RGDS. These results are promising for the fabrication of PEG-based hydrogels using anatomically and biologically inspired scaffold design features for heart valve tissue engineering. PMID:25433168

  11. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    During the past decade, synchrotron radiation emitted by circulating electron beams has come into wide use as a powerful, versatile source of x-rays for probing the structure of matter and for studying various physical processes. Several synchrotron radiation facilities with different designs and characteristics are now in regular operation throughout the world, with recent additions in this country being the 0.8-GeV and 2.5-GeV rings of NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, none of the operating facilities has been designed to use a low-emittance, high-energy stored beam, together with modern undulator devices, to produce a large number of hard x-ray beams of extremely high brilliance. This document is a proposal to the Department of Energy to construct and operate high-energy synchrotron radiation facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We have now chosen to set the design energy of this facility at 7.0 GeV, with the capability to operate at up to 7.5 GeV.

  12. Advances in computational design and analysis of airbreathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of commercial and military aircraft depends, to a large extent, on engine manufacturers being able to achieve significant increases in propulsion capability through improved component aerodynamics, materials, and structures. The recent history of propulsion has been marked by efforts to develop computational techniques that can speed up the propulsion design process and produce superior designs. The availability of powerful supercomputers, such as the NASA Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, and the potential for even higher performance offered by parallel computer architectures, have opened the door to the use of multi-dimensional simulations to study complex physical phenomena in propulsion systems that have previously defied analysis or experimental observation. An overview of several NASA Lewis research efforts is provided that are contributing toward the long-range goal of a numerical test-cell for the integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. Specific examples in Internal Computational Fluid Mechanics, Computational Structural Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, and High Performance Computing are cited and described in terms of current capabilities, technical challenges, and future research directions.

  13. Design advanced for large-scale, economic, floating LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Naklie, M.M.

    1997-06-30

    A floating LNG plant design has been developed which is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. This technology will allow monetization of small marginal fields and improve the economics of large fields. Mobil`s world-scale plant design has a capacity of 6 million tons/year of LNG and up to 55,000 b/d condensate produced from 1 bcfd of feed gas. The plant would be located on a large, secure, concrete barge with a central moonpool. LNG storage is provided for 250,000 cu m and condensate storage for 650,000 bbl. And both products are off-loaded from the barge. Model tests have verified the stability of the barge structure: barge motions are low enough to permit the plant to continue operation in a 100-year storm in the Pacific Rim. Moreover, the barge is spread-moored, eliminating the need for a turret and swivel. Because the design is generic, the plant can process a wide variety of feed gases and operate in different environments, should the plant be relocated. This capability potentially gives the plant investment a much longer project life because its use is not limited to the life of only one producing area.

  14. Comparing Infants' Use of Featural and Spatiotemporal Information in an Object Individuation Task Using a New Event-Monitoring Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krojgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Discussions have recently taken place on whether spatiotemporal information is more important than featural information when infants attempt to individuate objects. Hitherto, spatiotemporal and featural information have only been compared directly by using cognitively demanding "event-mapping" designs" (e.g. Xu & Carey, 1996 ), whereas the simpler…

  15. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, N. S.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500 F (815 C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650 F (900 C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  16. NASA/USRA advanced design program, 1990 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four UCLA students, in groups of four or five, participated in a mission design for a manned expedition to Mars that was based on the concept of mid-course refueling from electrically propelled tankers launched ahead of the manned mission. The study was conducted during the 1991 spring term. Some of the student groups opted for non-nuclear propulsion of the manned ship, based on LOX and LH2; others opted for one based on nuclear thermal propulsion. By way of example, the first option is presented here.

  17. Safety goals and functional performance criteria. [Advanced Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.W.; Pratt, W.T. ); Hardin, W.B. . Div. of Regulatory Applications)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses a possible approach to the development of functional performance criteria to be applied to evolutionary LWR designs. Key safety functions are first identified; then, criteria are drawn up for each individual function, based on the premise that no single function's projected unreliability should be allowed to exhaust the safety goal frequencies. In the area of core damage prevention, functional criteria are cast in terms of necessary levels of redundancy and diversity of critical equipment. In the area of core damage mitigation (containment), functional performance criteria are cast with the aim of mitigating post-core-melt phenomena with sufficient assurance to eliminate major uncertainties in containment performance. 9 refs.

  18. Operational design factors for advanced space transportation vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehair, C. L.; Hickman, R. A.; Adams, J. D.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1992-08-01

    The tools and techniques needed to provide design decision-makers with balanced quantitative assessments of the potential operability consequences of their decisions are addressed. The factors controlling operability are identified, and a methodology to predict the impact of these factors on a specific launch vehicle is developed. Requirements to control these factors are established, and analytical tools developed specifically for performing detailed simulations to verify specific operability characteristics are described. An approach to collect, store, organize, and access high-quality historical, current, and future launch system data for the benefit of the USAF and the U.S. launch system community at large is outlined.

  19. An advanced open-path atmospheric monitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mech, S.

    1996-05-01

    The conceptual design of an open-path atmospheric monitor combines an acousto-optic tunable filter for emission spectroscopy (3-14 {mu}m) with a mid-IR (4.6-5.4 {mu}m) for absorption spectroscopy. It utilizes mostly commercially available components, covers a large area ({approximately}4 km radius), measures the distance to any reflecting object, can take measurements along any line-of-sight, and is eye safe. Of twenty test pollutants it is to detect, the concentrations of all twenty will be measurable via emission spectroscopy and ten by the more sensitive absorption spectroscopy.

  20. Advanced vehicle concepts systems and design analysis studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Mark H.; Huynh, Loc C.

    1994-01-01

    The work conducted by the ELORET Institute under this Cooperative Agreement includes the modeling of hypersonic propulsion systems and the evaluation of hypersonic vehicles in general and most recently hypersonic waverider vehicles. This work in hypersonics was applied to the design of a two-stage to orbit launch vehicle which was included in the NASA Access to Space Project. Additional research regarded the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) Project at NASA ARC and included detailed configuration studies of OAW transport aircraft. Finally, work on the modeling of subsonic and supersonic turbofan engines was conducted under this research program.

  1. An Integrated Framework Advancing Membrane Protein Modeling and Design

    PubMed Central

    Weitzner, Brian D.; Duran, Amanda M.; Tilley, Drew C.; Elazar, Assaf; Gray, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are critical functional molecules in the human body, constituting more than 30% of open reading frames in the human genome. Unfortunately, a myriad of difficulties in overexpression and reconstitution into membrane mimetics severely limit our ability to determine their structures. Computational tools are therefore instrumental to membrane protein structure prediction, consequently increasing our understanding of membrane protein function and their role in disease. Here, we describe a general framework facilitating membrane protein modeling and design that combines the scientific principles for membrane protein modeling with the flexible software architecture of Rosetta3. This new framework, called RosettaMP, provides a general membrane representation that interfaces with scoring, conformational sampling, and mutation routines that can be easily combined to create new protocols. To demonstrate the capabilities of this implementation, we developed four proof-of-concept applications for (1) prediction of free energy changes upon mutation; (2) high-resolution structural refinement; (3) protein-protein docking; and (4) assembly of symmetric protein complexes, all in the membrane environment. Preliminary data show that these algorithms can produce meaningful scores and structures. The data also suggest needed improvements to both sampling routines and score functions. Importantly, the applications collectively demonstrate the potential of combining the flexible nature of RosettaMP with the power of Rosetta algorithms to facilitate membrane protein modeling and design. PMID:26325167

  2. Advances and Computational Tools towards Predictable Design in Biological Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids) when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated. PMID:25161694

  3. An Integrated Framework Advancing Membrane Protein Modeling and Design.

    PubMed

    Alford, Rebecca F; Koehler Leman, Julia; Weitzner, Brian D; Duran, Amanda M; Tilley, Drew C; Elazar, Assaf; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2015-09-01

    Membrane proteins are critical functional molecules in the human body, constituting more than 30% of open reading frames in the human genome. Unfortunately, a myriad of difficulties in overexpression and reconstitution into membrane mimetics severely limit our ability to determine their structures. Computational tools are therefore instrumental to membrane protein structure prediction, consequently increasing our understanding of membrane protein function and their role in disease. Here, we describe a general framework facilitating membrane protein modeling and design that combines the scientific principles for membrane protein modeling with the flexible software architecture of Rosetta3. This new framework, called RosettaMP, provides a general membrane representation that interfaces with scoring, conformational sampling, and mutation routines that can be easily combined to create new protocols. To demonstrate the capabilities of this implementation, we developed four proof-of-concept applications for (1) prediction of free energy changes upon mutation; (2) high-resolution structural refinement; (3) protein-protein docking; and (4) assembly of symmetric protein complexes, all in the membrane environment. Preliminary data show that these algorithms can produce meaningful scores and structures. The data also suggest needed improvements to both sampling routines and score functions. Importantly, the applications collectively demonstrate the potential of combining the flexible nature of RosettaMP with the power of Rosetta algorithms to facilitate membrane protein modeling and design. PMID:26325167

  4. Design of radiation resistant metallic multilayers for advanced nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Gill, Simerjeet E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Stanic, Vesna; DiMasi, Elaine; Kisslinger, Kim; Ecker, Lynne; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Misra, Amit; Demkowicz, M. J.

    2014-06-16

    Helium implantation from transmutation reactions is a major cause of embrittlement and dimensional instability of structural components in nuclear energy systems. Development of novel materials with improved radiation resistance, which is of the utmost importance for progress in nuclear energy, requires guidelines to arrive at favorable parameters more efficiently. Here, we present a methodology that can be used for the design of radiation tolerant materials. We used synchrotron X-ray reflectivity to nondestructively study radiation effects at buried interfaces and measure swelling induced by He implantation in Cu/Nb multilayers. The results, supported by transmission electron microscopy, show a direct correlation between reduced swelling in nanoscale multilayers and increased interface area per unit volume, consistent with helium storage in Cu/Nb interfaces in forms that minimize dimensional changes. In addition, for Cu/Nb layers, a linear relationship is demonstrated between the measured depth-dependent swelling and implanted He density from simulations, making the reflectivity technique a powerful tool for heuristic material design.

  5. [Advances in the Immunogenic Design of HIV-1 Vaccine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Tao; Yu, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is expected to have a considerable impact on elimination of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Despite decades of effort, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 remains elusive. In recent years, the Thai HIV Vaccine Efficacy Trial (known as RV144) showed a reduction in HIV-1 acquisition by 31%, but this agent could not delay disease progression in vaccinated individuals. Clinical analyses of experimental data and experiments in vitro have revealed two main types of immunogen design: induction of broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody (bNAb) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. bNAb can prevent or reduce acquisition of infection, and its main immunogens are virus-like particles, natural envelope trimers and stable bNAb epitopes. An effective CTL response can slow-down viral infection, and its main immunogens are "mosaic" vaccines, "conserved immunogens", and the "fitness landscape" of HIV-1 proteins. This review summarizes the strategies as well as progress in the design and testing of HIV-1 immunogens to elicit bNAb and CTL responses. PMID:27295889

  6. Cigarette Design Features in Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Rosalie V.; O'Connor, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that country income grouping is correlated with cigarette engineering. Cigarettes (N = 111 brands) were purchased during 2008–2010 from 11 low-, middle-, and high-income countries to assess physical dimensions and an array of cigarette design features. Mean ventilation varied significantly across low- (7.5%), middle- (15.3%), and high-income (26.2%) countries (P ≤ 0.001). Differences across income groups were also seen in cigarette length (P = 0.001), length of the tipping paper (P = 0.01), filter weight (P = 0.017), number of vent rows (P = 0.003), per-cigarette tobacco weight (P = 0.04), and paper porosity (P = 0.008). Stepwise linear regression showed ventilation and tobacco length as major predictors of ISO tar yields in low-income countries (P = 0.909, 0.047), while tipping paper (P < 0.001), filter length (P < 0.001), number of vent rows (P = 0.014), and per-cigarette weight (P = 0.015) were predictors of tar yields in middle-income countries. Ventilation (P < 0.001), number of vent rows (P = 0.009), per-cigarette weight (P < 0.001), and filter diameter (P = 0.004) predicted tar yields in high-income countries. Health officials must be cognizant of cigarette design issues to provide effective regulation of tobacco products. PMID:22645621

  7. PRESTO, the on-line photon energy spectrometer at FERMI: design, features and commissioning results.

    PubMed

    Svetina, Cristian; Cocco, Daniele; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Ferrari, Eugenio; Zangrando, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the emission wavelength and the spectral content of the photon radiation is essential information for both machine and experimental physicists at a free-electron laser (FEL) user facility. Knowledge of the photon beam spectral properties is needed during the machine optimization and for performing machine studies (i.e. monitoring the change of the FEL output as a function of the machine parameters). The experimentalists, on the other hand, need to know the photon beam spectral distribution of the source, shot to shot, to discriminate the acquired data. Consequently, the main requirement for the instrument, supposed to obtain this information, is the capability of working on-line and shot-to-shot, with minimal perturbation of the beam delivered to the experimental stations. Starting from the grating fundamental equations, the conceptual design of the FERMI Pulse-Resolved Energy Spectrometer: Transparent and On-line (PRESTO) is presented, explaining the optical design in detail. The performance of PRESTO, in terms of resolving power, efficiency and spectral response, is also discussed. Finally, some useful features beyond the usual measurement of the energy spectrum are reported, as they have been routinely used by both machine and experimental physicists. PMID:26698043

  8. Design and Operating Features of the ITER 4.5 K Cryoplant

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinine, V.; Haange, R.; Shatil, N.; Millet, F.; Jager, B.; Briend, P.; Crispel, S.; Dauguet, P.

    2004-06-23

    The main cryogenic users of ITER are the superconducting magnet system and the cryogenic vacuum pumps. The magnet system consists of 18 toroidal field and six poloidal field coils and the central solenoid coils. The cryogenic vacuum pumps contain eight pumps for the vacuum vessel, up to four pumps for the neutral beam injectors and two for the tokamak cryostat.The paper presents the current design status of the ITER cryoplant and its operating features that allow stable and flexible operation for different plasma pulsing scenarios and transient operating modes including cool-down and coil quench. The LHe plant operates in a combined liquefaction / refrigeration mode. Liquefied helium is used for the coil current leads and for cool-down of the cryopumps after their regeneration at 80 K. The operating temperature of the LHe plant can vary in the range of 4.3 K to 4.5 K to satisfy different cooling demands of various plasma scenarios. The LHe plant is designed for a large variation ratio of refrigeration to liquefaction in order to facilitate filling of the coils with a large amount of supercritical helium after a standard cool-down or specific cool-down mode following a fast energy discharge.

  9. Cam Design Projects in an Advanced CAD Course for Mechanical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present applications of solid modeling aimed at modeling of complex geometries such as splines and blended surfaces in advanced CAD courses. These projects, in CAD-based Mechanical Engineering courses, are focused on the use of the CAD system to solve design problems for applications in machine design, namely the…

  10. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  11. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure /Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  12. Spacecraft conceptual design for the 8-meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David; Mosier, Gary; Stahl, H. Philip; Thomas, Dan; Thompson, Kevin S.

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8- meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  13. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  14. Advanced multiresponsive comploids: from design to possible applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crassous, Jérôme J.; Mihut, Adriana M.; Dietsch, Hervé; Pravaz, Olivier; Ackermann-Hirschi, Liliane; Hirt, Ann M.; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We extend the commonly used synthesis strategies for responsive microgels to the design of novel multiresponsive and multifunctional nanoparticles that combine inorganic magnetic, metallic/catalytic and thermoresponsive organic moieties. Magnetic responsiveness is implemented through the integration of silica-coated maghemite nanoparticles into fluorescently labeled crosslinked poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) microgels. These particles are then employed as templates for the in situ reduction of catalytically active gold nanoparticles. In order to tune the reactivity of the catalyst through a thermally controlled barrier, an additional layer of crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) is added in the final step. We subsequently demonstrate that these particles can be employed as smart catalysts. We show that the thermoresponsive nature of the outer particle shell not only provides control over the catalytic activity, but when combined with a magnetic core allows for very efficient removal of the catalytic system through temperature-controlled reversible coagulation and subsequent magnetophoresis in an applied magnetic field gradient. We finally discuss the use of this design principle for the synthesis of complex hybrid particles for various applications that would all profit from their multiresponsive and multifunctional nature.We extend the commonly used synthesis strategies for responsive microgels to the design of novel multiresponsive and multifunctional nanoparticles that combine inorganic magnetic, metallic/catalytic and thermoresponsive organic moieties. Magnetic responsiveness is implemented through the integration of silica-coated maghemite nanoparticles into fluorescently labeled crosslinked poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) microgels. These particles are then employed as templates for the in situ reduction of catalytically active gold nanoparticles. In order to tune the reactivity of the catalyst through a thermally controlled barrier, an additional layer

  15. Fire safety design considerations for advanced space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The desire to understand and explore space has driven man to overcome the confines of the Earth's atmosphere and accept the challenge of spaceflight. With our increasing ability to travel, work, and explore in space comes a need for a better understanding of the hazards in this relatively new endeavor. One of the most important and immediate needs is to be able to predict the ignition, spread, and growth of fire on board spacecraft. Fire safety aboard spacecraft has always been a concern; however, with the increasing number and duration of proposed missions, it is imperative that the spacecraft be designed with a solid understanding of fire hazards, insuring that all risks have been minimized and extinguishment systems are available.

  16. An advanced microcomputer design for processing of semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoern, L.; Lindkvist, L.; Zaar, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Get Away Special 330 payload two germanium samples doped with gallium will be processed. The aim of the experiments is to create a planar solid/liquid interface, and to study the breakdown of this interface as the crystal growth rate increases. For the experiments a gradient furnace was designed which is heated by resistive heaters. Cooling is provided by circulating gas from the atmosphere in the cannister through cooling channels in the furnace. The temperature along the sample are measured by platinum/rhodium thermocouples. The furnace is controlled by a microcomputer system, based upon the processor 80C88. A data acquisition system is integrated into the system. In order to synchronize the different actions in time, a multitask manager is used.

  17. Design of an advanced two-phase capillary cold plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, D. R.; Kroliczek, E. J.; Ku, J.

    1986-01-01

    The functional principles and implementation of capillary pumped loop (CPL) two phase heat transport system for various elements of the Space Station program are described. Circulation of the working fluid by the surface-tension forces in a fine-pore capillary wick is the core principle of CPL systems. The liquid, usually NH3 at the moment, is changed into a vapor by heat absorption at one end of the loop, and the vapor is carrried back along the wick by the surface tension within the wick. NASA specifications and the results of mechanical and thermal tests for prototype cold plate and the capillary pump designs are outlined. The CPL is targeted for installation on free-flying platforms, attached payloads, and power subsystem thermal control systems.

  18. Nanomaterial surface chemistry design for advancements in capillary electrophoresis modes.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Michael R; Haes, Amanda J

    2011-01-01

    Tailored surface chemistry impacts nanomaterial function and stability in applications including in various capillary electrophoresis (CE) modes. Although colloidal nanoparticles were first integrated as colouring agents in artwork and pottery over 2000 years ago, recent developments in nanoparticle synthesis and surface modification increased their usefulness and incorporation in separation science. For instance, precise control of surface chemistry is critically important in modulating nanoparticle functionality and stability in dynamic environments. Herein, recent developments in nanomaterial pseudostationary and stationary phases will be summarized. First, nanomaterial core and surface chemistry compositions will be classified. Next, characterization methods will be described and related to nanomaterial function in various CE modes. Third, methods and implications of nanomaterial incorporation into CE will be discussed. Finally, nanoparticle-specific mechanisms likely involved in CE will be related to nanomaterial surface chemistry. Better understanding of surface chemistry will improve nanoparticle design for the integration into separation techniques. PMID:20967383

  19. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Task 7: Engine data summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    A performance optimized engine system design for a man-rated advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine was investigated. The data are presented in tables, figures, and drawings. The following categories of data for the advanced expander cycle engine are presented: engine operating specification and pressure schedule; engine system layout drawing; major component layout drawings, including thrust chamber and nozzle, extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal, LOX turbopump, LOX boost pump, hydrogen turbopump, hydrogen boost pump, and propellant control valves; engine performance and service life prediction; engine weight; and engine envelope. The data represent updates based upon current results from the design and analyses tasks performed under contract. Futher iterations in the designs and data can be expected as the advanced expander cycle engine design matures.

  20. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Summer Conference. NASA/USRA: University Advanced Design Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Design Program (ADP) is a unique program that brings together students and faculty from U.S. engineering schools with engineers from the NASA centers through integration of current and future NASA space and aeronautics projects into university engineering design curriculum. The Advanced Space Design Program study topics cover a broad range of projects that could be undertaken during a 20-30 year period beginning with the deployment of the Space Station Freedom. The Advanced Aeronautics Design Program study topics typically focus on nearer-term projects of interest to NASA, covering from small, slow-speed vehicles through large, supersonic passenger transports and on through hypersonic research vehicles. Student work accomplished during the 1990-91 academic year and reported at the 7th Annual Summer Conference is presented.