Science.gov

Sample records for advanced design tools

  1. Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.

  2. Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor

    2012-05-31

    Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.

  3. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.0

    2002-06-13

    Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools is a 5-level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c)Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the processmore » of having MEMS fabricated at SNL e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with the software AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. NOTE: THE CUSTOMER MUST PURCHASE HIS/HER OWN COPY OF AutoCAD TO USE WITH THESE FILES.« less

  4. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, Victor; Allen, James; Lantz, Jeffery; Priddy, Brian; & Westling, Belinda

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  5. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external tomore » Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.« less

  6. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  7. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  8. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, V2.1

    2002-02-04

    SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers intornal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standardmore » Parts Library) d) Facilitate the process of having MEMS fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Nole that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of Aut0CAD to use with these files.« less

  9. Advances and computational tools towards predictable design in biological engineering.

    PubMed

    Pasotti, Lorenzo; Zucca, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids) when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated.

  10. Advanced Engineering Tools for Structural Analysis of Advanced Power Plants Application to the GE ESBWR Design

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.E.; Fanning, A.; Diaz Llanos, M.; Moreno, A.; Carrasco, A.

    2002-07-01

    Experience in the design of nuclear reactors for power generation shows that the plant structures and buildings involved are one of the major contributors to plant capital investment. Consequently, the design of theses elements must be optimised if cost reductions in future reactors are to be achieved. The benefits of using the 'Best Estimate Approach' are well known in the area of core and systems design. This consists in developing accurate models of a plant's phenomenology and behaviour, minimising the margins. Different safety margins have been applied in the past when performing structural analyses. Three of these margins can be identified: - increasing the value of the load by a factor that depends on the load frequency; - decreasing the resistance of the structure's resistance, and - safety margins introduced through two step analysis. The first two type of margins are established in the applicable codes in order to provide design safety margins. The third one derives from limitations in tools which, in the past, did not allow obtaining an accurate model in which both the dynamic and static loads could be evaluated simultaneously. Nowadays, improvements in hardware and software have eliminated the need for two-step calculations in structural analysis (dynamic plus static), allowing the creation one-through finite element models in which all loads, both dynamic and static, are combined without the determination of the equivalent static loads from the dynamic loads. This paper summarizes how these models and methods have been applied to optimize the Reactor Building structural design of the General Electric (GE) ESBWR Passive Plant. The work has focused on three areas: - the design of the Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) Pools as pressure boundary between the Drywell and the Wet-well; - the evaluation of the thickness of the Reactor Building foundation slab, and - the global structural evaluation of the Reactor Building.

  11. Recovery Act: Advanced Interaction, Computation, and Visualization Tools for Sustainable Building Design

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Donald P.; Hencey, Brandon M.

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.

  12. Advanced gradient-index lens design tools to maximize system performance and reduce SWaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sawyer D.; Nagar, Jogender; Brocker, Donovan E.; Easum, John A.; Turpin, Jeremiah P.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-05-01

    GRadient-INdex (GRIN) lenses have long been of interest due to their potential for providing levels of performance unachievable with traditional homogeneous lenses. While historically limited by a lack of suitable materials, rapid advancements in manufacturing techniques, including 3D printing, have recently kindled a renewed interest in GRIN optics. Further increasing the desire for GRIN devices has been the advent of Transformation Optics (TO), which provides the mathematical framework for representing the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in a given geometry by "transforming" it to an alternative, usually more desirable, geometry through an appropriate mapping of the constituent material parameters. Using TO, aspherical lenses can be transformed to simpler spherical and flat geometries or even rotationally-asymmetric shapes which result in true 3D GRIN profiles. Meanwhile, there is a critical lack of suitable design tools which can effectively evaluate the optical wave propagation through 3D GRIN profiles produced by TO. Current modeling software packages for optical lens systems also lack advanced multi-objective global optimization capability which allows the user to explicitly view the trade-offs between all design objectives such as focus quality, FOV, ▵nand focal drift due to chromatic aberrations. When coupled with advanced design methodologies such as TO, wavefront matching (WFM), and analytical achromatic GRIN theory, these tools provide a powerful framework for maximizing SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) reduction in GRIN-enabled optical systems. We provide an overview of our advanced GRIN design tools and examples which minimize the presence of mono- and polychromatic aberrations in the context of reducing SWaP.

  13. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  14. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  15. Advancing lighting and daylighting simulation: The transition from analysis to design aid tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper explores three significant software development requirements for making the transition from stand-alone lighting simulation/analysis tools to simulation-based design aid tools. These requirements include specialized lighting simulation engines, facilitated methods for creating detailed simulatable building descriptions, an automated techniques for providing lighting design guidance. Initial computer implementations meant to address each of these requirements are discussed to further elaborate these requirements and to illustrate work-in-progress.

  16. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  17. Advanced semi-active engine and transmission mounts: tools for modelling, analysis, design, and tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farjoud, Alireza; Taylor, Russell; Schumann, Eric; Schlangen, Timothy

    2014-02-01

    This paper is focused on modelling, design, and testing of semi-active magneto-rheological (MR) engine and transmission mounts used in the automotive industry. The purpose is to develop a complete analysis, synthesis, design, and tuning tool that reduces the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory and field tests. A detailed mathematical model of such devices is developed using multi-physics modelling techniques for physical systems with various energy domains. The model includes all major features of an MR mount including fluid dynamics, fluid track, elastic components, decoupler, rate-dip, gas-charged chamber, MR fluid rheology, magnetic circuit, electronic driver, and control algorithm. Conventional passive hydraulic mounts can also be studied using the same mathematical model. The model is validated using standard experimental procedures. It is used for design and parametric study of mounts; effects of various geometric and material parameters on dynamic response of mounts can be studied. Additionally, this model can be used to test various control strategies to obtain best vibration isolation performance by tuning control parameters. Another benefit of this work is that nonlinear interactions between sub-components of the mount can be observed and investigated. This is not possible by using simplified linear models currently available.

  18. Phase Transformation Theory, a Powerful Tool for the Design of Advanced Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, Francesca G.; Miller, Michael K; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Capdevila, C.; Garcia de Andres, C

    2008-01-01

    An innovative design procedure based on phase transformation theory alone has been successfully applied to design steels with a microstructure consisting of a mixture of bainitic ferrite, retained austenite, and some martensite. An increase in the amount of bainitic ferrite is needed in order to avoid the presence of large regions of untransformed austenite, which under stress decompose to brittle martensite. The design procedure addresses this difficulty by adjusting the T'o curve to greater carbon concentrations with the use of substitutional solutes such as manganese and chromium. The concepts of bainite transformation theory can be exploited even further to design steels with strength in excess of 2.5 GPa and considerable toughness.

  19. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tools and New Strategies for Robust Design of Turbine Engine Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The adverse effects of small, random structural irregularities among the blades, called mistuning, can result in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses that are much larger than those predicted for a perfectly tuned rotor. Manufacturing tolerances, deviations in material properties, or nonuniform operational wear causes mistuning; therefore, mistuning is unavoidable. Furthermore, even a small mistuning can have a dramatic effect on the vibratory behavior of a rotor because it can lead to spatial localization of the vibration energy (see the following photographs). As a result, certain blades may experience forced response amplitudes and stresses that are substantially larger than those predicted by an analysis of the nominal (tuned) design. Unfortunately, these random uncertainties in blade properties, and the immense computational effort involved in obtaining statistically reliable design data, combine to make this aspect of rotor design cumbersome.

  20. Rapid medical advances challenge the tooling industry.

    PubMed

    Conley, B

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for greater performance in smaller spaces has increased demands for product and process innovation in tubing and other medical products. In turn, these developments have placed greater demands on the producers of the advanced tooling for these products. Tooling manufacturers must now continuously design equipment with much tighter tolerances for more sophisticated coextrusions and for newer generations of multilumen and multilayer tubing.

  1. Advanced engineering tools for design and fabrication of a custom nasal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Inês; Leal, Nuno; Silva, Pedro; da Costa Ferreira, A.; Neto, Rui J.; Lino, F. Jorge; Reis, Ana

    2012-09-01

    Unexpected external defects resulting from neoplasms, burns, congenital malformations, trauma or other diseases, particularly when involving partial or total loss of an external organ, can be emotionally devastating. These defects can be restored with prosthesis, obtained by different techniques, materials and methods. The increase of patient numbers and cost constraints lead to the need of exploring new techniques that can increase efficiency. The main goal of this project was to develop a full engineering-based manufacturing process to obtain soft-tissue prosthesis that could provide faster and less expensive options in the manufacturing of customized prosthesis, and at the same time being able to reproduce the highest degree of details, with the maximum comfort for the patient. Design/methodology/approach - This case report describes treatment using silicone prosthesis with an anatomic retention for an 80-years-old woman with a rhinectomy. The proposed methodology integrates non-contact structured light scanning, CT and reverse engineering with CAD/CAM and additive manufacturing technology. Findings - The proposed protocol showed encouraging results since reveals being a better solution for fabricating custom-made facial prostheses for asymmetrical organs than conventional approaches. The process allows the attainment of prosthesis with the minimum contact and discomfort for the patient, disclosing excellent results in terms of aesthetic, prosthesis retention and in terms of time and resources consumed.

  2. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  3. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity is

  4. New Tools for Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliburton, Cal; Roza, Victoria

    2006-01-01

    Technology educators are constantly in search of new tools and methods to enhance the education of their students. This article is an excerpt from a longer article published in "The Technology Teacher" that introduced the technology education community to a research- and knowledge-based methodology for design--invention and innovation. This…

  5. Innovative and Advanced Coupled Neutron Transport and Thermal Hydraulic Method (Tool) for the Design, Analysis and Optimization of VHTR/NGNP Prismatic Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rahnema, Farzad; Garimeela, Srinivas; Ougouag, Abderrafi; Zhang, Dingkang

    2013-11-29

    This project will develop a 3D, advanced coarse mesh transport method (COMET-Hex) for steady- state and transient analyses in advanced very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). The project will lead to a coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulic (T/H) core simulation tool with fuel depletion capability. The computational tool will be developed in hexagonal geometry, based solely on transport theory without (spatial) homogenization in complicated 3D geometries. In addition to the hexagonal geometry extension, collaborators will concurrently develop three additional capabilities to increase the code’s versatility as an advanced and robust core simulator for VHTRs. First, the project team will develop and implement a depletion method within the core simulator. Second, the team will develop an elementary (proof-of-concept) 1D time-dependent transport method for efficient transient analyses. The third capability will be a thermal hydraulic method coupled to the neutronics transport module for VHTRs. Current advancements in reactor core design are pushing VHTRs toward greater core and fuel heterogeneity to pursue higher burn-ups, efficiently transmute used fuel, maximize energy production, and improve plant economics and safety. As a result, an accurate and efficient neutron transport, with capabilities to treat heterogeneous burnable poison effects, is highly desirable for predicting VHTR neutronics performance. This research project’s primary objective is to advance the state of the art for reactor analysis.

  6. Tool and Fixture Design

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Mark W.

    2015-07-28

    In a manufacturing process, a need is identified and a product is created to fill this need. While design and engineering of the final product is important, the tools and fixtures that aid in the creation of the final product are just as important, if not more so. Power supplies assembled at the TA-55 PF-5 have been designed by an excellent engineering team. The task in PF-5 now is to ensure that all steps of the assembly and manufacturing process can be completed safely, reliably, and in a quality repeatable manner. One of these process steps involves soldering fine wires to an electrical connector. During the process development phase, the method of soldering included placing the power supply in a vice in order to manipulate it into a position conducive to soldering. This method is unacceptable from a reliability, repeatability, and ergonomic standpoint. To combat these issues, a fixture was designed to replace the current method. To do so, a twelve step engineering design process was used to create the fixture that would provide a solution to a multitude of problems, and increase the safety and efficiency of production.

  7. MOD Tool (Microwave Optics Design Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently designing and building a number of instruments that operate in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. These include MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and IMAS (Integrated Multispectral Atmospheric Sounder). These instruments must be designed and built to meet key design criteria (e.g., beamwidth, gain, pointing) obtained from the scientific goals for the instrument. These criteria are frequently functions of the operating environment (both thermal and mechanical). To design and build instruments which meet these criteria, it is essential to be able to model the instrument in its environments. Currently, a number of modeling tools exist. Commonly used tools at JPL include: FEMAP (meshing), NASTRAN (structural modeling), TRASYS and SINDA (thermal modeling), MACOS/IMOS (optical modeling), and POPO (physical optics modeling). Each of these tools is used by an analyst, who models the instrument in one discipline. The analyst then provides the results of this modeling to another analyst, who continues the overall modeling in another discipline. There is a large reengineering task in place at JPL to automate and speed-up the structural and thermal modeling disciplines, which does not include MOD Tool. The focus of MOD Tool (and of this paper) is in the fields unique to microwave and millimeter-wave instrument design. These include initial design and analysis of the instrument without thermal or structural loads, the automation of the transfer of this design to a high-end CAD tool, and the analysis of the structurally deformed instrument (due to structural and/or thermal loads). MOD Tool is a distributed tool, with a database of design information residing on a server, physical optics analysis being performed on a variety of supercomputer platforms, and a graphical user interface (GUI) residing on the user's desktop computer. The MOD Tool client is being developed using Tcl

  8. Turbine Aerodynamics Design Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Frank W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the Marshal Space Flight Center Fluids Workshop on Turbine Aerodynamic design tool development. The topics include: (1) Meanline Design/Off-design Analysis; and (2) Airfoil Contour Generation and Analysis. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  9. Integrated Design Tools Reduce Risk, Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Thanks in part to a SBIR award with Langley Research Center, Phoenix Integration Inc., based in Wayne, Pennsylvania, modified and advanced software for process integration and design automation. For NASA, the tool has resulted in lower project costs and reductions in design time; clients of Phoenix Integration are experiencing the same rewards.

  10. Design tool for symbolic substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathi, Ranjani; Jhunjhunwala, Ashok

    1996-11-01

    A design tool that aids in designing, evaluating, and comparing various implementations of optical symbolic substitution is presented. A hierarchical, modular approach to design similar to that used in digital electronics is supported to facilitate the design of large complex systems. This tool is composed of a schematic capture unit, a simulator unit, and an evaluation unit. Starting with the definition of certain basic or integrated optical elements performing well-defined functions, a schematic capture unit helps to design specific functions. The simulator tool helps to verify the design and the evaluation tool determines its complexity. The usefulness of this design tool is demonstrated with an example design of a simple four- function arithmetic logic unit.

  11. Design intent tool: User guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan; Abell, Daniel; Bell, Geoffrey; Faludi, Jeremy; Greenberg, Steve; Hitchcock, Rob; Piette, Mary Ann; Sartor, Dalei; Stum, Karl

    2002-08-23

    This database tool provides a structured approach to recording design decisions that impact a facility's design intent in areas such as energy efficiency.Owners and de signers alike can plan, monitor and verify that a facility's design intent is being met during each stage of the design process. Additionally, the Tool gives commissioning agents, facility operators and future owners and renovators an understanding of how the building and its subsystems are intended to operate, and thus track and benchmark performance.

  12. Advances in Antibody Design.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Kathryn E; Tessier, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics requires optimizing several of their key attributes. These include binding affinity and specificity, folding stability, solubility, pharmacokinetics, effector functions, and compatibility with the attachment of additional antibody domains (bispecific antibodies) and cytotoxic drugs (antibody-drug conjugates). Addressing these and other challenges requires the use of systematic design methods that complement powerful immunization and in vitro screening methods. We review advances in designing the binding loops, scaffolds, domain interfaces, constant regions, post-translational and chemical modifications, and bispecific architectures of antibodies and fragments thereof to improve their bioactivity. We also highlight unmet challenges in antibody design that must be overcome to generate potent antibody therapeutics. PMID:26274600

  13. Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP); (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW); and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.

  14. A Meta-Analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to…

  15. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  16. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  17. Dataflow Design Tool: User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1996-01-01

    The Dataflow Design Tool is a software tool for selecting a multiprocessor scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described with a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on a set of identical processors. Typical applications include signal processing and control law problems. The software tool implements graph-search algorithms and analysis techniques based on the dataflow paradigm. Dataflow analyses provided by the software are introduced and shown to effectively determine performance bounds, scheduling constraints, and resource requirements. The software tool provides performance optimization through the inclusion of artificial precedence constraints among the schedulable tasks. The user interface and tool capabilities are described. Examples are provided to demonstrate the analysis, scheduling, and optimization functions facilitated by the tool.

  18. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  19. Simplified, inverse, ejector design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechant, Lawrence J.

    1993-01-01

    A simple lumped parameter based inverse design tool has been developed which provides flow path geometry and entrainment estimates subject to operational, acoustic, and design constraints. These constraints are manifested through specification of primary mass flow rate or ejector thrust, fully-mixed exit velocity, and static pressure matching. Fundamentally, integral forms of the conservation equations coupled with the specified design constraints are combined to yield an easily invertible linear system in terms of the flow path cross-sectional areas. Entrainment is computed by back substitution. Initial comparison with experimental and analogous one-dimensional methods show good agreement. Thus, this simple inverse design code provides an analytically based, preliminary design tool with direct application to High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design studies.

  20. Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

  1. Design and Analysis Tools for Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Folk, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Computational tools are being developed for the design and analysis of supersonic inlets. The objective is to update existing tools and provide design and low-order aerodynamic analysis capability for advanced inlet concepts. The Inlet Tools effort includes aspects of creating an electronic database of inlet design information, a document describing inlet design and analysis methods, a geometry model for describing the shape of inlets, and computer tools that implement the geometry model and methods. The geometry model has a set of basic inlet shapes that include pitot, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and stream-traced inlet shapes. The inlet model divides the inlet flow field into parts that facilitate the design and analysis methods. The inlet geometry model constructs the inlet surfaces through the generation and transformation of planar entities based on key inlet design factors. Future efforts will focus on developing the inlet geometry model, the inlet design and analysis methods, a Fortran 95 code to implement the model and methods. Other computational platforms, such as Java, will also be explored.

  2. Optimizing Advanced Power System Designs Under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Diwekar; Frey, H.C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes recent developments in ongoing research to develop and demonstrate advanced computer-based methods for dealing with uncertainties that are critical to the design of advanced coal-based power systems. Recent developments include new deterministic and stochastic methods for simulation, optimization, and synthesis of advanced process designs. Results are presented illustrating the use of these new modeling tools for the design and analysis of several advanced systems of current interest to the U.S. Department of Energy, including the technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), advanced pressurized fluid combustion (PFBC), and the externally fired combined cycle (EFCC) process. The new methods developed in this research can be applied generally to any chemical or energy conversion process to reduce the technological risks associated with uncertainties in process performance and cost.

  3. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  4. A New Method For Advanced Virtual Design Of Stamping Tools For Automotive Industry: Application To Nodular Cast Iron EN-GJS-600-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Slima, Khalil; Penazzi, Luc; Mabru, Catherine; Ronde-Oustau, François; Rezaï-Aria, Farhad

    2011-05-01

    This contribution presents an approach combining the stamping numerical processing simulations and structure analysis in order to improve the design for optimizing the tool fatigue life. The method consists in simulating the stamping process via AutoForm® (or any FEM Code) by considering the tool as a perfect rigid body. The estimated contact pressure is then used as boundary condition for FEM structure loading analysis. The result of this analysis is used for life prediction of the tool using S-N fatigue curve. If the prescribed tool life requirements are not satisfied, then the critical region of the tool is redesigned and the whole simulation procedures are reactivated. This optimization method is applied for a cast iron EN-GJS-600-3 as candidate stamping tool materiel. The room temperature fatigue S-N curves of this alloy are established in laboratory under uniaxial push/pull cyclic experiments on cylindrical specimens under a load ratio of R (σmin/σmax) = -2.

  5. Challenges Facing Design and Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The design and analysis of future aerospace systems will strongly rely on advanced engineering analysis tools used in combination with risk mitigation procedures. The implications of such a trend place increased demands on these tools to assess off-nominal conditions, residual strength, damage propagation, and extreme loading conditions in order to understand and quantify these effects as they affect mission success. Advances in computer hardware such as CPU processing speed, memory, secondary storage, and visualization provide significant resources for the engineer to exploit in engineering design. The challenges facing design and analysis tools fall into three primary areas. The first area involves mechanics needs such as constitutive modeling, contact and penetration simulation, crack growth prediction, damage initiation and progression prediction, transient dynamics and deployment simulations, and solution algorithms. The second area involves computational needs such as fast, robust solvers, adaptivity for model and solution strategies, control processes for concurrent, distributed computing for uncertainty assessments, and immersive technology. Traditional finite element codes still require fast direct solvers which when coupled to current CPU power enables new insight as a result of high-fidelity modeling. The third area involves decision making by the analyst. This area involves the integration and interrogation of vast amounts of information - some global in character while local details are critical and often drive the design. The proposed presentation will describe and illustrate these areas using composite structures, energy-absorbing structures, and inflatable space structures. While certain engineering approximations within the finite element model may be adequate for global response prediction, they generally are inadequate in a design setting or when local response prediction is critical. Pitfalls to be avoided and trends for emerging analysis tools

  6. MEGARA cryostat advanced design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar; Velázquez, M.; Gil de Paz, A.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Cedazo, R.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2014-08-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit and Multi-Object Spectrograph designed for the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias) 10.4m telescope in La Palma. MEGARA project has already passed preliminary design review and the optics critical design review, first-light it is expected to take place at the end of 2016. MEGARA is a development under a GRANTECAN contract. In this paper we summarize the current status of the LN2 open-cycle cryostat which has been designed by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and emphasize the key parts of the system that have updated since the Preliminary Design, the main activities related to acceptance, integration, fabrication and maintenance plans which fit into the overall structure of the management plan of MEGARA are also described. The cryogenic work package of MEGARA has completed all the design stages and is ready for its Critical Design Review and then proceed to fabrication.

  7. Self-advancing step-tap tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor); Penner, Ronald K. (Inventor); Franklin, Larry D. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and tool for simultaneously forming a bore in a work piece and forming a series of threads in said bore. In an embodiment, the tool has a predetermined axial length, a proximal end, and a distal end, said tool comprising: a shank located at said proximal end; a pilot drill portion located at said distal end; and a mill portion intermediately disposed between said shank and said pilot drill portion. The mill portion is comprised of at least two drill-tap sections of predetermined axial lengths and at least one transition section of predetermined axial length, wherein each of said at least one transition section is sandwiched between a distinct set of two of said at least two drill-tap sections. The at least two drill-tap sections are formed of one or more drill-tap cutting teeth spirally increasing along said at least two drill-tap sections, wherein said tool is self-advanced in said work piece along said formed threads, and wherein said tool simultaneously forms said bore and said series of threads along a substantially similar longitudinal axis.

  8. URPD: a specific product primer design tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. Findings URPD (yoUR Primer Design), a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq), UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA) and genetic algorithm (GA) primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. Conclusions URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/. PMID:22713312

  9. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  10. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  11. Passive Energy Building Design Tool

    1994-11-01

    SOLAR5 is a computer aided design tool to help architects design better, more energy efficient buildings. It is intended for use at the beginning of the design process. To get started, only four pieces of information are necessary to compute the energy needed: the square footage, the number of stories, the kind of building (such as school, home, hotel, or any one of 20 types), and its location (the program stores the temperature ranges formore » fourty major cities). Additional information may be given later to fine tune the design. An expert system using heuristics from a wide range of sources, automatically creates a passive solar baseline building from the four facts specified for that project. By modifying and adapting prior designs the user can create and work upon as many as nine schemes simultaneously. SOLAR5 can analyze the buildings thermal performance for each hour of each month and plot its total heat gain or loss as a three-dimensional surface. After reading the plot, the user can immediately redesign the building and rerun the analysis. Separate heat gain/loss surfaces can be plotted for each of the different parts of the building or schemes that add together to make up the total, including walls, roof, windows, skylights, floor, slab on grade, people, lights, equipment, and infiltration. Two different schemes can be instantly compared by asking for a three-dimensional plot showing only the difference in their performances. The objective of SOLAR5 is to allow the designer to make changes easily and quickly with detailed instantaneous pictorial feedback of the implications of the change.« less

  12. Advanced surface design for logistics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim R.; Hansen, Scott D.

    The development of anthropometric arm/hand and tool models and their manipulation in a large system model for maintenance simulation are discussed. The use of Advanced Surface Design and s-fig technology in anthropometrics, and three-dimensional graphics simulation tools, are found to achieve a good balance between model manipulation speed and model accuracy. The present second generation models are shown to be twice as fast to manipulate as the first generation b-surf models, to be easier to manipulate into various configurations, and to more closely approximate human contours.

  13. Reliability-Based Electronics Shielding Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; O'Neill, P. J.; Zang, T. A.; Pandolf, J. E.; Tripathi, R. K.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2007-01-01

    Shielding design on large human-rated systems allows minimization of radiation impact on electronic systems. Shielding design tools require adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and adequate follow-up on final design evaluation.

  14. Evaluation of reliability modeling tools for advanced fault tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Robert; Scheper, Charlotte

    1986-01-01

    The Computer Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) and Automated Reliability Interactice Estimation System (ARIES 82) reliability tools for application to advanced fault tolerance aerospace systems were evaluated. To determine reliability modeling requirements, the evaluation focused on the Draper Laboratories' Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) architecture as an example architecture for fault tolerance aerospace systems. Advantages and limitations were identified for each reliability evaluation tool. The CARE III program was designed primarily for analyzing ultrareliable flight control systems. The ARIES 82 program's primary use was to support university research and teaching. Both CARE III and ARIES 82 were not suited for determining the reliability of complex nodal networks of the type used to interconnect processing sites in the AIPS architecture. It was concluded that ARIES was not suitable for modeling advanced fault tolerant systems. It was further concluded that subject to some limitations (the difficulty in modeling systems with unpowered spare modules, systems where equipment maintenance must be considered, systems where failure depends on the sequence in which faults occurred, and systems where multiple faults greater than a double near coincident faults must be considered), CARE III is best suited for evaluating the reliability of advanced tolerant systems for air transport.

  15. Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

  16. Advanced CAN (Controller Area Network) Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, D.J.

    2000-03-17

    The CAN interface cards that are currently in use are PCMCIA based and use a microprocessor and CAN chip that are no longer in production. The long-term support of the SGT CAN interface is of concern due to this issue along with performance inadequacies and technical support. The CAN bus is at the heart of the SGT trailer. If the CAN bus in the SGT trailer cannot be maintained adequately, then the trailer itself cannot be maintained adequately. These concerns led to the need for a CRADA to help develop a new product that would be called the ''Gryphon'' CAN tool. FM and T provided manufacturing expertise along with design criteria to ensure SGT compatibility and long-term support. FM and T also provided resources for software support. Dearborn provided software and hardware design expertise to implement the necessary requirements. Both partners worked around heavy internal workloads to support completion of the project. This CRADA establishes a US source for an item that is very critical to support the SGT project. The Dearborn Group had the same goal to provide a US alternative to German suppliers. The Dearborn Group was also interested in developing a CAN product that has performance characteristics that place the Gryphon in a class by itself. This enhanced product not only meets and exceeds SGT requirements; it has opened up options that were not even considered before the project began. The cost of the product is also less than the European options.

  17. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  18. Advances in technologies and study design.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Laurence D

    2012-01-01

    The initial draft sequence of the human genome was the proving ground for significant technological advancements, and its completion has ushered in increasingly sophisticated tools and ever-increasing amounts of data. Often, this combination has multiplicative effects such as stimulating research groups to consider subsequent experiments of at least equal if not greater complexity or employ advanced technologies. As applied to the fields of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, these advances in technology and experimental design allow researchers to probe the biological, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms underpinning the response to micro- and macronutrients, along with downstream health effects. It is becoming ever more apparent that effects on gene expression as a consequence of genetic variation and perturbations to cellular and physiological systems are an important cornerstone of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics research. A critical, near-term objective, however, must be to determine where and how nutrients and their metabolites augment or disrupt the genetic variation-gene expression axis. Downstream effects on protein and metabolite measures are also seen with growing regularity as vital components to this research. Thus, this chapter reviews the scope of recent progress and innovation in genomics and associated technologies as well as study designs as applied to nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics research and provides concrete examples of the application of those advancements in genomics-oriented nutrition research.

  19. Advances of implementing NC machine tools discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuyev, Y. P.; Trukhan, Y. V.

    1984-11-01

    Numerical control machine tools which are one of the principal resources of reequipment, mechanization and automation of small series and series production in machine building were examined. The continually increasing volume of NC machine tools which are produced and introduced is economically significant for introduction of these machine tools to operation and organization of their effective use. Organizational and technical measures were directed at solving these problems. To insure the fastest introduction of NC machine tools into operation and their technical maintenance, a number of setting up organizations was organized. Setting up services are also provided by the plants manufacturing the NC machine tools, and appropriate subdivisions are created for this purpose.

  20. New design tools for LED headlamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domhardt, André; Rohlfing, Udo; Weingaertner, Simon; Klinger, Karsten; Kooß, Dieter; Manz, Karl; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    The automotive lighting technology is in considerable progress due to new components, e.g., High-Power-LEDs and light guides, and new sophisticated production techniques. Furthermore, great importance is being attached to the appearance of front and tail lamps. White High-Power-LEDs have reached a development stage that affords its reasonable application to low beam headlamps. This challenging illumination function requires sophisticated design techniques in order to preserve the advantages associated with this source type. Thus, high efficiency and stylish appearance have to be reconciled, e.g., with the use of freeform surfaces. Beside the demands from manufacturers and customers, car lamps have to meet several regulations (ECE, SAE, etc.). This contribution describes the illumination design of a LED-based low beam headlamp using advanced mathematical methods, e.g., 3D-Tailoring, automatic optimization, and Virtually Reflecting/Refracting Surfaces (VRS). We propose this new surface type with non conventional reflection/refraction properties as an advantageous design tool for the first layout and for automatic optimization, as well. For efficiency reasons, special attention will be paid to the creation of the cut-off line without using additional stops.

  1. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  2. Advanced tool kits for EPR security.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B

    2000-11-01

    Responding to the challenge for efficient and high quality health care, the shared care paradigm must be established in health. In that context, information systems such as electronic patient records (EPR) have to meet this paradigm supporting communication and interoperation between the health care establishments (HCE) and health professionals (HP) involved. Due to the sensitivity of personal medical information, this co-operation must be provided in a trustworthy way. To enable different views of HCE and HP ranging from management, doctors, nurses up to systems administrators and IT professionals, a set of models for analysis, design and implementation of secure distributed EPR has been developed and introduced. The approach is based on the popular UML methodology and the component paradigm for open, interoperable systems. Easy to use tool kits deal with both application security services and communication security services but also with the security infrastructure needed. Regarding the requirements for distributed multi-user EPRs, modelling and implementation of policy agreements, authorisation and access control are especially considered. Current developments for a security infrastructure in health care based on cryptographic algorithms as health professional cards (HPC), security services employing digital signatures, and health-related TTP services are discussed. CEN and ISO initiatives for health informatics standards in the context of secure and communicable EPR are especially mentioned. PMID:11154968

  3. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  4. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-15

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  5. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  6. Tools for Automating Instructional Design. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz, Abby

    The instructional design process encompasses a set of interdependent phases including analysis of learners, contexts and goals; design of objectives, strategies and assessment tools; production of instructional materials; and evaluation of learner performance and overall instructional design effort. Automated instructional design (AID) tools…

  7. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

  8. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  9. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R.; Kleine, T.H.; Forsyth, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  10. Automated radiation hard ASIC design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mike; Bartholet, Bill; Baze, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A commercial based, foundry independent, compiler design tool (ChipCrafter) with custom radiation hardened library cells is described. A unique analysis approach allows low hardness risk for Application Specific IC's (ASIC's). Accomplishments, radiation test results, and applications are described.

  11. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  12. Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The iconic, orange external tank of the space shuttle launch system not only contains the fuel used by the shuttle s main engines during liftoff but also comprises the shuttle s backbone, supporting the space shuttle orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Given the tank s structural importance and the extreme forces (7.8 million pounds of thrust load) and temperatures it encounters during launch, the welds used to construct the tank must be highly reliable. Variable polarity plasma arc welding, developed for manufacturing the external tank and later employed for building the International Space Station, was until 1994 the best process for joining the aluminum alloys used during construction. That year, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers began experimenting with a relatively new welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW), developed in 1991 by The Welding Institute, of Cambridge, England. FSW differs from traditional fusion welding in that it is a solid-state welding technique, using frictional heat and motion to join structural components without actually melting any of the material. The weld is created by a shouldered pin tool that is plunged into the seam of the materials to be joined. The tool traverses the line while rotating at high speeds, generating friction that heats and softens but does not melt the metal. (The heat produced approaches about 80 percent of the metal s melting temperature.) The pin tool s rotation crushes and stirs the plasticized metal, extruding it along the seam as the tool moves forward. The material cools and consolidates, resulting in a weld with superior mechanical properties as compared to those weld properties of fusion welds. The innovative FSW technology promises a number of attractive benefits. Because the welded materials are not melted, many of the undesirables associated with fusion welding porosity, cracking, shrinkage, and distortion of the weld are minimized or avoided. The process is more energy efficient, safe

  13. Design of testbed and emulation tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstrom, S. F.; Flynn, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The research summarized was concerned with the design of testbed and emulation tools suitable to assist in projecting, with reasonable accuracy, the expected performance of highly concurrent computing systems on large, complete applications. Such testbed and emulation tools are intended for the eventual use of those exploring new concurrent system architectures and organizations, either as users or as designers of such systems. While a range of alternatives was considered, a software based set of hierarchical tools was chosen to provide maximum flexibility, to ease in moving to new computers as technology improves and to take advantage of the inherent reliability and availability of commercially available computing systems.

  14. Control/structure interaction conceptual design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1990-01-01

    The JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program is developing new analytical methods for designing micro-precision spacecraft with controlled structures. One of these, the Conceptual Design Tool, will illustrate innovative new approaches to the integration of multi-disciplinary analysis and design methods. The tool will be used to demonstrate homogeneity of presentation, uniform data representation across analytical methods, and integrated systems modeling. The tool differs from current 'integrated systems' that support design teams most notably in its support for the new CSI multi-disciplinary engineer. The design tool will utilize a three dimensional solid model of the spacecraft under design as the central data organization metaphor. Various analytical methods, such as finite element structural analysis, control system analysis, and mechanical configuration layout, will store and retrieve data from a hierarchical, object oriented data structure that supports assemblies of components with associated data and algorithms. In addition to managing numerical model data, the tool will assist the designer in organizing, stating, and tracking system requirements.

  15. Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Andrew Jacob

    2012-01-01

    I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

  16. The role of guideline-based design tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    User System Interface (USI) design guidelines are one of the more popular tools that have been developed to aid designers in creating effective interfaces. When used properly, guidelines can provide the basis for a structured design methodology throughout the system life cycle. A survey published by Mosier and Smith (1986) provides an in-depth account of guideline usage. That 1986 survey showed that guidelines were used in varying degrees by virtually all types of people involved in the design and evaluation of USIs. Design guidelines are one of the older USI design tools, and the continued popularity of guidelines can be seen by the continued updating and expansion of guideline compendiums to keep up with new advances in the field.

  17. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  18. A new design of tungsten carbide tools with diamond coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Weihnacht, V.; Fan, W.D.; Jagannadham, K.; Narayan, J.; Liu, C.

    1996-09-01

    We have designed tungsten carbide tools with a new binder, which makes them suitable for advanced diamond tool coatings. The new tool substrates, made of tungsten carbide and nickel aluminide as binder phase, are produced by sintering and hot isostatic pressing, and also by combustion synthesis. The high temperature strength of nickel aluminide is key to superior tool performance at elevated temperatures. More importantly, nickel aluminides reduce the formation of graphite and promote diamond growth during chemical vapor deposition. Diamond films are deposited on the new tool substrates to investigate the nucleation density, adhesion, and wear resistance. The diamond coatings are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The graphitizing tendency due to cobalt in the tungsten carbide tools was found to be a limitation to improve adhesion of diamond films. The new tool substrates with nickel aluminide binder have been found to exhibit good adhesion and wear resistance. The implications of these results in advanced cutting tools are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  19. Automated database design technology and tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.

    1988-01-01

    The Automated Database Design Technology and Tools research project results are summarized in this final report. Comments on the state of the art in various aspects of database design are provided, and recommendations made for further research for SNAP and NAVMASSO future database applications.

  20. Designing Online Assessment Tools for Disengaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brader, Andy; Luke, Allan; Klenowski, Val; Connolly, Stephen; Behzadpour, Adib

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the development of online assessment tools for disengaged youth in flexible learning environments. Sociocultural theories of learning and assessment and Bourdieu's sociological concepts of capital and exchange were used to design a purpose-built content management system. This design experiment engaged participants in…

  1. Web-Based Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, F. B.; Silva, T. L. K.; Silva, R. P.; Teixeira, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a web-based tool that enables the development and provision of learning designs and its reuse and re-contextualization as generative learning objects, aimed at developing educational materials. Design/methodology/approach: The use of learning objects can facilitate the process of production and…

  2. AEDOT technology. [Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT)

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.

    1993-03-01

    Most commercial buildings designed today will use more energy and cost more to operate and maintain than necessary. If energy performance were considered early in building design, 30% to 60% of the energy now used in new commercial buildings could be saved cost-effectively. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings; the tools for doing so simply do not yet exist. Computer technology can help design teams consider energy performance as an integral part of the design process. This technology could enable designers to produce much more energy-efficient buildings without increasing the costs of building design. Recognizing this, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The aim of the project is to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these potentially large energy savings. The success of the AEDOT project depends largely on the ability to develop energy design-support tools that can be integrated into comprehensive building design environments so that all parts of the design process willbe supported. Energy, just one consideration among many in building design, must be considered in a context that includes visual, acoustic, and structural aspects; accessibility; thermal comfort; indoor air quality; cost; and other factors associated with the quality, acceptability, and performance of a building. Advanced computer-aided design support environments will need to integrate tools from many different domains and provide access to the vast amounts of data that designers need to apply these tools and to make informed decisions.

  3. Advances in nanocrystallography as a proteomic tool.

    PubMed

    Pechkova, Eugenia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nicolini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the difficulties and hurdles too much often encountered in crystallizing a protein with the conventional techniques, our group has introduced the innovative Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)-based crystallization, as a major advance in the field of both structural and functional proteomics, thus pioneering the emerging field of the so-called nanocrystallography or nanobiocrystallography. This approach uniquely combines protein crystallography and nanotechnologies within an integrated, coherent framework that allows one to obtain highly stable protein crystals and to fully characterize them at a nano- and subnanoscale. A variety of experimental techniques and theoretical/semi-theoretical approaches, ranging from atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, Raman spectroscopy and other spectroscopic methods, microbeam grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering to in silico simulations, bioinformatics, and molecular dynamics, has been exploited in order to study the LB-films and to investigate the kinetics and the main features of LB-grown crystals. When compared to classical hanging-drop crystallization, LB technique appears strikingly superior and yields results comparable with crystallization in microgravity environments. Therefore, the achievement of LB-based crystallography can have a tremendous impact in the field of industrial and clinical/therapeutic applications, opening new perspectives for personalized medicine. These implications are envisaged and discussed in the present contribution.

  4. Tools for the advancement of undergraduate statistics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffner, Andrew Alan

    To keep pace with advances in applied statistics and to maintain literate consumers of quantitative analyses, statistics educators stress the need for change in the classroom (Cobb, 1992; Garfield, 1993, 1995; Moore, 1991a; Snee, 1993; Steinhorst and Keeler, 1995). These authors stress a more concept oriented undergraduate introductory statistics course which emphasizes true understanding over mechanical skills. Drawing on recent educational research, this dissertation attempts to realize this vision by developing tools and pedagogy to assist statistics instructors. This dissertation describes statistical facets, pieces of statistical understanding that are building blocks of knowledge, and discusses DIANA, a World-Wide Web tool for diagnosing facets. Further, I show how facets may be incorporated into course design through the development of benchmark lessons based on the principles of collaborative learning (diSessa and Minstrell, 1995; Cohen, 1994; Reynolds et al., 1995; Bruer, 1993; von Glasersfeld, 1991) and activity based courses (Jones, 1991; Yackel, Cobb and Wood, 1991). To support benchmark lessons and collaborative learning in large classes I describe Virtual Benchmark Instruction, benchmark lessons which take place on a structured hypertext bulletin board using the technology of the World-Wide Web. Finally, I present randomized experiments which suggest that these educational developments are effective in a university introductory statistics course.

  5. Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  6. Computational Tools and Algorithms for Designing Customized Synthetic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Nathan; Hendy, Oliver; Papamichail, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Advances in DNA synthesis have enabled the construction of artificial genes, gene circuits, and genomes of bacterial scale. Freedom in de novo design of synthetic constructs provides significant power in studying the impact of mutations in sequence features, and verifying hypotheses on the functional information that is encoded in nucleic and amino acids. To aid this goal, a large number of software tools of variable sophistication have been implemented, enabling the design of synthetic genes for sequence optimization based on rationally defined properties. The first generation of tools dealt predominantly with singular objectives such as codon usage optimization and unique restriction site incorporation. Recent years have seen the emergence of sequence design tools that aim to evolve sequences toward combinations of objectives. The design of optimal protein-coding sequences adhering to multiple objectives is computationally hard, and most tools rely on heuristics to sample the vast sequence design space. In this review, we study some of the algorithmic issues behind gene optimization and the approaches that different tools have adopted to redesign genes and optimize desired coding features. We utilize test cases to demonstrate the efficiency of each approach, as well as identify their strengths and limitations. PMID:25340050

  7. Assessing Adaptive Instructional Design Tools and Methods in ADAPT[IT].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Spector, J. Michael

    ADAPT[IT] (Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training - Interactive Tools) is a European project within the Information Society Technologies program that is providing design methods and tools to guide a training designer according to the latest cognitive science and standardization principles. ADAPT[IT] addresses users in two significantly…

  8. IdealXML: An Interaction Design Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Francisco; López-Jaquero, Víctor

    Task modeling has become one of the cornerstones of model-based user interface design. In this paper, a task-based approach to user interfaces design is introduced. This approach is supported by a tool, namely IdealXML, that allows for the animation of the specified user interfaces to generate a hi-fi prototype of the future user interface while still in the first development stages

  9. Graphical Acoustic Liner Design and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An interactive liner design and impedance modeling tool comprises software utilized to design acoustic liners for use in constrained spaces, both regularly and irregularly shaped. A graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in a liner volume while the surface impedance calculations are updated and displayed in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model may be used as the basis for the impedance calculations.

  10. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  11. Network design tool for EHF satellite communications networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvell, S.; Brown, G. J.

    1983-06-01

    This document describes the design concept of the network design tool. The network design tool (NDT) is a collection of analytical techniques, algorithms and simulation methods that may be used to characterize the performance of a computer communication network. Much work has been done over the past several years in network performance analysis and many techniques have been developed or proposed. Each of these methods applies to a particular aspect of the network design and is based on a particular modeling point of view. We define the computer communication network and then describe the different ways the network may be modeled. Each network model is related to the particular design problem being addressed. The various analytical approaches are briefly described and their relationship to the network models discussed. Chapter 2 is a survey of the major approaches to specific network design problems while chapters 3 and 4 discuss two fairly well defined areas of network analysis: topological design/optimization and protocol validation. Chapter 5 is a survey of network design tools presently available locally or on the advanced research projects agency network (ARPANET). Finally, chapter 6 presents an outline of the NDT specification.

  12. Emerging Tools for Synthetic Genome Design

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Rahm; Cho, Suhyung; Song, Yoseb; Kim, Sun Chang; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline for designing and synthesizing predictable, measurable, controllable, and transformable biological systems. These newly designed biological systems have great potential for the development of cheaper drugs, green fuels, biodegradable plastics, and targeted cancer therapies over the coming years. Fortunately, our ability to quickly and accurately engineer biological systems that behave predictably has been dramatically expanded by significant advances in DNA-sequencing, DNA-synthesis, and DNA-editing technologies. Here, we review emerging technologies and methodologies in the field of building designed biological systems, and we discuss their future perspectives. PMID:23708771

  13. Electronics Shielding and Reliability Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; ONeill, P. M.; Zang, Thomas A., Jr.; Pandolf, John E.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that electronics placement in large-scale human-rated systems provides opportunity to optimize electronics shielding through materials choice and geometric arrangement. For example, several hundred single event upsets (SEUs) occur within the Shuttle avionic computers during a typical mission. An order of magnitude larger SEU rate would occur without careful placement in the Shuttle design. These results used basic physics models (linear energy transfer (LET), track structure, Auger recombination) combined with limited SEU cross section measurements allowing accurate evaluation of target fragment contributions to Shuttle avionics memory upsets. Electronics shielding design on human-rated systems provides opportunity to minimize radiation impact on critical and non-critical electronic systems. Implementation of shielding design tools requires adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and an adequate follow-up on final design evaluation including results from a systems/device testing program tailored to meet design requirements.

  14. Designing a Moodle Course with the CADMOS Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsamani, Maria; Retalis, Symeon; Boloudakis, Michail

    2012-01-01

    CADMOS is a graphical learning design (LD) authoring tool that helps a teacher design a unit of learning in two layers: (i) the conceptual layer, which seems like a concept map and contains the learning activities with their associated learning resources and (ii) the flow layer, which contains the orchestration of these activities. One of CADMOS'…

  15. Next-Generation Ion Thruster Design Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computational tools that accurately predict the performance of electric propulsion devices are highly desirable and beneficial to NASA and the broader electric propulsion community. The current state of the art in electric propulsion modeling relies heavily on empirical data and numerous computational "knobs." In Phase I of this project, Tech-X Corporation developed the most detailed ion engine discharge chamber model that currently exists. This kinetic model simulates all particles in the discharge chamber along with a physically correct simulation of the electric fields. In addition, kinetic erosion models are included for modeling the ion-impingement effects on thruster component erosion. In Phase II, Tech-X developed a user-friendly computer program for NASA and other governmental and industry customers. Tech-X has implemented a number of advanced numerical routines to bring the computational time down to a commercially acceptable level. NASA now has a highly sophisticated, user-friendly ion engine discharge chamber modeling tool.

  16. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  17. Advanced beamline design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Christopher R.

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  18. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  19. Querator: an advanced multi-archive data mining tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, Francesco

    2001-11-01

    In recent years, the operation of large telescopes with wide field detectors - such as the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the 2.2 meters telescope at La Silla, Chile - have dramatically increased the amount of astronomical data produced each year. The next survey telescopes, such as the ESO VST, will continue on this trend, producing extremely large datasets. Astronomy, therefore, has become an incredibly data rich field requiring new tools and new strategies to efficiently handle huge archives and fully exploit their scientific content. At the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility we are working on a new project, code named Querator (http://archive.eso.org/querator/). Querator is an advanced multi-archive search engine built to address the needs of astronomers looking for multicolor imaging data across different astronomical data-centers. Querator returns sets of images of a given astronomical object or search region. A set contains exposures in a number of different wave bands. The user constraints the number of desired wave bands by selecting from a set of instruments, filters or by specifying actual physical units. As far as present-day data-centers are concerned, Querator points out the need for: - an uniform and standard description of archival data and - an uniform and standard description of how the data was acquired (i.e. instrument and observation characteristics). Clearly, these pieces of information will constitute an intermediate layer between the data itself and the data mining tools operating on it. This layered structure is a prerequisite to real data-center inter-operability and, hence, to Virtual Observatories. A detailed description of Querator's design, of the required data structures, of the problems encountered so far and of the proposed solutions will be given in the following pages. Throughout this paper we'll favor the term data-center over archive to stress the need to look at raw-pixels' archives

  20. DSA hole defectivity analysis using advanced optical inspection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harukawa, Ryota; Aoki, Masami; Cross, Andrew; Nagaswami, Venkat; Tomita, Tadatoshi; Nagahara, Seiji; Muramatsu, Makoto; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Kosugi, Hitoshi; Rathsack, Benjamen; Kitano, Takahiro; Sweis, Jason; Mokhberi, Ali

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the defect density detection and analysis methodology using advanced optical wafer inspection capability to enable accelerated development of a DSA process/process tools and the required inspection capability to monitor such a process. The defectivity inspection methodologies are optimized for grapho epitaxy directed self-assembly (DSA) contact holes with 25 nm sizes. A defect test reticle with programmed defects on guide patterns is designed for improved optimization of defectivity monitoring. Using this reticle, resist guide holes with a variety of sizes and shapes are patterned using an ArF immersion scanner. The negative tone development (NTD) type thermally stable resist guide is used for DSA of a polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP). Using a variety of defects intentionally made by changing guide pattern sizes, the detection rates of each specific defectivity type has been analyzed. It is found in this work that to maximize sensitivity, a two pass scan with bright field (BF) and dark field (DF) modes provides the best overall defect type coverage and sensitivity. The performance of the two pass scan with BF and DF modes is also revealed by defect analysis for baseline defectivity on a wafer processed with nominal process conditions.

  1. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  2. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  3. Matlab as a robust control design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation introduces Matlab as a tool used in flight control research. The example used to illustrate some of the capabilities of this software is a robust controller designed for a single stage to orbit air breathing vehicles's ascent to orbit. The global requirements of the controller are to stabilize the vehicle and follow a trajectory in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and strong dynamic coupling between airframe and propulsion.

  4. Design principles of a web interface for monitoring tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, C.; Andreozzi, S.; Cuscela, G.; Pra, S. D.; Donvito, G.; Dudhalkar, V.; Fantinel, S.; Fattibene, E.; Maggi, G.; Misurelli, G.; Pierro, A.

    2008-07-01

    A monitoring tool of a complex Grid system can gather a huge amount of information that have to be presented to the users in the most comprehensive way. Moreover different types of consumers could be interested in inspecting and analyzing different subsets of data. The main goal in designing a Web interface for the presentation of monitoring information is to organize the huge amount of data in a simple, user-friendly and usable structure. One more problem is to consider different approaches, skills and interests that all the possible categories of users have in looking for the desired information. Starting from the Information Architecture guidelines for the Web, it is possible to design Web interfaces towards a closer user experience and to deal with an advanced user interaction through the implementation of many Web standard technologies. In this paper, we will present a number of principles for the design of Web interface for monitoring tools that provide a wider, richer range of possibilities for what concerns the user interaction. These principles are based on an extensive review of the current literature in Web design and on the experience with the development of the GridICE monitoring tool. The described principles can drive the evolution of the Web interface of Grid monitoring tools.

  5. Design and descriptive tools for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    Automated design and descriptive tools are essential for the practical application of highly parallel special-purpose hardware such as systolic arrays. The use of special-purpose hardware can greatly increase the capabilities of signal processing systems. However, the more limited applications base makes design costs a critical factor in determining technical and economic viability. Systolic systems can be described at several levels of abstraction, each of which has unique descriptive requirements. This paper focuses on the descriptive issues involved at the system architectural level. Tools at this level must bridge the gap between logic- and circuit-oriented computer-aided design tools and algorithmic descriptions of systolic architectures. Traditionally, hardware description languages (HDLs) have been used at this level to describe conventional computer architectures. Systolic architectures, however, have different requirements. This paper examines these requirements and develops a set of criteria for evaluating HDLs. Four popular HDLs are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses noted. The final section of the paper summarizes ongoing efforts at Los Alamos to develop a systolic array HDL based on the CONLAN family of languages.

  6. Design and descriptive tools for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    Automated design and descriptive tools are essential for the practical application of highly parallel special-purpose hardware such as systolic arrays. The use of special-purpose hardware can greatly increase the capabilities of signal processing systems. However, the more limited applications base makes design costs a critical factor in determining technical and economic viability. Systolic systems can be described at several levels of abstraction, each of which has unique descriptive requirements. This paper focuses on the descriptive issues involved at the system architectural level. Tools at this level must bridge the gap between logic- and circuit-oriented computer-aided design tools and algorithmic descriptions of systolic architectures. Traditionally, hardware description languages (HDLs) have been used at this level to describe conventional computer architectures. Systolic architectures, however, have different requirements. This paper examines these requirements and develops a set of criteria for evaluating HDLs. Four popular DHLs are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses noted. The final section of the paper summarizes ongoing efforts at Los Alamos to develop a systolic array HDL based on the CONLAN family of languages. 14 references.

  7. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  8. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  9. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 10: Computer-Aided Drafting & Design, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  10. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-06-13

    This design package documents design, fabrication, and testing of new stinger tool design. Future revisions will document further development of the stinger tool and incorporate various developmental stages, and final test results.

  11. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  12. Thermostructural design tools for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaak, Natasha

    The operating conditions of scramjet engines demand designs that include active cooling by the fuel and the use of lightweight materials capable of withstanding extreme heat fluxes and structural loads. As hypersonic flight is an emerging technology, there is limited ability to evaluate candidate material systems in hypersonic environments. This dissertation addresses the problem by developing an optimization protocol that establishes the capabilities and deficiencies of existing combustor panel designs and directs the development of advanced materials that will outperform existing high temperature alloys and compete with ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). By incorporating models that characterize the key loading and boundary conditions of hypersonic combustors, the optimization protocol is able to rapidly survey the design space and facilitate communication between design variables and material properties. The code determines temperatures and stresses present in panels that line the combustion chamber and optimizes for minimum weight subject to two primary constraints: the stresses induced by thermomechanical loads remain below representative levels of material strength or elasto-plastic design rules; and the maximum temperature in the structure does not exceed the material limit. The results indicate that there are multiple avenues for achieving greater robustness and weight efficiency, including: (i) tailoring properties such as intermediate strength and material softening temperature and (ii) allowing localized plasticity. Design implementation is explored using laser heat flux experiments on convectively-cooled structures. The experiments serve as feedback for the optimization code and highlight benefits and concerns associated with allowing elasto-plastic response.

  13. EPR: an Advanced Evolutionary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Juergen; Bouteille, Francois; Hudson, Greg

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the main features of the EPR, an evolutionary design product that builds on French N4 plants (Chooz and Civaux) and Konvoi, the most recent reactor series built in Germany. This Franco-German project was driven by a common French and German desire to cooperate in several areas. In January 2001, Framatome SA and Siemens AG merged their nuclear activities to form Framatome ANP with three regional entities in France, Germany and the USA. The recent decision of Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) to select the EPR for construction in Olkiluoto of the fifth Nuclear Power Plant in Finland gave a new impetus to the project. Framatome ANP is committed to put the FOAK EPR in commercial operation on May 1, 2009. This challenging time schedule will set a new reference for 'Generation III +' LWR's. (authors)

  14. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  15. Parachute system design, analysis, and simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, W.D.; McBride, D.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; Waye, D.E.; Hailey, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    For over twenty years designers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed various parachute simulation codes to model deployment, inflation, loading, trajectories, aircraft downwash and line sail. In addition to these codes, material property data bases have been acquired. Recently we have initiated project to integrate these codes and data bases into a single software tool entitled SPARSYS (Sandia PARachute SYstem Simulation). We have constructed a graphical user interface as the driver and framework for SPARSYS. In this paper we present a status report on SPARSYS describing progress in developing and incorporating independent modules, in developing an integrated trajectory package, and in developing a materials data base including high-rate-of-strain data.

  16. Advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-06-01

    The global objective of this effort is to develop advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis, and test the products using a model dataset developed under the joint aegis of the United States` Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (EAEG). The goal is to enhance the value to the oil industry of the SEG/EAEG modeling project, carried out with US Department of Energy (DOE) funding in FY` 93-95. The primary objective of the ORNL Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is to spearhead the computational innovations techniques that would enable a revolutionary advance in 3-D seismic analysis. The CESAR effort is carried out in collaboration with world-class domain experts from leading universities, and in close coordination with other national laboratories and oil industry partners.

  17. New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.

    2013-12-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  18. The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, S.

    2014-06-01

    The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

  19. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  20. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-27

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model will be the major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal.

  1. A design tool for small satellites: SMALLSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.; McCandless, Walt

    1996-03-01

    SMALLSAT is a computer-aided Phase A design and technology evaluation tool for small satellites. SMALLSAT enables satellite designers, mission planners, and technology program managers to observe the likely consequences of their decisions in terms of satellite configuration and mission life cycle costs and availability statistics. SMALLSAT configures a satellite in terms of mission parameters, sensor attributes, and bus subsystem technology with nine interrelated subsystems considered: attitude reference and control, power, thermal, orbital maintenance, propulsion, data handling, on-boardcomputer, TT&C, and structure. Sensor, satellite, launch vehicle, and technology databases are contained within the model. As a satellite is configured, a set of cost estimating relationships (specifically developed for smallsats by the Aerospace Corp.) is utilized to provide estimates of both nonrecurring and unit recurring costs at the subsystem level. An integrated Monte Carlo simulation model may be used to determine resulting life cycle cost and availability statistics.

  2. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  3. Simulator design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    This simulation design task completion report documents the simulation techniques associated with the network models of both the Interim Service ISDN (integrated services digital network) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures. The ISIS network model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communication satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete events simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  4. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  5. 50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

  6. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P.; Sherwin, R.

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  7. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P; Sherwin, R

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  8. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  9. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  10. Technical Workshop: Advanced Helicopter Cockpit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemingway, J. C. (Editor); Callas, G. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Information processing demands on both civilian and military aircrews have increased enormously as rotorcraft have come to be used for adverse weather, day/night, and remote area missions. Applied psychology, engineering, or operational research for future helicopter cockpit design criteria were identified. Three areas were addressed: (1) operational requirements, (2) advanced avionics, and (3) man-system integration.

  11. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  12. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

  13. Advances in Mass Spectrometric Tools for Probing Neuropeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchberger, Amanda; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators in the functionality of the brain and other neurological organs. Because neuropeptides exist in a wide range of concentrations, appropriate characterization methods are needed to provide dynamic, chemical, and spatial information. Mass spectrometry and compatible tools have been a popular choice in analyzing neuropeptides. There have been several advances and challenges, both of which are the focus of this review. Discussions range from sample collection to bioinformatic tools, although avenues such as quantitation and imaging are included. Further development of the presented methods for neuropeptidomic mass spectrometric analysis is inevitable, which will lead to a further understanding of the complex interplay of neuropeptides and other signaling molecules in the nervous system.

  14. Constructing an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Sims, Michael; Podolak, Ester; Mckay, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Scientific model building can be an intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot be easily distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We believe that advanced software techniques can facilitate both the model building and model sharing process. In this paper, we describe a prototype for a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities. Our prototype has been developed in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling, and is being used to construct models of Titan's atmosphere.

  15. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  16. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  17. A Design Rationale Capture Tool to Support Design Verification and Re-use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Da Silva, Jonny C.; Foyle, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A design rationale tool (DR tool) was developed to capture design knowledge to support design verification and design knowledge re-use. The design rationale tool captures design drivers and requirements, and documents the design solution including: intent (why it is included in the overall design); features (why it is designed the way it is); information about how the design components support design drivers and requirements; and, design alternatives considered but rejected. For design verification purposes, the tool identifies how specific design requirements were met and instantiated within the final design, and which requirements have not been met. To support design re-use, the tool identifies which design decisions are affected when design drivers and requirements are modified. To validate the design tool, the design knowledge from the Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA; Foyle et al., 1996) system was captured and the DR tool was exercised to demonstrate its utility for validation and re-use.

  18. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2010-12-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  19. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  20. Aerodynamic Design Study of Advanced Multistage Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Medd, Adam J.; Dang, Thong Q.

    2002-01-01

    As a direct response to the need for further performance gains from current multistage axial compressors, an investigation of advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to compact, high-efficiency, and wide-operability configurations is being pursued. Part I of this report describes the projected level of technical advancement relative to the state of the art and quantifies it in terms of basic aerodynamic technology elements of current design systems. A rational enhancement of these elements is shown to lead to a substantial expansion of the design and operability space. Aerodynamic design considerations for a four-stage core compressor intended to serve as a vehicle to develop, integrate, and demonstrate aerotechnology advancements are discussed. This design is biased toward high efficiency at high loading. Three-dimensional blading and spanwise tailoring of vector diagrams guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to manage the aerodynamics of the high-loaded endwall regions. Certain deleterious flow features, such as leakage-vortex-dominated endwall flow and strong shock-boundary-layer interactions, were identified and targeted for improvement. However, the preliminary results were encouraging and the front two stages were extracted for further aerodynamic trimming using a three-dimensional inverse design method described in part II of this report. The benefits of the inverse design method are illustrated by developing an appropriate pressure-loading strategy for transonic blading and applying it to reblade the rotors in the front two stages of the four-stage configuration. Multistage CFD simulations based on the average passage formulation indicated an overall efficiency potential far exceeding current practice for the front two stages. Results of the CFD simulation at the aerodynamic design point are interrogated to identify areas requiring additional development. In spite of the significantly higher aerodynamic loadings, advanced CFD

  1. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  2. Advanced Reach Tool (ART): development of the mechanistic model.

    PubMed

    Fransman, Wouter; Van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Tischer, Martin; Schneider, Thomas; Schinkel, Jody; Kromhout, Hans; Warren, Nick; Goede, Henk; Tielemans, Erik

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe. The ART mechanistic model is based on a conceptual framework that adopts a source receptor approach, which describes the transport of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and defines seven independent principal modifying factors: substance emission potential, activity emission potential, localized controls, segregation, personal enclosure, surface contamination, and dispersion. ART currently differentiates between three different exposure types: vapours, mists, and dust (fumes, fibres, and gases are presently excluded). Various sources were used to assign numerical values to the multipliers to each modifying factor. The evidence used to underpin this assessment procedure was based on chemical and physical laws. In addition, empirical data obtained from literature were used. Where this was not possible, expert elicitation was applied for the assessment procedure. Multipliers for all modifying factors were peer reviewed by leading experts from industry, research institutes, and public authorities across the globe. In addition, several workshops with experts were organized to discuss the proposed exposure multipliers. The mechanistic model is a central part of the ART tool and with advancing knowledge on exposure, determinants will require updates and refinements on a continuous basis, such as the effect of worker behaviour on personal exposure, 'best practice' values that describe the maximum achievable effectiveness of control measures, the intrinsic emission potential of various solid objects (e.g. metal, glass, plastics, etc.), and extending the applicability domain to certain types of exposures (e.g. gas, fume, and fibre exposure).

  3. The Universal Design for Play Tool: Establishing Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffino, Amy Goetz; Mistrett, Susan G.; Tomita, Machiko; Hajare, Poonam

    2006-01-01

    The Universal Design for Play (UDP) Tool is an instrument designed to evaluate the presence of universal design (UD) features in toys. This study evaluated its psychometric properties, including content validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability. The UDP tool was designed to assist in selecting toys most appropriate for children…

  4. SSME Investment in Turbomachinery Inducer Impeller Design Tools and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoladz, Thomas; Mitchell, William; Lunde, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Within the rocket engine industry, SSME turbomachines are the de facto standards of success with regard to meeting aggressive performance requirements under challenging operational environments. Over the Shuttle era, SSME has invested heavily in our national inducer impeller design infrastructure. While both low and high pressure turbopump failures/anomaly resolution efforts spurred some of these investments, the SSME program was a major benefactor of key areas of turbomachinery inducer-impeller research outside of flight manifest pressures. Over the past several decades, key turbopump internal environments have been interrogated via highly instrumented hot-fire and cold-flow testing. Likewise, SSME has sponsored the advancement of time accurate and cavitating inducer impeller computation fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. These investments together have led to a better understanding of the complex internal flow fields within aggressive high performing inducers and impellers. New design tools and methodologies have evolved which intend to provide confident blade designs which strike an appropriate balance between performance and self induced load management.

  5. Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Informatics Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This is a description of the software design for the 2013 edition of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Informatics computer assembly. The Informatics system is an optional part of the space suit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and caution and warning information. In the future it will display maps with GPS position data, and video and still images captured by the astronaut.

  6. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  7. Simulation Tools Model Icing for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Here s a simple science experiment to try: Place an unopened bottle of distilled water in your freezer. After 2-3 hours, if the water is pure enough, you will notice that it has not frozen. Carefully pour the water into a bowl with a piece of ice in it. When it strikes the ice, the water will instantly freeze. One of the most basic and commonly known scientific facts is that water freezes at around 32 F. But this is not always the case. Water lacking any impurities for ice crystals to form around can be supercooled to even lower temperatures without freezing. High in the atmosphere, water droplets can achieve this delicate, supercooled state. When a plane flies through clouds containing these droplets, the water can strike the airframe and, like the supercooled water hitting the ice in the experiment above, freeze instantly. The ice buildup alters the aerodynamics of the plane - reducing lift and increasing drag - affecting its performance and presenting a safety issue if the plane can no longer fly effectively. In certain circumstances, ice can form inside aircraft engines, another potential hazard. NASA has long studied ways of detecting and countering atmospheric icing conditions as part of the Agency s efforts to enhance aviation safety. To do this, the Icing Branch at Glenn Research Center utilizes a number of world-class tools, including the Center s Icing Research Tunnel and the NASA 607 icing research aircraft, a "flying laboratory" for studying icing conditions. The branch has also developed a suite of software programs to help aircraft and icing protection system designers understand the behavior of ice accumulation on various surfaces and in various conditions. One of these innovations is the LEWICE ice accretion simulation software. Initially developed in the 1980s (when Glenn was known as Lewis Research Center), LEWICE has become one of the most widely used tools in icing research and aircraft design and certification. LEWICE has been transformed over

  8. Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief statement of the research progress made on Grant NAG2-243 titled "Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design", which ran from 1983 till December 1996. The initial set of PIs on the grant were C. A. Desoer, E. L. Polak and myself (for 1983). From 1984 till 1991 Desoer and I were the Pls and finally I was the sole PI from 1991 till the end of 1996. The project has been an unusually longstanding and extremely fruitful partnership, with many technical exchanges, visits, workshops and new avenues of investigation begun on this grant. There were student visits, long term.visitors on the grant and many interesting joint projects. In this final report I will only give a cursory description of the technical work done on the grant, since there was a tradition of annual progress reports and a proposal for the succeeding year. These progress reports cum proposals are attached as Appendix A to this report. Appendix B consists of papers by me and my students as co-authors sorted chronologically. When there are multiple related versions of a paper, such as a conference version and journal version they are listed together. Appendix C consists of papers by Desoer and his students as well as 'solo' publications by other researchers supported on this grant similarly chronologically sorted.

  9. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  10. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  11. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-03-27

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  12. Design of a Cognitive Tool to Enhance Problemsolving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngmin; Nelson, David

    2005-01-01

    The design of a cognitive tool to support problem-solving performance for external representation of knowledge is described. The limitations of conventional knowledge maps are analyzed in proposing the tool. The design principles and specifications are described. This tool is expected to enhance learners problem-solving performance by allowing…

  13. Learning Design Rashomon II: Exploring One Lesson through Multiple Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis P.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Craft, Brock; Derntl, Michael; Emin, Valerie; Katsamani, Mary; Laurillard, Diana; Masterman, Elizabeth; Retalis, Symeon; Villasclaras, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of tools are available to support the learning design process at different levels and from different perspectives. However, this variety can make it difficult for researchers and teachers to assess the tool that is best suited to their objectives and contexts as learning designers. Several of the tools are presented elsewhere…

  14. An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-01-31

    Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.

  15. Tools for Material Design and Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehage, Kristopher

    The present thesis focuses on applications of numerical methods to create tools for material characterization, design and selection. The tools generated in this work incorporate a variety of programming concepts, from digital image analysis, geometry, optimization, and parallel programming to data-mining, databases and web design. The first portion of the thesis focuses on methods for characterizing clustering in bimodal 5083 Aluminum alloys created by cryomilling and powder metallurgy. The bimodal samples analyzed in the present work contain a mixture of a coarse grain phase, with a grain size on the order of several microns, and an ultra-fine grain phase, with a grain size on the order of 200 nm. The mixing of the two phases is not homogeneous and clustering is observed. To investigate clustering in these bimodal materials, various microstructures were created experimentally by conventional cryomilling, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Extrusion, Dual-Mode Dynamic Forging (DMDF) and a new 'Gradient' cryomilling process. Two techniques for quantitative clustering analysis are presented, formulated and implemented. The first technique, the Area Disorder function, provides a metric of the quality of coarse grain dispersion in an ultra-fine grain matrix and the second technique, the Two-Point Correlation function, provides a metric of long and short range spatial arrangements of the two phases, as well as an indication of the mean feature size in any direction. The two techniques are implemented on digital images created by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscatter Detection (EBSD) of the microstructures. To investigate structure--property relationships through modeling and simulation, strategies for generating synthetic microstructures are discussed and a computer program that generates randomized microstructures with desired configurations of clustering described by the Area Disorder Function is formulated and presented. In the computer program, two

  16. Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lecroq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. Method We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. Results The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook’s section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. Conclusions The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their

  17. Clinical holistic health: advanced tools for holistic medicine.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, May Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-24

    According to holistic medical theory, the patient will heal when old painful moments, the traumatic events of life that are often called "gestalts", are integrated in the present "now". The advanced holistic physician's expanded toolbox has many different tools to induce this healing, some that are more dangerous and potentially traumatic than others. The more intense the therapeutic technique, the more emotional energy will be released and contained in the session, but the higher also is the risk for the therapist to lose control of the session and lose the patient to his or her own dark side. To avoid harming the patient must be the highest priority in holistic existential therapy, making sufficient education and training an issue of highest importance. The concept of "stepping up" the therapy by using more and more "dramatic" methods to get access to repressed emotions and events has led us to a "therapeutic staircase" with ten steps: (1) establishing the relationship; (2) establishing intimacy, trust, and confidentiality; (3) giving support and holding; (4) taking the patient into the process of physical, emotional, and mental healing; (5) social healing of being in the family; (6) spiritual healing--returning to the abstract wholeness of the soul; (7) healing the informational layer of the body; (8) healing the three fundamental dimensions of existence: love, power, and sexuality in a direct way using, among other techniques, "controlled violence" and "acupressure through the vagina"; (9) mind-expanding and consciousness-transformative techniques like psychotropic drugs; and (10) techniques transgressing the patient's borders and, therefore, often traumatizing (for instance, the use of force against the will of the patient). We believe that the systematic use of the staircase will greatly improve the power and efficiency of holistic medicine for the patient and we invite a broad cooperation in scientifically testing the efficiency of the advanced holistic

  18. A New Approach to Precision Design for Machine Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baodong; Jiao, Aisheng; Yi, Xiangbin; Xu, Yanwei

    Precision of the NC axes is an important aspect of machine tool design. Conventionally, the precision specification of machine tools is empirically determined, resulting in poor designs with insufficient or excessive precision. To provide a cost-effective precision specification for machine tools, an active precision design approach is proposed to generate the specification of the positioning repeatability of NC axes to meet the designated working precision requirements of the machine tools. Finally, the approach is demonstrated and validated through a case study of precision design for a gear milling machine.

  19. Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

  20. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  1. Probabilistic design of advanced composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, P. M.; Riskalla, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite technology offers potentials for sizable improvements in many areas: weight savings, maintainability, durability, and reliability. However, there are a number of inhibitors to these improvements. One of the biggest inhibitors is the imposition of traditional metallic approaches to design of composite structure. This is especially detrimental in composites because new materials technology demands new design approaches. Of particular importance are the decisions made regarding structural criteria. Significant changes cannot be implemented without careful consideration and exploration. This new approach is to implement changes on a controlled, verifiable basis. Probabilistic design is the methodology and the process to accomplish this. Its foundation is to base design criteria and objectives on reliability targets instead of arbitrary factors carried over from metallic structural history. The background is discussed of probabilistic design and the results are presented of a side-by-side comparison to generic aircraft structure designed the 'old' way and the 'new'. Activities are also defined that need to be undertaken to evolve available approaches to probabilistic design followed by summary and recommendations.

  2. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, C. F., Jr.; Huettig, F. R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. The reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  3. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Huettig, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  4. NCC: A Multidisciplinary Design/Analysis Tool for Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Quealy, Angela

    1999-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary design/analysis tool for combustion systems is critical for optimizing the low-emission, high-performance combustor design process. Based on discussions between NASA Lewis Research Center and the jet engine companies, an industry-government team was formed in early 1995 to develop the National Combustion Code (NCC), which is an integrated system of computer codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. NCC has advanced features that address the need to meet designer's requirements such as "assured accuracy", "fast turnaround", and "acceptable cost". The NCC development team is comprised of Allison Engine Company (Allison), CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This development team operates under the guidance of the NCC steering committee. The "unstructured mesh" capability and "parallel computing" are fundamental features of NCC from its inception. The NCC system is composed of a set of "elements" which includes grid generator, main flow solver, turbulence module, turbulence and chemistry interaction module, chemistry module, spray module, radiation heat transfer module, data visualization module, and a post-processor for evaluating engine performance parameters. Each element may have contributions from several team members. Such a multi-source multi-element system needs to be integrated in a way that facilitates inter-module data communication, flexibility in module selection, and ease of integration.

  5. Advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed by GTE Government Systems and the University of Colorado in support of the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program is summarized. Two levels of research were undertaken. The first dealt with providing interim services Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) satellite (ISIS) capabilities that accented basic rate ISDN with a ground control similar to that of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The ISIS Network Model development represents satellite systems like the ACTS orbiting switch. The ultimate aim is to move these ACTS ground control functions on-board the next generation of ISDN communications satellite to provide full-service ISDN satellite (FSIS) capabilities. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design are obtainable from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models of the major subsystems of the ISDN communications satellite architecture. Discrete event simulation experiments would generate data for analysis against NASA SCAR performance measure and the data obtained from the ISDN satellite terminal adapter hardware (ISTA) experiments, also developed in the program. The Basic and Option 1 phases of the program are also described and include the following: literature search, traffic mode, network model, scenario specifications, performance measures definitions, hardware experiment design, hardware experiment development, simulator design, and simulator development.

  6. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  7. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  8. Applying macro design tools to the design of MEMS accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Rodgers, M.S.; Montague, S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the design of two different surface micromachined (MEMS) accelerometers and the use of design and analysis tools intended for macro sized devices. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor are first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the wafer substrate. The trench is then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface is then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing. Next, the CMOS electronics are fabricated and the mechanical structures are released. The mechanical structure of each sensor consists of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. One polysilicon plate mass is suspended using compliant springs forming a variable capacitor. The other polysilicon plate mass is suspended using very stiff springs acting as a fixed capacitor. Acceleration is measured by comparing the variable capacitance with the fixed capacitance during acceleration.

  9. Trajectory Design Tools for Libration and Cis-Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Webster, Cassandra M.; Bosanac, Natasha; Cox, Andrew; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2016-01-01

    Innovative trajectory design tools are required to support challenging multi-body regimes with complex dynamics, uncertain perturbations, and the integration of propulsion influences. Two distinctive tools, Adaptive Trajectory Design and the General Mission Analysis Tool have been developed and certified to provide the astrodynamics community with the ability to design multi-body trajectories. In this paper we discuss the multi-body design process and the capabilities of both tools. Demonstrable applications to confirmed missions, the Lunar IceCube Cubesat lunar mission and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Sun-Earth L2 mission, are presented.

  10. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  11. Advanced Avionics Breadboard Executive Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The advanced avionics breadboard (AAB) executive evolved from an effort to design and develop an avionics system. This executive is unique in that it supervises a triple redundant avionics computer system. Three IBM System 4 Pi/CP computers, operating synchronously and executing identical software, comprise the central processors which route data to and from a data bus via an input/output controller. The executive's basic function is to provide application programs with an efficient software structure within which to perform specific avionics application tasks. Although implemented in a triplex data management system, the AAB executive contains the flexibility to be adapted to other systems with minimal change.

  12. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  13. Involving users in the design cycle for parallel tools

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, C.M.

    1995-01-31

    Parallel programmers do not use software tools, in spite of the fact that parallel application development is a difficult and time- consuming task that could benefit from tool support. It has become increasingly clear that the simple availability of elegant, powerful software tools employing the latest technology is not enough. Usability is the real key to success; users simply do not adopt tools that fail to respond to their needs. Research in the area of usability engineering indicates that five design principles can have significant impact on parallel tool usability. {sm_bullet} tools must be based on demonstrable user requirements {sm_bullet} actively involve users throughout tool design {sm_bullet} minimize tool complexity to reduce the learning curve {sm_bullet} support the tool across multiple machine platforms to amortize the user`s investment {sm_bullet} employ iterative refinement techniques to improve tool usability. Those principles served as the starting point for a Parallel Tools Consortium project to develop a tool that will help users determine the final state of a program that crashes or is terminated forcibly. Carried out over a period of ten months, the project involved the collaboration of tool researchers, and implementors, and users. This report describes how user-centered design techniques were applied to ensure that the tool would provide simple, intuitive support for the programmer`s task.

  14. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash.

  15. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash. PMID:24961785

  16. NASA/USRA University advanced design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, Michael F.; Prussing, John

    1989-01-01

    The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program for the 1988 to 1989 academic year is reviewed. The University's design project was the Logistics Resupply and Emergency Crew Return System for Space Station Freedom. Sixty-one students divided into eight groups, participated in the spring 1989 semester. A presentation prepared by three students and a graduate teaching assistant for the program's summer conference summarized the project results. Teamed with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the University received support in the form of remote telecon lectures, reference material, and previously acquired applications software. In addition, a graduate teaching assistant was awarded a summer 1989 internship at MSFC.

  17. Design Education in Chemical Engineering--Part 1: Deriving Conceptual Design Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, J. M.; Kirkwood, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the spectrum of process design problems. Suggests a methodology for teaching some concepts used in design, including the types of processes considered and their designs, new tools useful in conceptual design, and a strategy for developing conceptual designs. (YP)

  18. Design Advances in Particulate Systems for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Catarina; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Mano, João F

    2016-07-01

    The search for more efficient therapeutic strategies and diagnosis tools is a continuous challenge. Advances in understanding the biological mechanisms behind diseases and tissues regeneration have widened the field of applications of particulate systems. Particles are no more just protective systems for the encapsulated drugs, but they play an active role in the success of the therapy. Moreover, particles have been explored for innovative purposes as templates for cells growth and as diagnostic tools. Until few years ago the most relevant parameters in particles formulation were the chemistry and the size. Currently, it is known that other physical characteristics can remarkably affect the performance of particulate systems. Particles with non-conventional shapes exhibit advantages due to the increasing circulation time in blood stream, less clearance by the immune system and more efficient cell internalization and trafficking. Creation of compartments has been found useful to control drug release, to tune the transport of substances across biological barriers, to supply the target with more than one bioactive agent or even to act as theranostic systems. It is expected that such complex shaped and compartmentalized systems improve the therapeutic outcomes and also the patient's compliance, acting as advanced devices that serve for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of the disease, combining agents of very different features, at the same time. In this review, we overview and analyse the most recent advances in particle shape and compartmentalization and applications of newly designed particulate systems in the biomedical field.

  19. Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, Ellen

    1998-07-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  20. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  1. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  2. Design review - A tool for all seasons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The origins of design review are considered together with questions of definitions. The main characteristics which distinguish the concept of design review discussed from the basic master-apprentice relationship include competence, objectivity, formality, and a systematic approach. Preliminary, major, and final reviews are the steps used in the management of the design and development process in each company. It is shown that the design review is generically a systems engineering milestone review with certain unique characteristics.

  3. Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Mathew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Larchev, Gregory; Bellows, Peter; Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO) project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. These tools leverage an established FPGA design environment and focus primarily on space effects mitigation and power optimization. The project is creating software to automatically test and evaluate the single-event-upsets (SEUs) sensitivities of an FPGA design and insert mitigation techniques. Extensions into the tool suite will also allow evolvable algorithm techniques to reconfigure around single-event-latchup (SEL) events. In the power domain, tools are being created for dynamic power visualiization and optimization. Thus, this technology seeks to enable the use of Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit, via an integrated design tool-suite aiming to reduce risk, cost, and design time of multimission reconfigurable space processors using SRAM-based FPGAs.

  4. Compositing Visualization Tools for Improving Design Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Wayne C.

    2005-01-01

    Today's designers deal with a range of communication modes. These modes vary from hand gestures to sketches, physical models, and computer-generated images. It has been the norm to use these mediums throughout the process to visualize the intended design so that the potential users, designers, team members, and clients can understand the end…

  5. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

  6. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  7. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  8. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight test experiences of the X-29 forward-swept wing, the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16, and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) programs are reviewed. Significant operating anomalies in these programs and the design errors which caused them are examined. The functions which a system design/information tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors are identified.

  9. ADAPT[IT]: Tools for Training Design and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Croock, Marcel B. M.; Paas, Fred; Schlanbusch, Henrik; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a set of computerized tools that support the instructional design and evaluation of competency-based training programs. Discusses authentic whole-task practice situations; the 4C/ID* methodology; an evaluation tool that supports the subsequent revision of the competency-based training design; and future plans. (Author/LRW)

  10. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  11. Role of Graphics Tools in the Learning Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laisney, Patrice; Brandt-Pomares, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design activities of students in secondary school in France. Graphics tools are now part of the capacity of design professionals. It is therefore apt to reflect on their integration into the technological education. Has the use of intermediate graphical tools changed students' performance, and if so in what direction,…

  12. Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S

    2015-01-01

    The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data. PMID:26513700

  13. European regulatory tools for advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Flory, Egbert; Reinhardt, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Increasing scientific knowledge and technical innovations in the areas of cell biology, biotechnology and medicine resulted in the development of promising therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) reflect a complex and innovative class of biopharmaceuticals as these products are highly research-driven, characterised by innovative manufacturing processes and heterogeneous with regard to their origin, type and complexity. This class of ATMP integrates gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineering products and are often individualized and patient-specific products. Multiple challenges arise from the nature of ATMPs, which are often developed by micro, small and medium sized enterprises, university and academia, for whom regulatory experiences are limited and regulatory requirements are challenging. Regulatory guidance such as the reflection paper on classification of ATMPs and guidelines highlighting product-specific issues support academic research groups and pharmaceutical companies to foster the development of safe and effective ATMPs. This review provides an overview on the European regulatory aspects of ATMPs and highlights specific regulatory tools such as the ATMP classification procedure, a discussion on the hospital exemption for selected ATMPs as well as borderline issues towards transplants/transfusion products.

  14. Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S

    2015-01-01

    The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data.

  15. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  16. Regression analysis as a design optimization tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perley, R.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization concepts are described in relation to an overall design process as opposed to a detailed, part-design process where the requirements are firmly stated, the optimization criteria are well established, and a design is known to be feasible. The overall design process starts with the stated requirements. Some of the design criteria are derived directly from the requirements, but others are affected by the design concept. It is these design criteria that define the performance index, or objective function, that is to be minimized within some constraints. In general, there will be multiple objectives, some mutually exclusive, with no clear statement of their relative importance. The optimization loop that is given adjusts the design variables and analyzes the resulting design, in an iterative fashion, until the objective function is minimized within the constraints. This provides a solution, but it is only the beginning. In effect, the problem definition evolves as information is derived from the results. It becomes a learning process as we determine what the physics of the system can deliver in relation to the desirable system characteristics. As with any learning process, an interactive capability is a real attriubute for investigating the many alternatives that will be suggested as learning progresses.

  17. Designer nanoparticle: nanobiotechnology tool for cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B.; Khan, Niamat Ali

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the use of nanotechnology for subcellular compartment isolation and its application towards subcellular omics. This technology review significantly contributes to our understanding on use of nanotechnology for subcellular systems biology. Here we elaborate nanobiotechnology approach of using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) optimized with different surface coatings for subcellular organelle isolation. Using pulse-chase approach, we review that SPMNPs interacted differently with the cell depending on its surface functionalization. The article focuses on the use of functionalized-SPMNPs as a nanobiotechnology tool to isolate high quality (both purity and yield) plasma membranes and endosomes or lysosomes. Such nanobiotechnology tool can be applied in generating subcellular compartment inventories. As a future perspective, this strategy could be applied in areas such as immunology, cancer and stem cell research.

  18. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  19. Engineer's Notebook--A Design Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2011-01-01

    As technology education continues to consider a move toward an engineering design focus as proposed by various leaders in technology education, it will be necessary to employ new pedagogical approaches. Hill (2006) provided some new perspectives regarding pedagogical approaches for technology education with an engineering design focus. One…

  20. Game Methodology for Design Methods and Tools Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Lahonde, Nathalie; Omhover, Jean-françois

    2014-01-01

    Design process optimisation and intelligence are the key words of today's scientific community. A proliferation of methods has made design a convoluted area. Designers are usually afraid of selecting one method/tool over another and even expert designers may not necessarily know which method is the best to use in which circumstances. This…

  1. Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry

  2. MURMoT: Design and Application of Microbial Uranium Reduction Monitoring Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, Kurt

    2014-12-31

    The overarching project goal of the MURMoT project was the design of tools to elucidate the presence, abundance, dynamics, spatial distribution, and activity of metal- and radionuclide-transforming bacteria. To accomplish these objectives, an integrated approach that combined nucleic acid-based tools, proteomic workflows, uranium isotope measurements, and U(IV) speciation and structure analyses using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory was developed.

  3. Advanced Technologies for Design Information Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Michael L.; Sheen, David M.; Rose, Joseph L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2009-07-08

    This paper discusses several technologies that have the potential to enhance facilities design verification. These approaches have shown promise in addressing the challenges associated with the verification of sub-component geometry and material composition for structures that are not directly accessible for physical inspection. A simple example is a pipe that extends into or through a wall or foundation. Both advanced electromagnetic and acoustic modalities will be discussed. These include advanced radar imaging, transient thermographic imaging, and guided acoustic wave imaging. Examples of current applications are provided. The basic principles and mechanisms of these inspection techniques are presented along with the salient practical features, advantages, and disadvantages of each technique. Other important considerations, such as component geometries, materials, and degree of access are also treated. The importance of, and strategies for, developing valid inspection models are also discussed. Beyond these basic technology adaptation and evaluation issues, important user interface considerations are outlined, along with approaches to quantify the overall performance reliability of the various inspection methods.

  4. Advances in low aspect ratio stellarator coil design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valanju Miner, P. M., Jr.; Hirshman, S. P.; Brooks, A.; Pomphrey, N.

    1999-11-01

    Recent advances have led to two new exciting low aspect ratio stellarator plasma configurations - QA: Quasi-Axisymmetric and QO: Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarators. The difficult task of designing an optimal set of stellarator coils to produce these configurations is critical to the success of these new ideas. Since existing computational tools were found to be inadequate for these low aspect ratio configurations, new methods, consisting of singular value decomposition, surface displacement targeting, and Genetic Algorithms, have been developed. These new methods have led to successful designs of optimal, low current density coils which reproduce the target plasma configurations with good accuracy and flexibility while satisfying various engineering constraints. Results for modular and saddle coil sets for both QA and QO machines will be presented.

  5. The aerodynamic design of an advanced rotor airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced rotor airfoil, designed utilizing supercritical airfoil technology and advanced design and analysis methodology is described. The airfoil was designed subject to stringent aerodynamic design criteria for improving the performance over the entire rotor operating regime. The design criteria are discussed. The design was accomplished using a physical plane, viscous, transonic inverse design procedure, and a constrained function minimization technique for optimizing the airfoil leading edge shape. The aerodynamic performance objectives of the airfoil are discussed.

  6. Tools Lighten Designs, Maintain Structural Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Collier Research Corporation of Hampton, Virginia, licensed software developed at Langley Research Center to reduce design weight through the use of composite materials. The first license of NASA-developed software, it has now been used in everything from designing next-generation cargo containers, to airframes, rocket engines, ship hulls, and train bodies. The company now has sales of the NASA-derived software topping $4 million a year and has recently received several Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to apply its software to nearly all aspects of the new Orion crew capsule design.

  7. STRING 3: An Advanced Groundwater Flow Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Simon; Michel, Isabel; Biedert, Tim; Gräfe, Marius; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The visualization of 3D groundwater flow is a challenging task. Previous versions of our software STRING [1] solely focused on intuitive visualization of complex flow scenarios for non-professional audiences. STRING, developed by Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) and delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany), provides the necessary means for visualization of both 2D and 3D data on planar and curved surfaces. In this contribution we discuss how to extend this approach to a full 3D tool and its challenges in continuation of Michel et al. [2]. This elevates STRING from a post-production to an exploration tool for experts. In STRING moving pathlets provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flows. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow. To capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding is used building on the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Lifting our visualization approach from 2D into 3D provides many new challenges. With the implementation of a seeding strategy for 3D one of the major problems has already been solved (see Schröder et al. [3]). As pathlets only provide an overview of the velocity field other means are required for the visualization of additional flow properties. We suggest the use of Direct Volume Rendering and isosurfaces for scalar features. In this regard we were able to develop an efficient approach for combining the rendering through raytracing of the volume and regular OpenGL geometries. This is achieved through the use of Depth Peeling or A-Buffers for the rendering of transparent geometries. Animation of pathlets requires a strict boundary of the simulation domain. Hence, STRING needs to extract the boundary, even from unstructured data, if it is not provided. In 3D we additionally need a good visualization of the boundary itself. For this the silhouette based on the angle of

  8. Using IDE in Instructional Design: Encouraging Reflective Instruction Design Through Automated Design Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Daniel M.; Kelley, Loretta

    The Instructional Design Environment (IDE), a computer assisted instruction tool for instructional design, has been incorporated into the curriculum and instructional development in mathematics instruction in the Stanford Teacher Education Program (STEP). (STEP is a 12-month program leading to an M.A. in education which emphasizes content focus…

  9. Plant computer applications 'design and implementation tools' set

    SciTech Connect

    Anikanov, S. S.; Stolyetniy, I. V.; Tregubov, M. I.; Guslyakov, O. L.; Gladkov, Y. I.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes functionality of the application programs' development tool, which is intended to support the full scope of the NPP plant computer applications' design process. The Application Development Tools' Set (ADTS), described in this paper, refers to a set of tools intended to capture functional requirements for applications and support design process from definition of design basis up to final testing of developed applications. There are several tools developed by Westinghouse that facilitate design of application software on different stages of design process. Those are: NAPDT - Nuclear Application Development Tool; SDODT - Simplified Display Object Development Tool; OPAL - Test case execution and documenting tool; The main idea of ADTS is to combine the aforementioned tools into one software environment with other Common out-of-shelf (COT) software to facilitate and expedite NPP plant computer applications. Combination of the software tools included into ADTS satisfies industry requirements for the application software intended for use in the Category B and C systems /2 - 4/. (authors)

  10. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  11. The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-06-01

    The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool consists of a Modulating HPDM (Heat Pump Design Model) and a parametric-analysis (contour-data generating) front-end. Collectively the program is also referred to as MODCON which is in reference to the modulating and the contour data generating capabilities. The program was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Department of Energy to provide a publicly-available system design tool for variable- and single-speed heat pumps.

  12. Some Interactive Aspects of a Software Design Schema Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hing-Yan; Harandi, Mehdi T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a design schema acquisition tool which forms an important component of a hybrid software design system for reuse. The hybrid system incorporates both schema-based approaches in supporting software design reuse activities and is realized by extensions to the IDeA system. The paper also examines some of the interactive aspects that the tool requires with the domain analyst to accomplish its acquisition task.

  13. Inspiration from Victorian times in Ultrasonic Surgical Tool Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganilova, O. A.; Lucas, M.; Pan, Z.; Y Muir, A.; Simpson, H.

    2012-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of performance of surgical tools used in orthopaedics in terms of the occurrence of signs of necrosis, the accuracy of the cut and cutting tool design. For the comparison of the surgical tool performance different types of cutting devices were studied in a series of experiments. A Victorian surgical saw, its copy, a contemporary surgical saw, a surgical scalpel and an ultrasonic blade designed for a surgical application were chosen for the performance assessment. Such geometrical parameters as cutting edge shape, angle of teeth inclination, and sharpness of the cutting tools were analysed in terms of the quality of the cut and signs of necrosis. As a result of the analysis of experimental data obtained and theoretical insight the authors have come up with a creative solution for a novel design for a surgical ultrasonic blade which benefits from the design advantages of each of the analysed surgical tools and eliminates their drawbacks.

  14. H(2)- and H(infinity)-design tools for linear time-invariant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Uy-Loi

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in optimal control have brought design techniques based on optimization of H(2) and H(infinity) norm criteria, closer to be attractive alternatives to single-loop design methods for linear time-variant systems. Significant steps forward in this technology are the deeper understanding of performance and robustness issues of these design procedures and means to perform design trade-offs. However acceptance of the technology is hindered by the lack of convenient design tools to exercise these powerful multivariable techniques, while still allowing single-loop design formulation. Presented is a unique computer tool for designing arbitrary low-order linear time-invarient controllers than encompasses both performance and robustness issues via the familiar H(2) and H(infinity) norm optimization. Application to disturbance rejection design for a commercial transport is demonstrated.

  15. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  16. Engineering Design Modules as Physics Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Douglas L.; Kane, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Pre-engineering is increasingly being taught as a high school subject. This development presents challenges as well as opportunities for the physics education community. If pre-engineering is taught as a separate class, it may divert resources and students from traditional physics classes. However, design modules can be used as physics teaching…

  17. Computing tools for accelerator design calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Nash, T.

    1984-01-01

    This note is intended as a brief, summary guide for accelerator designers to the new generation of commercial and special processors that allow great increases in computing cost effectiveness. New thinking is required to take best advantage of these computing opportunities, in particular, when moving from analytical approaches to tracking simulations. In this paper, we outline the relevant considerations.

  18. Collaborative Translations: Designing Bilingual Instructional Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Christopher S.; Puzio, Kelly; Jiménez, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the role of collaboration and multilingual literacy as 21st-century skills, the authors used design research methods to present, analyze, and refine a strategic reading approach for bilingual students. The collaborative translation strategy involves reading an academic text, translating key passages, and evaluating these translations.…

  19. VLSI physical design analyzer: A profiling and data mining tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somani, Shikha; Verma, Piyush; Madhavan, Sriram; Batarseh, Fadi; Pack, Robert C.; Capodieci, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Traditional physical design verification tools employ a deck of known design rules, each of which has a pre-defined pass/fail criteria associated with it. While passing a design rule deck is a necessary condition for a VLSI design to be manufacturable, it is not sufficient. Other physical design profiling decks that attempt to obtain statistical information about the various critical dimensions in the VLSI design lack a systematic methodology for rule enumeration. These decks are often inadequate, unable to extract all the interlayer and intralayer dimensions in a design that have a correlation with process yield. The Physical Design Analyzer is a comprehensive design analysis tool built with the objective of exhaustively exploring design-process correlations to increase the wafer yield.

  20. Polymer brushes: Tools for surface design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ober, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Polymers brushes are ideal materials for interfacing with biological systems as they share many of the same molecular components and properties. Polymer brushes provide remarkable screening power in shielding a substrate from the environment through both steric and charge interactions. However, the majority of biomolecular species will still non-specifically bind to polymer brush surfaces unless some care is given to molecular design. Several polymer brush systems are described to control interaction of biomacromolecules and cells by design of specific and non-specific interactions in polymer brush architectures. ``Grown from'' and block copolymer brushes are described, both of which provide excellent substrates for study of brush surfaces. Examples of polymer brushes used for sensor creation and for investigation of cellular interaction are given. Brushes used in non-fouling coatings tailored for marine applications and in which amphiphilic structures play an important role are also described. Support from both NSF and ONR is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Design and simulation tools for optical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greedy, Stephen C.; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Sewell, Phillip; Benson, Trevor M.

    2001-05-01

    Dielectric resonators promise high functionality components for future optoelectronic integrated circuit applications. Accurate modeling of these components is a prerequisite to their successful deployment in innovative configurations. This paper will compare and contrast a wide variety of simulation techniques, developed by ourselves, that can be used for design. These encompass, (1) ful wave analytical integral equation methods which yield high accuracy and fast computation but are structure specific, (2) direct numerical simulation based upon high performance finite difference schemes which offer significant flexibility at the cost of computational overheads, (3) fast yet accurate semi- analytical approaches which can often provide sufficiently accurate result for the purposes of practical design at a fraction of the effort, in terms of both computational and pre-processing analysis as required by the former methods. The relative merits of the methods will be illustrated through their application to the design of practical components for a variety of systems. These will include examining the resonant frequencies, the quality factors and the field profiles of the lower order modes and the whispering gallery modes of dielectric resonators. Specific applications of interest are in the fields of filters, coupling elements and lasers.

  2. Improving Tools and Processes in Mechanical Design Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative product development projects in the aerospace and defense industry are held hostage to high cost and risk due to poor alignment of collaborative design tools and processes. This impasse can be broken if companies will jointly develop implementation approaches and practices in support of high value working arrangements. The current tools can be used to better advantage in many situations and there is reason for optimism that tool vendors will provide significant support.

  3. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application. PMID:25959313

  4. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application.

  5. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1989-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objectives. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Because of the number of systems involved and the variety of engineering disciplines, systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control system is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary objective is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs are reviewed: the X-29 forward-swept wing, the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16, and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating anomalies and the design errors which cause them, are examined to help identify what functions a system design/information tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  6. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  7. A quick guide to CRISPR sgRNA design tools.

    PubMed

    Brazelton, Vincent A; Zarecor, Scott; Wright, David A; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Jie; Chen, Keting; Yang, Bing; Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    Targeted genome editing is now possible in nearly any organism and is widely acknowledged as a biotech game-changer. Among available gene editing techniques, the CRISPR-Cas9 system is the current favorite because it has been shown to work in many species, does not necessarily result in the addition of foreign DNA at the target site, and follows a set of simple design rules for target selection. Use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system is facilitated by the availability of an array of CRISPR design tools that vary in design specifications and parameter choices, available genomes, graphical visualization, and downstream analysis functionality. To help researchers choose a tool that best suits their specific research needs, we review the functionality of various CRISPR design tools including our own, the CRISPR Genome Analysis Tool (CGAT; http://cropbioengineering.iastate.edu/cgat ). PMID:26745836

  8. WASTE REDUCTION USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized.
    Process simulators can be effective tools i...

  9. Distributed design tools: Mapping targeted design tools onto a Web-based distributed architecture for high-performance computing

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Poore, C.A.

    1999-11-30

    Design Tools use a Web-based Java interface to guide a product designer through the design-to-analysis cycle for a specific, well-constrained design problem. When these Design Tools are mapped onto a Web-based distributed architecture for high-performance computing, the result is a family of Distributed Design Tools (DDTs). The software components that enable this mapping consist of a Task Sequencer, a generic Script Execution Service, and the storage of both data and metadata in an active, object-oriented database called the Product Database Operator (PDO). The benefits of DDTs include improved security, reliability, scalability (in both problem size and computing hardware), robustness, and reusability. In addition, access to the PDO unlocks its wide range of services for distributed components, such as lookup and launch capability, persistent shared memory for communication between cooperating services, state management, event notification, and archival of design-to-analysis session data.

  10. Aerospace Power Systems Design and Analysis (APSDA) Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.

    1998-01-01

    The conceptual design of space and/or planetary electrical power systems has required considerable effort. Traditionally, in the early stages of the design cycle (conceptual design), the researchers have had to thoroughly study and analyze tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operating parameters (such as frequencies) to optimize system mass, efficiency, reliability, and cost. This process could take anywhere from several months to several years (as for the former Space Station Freedom), depending on the scale of the system. Although there are many sophisticated commercial software design tools for personal computers (PC's), none of them can support or provide total system design. To meet this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center cooperated with Professor George Kusic from the University of Pittsburgh to develop a new tool to help project managers and design engineers choose the best system parameters as quickly as possible in the early design stages (in days instead of months). It is called the Aerospace Power Systems Design and Analysis (APSDA) Tool. By using this tool, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, bus power, and electrical load schedule. With APSDA, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. user interface. It operates on any PC running the MS-DOS (Microsoft Corp.) operating system, version 5.0 or later. A color monitor (EGA or VGA) and two-button mouse are required. The APSDA tool was presented at the 30th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC) and is being beta tested at several NASA centers. Beta test packages are available for evaluation by contacting the author.

  11. Softdesk energy: A case study in early design tool integration

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, K.; Chassin, D.P.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-04-01

    Softdesk Energy is a design tool that integrates building energy analysis capability into a highly automated production drafting environment (AutoCAD and Softdesk AutoArchitect). This tool provides users of computer aided software the opportunity to evaluate the aided design/drafting (CAD) energy impact of design decisions much earlier in the design process than previously possible with energy analysis software. The authors review the technical challenges of integrating analytic methods into design tools, the opportunities such integrated tools create for building designers, and a usage scenario from the perspective of a current user of Softdesk Energy. A comparison between the simplified calculations in Softdesk Energy and detailed simulations using DOE-2 energy analysis is made to evaluate the applicability of the Softdesk Energy approach. As a unique example of integrating decision and drafting, Softdesk Energy provides an opportunity to study the strengths and weaknesses of integrated design tools and gives some insight into the future direction of the CAD software towards meeting the needs of diverse design disciplines.

  12. Design and analysis tools for concurrent blackboard systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A set of blackboard system design and analysis tools that consists of a knowledge source organizer, a knowledge source input/output connectivity analyzer, and a validated blackboard system simulation model is discussed. The author presents the structure and functionality of the knowledge source input/output connectivity analyzer. An example outlining the use of the analyzer to aid in the design of a concurrent tactical decision generator for air-to-air combat is presented. The blackboard system design and analysis tools were designed for generic blackboard systems and are application independent.

  13. CFD analyses for advanced pump design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, F. J.; Choi, S.-K.; Govindan, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    As one of the activities of the NASA/MSFC Pump Stage Technology Team, the present effort was focused on using CFD in the design and analysis of high performance rocket engine pumps. Under this effort, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was used for various inducer and impeller flow field calculations. An existing algebraic grid generation procedure was-extended to allow for nonzero blade thickness, splitter blades, and hub/shroud cavities upstream or downstream of the (main) blades. This resulted in a fast, robust inducer/impeller geometry/grid generation package. Problems associated with running a compressible flow code to simulate an incompressible flow were resolved; related aspects of the numerical algorithm (viz., the matrix preconditioning, the artificial dissipation, and the treatment of low Mach number flows) were addressed. As shown by the calculations performed under the present effort, the resulting code, in conjunction with the grid generation package, is an effective tool for the rapid solution of three-dimensional viscous inducer and impeller flows.

  14. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  15. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  16. Advanced technologies impact on compressor design and development: A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  17. Advanced technology's impact on compressor design and development - A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  18. Orchestrating Learning Activities Using the CADMOS Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsamani, Maria; Retalis, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of CADMOS (CoursewAre Development Methodology for Open instructional Systems), a graphical IMS-LD Level A & B compliant learning design (LD) tool, which promotes the concept of "separation of concerns" during the design process, via the creation of two models: the conceptual model, which describes the…

  19. Justifying the Design and Selection of Literacy and Thinking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David

    2008-01-01

    Criteria for the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools that allow educators to justify what they do are described within a wider framework of learning theory and research into best practice. Based on a meta-analysis of best practice, results from a three year project designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a secondary school…

  20. A Program Information Tool for Instructional Design and Technology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockee, Barbara B.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The IDT (Instructional Design and Technology) Program Information Tool is an online information sharing system which has been created to allow programs in the field of instructional design and technology to share their program policies and procedures with one another easily so as to help each program review those practices and perhaps adapt (or…

  1. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  2. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  3. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  4. Advanced Design Mixer Pump Tank 18 Design Modifications Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, B.J.

    2002-12-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is preparing to retrieve high level waste (HLW) from Tank 18 in early FY03 to provide feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and to support tank closure in FY04. As part of the Tank 18 project, WSRC will install a single Advanced Design Mixer Pump (ADMP) in the center riser of Tank 18 to mobilize, suspend, and mix radioactive sludge in preparation for transfer to Tank 7. The use of a single ADMP is a change to the current baseline of four (4) standard slurry pumps used during previous waste retrieval campaigns. The ADMP was originally conceived by Hanford and supported by SRS to provide a more reliable and maintainable mixer pump for use throughout the DOE complex. The ADMP underwent an extensive test program at SRS between 1998 and 2002 to assess reliability and hydraulic performance. The ADMP ran for approximately 4,200 hours over the four-year period. A detailed tear down and inspection of the pump following the 4,2 00-hour run revealed that the gas mechanical seals and anti-friction bearings would need to be refurbished/replaced prior to deployment in Tank 18. Design modifications were also needed to meet current Authorization Basis safety requirements. This report documents the modifications made to the ADMP in support of Tank 18 deployment. This report meets the requirements of Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Milestone 3591.4-1, ''Issue Report on Modifications Made to the ADMP,'' contained in Technical Task Plan (TTP) SR16WT51, ''WSRC Retrieval and Closure.''

  5. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  6. Using Modern Design Tools for Digital Avionics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, David W.; Lakin, David R., II; Asquith, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    Using Modem Design Tools for Digital Avionics Development Shrinking development time and increased complexity of new avionics forces the designer to use modem tools and methods during hardware development. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have successfully upgraded their design flow and used it to develop a Mongoose V based radiation tolerant processor board for the International Space Station's Water Recovery System. The design flow, based on hardware description languages, simulation, synthesis, hardware models, and full functional software model libraries, allowed designers to fully simulate the processor board from reset, through initialization before any boards were built. The fidelity of a digital simulation is limited to the accuracy of the models used and how realistically the designer drives the circuit's inputs during simulation. By using the actual silicon during simulation, device modeling errors are reduced. Numerous design flaws were discovered early in the design phase when they could be easily fixed. The use of hardware models and actual MIPS software loaded into full functional memory models also provided checkout of the software development environment. This paper will describe the design flow used to develop the processor board and give examples of errors that were found using the tools. An overview of the processor board firmware will also be covered.

  7. The role of optimization in the next generation of computer-based design tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogan, J. Edward

    1989-01-01

    There is a close relationship between design optimization and the emerging new generation of computer-based tools for engineering design. With some notable exceptions, the development of these new tools has not taken full advantage of recent advances in numerical design optimization theory and practice. Recent work in the field of design process architecture has included an assessment of the impact of next-generation computer-based design tools on the design process. These results are summarized, and insights into the role of optimization in a design process based on these next-generation tools are presented. An example problem has been worked out to illustrate the application of this technique. The example problem - layout of an aircraft main landing gear - is one that is simple enough to be solved by many other techniques. Although the mathematical relationships describing the objective function and constraints for the landing gear layout problem can be written explicitly and are quite straightforward, an approximation technique has been used in the solution of this problem that can just as easily be applied to integrate supportability or producibility assessments using theory of measurement techniques into the design decision-making process.

  8. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, 1989 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are to experimentally confirm several advanced design concepts on the Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS). The advanced design concepts were identified as potential improvements by Madison Magnetics, Inc. (MMI) during 1984 and 1985 studies of an MSBS utilizing 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in an airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. This study confirmed several advanced design concepts on magnetic suspension and balance systems. The 1989 MSBS redesign is based on the results of these experiments. Savings of up to 30 percent in supporting magnet ampere meters and 50 percent in energy stored over the 1985 design were achieved.

  9. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  10. PAT: an intelligent authoring tool for facilitating clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Tagaris, Anastasios; Andronikou, Vassiliki; Karanastasis, Efstathios; Chondrogiannis, Efthymios; Tsirmpas, Charalambos; Varvarigou, Theodora; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Great investments are made by both private and public funds and a wealth of research findings is published, the research and development pipeline phases quite low productivity and tremendous delays. In this paper, we present a novel authoring tool which has been designed and developed for facilitating study design. Its underlying models are based on a thorough analysis of existing clinical trial protocols (CTPs) and eligibility criteria (EC) published in clinicaltrials.gov by domain experts. Moreover, its integration with intelligent decision support services and mechanisms linking the study design process with healthcare patient data as well as its direct access to literature designate it as a powerful tool offering great support to researchers during clinical trial design.

  11. Microsystem design framework based on tool adaptations and library developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Jean Michel; Courtois, Bernard; Rencz, Marta; Poppe, Andras; Szekely, Vladimir

    1996-09-01

    Besides foundry facilities, Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools are also required to move microsystems from research prototypes to an industrial market. This paper describes a Computer-Aided-Design Framework for microsystems, based on selected existing software packages adapted and extended for microsystem technology, assembled with libraries where models are available in the form of standard cells described at different levels (symbolic, system/behavioral, layout). In microelectronics, CAD has already attained a highly sophisticated and professional level, where complete fabrication sequences are simulated and the device and system operation is completely tested before manufacturing. In comparison, the art of microsystem design and modelling is still in its infancy. However, at least for the numerical simulation of the operation of single microsystem components, such as mechanical resonators, thermo-elements, elastic diaphragms, reliable simulation tools are available. For the different engineering disciplines (like electronics, mechanics, optics, etc) a lot of CAD-tools for the design, simulation and verification of specific devices are available, but there is no CAD-environment within which we could perform a (micro-)system simulation due to the different nature of the devices. In general there are two different approaches to overcome this limitation: the first possibility would be to develop a new framework tailored for microsystem-engineering. The second approach, much more realistic, would be to use the existing CAD-tools which contain the most promising features, and to extend these tools so that they can be used for the simulation and verification of microsystems and of the devices involved. These tools are assembled with libraries in a microsystem design environment allowing a continuous design flow. The approach is driven by the wish to make microsystems accessible to a large community of people, including SMEs and non-specialized academic institutions.

  12. Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1988-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational

  13. Recent advances in the rational design of silica-based nanoparticles for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Niut, Yuting; Popatt, Amirali; Yu, Meihua; Karmakar, Surajit; Gu, Wenyi; Yu, Chengzhong

    2012-10-01

    Gene therapy has attracted much attention in modern society and provides a promising approach for treating genetic disorders, diseases and cancers. Safe and effective vectors are vital tools to deliver genetic molecules to cells. This review summarizes recent advances in the rational design of silica-based nanoparticles and their applications in gene therapy. An overview of different types of genetic agents available for gene therapy is provided. The engineering of various silica nanoparticles is described, which can be used as versatile complexation tools for genetic agents and advanced gene therapy. Several challenges are raised and future research directions in the area of gene therapy using silica-based nanoparticles are proposed.

  14. Design of the advanced regional aircraft, the DART-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Steve; Gislason, Jason; Huffstetler, Mark; Mann, Jon; Withers, Ashley; Zimmerman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    This design analysis is intended to show the capabilities of the DART-75, a 75 passenger medium-range regional transport. Included are the detailed descriptions of the structures, performance, stability and control, weight and balance, and engine design. The design should allow for the DART to become the premier regional aircraft of the future due to some advanced features like the canard, semi-composite construction, and advanced engines.

  15. Advances in technologies and study design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Completion of the initial draft sequence of the human genome was the proving ground for and has ushered in significant advancements in technology of increasing sophistication and ever increasing amounts of data. Often, this combination has a multiplicative effect of stimulating research groups to co...

  16. Databases and in silico tools for vaccine design.

    PubMed

    He, Yongqun; Xiang, Zuoshuang

    2013-01-01

    In vaccine design, databases and in silico tools play different but complementary roles. Databases collect experimentally verified vaccines and vaccine components, and in silico tools provide computational methods to predict and design new vaccines and vaccine components. Vaccine-related databases include databases of vaccines and vaccine components. In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maintains a database of licensed human vaccines, and the US Department of Agriculture keeps a database of licensed animal vaccines. Databases of vaccine clinical trials and vaccines in research also exist. The important vaccine components include vaccine antigens, vaccine adjuvants, vaccine vectors, and -vaccine preservatives. The vaccine antigens can be whole proteins or immune epitopes. Various in silico vaccine design tools are also available. The Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN; http://www.violinet.org ) is a comprehensive vaccine database and analysis system. The VIOLIN database includes various types of vaccines and vaccine components. VIOLIN also includes Vaxign, a Web-based in silico vaccine design program based on the reverse vaccinology strategy. Vaccine information and resources can be integrated with Vaccine Ontology (VO). This chapter introduces databases and in silico tools that facilitate vaccine design, especially those in the VIOLIN system.

  17. TRACY: A tool for accelerator design and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Hiroshi

    1988-06-01

    A simulation code TRACY has been developed for accelerator design and analysis. The code can be used for lattice design work simulation of magnet misalignments, closed orbit calculations and corrections, undulator calculations and particle tracking. TRACY has been used extensively for single particle simulations for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source now under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  18. New tools for the simulation and design of calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, W.J.

    1989-07-10

    Two new approaches to the simulation and design of large hermetic calorimeters are presented. Firstly, the Shower Library scheme used in the fast generation of showers in the Monte Carlo of the calorimeter for the D-Zero experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Secondly, a tool for the design future calorimeters is described, which can be integrated with a computer aided design system to give engineering designers an immediate idea of the relative physics capabilities of different geometries. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Commentary on Future directions: Building technologies and design tools''

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  20. Commentary on ``Future directions: Building technologies and design tools``

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  1. Advanced process control with design-based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjo; Kim, Jungchan; Hong, Jongkyun; Yim, Donggyu; Kim, Jinwoong; Hasebe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    K1 factor for development and mass-production of memory devices has been decreased down to below 0.30 in recent years. Process technology has responded with extreme resolution enhancement technologies (RET) and much more complex OPC technologies than before. ArF immersion lithography is expected to remain the major patterning technology through under 35 nm node, where the degree of process difficulties and the sensitivity to process variations grow even higher. So, Design for manufacturing (DFM) is proposed to lower the degree of process difficulties and advanced process control (APC) is required to reduce the process variations. However, both DFM and APC need much feed-back from the wafer side such as hot spot inspection results and total CDU measurements at the lot, wafer, field and die level. In this work, we discuss a new design based metrology which can compare SEM image with CAD data and measure the whole CD deviations from the original layouts in a full die. It can provide the full information of hot spots and the whole CD distribution diagram of various transistors in peripheral regions as well as cell layout. So, it is possible to analyze the root cause of the CD distribution of some specific transistors or cell layout, such as OPC error, mask CDU, lens aberrations or etch process variation and so on. The applications of this new inspection tool will be introduced and APC using the analysis result will be presented in detail.

  2. Design tools for daylighting illumination and energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.

    1982-07-01

    The problems and potentials for using daylighting to provide illumination in building interiors are reviewed. It describes some of the design tools now or soon to be available for incorporating daylighting into the building design process. It also describes state-of-the-art methods for analyzing the impacts daylighting can have on selection of lighting controls, lighting energy consumption, heating and cooling loads, and peak power demand.

  3. Update on ORNL TRANSFORM Tool: Simulating Multi-Module Advanced Reactor with End-to-End I&C

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Richard Edward; Fugate, David L.; Cetiner, Sacit M.; Qualls, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the fourth year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled reactor) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The focus of this report is the development of a steam generator and drum system model that includes the complex dynamics of typical steam drum systems, the development of instrumentation and controls for the steam generator with drum system model, and the development of multi-reactor module models that reflect the full power reactor innovative small module design concept. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor models; ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface technical area; and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the TRANSFORM tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the Advanced Reactors Technology program; (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using available geometry, design, and thermal-hydraulic data; (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models; and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  4. Automatic differentiation as a tool in engineering design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Hall, Laura E.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic Differentiation (AD) is a tool that systematically implements the chain rule of differentiation to obtain the derivatives of functions calculated by computer programs. AD is assessed as a tool for engineering design. The forward and reverse modes of AD, their computing requirements, as well as approaches to implementing AD are discussed. The application of two different tools to two medium-size structural analysis problems to generate sensitivity information typically necessary in an optimization or design situation is also discussed. The observation is made that AD is to be preferred to finite differencing in most cases, as long as sufficient computer storage is available; in some instances, AD may be the alternative to consider in lieu of analytical sensitivity analysis.

  5. An Update on Design Tools for Optimization of CMC 3D Fiber Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.; DiCarlo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe and up-date progress for NASA's efforts to develop 3D architectural design tools for CMC in general and for SIC/SiC composites in particular. Describe past and current sequential work efforts aimed at: Understanding key fiber and tow physical characteristics in conventional 2D and 3D woven architectures as revealed by microstructures in the literature. Developing an Excel program for down-selecting and predicting key geometric properties and resulting key fiber-controlled properties for various conventional 3D architectures. Developing a software tool for accurately visualizing all the key geometric details of conventional 3D architectures. Validating tools by visualizing and predicting the Internal geometry and key mechanical properties of a NASA SIC/SIC panel with a 3D orthogonal architecture. Applying the predictive and visualization tools toward advanced 3D orthogonal SiC/SIC composites, and combining them into a user-friendly software program.

  6. An internet tool for designing energy efficient homes

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, M.; Gomez, C.; Leeper, D.; Zurick, J.; Nindra, A.; Shen, J.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1999-07-01

    To help their 4.5 million residential customers make energy efficient decisions, Southern California Gas asked UCLA to develop an Internet-based simulation tool called Project REED (Residential Energy Efficient Design). The critical problem is to give these ratepayers an easy way to visualize the relative effectiveness of their various options. REED is a internet-based tool that calculates the annual gas and electricity cost for each separate building design or operating decision. Hourly climate data for the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY2) in all the climate zones in the SoCalGas service area are built in, as well as utility rates for each type of residential service. REED's Expert System first designs a basic Code Compliant home, then designs a more Energy Efficient design based on local climate, and it shows how much money ratepayers would save. The simulation engine inside REED is SOLAR-5, one of the nation's most widely used whole building energy design tools. SOLAR-5 has been validated against DOE-2 using the BESTEST procedure. This paper, one of a pair describing REED, explains the project from the user's point of view and describes what was learned from the Ratepayer Usability Test. The second paper explains the project from the simulation and software engineering point of view.

  7. Advances in Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) is a core methodology of the Learning Sciences. Historically rooted as a movement away from the methods of experimental psychology, it is a means to develop "humble" theory that takes into account numerous contextual effects for understanding how and why a design supported learning. DBR involves iterative…

  8. Real World Projects in an Advanced Instructional Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Chatervert, Lake, Kristy; Wilson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This design case focuses on the redesign of Advanced Instructional Design, a capstone course taught in a Midwestern university's Masters of Training and Development program. The goal of the course was to have students integrate knowledge and skills from previous courses including needs assessment, introduction to instructional design, and program…

  9. Design and ergonomics. Methods for integrating ergonomics at hand tool design stage.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Jacques; Claudon, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    As a marked increase in the number of musculoskeletal disorders was noted in many industrialized countries and more specifically in companies that require the use of hand tools, the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) launched in 1999 a research project on the topic of integrating ergonomics into hand tool design, and more particularly to a design of a boning knife. After a brief recall of the difficulties of integrating ergonomics at the design stage, the present paper shows how 3 design methodological tools--Functional Analysis, Quality Function Deployment and TRIZ--have been applied to the design of a boning knife. Implementation of these tools enabled us to demonstrate the extent to which they are capable of responding to the difficulties of integrating ergonomics into product design. PMID:15028190

  10. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  11. Enhanced terahertz imaging system performance analysis and design tool for concealed weapon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Espinola, Richard L.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Jacobs, Eddie L.

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model/tool for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The details of the MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security & Defence Symposium (Brugge). An advanced version of the base model that accounts for both the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system, and for the impact of target and background thermal emission, was reported on at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium (Orlando). This paper will provide a comprehensive review of an enhanced, user-friendly, Windows-executable, terahertz-band imaging system performance analysis and design tool that now includes additional features such as a MODTRAN-based atmospheric attenuation calculator and advanced system architecture configuration inputs that allow for straightforward performance analysis of active or passive systems based on scanning (single- or line-array detector element(s)) or staring (focal-plane-array detector elements) imaging architectures. This newly enhanced THz imaging system design tool is an extension of the advanced THz imaging system performance model that was developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. This paper will also provide example system component (active-illumination source and detector) trade-study analyses using the new features of this user-friendly THz imaging system performance analysis and design tool.

  12. A CAD tool that automatically designs fixtures and pallets

    SciTech Connect

    Brost, R.C.; Peters, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Costs associated with designing and fabricating fixtures may be a significant portion of the total costs associated with a manufacturing task. The software tool, HoldFast, designs optimal fixtures that hold a single workpiece, are easily fabricated, provide rigid constraint and deterministic location of the workpiece, are robust to workpiece shape variations, obey all associated task constraints, and are easy to load and unload. We illustrate the capabilities of HoldFast by designing fixtures for several examples. Fixtures are designed and built for finish-machining and drilling of a cast part for prototype fabrication and mass-production fabrication. A pallet fixture is designed for vertical assembly of a personal cassette player. Another pallet fixture is designed and built that will hold either the personal cassette player or a glue gun during assembly.

  13. Coherence as a Tool for Advancing Equity and Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasmarick, Alexis Helene

    2011-01-01

    School districts, as they work to raise the achievement of all students, must maintain a clear focus on student learning and align district work with that focus. This focus and alignment is referred to as coherence, meaning that the various parts of the district are designed so that they work in sync with one another to achieve district goals.…

  14. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  15. AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

    2003-02-27

    WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment

  16. Advanced solar concentrator: Preliminary and detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Maraschin, R. A.; Matsushita, M. T.; Erskine, D.; Carlton, R.; Jakovcevic, A.; Yasuda, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    A single reflection point focusing two-axis tracking paraboloidal dish with a reflector aperture diameter of approximately 11 m has a reflective surface made up of 64 independent, optical quality gores. Each gore is a composite of a thin backsilvered mirror glass face sheet continuously bonded to a contoured substrate of lightweight, rigid cellular glass. The use of largely self-supporting gores allows a significant reduction in the weight of the steel support structure as compared to alternate design concepts. Primary emphasis in the preliminary design package for the low-cost, low-weight, mass producible concentrator was placed on the design of the higher cost subsystems. The outer gore element was sufficiently designed to allow fabrication of prototype gores.

  17. Using digital electronic design flow to create a Genetic Design Automation tool.

    PubMed

    Gendrault, Y; Madec, M; Wlotzko, V; Andraud, M; Lallement, C; Haiech, J

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic bio-systems become increasingly more complex and their development is lengthy and expensive. In the same way, in microelectronics, the design process of very complex circuits has benefited from many years of experience. It is now partly automated through Electronic Design Automation tools. Both areas present analogies that can be used to create a Genetic Design Automation tool inspired from EDA tools used in digital electronics. This tool would allow moving away from a totally manual design of bio-systems to assisted conception. This ambitious project is presented in this paper, with a deep focus on the tool that automatically generates models of bio-systems directly usable in electronic simulators.

  18. NASA/USRA advanced design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes and presents a preliminary design for an experimental hypersonic vehicle. This plane will have a cruise speed of Mach 12 for one minute at an altitude of 120,000 feet. The major design areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and weights are discussed in depth. An elementary analysis of thermal protection, trajectory, and cost is also presented. Finally, a discussion of future plans and recommendations is given, and overall conclusions are drawn.

  19. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  20. Powerful tool for design analysis of linear control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maddux, Jr, A S

    1982-05-10

    The methods for designing linear controls for electronic or mechanical systems have been understood and put to practice. What has not been readily available to engineers, however, is a practical, quick and inexpensive method for analyzing these linear control (feedback) systems once they have been designed into the electronic or mechanical hardware. Now, the PET, manufactured by Commodore Business Machines (CBM), operating with several peripherals via the IEEE 488 Bus, brings to the engineer for about $4000 a complete set of office tools for analyzing these system designs.

  1. Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.

  2. An ergonomic approach to design hand tool for agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Khidiya, Mahendra Singh; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh

    2012-01-01

    Hand tool mechanisms designed to reduce the risk factors have rarely been studied. In this paper it is analyze trowel firstly designing in CATIA and then its Finite Element Analysis has been carried out by ABAQUS. The main emphasis is on finding stresses by using this software, then removing them by suitable mechanical working on tool & ergonomic change in the design of handle to make it more comfortable. Body part discomfort score and overall discomfort rating experienced by the subjects had also been estimated. During the muscular activity workers physiological responses i.e. energy expenditure rate, oxygen consumption rate and heart rate increases. This increase in physiological responses is related to the type, intensity and duration of work and thus sets limits to the performance of heavy work. In this paper oxygen consumption rate and heart rate was used for physiological cost estimation. These parameters were measured by Computerized Ambulatory Metabolic Measurement System K4b2.

  3. Advanced nursing practice: old hat, new design.

    PubMed

    De Grasse, C; Nicklin, W

    2001-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses positively impact the delivery of healthcare and client outcomes. However, in the past these positions have been seen to have variable value and were often vulnerable during budget cuts. Lack of a clear advanced nursing practice (ANP) framework probably contributed to the compromised effectiveness of these roles and evolution of roles with different titles, scopes of practice and reporting structures. To build the foundation for developing an ANP framework, a task force at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) conducted a literature review related to ANP roles and completed a review of all clinical nursing roles at TOH. In addition, focus groups with nurses and other health professionals elicited ANP perceptions. The ANP framework includes a standardized job description that details competencies under five role components: clinical practice; consultation; research; education; and, leadership. Recommendations for assessment, implementation and evaluation of ANP roles are identified. The process undertaken by our ANP task force proved to be thorough and sound in developing a framework within which to move forward with ANP role implementation throughout TOH. This article, describing the process, may assist other organizations in defining ANP roles to better meet patient needs in changing health care environments. PMID:11803945

  4. Design sensitivity analysis and optimization tool (DSO) for sizing design applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kuang-Hua; Choi, Kyung K.; Perng, Jyh-Hwa

    1992-01-01

    The DSO tool, a structural design software system that provides the designer with a graphics-based menu-driven design environment to perform easy design optimization for general applications, is presented. Three design stages, preprocessing, design sensitivity analysis, and postprocessing, are implemented in the DSO to allow the designer to carry out the design process systematically. A framework, including data base, user interface, foundation class, and remote module, has been designed and implemented to facilitate software development for the DSO. A number of dedicated commercial software/packages have been integrated in the DSO to support the design procedures. Instead of parameterizing an FEM, design parameters are defined on a geometric model associated with physical quantities, and the continuum design sensitivity analysis theory is implemented to compute design sensitivity coefficients using postprocessing data from the analysis codes. A tracked vehicle road wheel is given as a sizing design application to demonstrate the DSO's easy and convenient design optimization process.

  5. Scanning magnetoresistive microscopy: An advanced characterization tool for magnetic nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, D.; Grobis, M.; Albrecht, M.

    2016-02-01

    An advanced scanning magnetoresistive microscopy (SMRM) — a robust magnetic imaging and probing technique — will be presented, which utilizes state-of-the-art recording heads of a hard disk drive as sensors. The spatial resolution of modern tunneling magnetoresistive sensors is nowadays comparable to the more commonly used magnetic force microscopes. Important advantages of SMRM are the ability to detect pure magnetic signals directly proportional to the out-of-plane magnetic stray field, negligible sensor stray fields, and the ability to apply local bipolar magnetic field pulses up to 10 kOe with bandwidths from DC up to 1 GHz. Moreover, the SMRM can be further equipped with a heating stage and external magnetic field units. The performance of this method and corresponding best practices are demonstrated by presenting various examples, including a temperature dependent recording study on hard magnetic L10 FeCuPt thin films, imaging of magnetic vortex states in an in-plane magnetic field, and their controlled manipulation by applying local field pulses.

  6. Scanning magnetoresistive microscopy: An advanced characterization tool for magnetic nanosystems.

    PubMed

    Mitin, D; Grobis, M; Albrecht, M

    2016-02-01

    An advanced scanning magnetoresistive microscopy (SMRM) - a robust magnetic imaging and probing technique - will be presented, which utilizes state-of-the-art recording heads of a hard disk drive as sensors. The spatial resolution of modern tunneling magnetoresistive sensors is nowadays comparable to the more commonly used magnetic force microscopes. Important advantages of SMRM are the ability to detect pure magnetic signals directly proportional to the out-of-plane magnetic stray field, negligible sensor stray fields, and the ability to apply local bipolar magnetic field pulses up to 10 kOe with bandwidths from DC up to 1 GHz. Moreover, the SMRM can be further equipped with a heating stage and external magnetic field units. The performance of this method and corresponding best practices are demonstrated by presenting various examples, including a temperature dependent recording study on hard magnetic L1(0) FeCuPt thin films, imaging of magnetic vortex states in an in-plane magnetic field, and their controlled manipulation by applying local field pulses. PMID:26931856

  7. CAD tool environment for MEMS process design support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Wagener, A.; Popp, J.; Hahn, K.; Bruck, R.

    2005-07-01

    MEMS fabrication processes are characterized by a numerous useable process steps, materials and effects to fabricate the intended microstructure. Up to now CAD support in this domain concentrates mainly on the structural design (e.g. simulation programs on FEM basis). These tools often assume fixed interfaces to fabrication process like material parameters or design rules. Taking into account that MEMS design requires concurrently structural design (defining the lateral 2-dim shapes) as well as process design (responsible for the third dimension) it turns out that technology interfaces consisting only of sets of static data are no longer sufficient. For successful design flows in these areas it is necessary to incorporate a higher degree of process related data. A broader interface between process configuration on the one side and the application design on the other side seems to be needed. This paper proposes a novel approach. A process management system is introduced. It allows the specification of processes for specific applications. The system is based on a dedicated database environment that is able to store and manage all process related design constraints linked to the fabrication process data itself. The interdependencies between application specific processes and all stages of the design flow will be discussed and the complete software system PRINCE will be introduced meeting the requirements of this new approach. Based on a concurrent design methodology presented in the beginning of this paper, a system is presented that supports application specific process design. The paper will highlight the incorporated tools and the present status of the software system. A complete configuration of an Si-thin film process example will demonstrate the usage of PRINCE.

  8. Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wugalter, S.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.

  9. MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

    In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

  10. Advanced tools for astronomical time series and image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    The algorithms described here, which I have developed for applications in X-ray and γ-ray astronomy, will hopefully be of use in other ways, perhaps aiding in the exploration of modern astronomy's data cornucopia. The goal is to describe principled approaches to some ubiquitous problems, such as detection and characterization of periodic and aperiodic signals, estimation of time delays between multiple time series, and source detection in noisy images with noisy backgrounds. The latter problem is related to detection of clusters in data spaces of various dimensions. A goal of this work is to achieve a unifying view of several related topics: signal detection and characterization, cluster identification, classification, density estimation, and multivariate regression. In addition to being useful for analysis of data from space-based and ground-based missions, these algorithms may be a basis for a future automatic science discovery facility, and in turn provide analysis tools for the Virtual Observatory. This chapter has ties to those by Larry Bretthorst, Tom Loredo, Alanna Connors, Fionn Murtagh, Jim Berger, David van Dyk, Vicent Martinez & Enn Saar.

  11. Reconfigurable Advanced Receiver Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jianjing

    2005-01-01

    While the demand for real-time broadband information access has grown and continues to grow at a rapid Pace, the need for a reconfigurable receiver system has increased. To achieve the goal to communicate with multiple shuttles at a time, a filter bank in polyphase structure is introduced. This paper presents the design and implementation for high-speed, high-performance, and fixed-point polyphase filter banks. The polyphase filter structure is designed such that the use of a fixed-point system has minimum impact on the performance of the filter. The final hardware implementation is done on a Xilinx FPGA chip.

  12. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  13. Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

    1999-03-01

    Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

  14. Advances in electrometer vacuum tube design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Single-ended, miniature-cathode tube with a relatively low grid current level is constructed. Adequate cathode temperature at relatively low heater power drain is provided by designing the supporting spacers to provide a square cathode hole. Method of assembling the mount and bonding the elements is discussed.

  15. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  16. Advancing alternate tools: why science education needs CRP and CRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodo Seriki, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Ridgeway and Yerrick's paper, Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, unearthed the tensions that existed between a local community "expert" and a group of students and their facilitator in an afterschool program. Those of us who work with youth who are traditionally marginalized, understand the importance of teaching in culturally relevant ways, but far too often—as Ridgeway and Yerrick shared—community partners have beliefs, motives, and ideologies that are incompatible to the program's mission and goals. Nevertheless, we often enter partnerships assuming that the other party understands the needs of the students or community; understands how in U.S. society White is normative while all others are deficient; and understands how to engage with students in culturally relevant ways. This forum addresses the underlying assumption, described in the Ridgeway and Yerrick article, that educators—despite their background and experiences—are able to teach in culturally relevant ways. Additionally, I assert based on the finding in the article that just as Ladson-Billings and Tate (Teach Coll Rec 97(1):47-68, 1995) asserted, race in the U.S. society, as a scholarly pursuit, was under theorized. The same is true of science education; race in science education is under theorized and the use of culturally relevant pedagogy and critical race theory as a pedagogical model and analytical tool, respectively, in science education is minimal. The increased use of both would impact our understanding of who does science, and how to broaden participation among people of color.

  17. Virtual Environment Design for Low/Zero Visibility Tower Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ron; Farouk, Ahmed; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes prototype software for three-dimensional display of aircraft movement based on realtime radar and other Air Traffic Control (ATC) information. This prototype can be used to develop operational tools for controllers in ATC Towers who cannot view aircraft in low or zero visibility (LZV) weather conditions. The controller could also use the software to arbitrarily reposition his virtual eyepoint to overcome physical obstructions or increase situation awareness. The LZV Tower tool prototype consists of server and client components. The server interfaces to operational ATC radar and communications systems, sending processed data to a client process written in java. This client process runs under Netscape Communicator to provide an interactive perspective display of aircraft in the airport environment. Prototype VRML airport models were derived from 3-D databases used in FAA-certified high fidelity flight-simulators. The web-based design offers potential efficiency increases and decreased costs in the development and deployment of operational LZV Tower tools.

  18. Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.

  19. Advances in structure-based vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the tremendous successes of current vaccines, infectious diseases still take a heavy toll on the global population, and that provides strong rationale for broadening our vaccine development repertoire. Structural vaccinology, in which protein structure information is utilized to design immunogens, has promise to provide new vaccines against traditionally difficult targets. Crystal structures of antigens containing one or more protection epitopes, especially when in complex with a protective antibody, are the launching point for immunogen design. Integrating structure and sequence information for families of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has recently enabled the creation of germline-targeting immunogens that bind and activate germline B-cells in order to initiate the elicitation of such antibodies. The contacts between antigen and neutralizing antibody define a structural epitope, and methods have been developed to transplant epitopes to scaffold proteins for structural stabilization, and to design minimized antigens that retain one or more key epitopes while eliminating other potentially distracting or unnecessary features. To develop vaccines that protect against antigenically variable pathogens, pioneering structure-based work demonstrated that multiple strain-specific epitopes could be engineered onto a single immunogen. We review these recent structural vaccinology efforts to engineer germline-targeting, epitope-specific, and/or broad coverage immunogens. PMID:23806515

  20. Advances in structure-based vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R

    2013-06-01

    Despite the tremendous successes of current vaccines, infectious diseases still take a heavy toll on the global population, and that provides strong rationale for broadening our vaccine development repertoire. Structural vaccinology, in which protein structure information is utilized to design immunogens, has promise to provide new vaccines against traditionally difficult targets. Crystal structures of antigens containing one or more protection epitopes, especially when in complex with a protective antibody, are the launching point for immunogen design. Integrating structure and sequence information for families of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has recently enabled the creation of germline-targeting immunogens that bind and activate germline B-cells in order to initiate the elicitation of such antibodies. The contacts between antigen and neutralizing antibody define a structural epitope, and methods have been developed to transplant epitopes to scaffold proteins for structural stabilization, and to design minimized antigens that retain one or more key epitopes while eliminating other potentially distracting or unnecessary features. To develop vaccines that protect against antigenically variable pathogens, pioneering structure-based work demonstrated that multiple strain-specific epitopes could be engineered onto a single immunogen. We review these recent structural vaccinology efforts to engineer germline-targeting, epitope-specific, and/or broad coverage immunogens.

  1. Teaching Advanced Data Analysis Tools to High School Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, David V.; Herring, Julie; Hintz, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    A major barrier to becoming an astronomer is learning how to analyze astronomical data, such as using photometry to compare the brightness of stars. Most fledgling astronomers learn observation, data reduction, and analysis skills through an upper division college class. If the same skills could be taught in an introductory high school astronomy class, then more students would have an opportunity to do authentic science earlier, with implications for how many choose to become astronomers. Several software tools have been developed that can analyze astronomical data ranging from fairly straightforward (AstroImageJ and DS9) to very complex (IRAF and DAOphot). During the summer of 2014, a study was undertaken at Brigham Young University through a Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program to evaluate the effectiveness and ease-of-use of these four software packages. Standard tasks tested included creating a false-color IR image using WISE data in DS9, Adobe Photoshop, and The Gimp; a multi-aperture analyses of variable stars over time using AstroImageJ; creating Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of stars using photometry at multiple wavelengths in AstroImageJ and DS9; and color-magnitude and hydrogen alpha index diagrams for open star clusters using IRAF and DAOphot. Tutorials were then written and combined with screen captures to teach high school astronomy students at Walden School of Liberal Arts in Provo, UT how to perform these same tasks. They analyzed image data using the four software packages, imported it into Microsoft Excel, and created charts using images from BYU's 36-inch telescope at their West Mountain Observatory. The students' attempts to complete these tasks were observed, mentoring was provided, and the students then reported on their experience through a self-reflection essay and concept test. Results indicate that high school astronomy students can successfully complete professional-level astronomy data analyses when given detailed

  2. A conceptual design tool for RBCC engine performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Olds, J.R.; Saks, G.

    1997-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles will depend on new propulsion technologies to lower system operational costs while maintaining adequate performance. Recently, a number of vehicle systems utilizing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion have been proposed as possible low-cost space launch solutions. Vehicles using RBCC propulsion have the potential to combine the best aspects of airbreathing propulsion (high average Isp) with the best aspects of rocket propulsion (high propellant bulk density and engine T/W). Proper conceptual assessment of each proposed vehicle will require computer-based tools that allow for quick and cheap, yet sufficiently accurate disciplinary analyses. At Georgia Tech, a spreadsheet-based tool has been developed that uses quasi-1D flow analysis with component efficiencies to parametrically model RBCC engine performance in ejector, fan-ramjet, ramjet and pure rocket modes. The technique is similar to an earlier RBCC modeling technique developed by the Marquardt Corporation in the mid-1960{close_quote}s. For a given sea-level static thrust requirement, the current tool generates engine weight and size data, as well as Isp and thrust data vs. altitude and Mach number. The latter is output in tabular form for use in a trajectory optimization program. This paper reviews the current state of the RBCC analysis tool and the effort to upgrade it from a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to a design-oriented UNIX program in C suitable for integration into a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  4. New tools for the analysis and design of building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Buhl, W.F.; Chauvet, H.

    1994-08-01

    We describe the integrated development of PowerDOE, a new version of the DOE-2 building energy analysis program, and the Building Design Advisor (BDA), a multimedia-based design tool that assists building designers with the concurrent consideration of multiple design solutions with respect to multiple design criteria. PowerDOE has a windows-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that makes it easier to use than DOE-2, while retaining DOE-2`s calculation power and accuracy. BDA, with a similar GUI, is designed to link to multiple analytical models and databases. In its first release it is linked to PowerDOE and a Daylighting Analysis Module, as well as to a Case Studies Database and a Schematic Graphic Editor. These allow building designers to set performance goals and address key building envelope parameters from the initial, schematic phases of building design to the detailed specification of building components and systems required by PowerDOE. The consideration of the thermal performance of building envelopes through PowerDOE and BDA is integrated with non-thermal envelope performance aspects, such as daylighting, as well as with the performance of non-envelope building components and systems, such as electric lighting and HVAC. Future versions of BDA will support links to CAD and electronic product catalogs, as well as provide context-dependent design advice to improve performance.

  5. Designing Tools for Reflection on Problem-Based Instruction and Problem-Based Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Matthew W.; Hui, Diane; RuffusDoerr, Amy Marie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research project into teacher education was to document the collaborative development and refection on teachers' tools in a problem-based learning (PBL) program. These results were then used to design materials and formats for the transmission of this teaching knowledge to less-experienced PBL teachers. The tools were…

  6. Topology and boundary shape optimization as an integrated design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendsoe, Martin Philip; Rodrigues, Helder Carrico

    1990-01-01

    The optimal topology of a two dimensional linear elastic body can be computed by regarding the body as a domain of the plane with a high density of material. Such an optimal topology can then be used as the basis for a shape optimization method that computes the optimal form of the boundary curves of the body. This results in an efficient and reliable design tool, which can be implemented via common FEM mesh generator and CAD type input-output facilities.

  7. Digital design and communication tools for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.

    1995-12-31

    Within the computer and communications industry there is a strong sentiment that the speed and power of mainframe computers will be available at personal computer sizes and prices in the next few years. Coinciding with this is the expectation that large data/information/knowledge resource pools will be available online for download. This paper summarizes what is available now and what is coming in the future in computer technologies. Then the author talks the opportunities in `green` building design for energy efficiency and conservation and the type of design tools which will be coming in the future.

  8. Development, Implementation and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High Temperature Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the final report to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the research project entitled Development, Implementation, and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High-Temperature Composites. The research supporting this initiative has been conducted by Dr. Brett A. Bednarcyk, a Senior Scientist at OM in Brookpark, Ohio from the period of August 1998 to March 2005. Most of the work summarized herein involved development, implementation, and application of enhancements and new capabilities for NASA GRC's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package. When the project began, this software was at a low TRL (3-4) and at release version 2.0. Due to this project, the TRL of MAC/GMC has been raised to 7 and two new versions (3.0 and 4.0) have been released. The most important accomplishments with respect to MAC/GMC are: (1) A multi-scale framework has been built around the software, enabling coupled design and analysis from the global structure scale down to the micro fiber-matrix scale; (2) The software has been expanded to analyze smart materials; (3) State-of-the-art micromechanics theories have been implemented and validated within the code; (4) The damage, failure, and lifing capabilities of the code have been expanded from a very limited state to a vast degree of functionality and utility; and (5) The user flexibility of the code has been significantly enhanced. MAC/GMC is now the premier code for design and analysis of advanced composite and smart materials. It is a candidate for the 2005 NASA Software of the Year Award. The work completed over the course of the project is summarized below on a year by year basis. All publications resulting from the project are listed at the end of this report.

  9. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  10. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    The analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs for the development of photovoltaic modules is presented. Analytical models are developed to test optical, thermal, electrical and structural properties of the various encapsulation systems. Model data is compared to relevant test data to improve model accuracy and develop general principles for the design of photovoltaic modules.

  11. Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

  12. Advances in Coupling of Kinetics and Molecular Scale Tools to Shed Light on Soil Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-02

    Biogeochemical processes in soils such as sorption, precipitation, and redox play critical roles in the cycling and fate of nutrients, metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in soil and water environments. Advanced analytical tools enable soil scientists to track these processes in real-time and at the molecular scale. Our review focuses on recent research that has employed state-of-the-art molecular scale spectroscopy, coupled with kinetics, to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient and metal(loid) reactivity and speciation in soils. We found that by coupling kinetics with advanced molecular and nano-scale tools major advances have been made in elucidating important soil chemical processes including sorption, precipitation, dissolution, and redox of metal(loids) and nutrients. Such advances will aid in better predicting the fate and mobility of nutrients and contaminants in soils and water and enhance environmental and agricultural sustainability.

  13. Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

    1998-01-01

    vivo, ranging from 0.2 mm per day to 32 mm per day. • The two-axis translation carriage is capable of scanning the camera along the bioreactor and adjusting the focus with 25 μm resolution. • Time-lapse sequences of images have been acquired, stored and transmitted to a remote computer system. Although the current application of the Remote Scientist technology is the observation and manipulation of a tissue culture growth system, the hardware has been designed to be easily reconfigured to accommodate a multitude of experiments, including animal observation, combustion studies, protein crystal growth, plant growth and aquatic research.

  14. Advancements in ion diode and triode design

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.

    2014-02-15

    Selfconsistent laminar flow models, which enable to predict the optimal cathode and anode geometry in simple diodes, must be modified to account for the anode aperture and the effect of other electrodes. An equation for charge coupled to arbitrary laminar flows is here first presented and its numerical solutions are obtained with a new method, based on mesh transformations. It is found that a close match to theoretical flows requires an increase of the simple diode voltage v{sub 0} by an amount v{sub δ}, which, for a typical case designed for zero exit angle condition, are v{sub 0} = 0.7465 and v{sub δ} = 0.0294 in adimensional units. States “in” and “out” for the anode lens are also shown, where “out” is a new and nonlinear solution for the beam expansion in a drift tube.

  15. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  16. Advanced Remote Maintenance Design for Pilot-Scale Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Lawrence Macaluso

    2011-02-01

    Advanced designs of used nuclear fuel recycling processes and radioactive waste treatment processes are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Pilot-scale testing will be an integral part of development of many of these processes. An advanced design for remote maintenance of pilot-scale centrifugal contactors has been developed and a prototype module fabricated and tested for a commercially available pilot-scale centrifugal contactor (CINC V-02, 5-cm rotor diameter). Advanced design features include air actuated clamps for holding the motor-rotor assembly in place, an integral electrical connection, upper flange o-rings, a welded bottom plate, a lifting bale, and guide pins. These design features will allow for rapid replacement of the motor rotor assembly, which can be accomplished while maintaining process equilibrium. Hydraulic testing of a three-stage prototype unit was also performed to verify that design changes did not impact performance of the centrifugal contactors. Details of the pilot-scale remote maintenance design, results of testing in a remote mockup test facility, and results of hydraulic testing of the advanced design are provided.

  17. SEQ-POINTER: Next generation, planetary spacecraft remote sensing science observation design tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Jeffrey S.

    1994-11-01

    Since Mariner, NASA-JPL planetary missions have been supported by ground software to plan and design remote sensing science observations. The software used by the science and sequence designers to plan and design observations has evolved with mission and technological advances. The original program, PEGASIS (Mariners 4, 6, and 7), was re-engineered as POGASIS (Mariner 9, Viking, and Mariner 10), and again later as POINTER (Voyager and Galileo). Each of these programs were developed under technological, political, and fiscal constraints which limited their adaptability to other missions and spacecraft designs. Implementation of a multi-mission tool, SEQ POINTER, under the auspices of the JPL Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO) is in progress. This version has been designed to address the limitations experienced on previous versions as they were being adapted to a new mission and spacecraft. The tool has been modularly designed with subroutine interface structures to support interchangeable celestial body and spacecraft definition models. The computational and graphics modules have also been designed to interface with data collected from previous spacecraft, or on-going observations, which describe the surface of each target body. These enhancements make SEQ POINTER a candidate for low-cost mission usage, when a remote sensing science observation design capability is required. The current and planned capabilities of the tool will be discussed. The presentation will also include a 5-10 minute video presentation demonstrating the capabilities of a proto-Cassini Project version that was adapted to test the tool. The work described in this abstract was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. SEQ-POINTER: Next generation, planetary spacecraft remote sensing science observation design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Jeffrey S.

    1994-01-01

    Since Mariner, NASA-JPL planetary missions have been supported by ground software to plan and design remote sensing science observations. The software used by the science and sequence designers to plan and design observations has evolved with mission and technological advances. The original program, PEGASIS (Mariners 4, 6, and 7), was re-engineered as POGASIS (Mariner 9, Viking, and Mariner 10), and again later as POINTER (Voyager and Galileo). Each of these programs were developed under technological, political, and fiscal constraints which limited their adaptability to other missions and spacecraft designs. Implementation of a multi-mission tool, SEQ POINTER, under the auspices of the JPL Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO) is in progress. This version has been designed to address the limitations experienced on previous versions as they were being adapted to a new mission and spacecraft. The tool has been modularly designed with subroutine interface structures to support interchangeable celestial body and spacecraft definition models. The computational and graphics modules have also been designed to interface with data collected from previous spacecraft, or on-going observations, which describe the surface of each target body. These enhancements make SEQ POINTER a candidate for low-cost mission usage, when a remote sensing science observation design capability is required. The current and planned capabilities of the tool will be discussed. The presentation will also include a 5-10 minute video presentation demonstrating the capabilities of a proto-Cassini Project version that was adapted to test the tool. The work described in this abstract was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. Synthetic RNAs for Gene Regulation: Design Principles and Computational Tools

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Alessandro; Shasha, Dennis; Croce, Carlo Maria

    2014-01-01

    The use of synthetic non-coding RNAs for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has not only become a standard laboratory tool for gene functional studies but it has also opened up new perspectives in the design of new and potentially promising therapeutic strategies. Bioinformatics has provided researchers with a variety of tools for the design, the analysis, and the evaluation of RNAi agents such as small-interfering RNA (siRNA), short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), artificial microRNA (a-miR), and microRNA sponges. More recently, a new system for genome engineering based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), was shown to have the potential to also regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in a more specific way. In this mini review, we present RNAi and CRISPRi design principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of the current design approaches. PMID:25566532

  20. Physics-Based Design Tools for Lightweight Ceramic Composite Turbine Components with Durable Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Under the Supersonics Project of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, modeling and experimental efforts are underway to develop generic physics-based tools to better implement lightweight ceramic matrix composites into supersonic engine components and to assure sufficient durability for these components in the engine environment. These activities, which have a crosscutting aspect for other areas of the Fundamental Aero program, are focusing primarily on improving the multi-directional design strength and rupture strength of high-performance SiC/SiC composites by advanced fiber architecture design. This presentation discusses progress in tool development with particular focus on the use of 2.5D-woven architectures and state-of-the-art constituents for a generic un-cooled SiC/SiC low-pressure turbine blade.

  1. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  2. Design and implementation of the mobility assessment tool: software description

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous work, we described the development of an 81-item video-animated tool for assessing mobility. In response to criticism levied during a pilot study of this tool, we sought to develop a new version built upon a flexible framework for designing and administering the instrument. Results Rather than constructing a self-contained software application with a hard-coded instrument, we designed an XML schema capable of describing a variety of psychometric instruments. The new version of our video-animated assessment tool was then defined fully within the context of a compliant XML document. Two software applications—one built in Java, the other in Objective-C for the Apple iPad—were then built that could present the instrument described in the XML document and collect participants’ responses. Separating the instrument’s definition from the software application implementing it allowed for rapid iteration and easy, reliable definition of variations. Conclusions Defining instruments in a software-independent XML document simplifies the process of defining instruments and variations and allows a single instrument to be deployed on as many platforms as there are software applications capable of interpreting the instrument, thereby broadening the potential target audience for the instrument. Continued work will be done to further specify and refine this type of instrument specification with a focus on spurring adoption by researchers in gerontology and geriatric medicine. PMID:23879716

  3. Computational tools for epitope vaccine design and evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Linling; Zhu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Rational approaches will be required to develop universal vaccines for viral pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and influenza, for which empirical approaches have failed. The main objective of a rational vaccine strategy is to design novel immunogens that are capable of inducing long-term protective immunity. In practice, this requires structure-based engineering of the target neutralizing epitopes and a quantitative readout of vaccine-induced immune responses. Therefore, computational tools that can facilitate these two areas have played increasingly important roles in rational vaccine design in recent years. Here we review the computational techniques developed for protein structure prediction and antibody repertoire analysis, and demonstrate how they can be applied to the design and evaluation of epitope vaccines.

  4. Mechanical System Analysis/Design Tool (MSAT) Quick Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, HauHua; Kolb, Mark; Madelone, Jack

    1998-01-01

    MSAT is a unique multi-component multi-disciplinary tool that organizes design analysis tasks around object-oriented representations of configuration components, analysis programs and modules, and data transfer links between them. This creative modular architecture enables rapid generation of input stream for trade-off studies of various engine configurations. The data transfer links automatically transport output from one application as relevant input to the next application once the sequence is set up by the user. The computations are managed via constraint propagation - the constraints supplied by the user as part of any optimization module. The software can be used in the preliminary design stage as well as during the detail design of product development process.

  5. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  6. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-27

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model will be the major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal.

  7. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  9. An automated tool for evaluating compliance and providing assistance with building energy standards during design

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.; Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C.

    1992-04-30

    In an effort to encourage the maximum cost-effective level of energy efficiency in new building design, energy-efficiency standards have become more location-specific and performance-based. As a result, standards often provide more than one path for ensuring and demonstrating that a design complies, but at the cost of increased complexity. In addition, the burden of remedying a noncompliant design rests on the designers` knowledge and experience, with only general guidance provided by the standards. As part of efforts in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, a team at DOE`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a computer program known as the Energy Standards Intelligent Design Tool (ES-IDT). The ES-IDT is one component of a prototype computer-based building design environment. It performs automatic compliance checking for parts of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 and provides designers assistance in bringing noncomplying designs into compliance. This paper describes the ES-IDT, the functions it provides, and how it is integrated into the design process via the AEDOT prototype building design environment. 9 refs.

  10. An automated tool for evaluating compliance and providing assistance with building energy standards during design

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.; Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C.

    1992-04-30

    In an effort to encourage the maximum cost-effective level of energy efficiency in new building design, energy-efficiency standards have become more location-specific and performance-based. As a result, standards often provide more than one path for ensuring and demonstrating that a design complies, but at the cost of increased complexity. In addition, the burden of remedying a noncompliant design rests on the designers' knowledge and experience, with only general guidance provided by the standards. As part of efforts in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, a team at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a computer program known as the Energy Standards Intelligent Design Tool (ES-IDT). The ES-IDT is one component of a prototype computer-based building design environment. It performs automatic compliance checking for parts of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 and provides designers assistance in bringing noncomplying designs into compliance. This paper describes the ES-IDT, the functions it provides, and how it is integrated into the design process via the AEDOT prototype building design environment. 9 refs.

  11. The 3 "C" Design Model for Networked Collaborative E-Learning: A Tool for Novice Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Len

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines a model for online course design aimed at the mainstream majority of university academics rather than at the early adopters of technology. It has been developed from work at Coventry Business School where tutors have been called upon to design online modules for the first time. Like many good tools, the model's key strength is…

  12. Design Education in Chemical Engineering--Part 2: Using Design Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, J. M.; Kirkwood, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a method to teach undergraduate students how to complete a conceptual design. Presents three tools to use: (1) how to use order-of-magnitude arguments to simplify problems, (2) how to derive design heuristics, and (3) how to decompose large problems into a set of small, simple problems. (Author/MVL)

  13. Colossal Tooling Design: 3D Simulation for Ergonomic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Thomas, Robert E.; Babai, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The application of high-level 3D simulation software to the design phase of colossal mandrel tooling for composite aerospace fuel tanks was accomplished to discover and resolve safety and human engineering problems. The analyses were conducted to determine safety, ergonomic and human engineering aspects of the disassembly process of the fuel tank composite shell mandrel. Three-dimensional graphics high-level software, incorporating various ergonomic analysis algorithms, was utilized to determine if the process was within safety and health boundaries for the workers carrying out these tasks. In addition, the graphical software was extremely helpful in the identification of material handling equipment and devices for the mandrel tooling assembly/disassembly process.

  14. Designing a training tool for imaging mental models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.; Jayaram, Geetha

    1990-01-01

    The training process can be conceptualized as the student acquiring an evolutionary sequence of classification-problem solving mental models. For example a physician learns (1) classification systems for patient symptoms, diagnostic procedures, diseases, and therapeutic interventions and (2) interrelationships among these classifications (e.g., how to use diagnostic procedures to collect data about a patient's symptoms in order to identify the disease so that therapeutic measures can be taken. This project developed functional specifications for a computer-based tool, Mental Link, that allows the evaluative imaging of such mental models. The fundamental design approach underlying this representational medium is traversal of virtual cognition space. Typically intangible cognitive entities and links among them are visible as a three-dimensional web that represents a knowledge structure. The tool has a high degree of flexibility and customizability to allow extension to other types of uses, such a front-end to an intelligent tutoring system, knowledge base, hypermedia system, or semantic network.

  15. Synthetic biology: advancing the design of diverse genetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Hsiang; Wei, Kathy Y.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    A main objective of synthetic biology is to make the process of designing genetically-encoded biological systems more systematic, predictable, robust, scalable, and efficient. The examples of genetic systems in the field vary widely in terms of operating hosts, compositional approaches, and network complexity, ranging from a simple genetic switch to search-and-destroy systems. While significant advances in synthesis capabilities support the potential for the implementation of pathway- and genome-scale programs, several design challenges currently restrict the scale of systems that can be reasonably designed and implemented. Synthetic biology offers much promise in developing systems to address challenges faced in manufacturing, the environment and sustainability, and health and medicine, but the realization of this potential is currently limited by the diversity of available parts and effective design frameworks. As researchers make progress in bridging this design gap, advances in the field hint at ever more diverse applications for biological systems. PMID:23413816

  16. Using naturalistic driving films as a design tool for investigating driver requirements in HMI design for ADAS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minjuan; Sun, Dong; Chen, Fang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there are many naturalistic driving projects have been conducted, such as the 100-Car Project (Naturalistic Driving study in United State), EuroFOT(European Large-Scale Field Operational Tests on Vehicle Systems), SeMi- FOT(Sweden Michigan Naturalistic Field Operational Test and etc. However, those valuable naturalistic driving data hasn't been applied into Human-machine Interaction (HMI) design for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), a good HMI design for ADAS requires a deep understanding of drive environment and the interactions between the driving car and other road users in different situations. The results demonstrated the benefits of using naturalistic driving films as a mean for enhancing focus group discussion for better understanding driver's needs and traffic environment constraints. It provided an efficient tool for designers to have inside knowledge about drive and the needs for information presentation; The recommendations for how to apply this method is discussed in the paper.

  17. MURMoT. Design and Application of Microbial Uranium Reduction Monitoring Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, Frank E.

    2014-12-31

    Uranium (U) contamination in the subsurface is a major remediation challenge at many DOE sites. Traditional site remedies present enormous costs to DOE; hence, enhanced bioremediation technologies (i.e., biostimulation and bioaugmentation) combined with monitoring efforts are being considered as cost-effective corrective actions to address subsurface contamination. This research effort improved understanding of the microbial U reduction process and developed new tools for monitoring microbial activities. Application of these tools will promote science-based site management decisions that achieve contaminant detoxification, plume control, and long-term stewardship in the most efficient manner. The overarching hypothesis was that the design, validation and application of a suite of new molecular and biogeochemical tools advance process understanding, and improve environmental monitoring regimes to assess and predict in situ U immobilization. Accomplishments: This project (i) advanced nucleic acid-based approaches to elucidate the presence, abundance, dynamics, spatial distribution, and activity of metal- and radionuclide-detoxifying bacteria; (ii) developed proteomics workflows for detection of metal reduction biomarker proteins in laboratory cultures and contaminated site groundwater; (iii) developed and demonstrated the utility of U isotopic fractionation using high precision mass spectrometry to quantify U(VI) reduction for a range of reduction mechanisms and environmental conditions; and (iv) validated the new tools using field samples from U-contaminated IFRC sites, and demonstrated their prognostic and diagnostic capabilities in guiding decision making for environmental remediation and long-term site stewardship.

  18. MURMoT. Design and Application of Microbial Uranium Reduction Monitoring Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Loffler, Frank E.; Ritalahti, Kirsti; Sanford, Robert A.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Kemner, Kenneth; Boyanov, Maxim

    2009-07-01

    Uranium (U) contamination in the subsurface is a major remediation challenge at many DOE sites. Traditional site remedies present enormous costs to DOE; hence, enhanced bioremediation technologies (i.e., biostimulation and bioaugmentation) combined with monitoring efforts are being considered as cost-effective corrective actions to address subsurface contamination. This research effort improved understanding of the microbial U reduction process and developed new tools for monitoring microbial activities. Application of these tools will promote science-based site management decisions that achieve contaminant detoxification, plume control, and long-term stewardship in the most efficient manner. The overarching hypothesis was that the design, validation and application of a suite of new molecular and biogeochemical tools advance process understanding, and improve environmental monitoring regimes to assess and predict in situ U immobilization. Accomplishments: This project (i) advanced nucleic acid-based approaches to elucidate the presence, abundance, dynamics, spatial distribution, and activity of metal- and radionuclide-detoxifying bacteria; (ii) developed proteomics workflows for detection of metal reduction biomarker proteins in laboratory cultures and contaminated site groundwater; (iii) developed and demonstrated the utility of U isotopic fractionation using high precision mass spectrometry to quantify U(VI) reduction for a range of reduction mechanisms and environmental conditions; and (iv) validated the new tools using field samples from U-contaminated IFRC sites, and demonstrated their prognostic and diagnostic capabilities in guiding decision making for environmental remediation and long-term site stewardship.

  19. WRAP 2A advanced conceptual design report comments

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1994-10-04

    This report contains the compilation of the 393 comments that were submitted during the review of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A. The report was prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Englewood, Colorado for the United States Department of Energy. The review was performed by a variety of organizations identified in the report. The comments were addressed first by the Westinghouse cognizant engineers and then by the Raytheon cognizant engineers, and incorporated into the final issue of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report.

  20. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  1. Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This Fact Sheet provides a brief description of postearthquake tools and products provided by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) through the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. The focus is on products specifically aimed at providing situational awareness in the period immediately following significant earthquake events.

  2. Utilizing object-oriented design to build advanced optimization strategies with generic implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, M.S.; Hart, W.E.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Romero, V.J.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    the benefits of applying optimization to computational models are well known, but their range of widespread application to date has been limited. This effort attempts to extend the disciplinary areas to which optimization algorithms may be readily applied through the development and application of advanced optimization strategies capable of handling the computational difficulties associated with complex simulation codes. Towards this goal, a flexible software framework is under continued development for the application of optimization techniques to broad classes of engineering applications, including those with high computational expense and nonsmooth, nonconvex design space features. Object-oriented software design with C++ has been employed as a tool in providing a flexible, extensible, and robust multidisciplinary toolkit with computationally intensive simulations. In this paper, demonstrations of advanced optimization strategies using the software are presented in the hybridization and parallel processing research areas. Performance of the advanced strategies is compared with a benchmark nonlinear programming optimization.

  3. Parachute system design, analysis, and simulation tool. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, W.D.; McBride, D.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; Waye, D.E.; Hailey, C.E.

    1992-12-31

    For over twenty years designers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed various parachute simulation codes to model deployment, inflation, loading, trajectories, aircraft downwash and line sail. In addition to these codes, material property data bases have been acquired. Recently we have initiated project to integrate these codes and data bases into a single software tool entitled SPARSYS (Sandia PARachute SYstem Simulation). We have constructed a graphical user interface as the driver and framework for SPARSYS. In this paper we present a status report on SPARSYS describing progress in developing and incorporating independent modules, in developing an integrated trajectory package, and in developing a materials data base including high-rate-of-strain data.

  4. Development of Design Tools for Flow-Control Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Jose; Gallas, Quentin; Cattafesta, Louis N., III

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the: 1. Development coupled electro/fluid/structural lumped-element model (LEM) of a prototypical flow-control actuator. 2. Validation the coupled electro/fluid/structural dynamics lumped-element models. 3. Development simple, yet effective, design tools for actuators. 4. Development structural dynamic models that accurately characterize the dynamic response of piezoelectric flap actuators using the Finite Element Method (FEW as well as analytical methods. 5. Perform a parametric study of a piezo-composite flap actuator. 6.Develop an optimization scheme for maximizing the actuator performance.

  5. SCREAMER: a single-line pulsed-power design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, M.L.; Widner, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    SCREAMER is a special purpose circuit code developed as a design tool for single module accelerators. It is fast, accurate, flexible, and user-friendly. Its development was motivated by the excessive costs and long turn-around times incurred when using the SCEPTRE circuit analysis code to perform simulations of circuits with large numbers of nodes and with nonlinear components. Comparable simulations between SCREAMER running on a VAX 11/780 and SCEPTRE running on a CRAY-1S show that turn-around times and costs can be two orders of magnitude lower when using SCREAMER.

  6. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Summer Conference: NASA/USRA University Advanced Aeronautics Design Program and Advanced Space Design Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was established in 1984 as an attempt to add more and better design education to primarily undergraduate engineering programs. The original focus of the pilot program encompassing nine universities and five NASA centers was on space design. Two years later, the program was expanded to include aeronautics design with six universities and three NASA centers participating. This year marks the last of a three-year cycle of participation by forty-one universities, eight NASA centers, and one industry participant. The Advanced Space Design Program offers universities an opportunity to plan and design missions and hardware that would be of usc in the future as NASA enters a new era of exploration and discovery, while the Advanced Aeronautics Design Program generally offers opportunities for study of design problems closer to the present time, ranging from small, slow-speed vehicles to large, supersonic and hypersonic passenger transports. The systems approach to the design problem is emphasized in both the space and aeronautics projects. The student teams pursue the chosen problem during their senior year in a one- or two-semester capstone design course and submit a comprehensive written report at the conclusion of the project. Finally, student representatives from each of the universities summarize their work in oral presentations at the Annual Summer Conference, sponsored by one of the NASA centers and attended by the university faculty, NASA and USRA personnel and aerospace industry representatives. As the Advanced Design Program has grown in size, it has also matured in terms of the quality of the student projects. The present volume represents the student work accomplished during the 1992-1993 academic year reported at the Ninth Annual Summer Conference hosted by NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, June 14-18, 1993.

  7. PASDA - a tool to design atmospheric descent bodies with parachutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, D.; Trogus, W.; Bachor, E.; Eiden, M.

    1995-03-01

    PASDA (Parachute System Design and Analysis Tool) is an unique integrated software package, funded by ESA, to design and analyse parachute based systems for space related applications and to provide the environment for collecting and storing parachute related information. PASDA supports future space science mission studies, where parachute systems are an essential part of the mission concept. Based on a sophisticated database of parachute related information for projects requiring descent in a planetary atmosphere, it assists the user in the selection, performance evaluation and specification of a parachute system for a specific mission. PASDA combines very different functions: trajectory simulation, parachute design and analysis, database tasks, graphical output, a sophisticated user interface, user guidance and software code to combine all functions. The parachute design package allows sizing of all parachute components e.g. canopy, lines, mortar, stowage volume, materials to be used, weight, etc. according to the loads derived in deployment and inflation analyses. Specific (parachute) knowledge is required to work efficiently with PASDA. However the integration of the different modules allows to let the computer perform the painstaking work of transforming outputs of one module into inputs for the next one and archiving results as numbers with description and graphics. Thus it provides an efficient integrated design and analysis approach to parachute system decelerators for studies of future space missions.

  8. SUPIN: A Computational Tool for Supersonic Inlet Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A computational tool named SUPIN is being developed to design and analyze the aerodynamic performance of supersonic inlets. The inlet types available include the axisymmetric pitot, three-dimensional pitot, axisymmetric outward-turning, two-dimensional single-duct, two-dimensional bifurcated-duct, and streamline-traced inlets. The aerodynamic performance is characterized by the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The inlet flow-field is divided into parts to provide a framework for the geometry and aerodynamic modeling. Each part of the inlet is defined in terms of geometric factors. The low-fidelity aerodynamic analysis and design methods are based on analytic, empirical, and numerical methods which provide for quick design and analysis. SUPIN provides inlet geometry in the form of coordinates, surface angles, and cross-sectional areas. SUPIN can generate inlet surface grids and three-dimensional, structured volume grids for use with higher-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Capabilities highlighted in this paper include the design and analysis of streamline-traced external-compression inlets, modeling of porous bleed, and the design and analysis of mixed-compression inlets. CFD analyses are used to verify the SUPIN results.

  9. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  10. Advanced radial inflow turbine rotor program: Design and dynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The advancement of small, cooled, radial inflow turbine technology in the area of operation at higher turbine inlet temperature is discussed. The first step was accomplished by designing, fabricating, and subjecting to limited mechanical testing an advanced gas generator rotating assembly comprising a radial inflow turbine and two-stage centrifugal compressor. The radial inflow turbine and second-stage compressor were designed as an integrally machined monorotor with turbine cooling taking place basically by conduction to the compressor. Design turbine inlet rotor gas temperature, rotational speed, and overall gas generator compressor pressure ratio were 1422 K (2560 R), 71,222 rpm, and 10/1 respectively. Mechanical testing on a fabricated rotating assembly and bearing system covered 1,000 cold start/stop cycles and three spins to 120 percent design speed (85,466 rpm).

  11. Designing tools for assumption-proof brain-mapping

    PubMed Central

    Marblestone, Adam H.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    There is much excitement in neuroscience about the potential for tools that might enable scalable mapping of brain circuits at the anatomical, molecular, and activity levels. In parallel, new fundamental mechanisms of neural function -- novel transmitters, new cell types and structures, unanticipated genetic and molecular signaling modalities -- are being discovered all the time. This raises a question: how should we design brain mapping technologies so that they can scalably acquire knowledge about mechanisms we already know we want to understand, while taking in stride the novel mechanisms as they are uncovered, so that comprehensive and integrative pictures of brain function, in the end, emerge? Here we discuss the design principles governing mapping technologies so that they can meet these somewhat contrary goals – scalability and flexibility. PMID:25233303

  12. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  13. Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew

  14. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R.; Cheng, G.; Trinh, H.; Tucker, K.

    2000-01-01

    A practical design tool which emphasizes the analysis of flowfields near the injector face of liquid rocket engines has been developed and used to simulate preliminary configurations of NASA's Fastrac and vortex engines. This computational design tool is sufficiently detailed to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows and the combusting flow which results. In order to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe sub- and supercritical liquid and vapor flows, the model utilized thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The model was constructed such that the local quality of the flow was determined directly. Since both the Fastrac and vortex engines utilize RP-1/LOX propellants, a simplified hydrocarbon combustion model was devised in order to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the recirculating flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity and the film coolant flow to be accurately predicted.

  15. High-order computational fluid dynamics tools for aircraft design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z J

    2014-08-13

    Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many technical breakthroughs must take place to achieve the aggressive environmental goals set up by governments in North America and Europe. One of these breakthroughs will be physics-based, highly accurate and efficient computational fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics tools capable of predicting complex flows over the entire flight envelope and through an aircraft engine, and computing aircraft noise. Some of these flows are dominated by unsteady vortices of disparate scales, often highly turbulent, and they call for higher-order methods. As these tools will be integral components of a multi-disciplinary optimization environment, they must be efficient to impact design. Ultimately, the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and geometric flexibility will determine which methods will be adopted in the design process. This article explores these aspects and identifies pacing items. PMID:25024419

  16. High-order computational fluid dynamics tools for aircraft design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z J

    2014-08-13

    Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many technical breakthroughs must take place to achieve the aggressive environmental goals set up by governments in North America and Europe. One of these breakthroughs will be physics-based, highly accurate and efficient computational fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics tools capable of predicting complex flows over the entire flight envelope and through an aircraft engine, and computing aircraft noise. Some of these flows are dominated by unsteady vortices of disparate scales, often highly turbulent, and they call for higher-order methods. As these tools will be integral components of a multi-disciplinary optimization environment, they must be efficient to impact design. Ultimately, the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and geometric flexibility will determine which methods will be adopted in the design process. This article explores these aspects and identifies pacing items.

  17. High-order computational fluid dynamics tools for aircraft design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. J.

    2014-01-01

    Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many technical breakthroughs must take place to achieve the aggressive environmental goals set up by governments in North America and Europe. One of these breakthroughs will be physics-based, highly accurate and efficient computational fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics tools capable of predicting complex flows over the entire flight envelope and through an aircraft engine, and computing aircraft noise. Some of these flows are dominated by unsteady vortices of disparate scales, often highly turbulent, and they call for higher-order methods. As these tools will be integral components of a multi-disciplinary optimization environment, they must be efficient to impact design. Ultimately, the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and geometric flexibility will determine which methods will be adopted in the design process. This article explores these aspects and identifies pacing items. PMID:25024419

  18. Advanced Jewelry Design. Art Education: 6684.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinaccio, Louis M.

    See SO 007 721 for an introduction to the Visual Arts Education Curriculum of which this course in jewelry design is a part. In the course students further skills in forming complex objects through experience with casting, bezeling stones, and welding. Course content includes an historical perspective on jewelry production and advanced methods in…

  19. Instructional Design Theory: Advancements from Cognitive Science and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…

  20. Cost and accuracy of advanced breeding trial designs in apple

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Julia M; Evans, Kate M; Hardner, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Trialing advanced candidates in tree fruit crops is expensive due to the long-term nature of the planting and labor-intensive evaluations required to make selection decisions. How closely the trait evaluations approximate the true trait value needs balancing with the cost of the program. Designs of field trials of advanced apple candidates in which reduced number of locations, the number of years and the number of harvests per year were modeled to investigate the effect on the cost and accuracy in an operational breeding program. The aim was to find designs that would allow evaluation of the most additional candidates while sacrificing the least accuracy. Critical percentage difference, response to selection, and correlated response were used to examine changes in accuracy of trait evaluations. For the quality traits evaluated, accuracy and response to selection were not substantially reduced for most trial designs. Risk management influences the decision to change trial design, and some designs had greater risk associated with them. Balancing cost and accuracy with risk yields valuable insight into advanced breeding trial design. The methods outlined in this analysis would be well suited to other horticultural crop breeding programs. PMID:27019717

  1. Review of Software Tools for Design and Analysis of Large scale MRM Proteomic Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Christopher M.; Chung, Lisa; Bruce, Can; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Selective or Multiple Reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) is a liquid-chromatography (LC)/tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method that enables the quantitation of specific proteins in a sample by analyzing precursor ions and the fragment ions of their selected tryptic peptides. Instrumentation software has advanced to the point that thousands of transitions (pairs of primary and secondary m/z values) can be measured in a triple quadrupole instrument coupled to an LC, by a well-designed scheduling and selection of m/z windows. The design of a good MRM assay relies on the availability of peptide spectra from previous discovery-phase LC-MS/MS studies. The tedious aspect of manually developing and processing MRM assays involving thousands of transitions has spurred to development of software tools to automate this process. Software packages have been developed for project management, assay development, assay validation, data export, peak integration, quality assessment, and biostatistical analysis. No single tool provides a complete end-to-end solution, thus this article reviews the current state and discusses future directions of these software tools in order to enable researchers to combine these tools for a comprehensive targeted proteomics workflow. PMID:23702368

  2. PopupCAD: a tool for automated design, fabrication, and analysis of laminate devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aukes, Daniel M.; Wood, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in laminate manufacturing techniques have driven the development of new classes of millimeter-scale sensorized medical devices, robots capable of terrestrial locomotion and sustained flight, and new techniques for sensing and actuation. Recently, the analysis of laminate micro-devices has focused more manufacturability concerns and not on mechanics. Considering the nature of such devices, we draw from existing research in composites, origami kinematics, and finite element methods in order to identify issues related to sequential assembly and self-folding prior to fabrication as well as the stiffness of composite folded systems during operation. These techniques can be useful for understanding how such devices will bend and flex under normal operating conditions, and when added to new design tools like popupCAD, will give designers another means to develop better devices throughout the design process.

  3. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases [1]. Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission [2]. Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an advanced design methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of design of experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development effort. In order to fit a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful

  4. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    PubMed

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future.

  5. Bubbling fluidized bed retrofit with modern design tools

    SciTech Connect

    Korhonen, S.; Jacobson, T.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K.; Hulkkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has experience of more than 10 years in the design, construction and operation of power plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers (BFB). This operating experience, together with active fuels testing and the development work of computer aided design tools, has offered IVO a good possibility for product development. The new product was demonstrated by converting an old grate fired boiler into BFB at IVO's Vanaja plant. This boiler conversion project and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based tool used in the design of the combustion will be presented. The results of the model verification will be described briefly. At the Vanaja plant, a 60 MW{sub coal} fired grate boiler built in the early 1950s was converted to BFB in 1997. The old chain grate was removed and replaced with a fluidized bed with appropriate fluidization air and biofuel feeding systems. The automation system was also modernized. The primary fuel was changed to peat, whereas coal remained as secondary fuel together with natural gas and biofuels. IVO has long tradition in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) aided engineering of combustion processes. Since 1990, Ardemus, a CFD based combustion modeling package has been applied for pulverized coal combustion. Recently Ardemus has also been applied to the simulation of the freeboard of BFB. The development work is still going on concerning the bed behavior and emission formation description. In the retrofit project, the change of the fuel and the combustion technology were analyzed with the Ardemus model. Because of the shortness of the furnace, the focus in the design process was laid on the optimization of air staging and adequate mixing of combustion air and fuel. The effect of the modification on the operating conditions of the turbine plant was calculated with a process simulator. The design was completed by cold model tests. The modified boiler was commissioned successfully at the beginning of 1998, which is the most

  6. The development of a spreadsheet-aided-engineering design tool for parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Whinery, L.D.

    1997-04-01

    A spreadsheet-aided engineering design tool has been developed to assist in the parachute design process. The new tool was developed during FY96 and utilized in the design of the flight termination parachute system for a 1900 lb. payload. Many modifications were made during the initial utilization of this tool. Work on the tool continues as the authors attempt to create an application tool for the parachute engineer.

  7. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  8. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  9. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  10. Design developments for advanced general aviation aircraft. [using Fly By Light Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, Jan; Gomer, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Design study results are presented for two advanced general-aviation aircraft incorporating fly-by-light/fly-by-wire controls and digital avionics and cockpit displays. The design exercise proceeded from a database of information derived from a market survey for the 4-10 passenger aircraft range. Pusher and tractor propeller configurations were treated, and attention was given to the maximization of passenger comfort. 'Outside-in' tooling methods were assumed for the primary structures of both configurations, in order to achieve surface tolerances which maximize the rearward extent of laminar flow.

  11. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  12. Designing a Gas Test Loop for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Parry

    2005-11-01

    The Generation IV Reactor Program and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are investigating some new reactor concepts which require extensive materials and fuels testing in a fast neutron spectrum. The capability to test materials and fuels in a fast neutron flux in the United States is very limited to non-existent. It has been proposed to install a gas test loop (GTL) in one of the lobes of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory and harden the spectrum to provide some fast neutron flux testing capabilities in the United States. This paper describes the neutronics investigation into the design of the GTL for the ATR.

  13. The Design with Intent Method: a design tool for influencing user behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lockton, Dan; Harrison, David; Stanton, Neville A

    2010-05-01

    Using product and system design to influence user behaviour offers potential for improving performance and reducing user error, yet little guidance is available at the concept generation stage for design teams briefed with influencing user behaviour. This article presents the Design with Intent Method, an innovation tool for designers working in this area, illustrated via application to an everyday human-technology interaction problem: reducing the likelihood of a customer leaving his or her card in an automatic teller machine. The example application results in a range of feasible design concepts which are comparable to existing developments in ATM design, demonstrating that the method has potential for development and application as part of a user-centred design process.

  14. The Robonaut 2 Hand - Designed to do Work with Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridgwater, L. B.; Ihrke, C. A.; Diftler, M. A.; Abdallah, M. E.; Radford, N. A.; Rogers, J. M.; Yayathi, S.; Askew, R. S.; Linn, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    The second generation Robonaut hand has many advantages over its predecessor. This mechatronic device is more dexterous and has improved force control and sensing giving it the capability to grasp and actuate a wider range of tools. It can achieve higher peak forces at higher speeds than the original. Developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA, the hand is designed to more closely approximate a human hand. Having a more anthropomorphic design allows the hand to attain a larger set of useful grasps for working with human interfaces. Key to the hand s improved performance is the use of lower friction drive elements and a redistribution of components from the hand to the forearm, permitting more sensing in the fingers and palm where it is most important. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the hand. Lessons learned during the development and initial operations along with planned refinements to make it more effective are presented.

  15. Design and Analysis Tool for External-Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A computational tool named SUPIN has been developed to design and analyze external-compression supersonic inlets for aircraft at cruise speeds from Mach 1.6 to 2.0. The inlet types available include the axisymmetric outward-turning, two-dimensional single-duct, two-dimensional bifurcated-duct, and streamline-traced Busemann inlets. The aerodynamic performance is characterized by the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The inlet flowfield is divided into parts to provide a framework for the geometry and aerodynamic modeling and the parts are defined in terms of geometric factors. The low-fidelity aerodynamic analysis and design methods are based on analytic, empirical, and numerical methods which provide for quick analysis. SUPIN provides inlet geometry in the form of coordinates and surface grids useable by grid generation methods for higher-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. SUPIN is demonstrated through a series of design studies and CFD analyses were performed to verify some of the analysis results.

  16. Designing and implementing full immersion simulation as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Belinda; Buckley, Thomas; Curtis, Kate; Morris, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Simulation is a valuable research tool used to evaluate the clinical performance of devices, people and systems. The simulated setting may address concerns unique to complex clinical environments such as the Emergency Department, which make the conduct of research challenging. There is limited evidence available to inform the development of simulated clinical scenarios for the purpose of evaluating practice in research studies, with the majority of literature focused on designing simulated clinical scenarios for education and training. Distinct differences exist in scenario design when implemented in education compared with use in clinical research studies. Simulated scenarios used to assess practice in clinical research must not comprise of any purposeful or planned teaching and be developed with a high degree of validity and reliability. A new scenario design template was devised to develop two standardised simulated clinical scenarios for the evaluation of a new assessment framework for emergency nurses. The scenario development and validation processes undertaken are described and provide an evidence-informed guide to scenario development for future clinical research studies. PMID:26917415

  17. fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools

    PubMed Central

    James, Jija S; Rajesh, PG; Chandran, Anuvitha VS; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related) for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing) in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result. PMID:24851001

  18. Machine Learning: A Crucial Tool for Sensor Design

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weixiang; Bhushan, Abhinav; Santamaria, Anthony D.; Simon, Melinda G.; Davis, Cristina E.

    2009-01-01

    Sensors have been widely used for disease diagnosis, environmental quality monitoring, food quality control, industrial process analysis and control, and other related fields. As a key tool for sensor data analysis, machine learning is becoming a core part of novel sensor design. Dividing a complete machine learning process into three steps: data pre-treatment, feature extraction and dimension reduction, and system modeling, this paper provides a review of the methods that are widely used for each step. For each method, the principles and the key issues that affect modeling results are discussed. After reviewing the potential problems in machine learning processes, this paper gives a summary of current algorithms in this field and provides some feasible directions for future studies. PMID:20191110

  19. Design of the advanced regional aircraft, the DART-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, Steve; Gislason, Jason; Huffstetler, Mark; Mann, Jon; Withers, Ashley; Zimmerman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The need for regional aircraft stems from the problem of hub airport congestion. Regional travel will allow a passenger to commute from one spoke city to another spoke city without entering the congested hub airport. In addition, those people traveling longer routes may begin the flight at home instead of traveling to the hub airport. At this time, there is no American aerospace company that produces a regional transport for under 100 passengers. The intention of the Developmental Advanced Regional Transport (DART-75) is to fill this void with a modern, efficient regional aircraft. This design achieves the efficiency through a number of advanced features including three lifting surfaces, partial composite construction, and an advanced engine design. Efficiency is not the only consideration. Structural integrity, fatigue life, ease of maintenance, passenger comfort and convenience, and environmental aspects must all be considered. These factors force the design team to face many tradeoffs that are studied to find the best solution. The final consideration that cannot be overlooked is that of cost. The DART-75 is a 75-passenger medium-range regional transport intended for spoke-to-spoke, spoke-to-hub, and some hub-to-hub operations. Included are the general descriptions of the structures, weight and balance, stability and control, performance, and engine design.

  20. Investigating Analytic Tools for e-Book Design in Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…

  1. Spacecraft Station-Keeping Trajectory and Mission Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Min-Kun J.

    2009-01-01

    Two tools were developed for designing station-keeping trajectories and estimating delta-v requirements for designing missions to a small body such as a comet or asteroid. This innovation uses NPOPT, a non-sparse, general-purpose sequential quadratic programming (SQP) optimizer and the Two-Level Differential Corrector (T-LDC) in LTool (Libration point mission design Tool) to design three kinds of station-keeping scripts: vertical hovering, horizontal hovering, and orbiting. The T-LDC is used to differentially correct several trajectory legs that join hovering points. In a vertical hovering, the maximum and minimum range points must be connected smoothly while maintaining the spacecrafts range from a small body, all within the law of gravity and the solar radiation pressure. The same is true for a horizontal hover. A PatchPoint is an LTool class that denotes a space-time event with some extra information for differential correction, including a set of constraints to be satisfied by T-LDC. Given a set of PatchPoints, each with its own constraint, the T-LDC differentially corrects the entire trajectory by connecting each trajectory leg joined by PatchPoints while satisfying all specified constraints at the same time. Vertical and horizontal hover both are needed to minimize delta-v spent for station keeping. A Python I/F to NPOPT has been written to be used from an LTool script. In vertical hovering, the spacecraft stays along the line joining the Sun and a small body. An instantaneous delta-v toward the anti- Sun direction is applied at the closest approach to the small body for station keeping. For example, the spacecraft hovers between the minimum range (2 km) point and the maximum range (2.5 km) point from the asteroid 1989ML. Horizontal hovering buys more time for a spacecraft to recover if, for any reason, a planned thrust fails, by returning almost to the initial position after some time later via a near elliptical orbit around the small body. The mapping or

  2. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  3. Development of Advanced Computational Aeroelasticity Tools at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has continued to develop its long standing computational tools to address new challenges in aircraft and launch vehicle design. This paper discusses the application and development of those computational aeroelastic tools. Four topic areas will be discussed: 1) Modeling structural and flow field nonlinearities; 2) Integrated and modular approaches to nonlinear multidisciplinary analysis; 3) Simulating flight dynamics of flexible vehicles; and 4) Applications that support both aeronautics and space exploration.

  4. Water facilities in retrospect and prospect: An illuminating tool for vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Peake, David J.; Delfrate, John; Skow, Andrew M.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1987-01-01

    Water facilities play a fundamental role in the design of air, ground, and marine vehicles by providing a qualitative, and sometimes quantitative, description of complex flow phenomena. Water tunnels, channels, and tow tanks used as flow-diagnostic tools have experienced a renaissance in recent years in response to the increased complexity of designs suitable for advanced technology vehicles. These vehicles are frequently characterized by large regions of steady and unsteady 3-D flow separation and ensuing vortical flows. The visualization and interpretation of the complicated fluid motions about isolated vehicle components and complete configurations in a time and cost effective manner in hydrodynamic test facilities is a key element in the development of flow control concepts, and, hence, improved vehicle designs. A historical perspective of the role of water facilities in the vehicle design process is presented. The application of water facilities to specific aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems is discussed, and the strengths and limitations of these important experimental tools are emphasized.

  5. Water facilities in retrospect and prospect: An illuminating tool for vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, G. E.; Peak, D. J.; Delfrate, J.; Skow, A. M.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1986-01-01

    Water facilities play a fundamental role in the design of air, ground, and marine vehicles by providing a qualitative, and sometimes quantitative, description of complex flow phenomena. Water tunnels, channels, and tow tanks used as flow-diagnostic tools have experienced a renaissance in recent years in response to the increased complexity of designs suitable for advanced technology vehicles. These vehicles are frequently characterized by large regions of steady and unsteady three-dimensional flow separation and ensuing vortical flows. The visualization and interpretation of the complicated fluid motions about isolated vehicle components and complete configurations in a time and cost effective manner in hydrodynamic test facilities is a key element in the development of flow control concepts, and, hence, improved vehicle designs. A historical perspective of the role of water facilities in the vehicle design process is presented. The application of water facilities to specific aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems is discussed, and the strengths and limitations of these important experimental tools are emphasized.

  6. Team Expo: A State-of-the-Art JSC Advanced Design Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Abhishek

    2001-01-01

    In concert with the NASA-wide Intelligent Synthesis Environment Program, the Exploration Office at the Johnson Space Center has assembled an Advanced Design Team. The purpose of this team is two-fold. The first is to identify, use, and develop software applications, tools, and design processes that streamline and enhance a collaborative engineering environment. The second is to use this collaborative engineering environment to produce conceptual, system-level-of-detail designs in a relatively short turnaround time, using a standing team of systems and integration experts. This includes running rapid trade studies on varying mission architectures, as well as producing vehicle and/or subsystem designs. The standing core team is made up of experts from all of the relevant engineering divisions (e.g. Power, Thermal, Structures, etc.) as well as representatives from Risk and Safety, Mission Operations, and Crew Life Sciences among others. The Team works together during 2- hour sessions in the same specially enhanced room to ensure real-time integration/identification of cross-disciplinary issues and solutions. All subsystem designs are collectively reviewed and approved during these same sessions. In addition there is an Information sub-team that captures and formats all data and makes it accessible for use by the following day. The result is Team Expo: an Advanced Design Team that is leading the change from a philosophy of "over the fence" design to one of collaborative engineering that pushes the envelope to achieve the next-generation analysis and design environment.

  7. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  8. Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  9. Variable stream control engine for advanced supersonic aircraft design update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. B.; Howlett, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The updating of the engine concept for a second-generation supersonic transport, the variable stream control engine (VSCE), in terms of mechanical design definition and estimated performance is discussed. The design definition reflects technology advancements that improve system efficiency, durability and environments were established. The components unique to the VSCE concept, a high performance duct burner and a low noise coannular nozzle, and the high temperature components are identified as critical technologies. Technology advances for the high temperature components (main combustor and turbines) are also discussed. To address the requirements in this area, the technical approach for undertaking a high temperature validation program is defined. The multi-phased effort would include assorted rig and laboratory tests, then culminate with the demonstration of a flight-type main combustor and single-stage high pressure turbine at operating conditions envisioned for a VSCE.

  10. Preliminary aerodynamic design considerations for advanced laminar flow aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Yip, Long P.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Modern composite manufacturing methods have provided the opportunity for smooth surfaces that can sustain large regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) boundary layer behavior and have stimulated interest in developing advanced NLF airfoils and improved aircraft designs. Some of the preliminary results obtained in exploratory research investigations on advanced aircraft configurations at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed. Results of the initial studies have shown that the aerodynamic effects of configuration variables such as canard/wing arrangements, airfoils, and pusher-type and tractor-type propeller installations can be particularly significant at high angles of attack. Flow field interactions between aircraft components were shown to produce undesirable aerodynamic effects on a wing behind a heavily loaded canard, and the use of properly designed wing leading-edge modifications, such as a leading-edge droop, offset the undesirable aerodynamic effects by delaying wing stall and providing increased stall/spin resistance with minimum degradation of laminar flow behavior.

  11. Foot-ankle simulators: A tool to advance biomechanical understanding of a complex anatomical structure.

    PubMed

    Natsakis, Tassos; Burg, Josefien; Dereymaeker, Greta; Jonkers, Ilse; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2016-05-01

    In vitro gait simulations have been available to researchers for more than two decades and have become an invaluable tool for understanding fundamental foot-ankle biomechanics. This has been realised through several incremental technological and methodological developments, such as the actuation of muscle tendons, the increase in controlled degrees of freedom and the use of advanced control schemes. Furthermore, in vitro experimentation enabled performing highly repeatable and controllable simulations of gait during simultaneous measurement of several biomechanical signals (e.g. bone kinematics, intra-articular pressure distribution, bone strain). Such signals cannot always be captured in detail using in vivo techniques, and the importance of in vitro experimentation is therefore highlighted. The information provided by in vitro gait simulations enabled researchers to answer numerous clinical questions related to pathology, injury and surgery. In this article, first an overview of the developments in design and methodology of the various foot-ankle simulators is presented. Furthermore, an overview of the conducted studies is outlined and an example of a study aiming at understanding the differences in kinematics of the hindfoot, ankle and subtalar joints after total ankle arthroplasty is presented. Finally, the limitations and future perspectives of in vitro experimentation and in particular of foot-ankle gait simulators are discussed. It is expected that the biofidelic nature of the controllers will be improved in order to make them more subject-specific and to link foot motion to the simulated behaviour of the entire missing body, providing additional information for understanding the complex anatomical structure of the foot. PMID:27160562

  12. Design as a Critical Tool in Bariatric Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Doug

    2008-01-01

    Both men and women in the United States are roughly an inch taller and 25 pounds heavier than they were in 1960, says the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An increasing number are also overweight or obese. In fact, obesity has become an alarming epidemic with enormous implications for our health care system. A critical concern is the ability to care physically and emotionally for this segment of the patient population. Respecting patient dignity and delivering optimum clinical care are primary issues, as are establishing procedures for safeguarding the health and well-being of these patients and their caregivers. Design is a critical tool in the care of and the improved long-term clinical outcomes for bariatric patients; success mandates a three-prong approach to the design process: appropriate facilities and space, proper equipment and furnishings, and training and standardized care protocols. Together, these components ensure the ability of a health care provider to adequately care for all patients—including this newest and rapidly growing patient segment—with equality and dignity. PMID:19885353

  13. Microbial biotransformation: a tool for drug designing (Review).

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, I; Ahmad, S; Madni, M A; Ahmad, H; Khaliq, F H

    2013-01-01

    For centuries microbial biotransformation has proved to be an imperative tool in alleviating the production of various chemicals used in food, pharmaceutical, agrochemical and other industries. In the field of phar- maceutical research and development, biotransformation studies have been extensively applied to investigate the metabolism of compounds (leads, lead candidates, etc.) using animal models. The microbial biotransfor- mation phenomenon is then commonly employed in comparing metabolic pathways of drugs and scaling up the metabolites of interest discovered in these animal models for further pharmacological and toxicological evaluation. Microorganisms can conveniently afford drugs difficult obtained via synthesis. The plethora of reported microbial biotransformations along with its added benefits has already invoked further research in bioconversion of novel and structurally complex drugs. This review alternatively discusses the prospect of microbial biotransformation studies as a significant element ameliorating drug discovery and design in terms of cost-effectiveness, environment protection and greater structural diversity as compared to animal models used to study metabolism. To explicate the microbial biotransformation paradigm in drug designing 3 main areas in this aspect have been analyzed: 1--lead expansion: obtaining pharmacologically improved metabo- lites from bioactive molecules; 2--biosynthesis of precursors/intermediates involved in the production of bioactive molecules; 3--resolution of racemic mixture to obtain enantiomers possessing different pharma- cological profiles.

  14. Microbial biotransformation: a tool for drug designing (Review).

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, I; Ahmad, S; Madni, M A; Ahmad, H; Khaliq, F H

    2013-01-01

    For centuries microbial biotransformation has proved to be an imperative tool in alleviating the production of various chemicals used in food, pharmaceutical, agrochemical and other industries. In the field of phar- maceutical research and development, biotransformation studies have been extensively applied to investigate the metabolism of compounds (leads, lead candidates, etc.) using animal models. The microbial biotransfor- mation phenomenon is then commonly employed in comparing metabolic pathways of drugs and scaling up the metabolites of interest discovered in these animal models for further pharmacological and toxicological evaluation. Microorganisms can conveniently afford drugs difficult obtained via synthesis. The plethora of reported microbial biotransformations along with its added benefits has already invoked further research in bioconversion of novel and structurally complex drugs. This review alternatively discusses the prospect of microbial biotransformation studies as a significant element ameliorating drug discovery and design in terms of cost-effectiveness, environment protection and greater structural diversity as compared to animal models used to study metabolism. To explicate the microbial biotransformation paradigm in drug designing 3 main areas in this aspect have been analyzed: 1--lead expansion: obtaining pharmacologically improved metabo- lites from bioactive molecules; 2--biosynthesis of precursors/intermediates involved in the production of bioactive molecules; 3--resolution of racemic mixture to obtain enantiomers possessing different pharma- cological profiles. PMID:25508645

  15. Microbial biotransformation: a tool for drug designing (Review).

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, I; Ahmad, S; Madni, M A; Ahmad, H; Khaliq, F H

    2013-01-01

    For centuries microbial biotransformation has proved to be an imperative tool in alleviating the production of various chemicals used in food, pharmaceutical, agrochemical and other industries. In the field of phar- maceutical research and development, biotransformation studies have been extensively applied to investigate the metabolism of compounds (leads, lead candidates, etc.) using animal models. The microbial biotransfor- mation phenomenon is then commonly employed in comparing metabolic pathways of drugs and scaling up the metabolites of interest discovered in these animal models for further pharmacological and toxicological evaluation. Microorganisms can conveniently afford drugs difficult obtained via synthesis. The plethora of reported microbial biotransformations along with its added benefits has already invoked further research in bioconversion of novel and structurally complex drugs. This review alternatively discusses the prospect of microbial biotransformation studies as a significant element ameliorating drug discovery and design in terms of cost-effectiveness, environment protection and greater structural diversity as compared to animal models used to study metabolism. To explicate the microbial biotransformation paradigm in drug designing 3 main areas in this aspect have been analyzed: 1--lead expansion: obtaining pharmacologically improved metabo- lites from bioactive molecules; 2--biosynthesis of precursors/intermediates involved in the production of bioactive molecules; 3--resolution of racemic mixture to obtain enantiomers possessing different pharma- cological profiles. PMID:25474866

  16. AGBT Advanced Counter-Rotating Gearbox Detailed Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, D. C.; Sundt, C. V.; Mckibbon, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    An Advanced Counter-Rotating (CR) Gearbox was designed and fabricated to evaluate gearbox efficiency, durability and weight characteristics for emerging propfan-powered airplanes. Component scavenge tests showed that a constant volume collector had high scavenge effectiveness, which was uneffected by added airflow. Lubrication tests showed that gearbox losses could be reduced by controlling the air/oil mixture and by directing the oil jets radially, with a slight axial component, into the sun/planet gears.

  17. An Introduction to the Advanced Tracking and Resource Tool for Archive Collections (ATRAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, K.; Ritchey, N. A.; Jones, P.; Brown, H.

    2011-12-01

    The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has stepped up to meet the demand of today's exponential growth of archive projects and datasets by creating a web-based tool for managing and tracking data archiving, the Advanced Tracking and Resource tool for Archive Collections (ATRAC). ATRAC allows users to enter, share and display information for an archive project. User-friendly forms collect new input or use existing components of information in the system. The tool generates archive documents in various formats from the input and can automatically notify stakeholders of important project milestones. Current information on projects, tasks and events are displayed in configurable timeframes with viewing rights set by the project stakeholders. This presentation will demonstrate ATRAC's latest features and how the capabilities of ATRAC can improve project communication and work flow.

  18. NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

  19. Predictive Modeling of Estrogen Receptor Binding Agents Using Advanced Cheminformatics Tools and Massive Public Data

    PubMed Central

    Ribay, Kathryn; Kim, Marlene T.; Wang, Wenyi; Pinolini, Daniel; Zhu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERα) are a critical target for drug design as well as a potential source of toxicity when activated unintentionally. Thus, evaluating potential ERα binding agents is critical in both drug discovery and chemical toxicity areas. Using computational tools, e.g., Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models, can predict potential ERα binding agents before chemical synthesis. The purpose of this project was to develop enhanced predictive models of ERα binding agents by utilizing advanced cheminformatics tools that can integrate publicly available bioassay data. The initial ERα binding agent data set, consisting of 446 binders and 8307 non-binders, was obtained from the Tox21 Challenge project organized by the NIH Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC). After removing the duplicates and inorganic compounds, this data set was used to create a training set (259 binders and 259 non-binders). This training set was used to develop QSAR models using chemical descriptors. The resulting models were then used to predict the binding activity of 264 external compounds, which were available to us after the models were developed. The cross-validation results of training set [Correct Classification Rate (CCR) = 0.72] were much higher than the external predictivity of the unknown compounds (CCR = 0.59). To improve the conventional QSAR models, all compounds in the training set were used to search PubChem and generate a profile of their biological responses across thousands of bioassays. The most important bioassays were prioritized to generate a similarity index that was used to calculate the biosimilarity score between each two compounds. The nearest neighbors for each compound within the set were then identified and its ERα binding potential was predicted by its nearest neighbors in the training set. The hybrid model performance (CCR = 0.94 for cross validation; CCR = 0.68 for external prediction) showed significant improvement over the original QSAR

  20. Predictive Modeling of Estrogen Receptor Binding Agents Using Advanced Cheminformatics Tools and Massive Public Data

    PubMed Central

    Ribay, Kathryn; Kim, Marlene T.; Wang, Wenyi; Pinolini, Daniel; Zhu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERα) are a critical target for drug design as well as a potential source of toxicity when activated unintentionally. Thus, evaluating potential ERα binding agents is critical in both drug discovery and chemical toxicity areas. Using computational tools, e.g., Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models, can predict potential ERα binding agents before chemical synthesis. The purpose of this project was to develop enhanced predictive models of ERα binding agents by utilizing advanced cheminformatics tools that can integrate publicly available bioassay data. The initial ERα binding agent data set, consisting of 446 binders and 8307 non-binders, was obtained from the Tox21 Challenge project organized by the NIH Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC). After removing the duplicates and inorganic compounds, this data set was used to create a training set (259 binders and 259 non-binders). This training set was used to develop QSAR models using chemical descriptors. The resulting models were then used to predict the binding activity of 264 external compounds, which were available to us after the models were developed. The cross-validation results of training set [Correct Classification Rate (CCR) = 0.72] were much higher than the external predictivity of the unknown compounds (CCR = 0.59). To improve the conventional QSAR models, all compounds in the training set were used to search PubChem and generate a profile of their biological responses across thousands of bioassays. The most important bioassays were prioritized to generate a similarity index that was used to calculate the biosimilarity score between each two compounds. The nearest neighbors for each compound within the set were then identified and its ERα binding potential was predicted by its nearest neighbors in the training set. The hybrid model performance (CCR = 0.94 for cross validation; CCR = 0.68 for external prediction) showed significant improvement over the original QSAR

  1. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  2. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  3. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  4. Advanced 3D inverse method for designing turbomachine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, T.

    1995-10-01

    To meet the goal of 60% plant-cycle efficiency or better set in the ATS Program for baseload utility scale power generation, several critical technologies need to be developed. One such need is the improvement of component efficiencies. This work addresses the issue of improving the performance of turbo-machine components in gas turbines through the development of an advanced three-dimensional and viscous blade design system. This technology is needed to replace some elements in current design systems that are based on outdated technology.

  5. Specification, Design, and Analysis of Advanced HUMS Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of domain-specific architectures for HUMS. In particular, we looked at using scenario-based approach for the design and designed a language for describing such architectures. The language is now being used in all aspects of our HUMS design. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1) We have employed scenarios in the development of HUMS in three main areas. They are: (a) To improve reusability by using scenarios as a library indexing tool and as a domain analysis tool; (b) To improve maintainability by recording design rationales from two perspectives - problem domain and solution domain; (c) To evaluate the software architecture. 2) We have defined a new architectural language called HADL or HUMS Architectural Definition Language. It is a customized version of xArch/xADL. It is based on XML and, hence, is easily portable from domain to domain, application to application, and machine to machine. Specifications written in HADL can be easily read and parsed using the currently available XML parsers. Thus, there is no need to develop a plethora of software to support HADL. 3) We have developed an automated design process that involves two main techniques: (a) Selection of solutions from a large space of designs; (b) Synthesis of designs. However, the automation process is not an absolute Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach though it uses a knowledge-based system that epitomizes a specific HUMS domain. The process uses a database of solutions as an aid to solve the problems rather than creating a new design in the literal sense. Since searching is adopted as the main technique, the challenges involved are: (a) To minimize the effort in searching the database where a very large number of possibilities exist; (b) To develop representations that could conveniently allow us to depict design knowledge evolved over many years; (c) To capture the required information that aid the

  6. Design and Analysis Tools for Concurrent Blackboard Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A blackboard system consists of a set of knowledge sources, a blackboard data structure, and a control strategy used to activate the knowledge sources. The blackboard model of problem solving is best described by Dr. H. Penny Nii of the Stanford University AI Laboratory: "A Blackboard System can be viewed as a collection of intelligent agents who are gathered around a blackboard, looking at pieces of information written on it, thinking about the current state of the solution, and writing their conclusions on the blackboard as they generate them. " The blackboard is a centralized global data structure, often partitioned in a hierarchical manner, used to represent the problem domain. The blackboard is also used to allow inter-knowledge source communication and acts as a shared memory visible to all of the knowledge sources. A knowledge source is a highly specialized, highly independent process that takes inputs from the blackboard data structure, performs a computation, and places the results of the computation in the blackboard data structure. This design allows for an opportunistic control strategy. The opportunistic problem-solving technique allows a knowledge source to contribute towards the solution of the current problem without knowing which of the other knowledge sources will use the information. The use of opportunistic problem-solving allows the data transfers on the blackboard to determine which processes are active at a given time. Designing and developing blackboard systems is a difficult process. The designer is trying to balance several conflicting goals and achieve a high degree of concurrent knowledge source execution while maintaining both knowledge and semantic consistency on the blackboard. Blackboard systems have not attained their apparent potential because there are no established tools or methods to guide in their construction or analyze their performance.

  7. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  8. Advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been concieved which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  9. An integrated computer system for preliminary design of advanced aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Sobieszczanski, J.; Landrum, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A progress report is given on the first phase of a research project to develop a system of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) which is intended to automate to the largest extent possible the preliminary and detailed design of advanced aircraft. The approach used is to build a pilot system and simultaneously to carry out two major contractual studies to define a practical IPAD system preparatory to programing. The paper summarizes the specifications and goals of the IPAD system, the progress to date, and any conclusion reached regarding its feasibility and scope. Sample calculations obtained with the pilot system are given for aircraft preliminary designs optimized with respect to discipline parameters, such as weight or L/D, and these results are compared with designs optimized with respect to overall performance parameters, such as range or payload.

  10. Aerodynamic Design Study of an Advanced Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An Advanced Active Twist Rotor (AATR) is currently being developed by the U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. As a part of this effort, an analytical study was conducted to determine the impact of blade geometry on active-twist performance and, based on those findings, propose a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR. The process began by creating a baseline design which combined the dynamic design of the original Active Twist Rotor and the aerodynamic design of a high lift rotor concept. The baseline model was used to conduct a series of parametric studies to examine the effect of linear blade twist and blade tip sweep, droop, and taper on active-twist performance. Rotor power requirements and hub vibration were also examined at flight conditions ranging from hover to advance ratio = 0.40. A total of 108 candidate designs were analyzed using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) code. The study concluded that the vibration reduction capabilities of a rotor utilizing controlled, strain-induced twisting are enhanced through the incorporation of blade tip sweep, droop, and taper into the blade design, while they are degraded by increasing the nose-down linear blade twist. Based on the analysis of rotor power, hub vibration, and active-twist response, a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR consisting of a blade with approximately 10 degrees of linear blade twist and a blade tip design with 30 degree sweep, 10 degree droop, and 2.5:1 taper ratio over the outer five percent of the blade is proposed.

  11. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1999-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to a sensitivity based Concurrent Subspace Optimization (CSSO) NMO algorithm; the development of a neural network response surface based CSSO-MDO algorithm; and the integration of distributed computing and process scheduling into the MDO environment. This report overviews research efforts in each of these focus. A complete bibliography of research produced with support of this grant is attached.

  12. Just-in-Time Teaching: A Tool for Enhancing Student Engagement in Advanced Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu, Laurel; Knouse, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have indicated a need for further research on effective pedagogical strategies designed for advanced foreign language courses in the postsecondary setting, especially in light of decreased enrollments at this level and the elimination of foreign language programs altogether in some institutions (Paesani & Allen, 2012). This article…

  13. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Batnyam, Nomin; Lee, Jimin; Lee, Jungnam; Hong, Seung Bok; Oh, Sejong; Han, Kyudong

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR- and DNA-sequencing primers. It compares the sequences from six different primates (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) and designs primers on the conserved region across species. UniPrimer is linked to RepeatMasker, Primer3Plus, and OligoCalc softwares to produce primers with high accuracy and UCSC In-Silico PCR to confirm whether the designed primers work. To test the performance of UniPrimer, we designed primers on sample sequences using UniPrimer and manually designed primers for the same sequences. The comparison of the two processes showed that UniPrimer was more effective than manual work in terms of saving time and reducing errors. PMID:22693428

  14. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Effective September 26, 1991, Bechtel, with Amoco as the main subcontractor, initiated a study to develop a computer model and baseline design for advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology; prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design; and develop a process flow sheet simulation (PI-S) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model win be the major research planning tools that PETC will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction. for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. This report is Bechtel`s third quarterly technical progress report covering the period from March 16, 1992 through June 21, 1992. This report consists of seven sections: Section 1 - introduction; Section 2 - summary; Section 3 - carbon dioxide removal tradeoff study; Section 4 - preliminary plant designs for coal preparation; Section 5 - preliminary design for syngas production; Section 6 - Task 3 - engineering design criteria; and Section 7 - project management.

  15. Computer-Based Cognitive Tools: Description and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, David; McNaught, Carmel

    With computers, tangible tools are represented by the hardware (e.g., the central processing unit, scanners, and video display unit), while intangible tools are represented by the software. There is a special category of computer-based software tools (CBSTs) that have the potential to mediate cognitive processes--computer-based cognitive tools…

  16. Using Participatory Design in the Development of a Language Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Constantinou, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how participatory design methodologies can be used for the design of interactive learning tools for children. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the methodology employed for the design of a multimedia tool for teaching Greek to young children aged 6 to 12. The preliminary data collection…

  17. Forest fire advanced system technology (FFAST) conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. David; Warren, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service completed a conceptual design study that defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s. Potential system configuration options in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include airborne mounted, thermal infrared (IR) linear array detectors, automatic onboard georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communications links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. The conceptual design study defined the preferred system configuration that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  18. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  19. Tools for efficient design of multicomponent separation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Joshua Lee

    formulation and the relative effect of capital and operating cost is weighed for an example feed. Previous methods based on Underwood's equations have no accounting for the temperature at which utilities are required. To account for this, a thermodynamic efficiency function is developed which allows the complete search space to be ranklisted in order of the exergy loss occurring within the configuration. Examining these results shows that this objective function favors configurations which move their reboiler and condenser duties to milder temperature exchangers. A graphical interface is presented which allows interpretation of any of the above results in a quick and intuitive fashion, complete with system flow and composition data and the ability to filter the complete search space based on numerical and structural criteria. This provides a unique way to compare and contrast configurations as well as allowing considerations like column retrofit and maximum controllability to be considered. Using all five of these screening techniques, the traditional intuition-based methods of separations process design can be augmented with analytical and algorithmic tools which enable selection of a process design with low cost and high efficiency.

  20. Continuous Symmetry and Chemistry Teachers: Learning Advanced Chemistry Content through Novel Visualization Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Blonder, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the learning process of a group of experienced chemistry teachers in a specially designed workshop on molecular symmetry and continuous symmetry. The workshop was based on interactive visualization tools that allow molecules and their symmetry elements to be rotated in three dimensions. The topic of continuous symmetry is…

  1. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  2. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  3. SDT: A database schema design and translation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, V.M.; Fang, W.

    1991-05-01

    In this document we describe schema design and translation tool called SDT.SDT takes as input Extended Entity-Relationship (EER) schemas and generates relational database management (RDBMS) schemas. SDT consists of three main parts: (1) The first part maps EER schemas into abstract relational schemas, (2) the second part maps abstract relational schemas into schema definitions for RDBMSs; and (3) the third part generates the metadata regarding EER schemas, relational schemas, and their mappings. SDT 4.1 targets SYNBASE 4.0, INGRES 6.3, and INFORMIX 4.0. Compared with SDT 3.1, SDT 4.1 has the following additional features: (1) a graphical editor for specifying and modifying EER schemas, called ERDRAW; (2) SDT 4.1 generates procedures for verifying the consistency of an existing database with regard to a set of referential integrity constraints associated with that database; (3) attributes and object-sets (entity-sets or relationship-sets) can be described using new description fields; (4) SDT 4.1 allows the specification of hierarchically organized subject terms for object-sets, attributes, and the association of subject terms with object-sets and attributes; and, (5) SDT 4.1 generates metadata describing EER schemas, relational schemas and their mappings. SDT was implemented using C, LEX, and YACC on Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations under Sun Unix OS 4.0.3. and Sun Unix OS 4.1. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Performance analysis and optimization of an advanced pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant through a visual basic software tool (PWWT.VB).

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha

    2016-05-01

    A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater. PMID:26856870

  5. Performance analysis and optimization of an advanced pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant through a visual basic software tool (PWWT.VB).

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha

    2016-05-01

    A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater.

  6. Using CFD as a Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Canabal, Francisco; Rocker, marvin; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2005-01-01

    New programs are forcing American propulsion system designers into unfamiliar territory. For instance, industry s answer to the cost and reliability goals set out by the Next Generation Launch Technology Program are engine concepts based on the Oxygen- Rich Staged Combustion Cycle. Historical injector design tools are not well suited for this new task. The empirical correlations do not apply directly to the injector concepts associated with the ORSC cycle. These legacy tools focus primarily on performance with environment evaluation a secondary objective. Additionally, the environmental capability of these tools is usually one-dimensional while the actual environments are at least two- and often three-dimensional. CFD has the potential to calculate performance and multi-dimensional environments but its use in the injector design process has been retarded by long solution turnaround times and insufficient demonstrated accuracy. This paper has documented the parallel paths of program support and technology development currently employed at Marshall Space Flight Center in an effort to move CFD to the forefront of injector design. MSFC has established a long-term goal for use of CFD for combustion devices design. The work on injector design is the heart of that vision and the Combustion Devices CFD Simulation Capability Roadmap that focuses the vision. The SRL concept, combining solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, has been established as a quantitative gauge of current and desired capability. Three examples of current injector analysis for program support have been presented and discussed. These examples are used to establish the current capability at MSFC for these problems. Shortcomings identified from this experience are being used as inputs to the Roadmap process. The SRL evaluation identified lack of demonstrated solution accuracy as a major issue. Accordingly, the MSFC view of code validation and current MSFC-funded validation efforts were discussed in

  7. Recent advances in cardiac SPECT instrumentation and system design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in clinical cardiac SPECT instrumentation are reviewed from a systems perspective. New hardware technologies include pixelated scintillator and semiconductor detector elements; photodetectors such as position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), avalanche photodiodes (APD) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM); and novel cardiac collimation methods. There are new approaches for positioning detectors and controlling their motion during cardiac imaging. Software technology advances include iterative image reconstruction with modeling of Poisson statistics and depth-dependent collimator response. These new technologies enable faster acquisitions, the lowering of administered activity and radiation dose, and improved image resolution. Higher sensitivity collimators are a significant factor enabling faster acquisitions. Several clinical systems incorporating new technologies are discussed and different system designs can achieve similar performance. With detector elements such as APDs, SiPMs and semiconductors that are insensitive to magnetic fields, the potential for cardiac SPECT imagers that are MRI compatible opens up new frontiers in clinical cardiac research and patient care. PMID:23832650

  8. Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors: Design, Specifications and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Insertion of new types of commercial, high volumetric efficiency wet tantalum capacitors in space systems requires reassessment of the existing quality assurance approaches that have been developed for capacitors manufactured to MIL-PRF-39006 requirements. The specifics of wet electrolytic capacitors is that leakage currents flowing through electrolyte can cause gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure and rupture of the case. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. This presentation gives a review of specifics of the design, performance, and potential reliability risks associated with advanced wet tantalum capacitors. Problems related to setting adequate requirements for DPA, leakage currents, hermeticity, stability at low and high temperatures, ripple currents for parts operating in vacuum, and random vibration testing are discussed. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  9. Advanced Design and Implementation of a Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Alvarez, A.; Hayati, S.; Volpe, R.; Petras, R.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced design and implementation of a Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers is presented using a hierarchical top-down task decomposition, and the common structure of each design is presented based on feedback control theory. Graphical programming is presented as a common intuitive language for the design when a large design team is composed of managers, architecture designers, engineers, programmers, and maintenance personnel. The whole design of the control architecture consists in the classic control concepts of cyclic data processing and event-driven reaction to achieve all the reasoning and behaviors needed. For this purpose, a commercial graphical tool is presented that includes the mentioned control capabilities. Messages queues are used for inter-communication among control functions, allowing Artificial Intelligence (AI) reasoning techniques based on queue manipulation. Experimental results show a highly autonomous control system running in real time on top the JPL micro-rover Rocky 7 controlling simultaneously several robotic devices. This paper validates the sinergy between Artificial Intelligence and classic control concepts in having in advanced Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers.

  10. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Bechtel, with Amoco as the main subcontractor, initiated a study on September 26, 1991, for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to develop a computer model and baseline design for advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. This 24-month study, with an approved budget of $2.3 million, is being performed under DOE Contract Number AC22-91PC90027. (1) Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. (2) Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. (3) Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis and computer model will be major research planning tools that PETC will use to plan, guide and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal.

  11. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  12. On-Line NDE for Advanced Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Inanc, F.; Thompson, R. B.; Junker, W. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Beatty, J. M.; Arlia, N. G.

    2003-03-01

    This expository paper introduces the concept of on-line sensor methodologies for monitoring the integrity of components in next generation power systems, and explains general benefits of the approach, while describing early conceptual developments of suitable NDE methodologies. The paper first explains the philosophy behind this approach (i.e. the design-for-inspectability concept). Specifically, we describe where and how decades of accumulated knowledge and experience in nuclear power system maintenance are utilized in Generation IV power system designs, as the designs are being actively developed, in order to advance their safety and economy. Second, we explain that Generation IV reactor design features call for the replacement of the current outage-based maintenance by on-line inspection and monitoring. Third, the model-based approach toward design and performance optimization of on-line sensor systems, using electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and radiation detectors, will be explained. Fourth, general types of NDE inspections that are considered amenable to on-line health monitoring will be listed. Fifth, we will describe specific modeling developments to be used for radiography, EMAT UT, and EC detector design studies.

  13. Advanced integrated spectrometer designs for miniaturized optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, B. I.; Považay, B.; Chang, L.; Alex, A.; Wörhoff, K.; de Ridder, R. M.; Drexler, W.; Pollnau, M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinical applications that revolutionized in vivo medical diagnostics. Nevertheless, its current limitations owing to cost, size, complexity, and the need for accurate alignment must be overcome by radically novel approaches. Exploiting integrated optics, the central components of a spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system can be integrated on a chip. Arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometers with their high spectral resolution and compactness are excellent candidates for on-chip SD-OCT systems. However, specific design-related issues of AWG spectrometers limit the performance of on-chip SD-OCT systems. Here we present advanced AWG designs which could overcome the limitations arising from free spectral range, polarization dependency, and curved focal plane of the AWG spectrometers. Using these advanced AWG designs in an SD-OCT system can provide not only better overall performance but also some unique aspects that a commercial system does not have. Additionally, a partially integrated OCT system comprising an AWG spectrometer and an integrated beam splitter, as well as the in vivo imaging using this system are demonstrated.

  14. The Halogen Bond in the Design of Functional Supramolecular Materials: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Halogen bonding is an emerging noncovalent interaction for constructing supramolecular assemblies. Though similar to the more familiar hydrogen bonding, four primary differences between these two interactions make halogen bonding a unique tool for molecular recognition and the design of functional materials. First, halogen bonds tend to be much more directional than (single) hydrogen bonds. Second, the interaction strength scales with the polarizability of the bond-donor atom, a feature that researchers can tune through single-atom mutation. In addition, halogen bonds are hydrophobic whereas hydrogen bonds are hydrophilic. Lastly, the size of the bond-donor atom (halogen) is significantly larger than hydrogen. As a result, halogen bonding provides supramolecular chemists with design tools that cannot be easily met with other types of noncovalent interactions and opens up unprecedented possibilities in the design of smart functional materials. This Account highlights the recent advances in the design of halogen-bond-based functional materials. Each of the unique features of halogen bonding, directionality, tunable interaction strength, hydrophobicity, and large donor atom size, makes a difference. Taking advantage of the hydrophobicity, researchers have designed small-size ion transporters. The large halogen atom size provided a platform for constructing all-organic light-emitting crystals that efficiently generate triplet electrons and have a high phosphorescence quantum yield. The tunable interaction strengths provide tools for understanding light-induced macroscopic motions in photoresponsive azobenzene-containing polymers, and the directionality renders halogen bonding useful in the design on functional supramolecular liquid crystals and gel-phase materials. Although halogen bond based functional materials design is still in its infancy, we foresee a bright future for this field. We expect that materials designed based on halogen bonding could lead to

  15. Advanced computational tools for optimization and uncertainty quantification of carbon capture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Ng, Brenda; Eslick, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing, demonstrating, and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools. One significant computational tool is FOQUS, a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity, which enables basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to rapidly synthesize and optimize a process and determine the level of uncertainty associated with the resulting process. The overall approach of CCSI is described with a more detailed discussion of FOQUS and its application to carbon capture systems.

  16. Proposal for constructing an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Sims, Michael H.; Podolak, Esther; Mckay, Christopher P.; Thompson, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific model building can be a time intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We believe that advanced software techniques can facilitate both the model building and model sharing process. We propose to construct a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing and using models. The proposed tool will include an interactive intelligent graphical interface and a high level, domain specific, modeling language. As a testbed for this research, we propose development of a software prototype in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling.

  17. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  18. Advances in aircraft design: Multiobjective optimization and a markup language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shubhangi

    Today's modern aerospace systems exhibit strong interdisciplinary coupling and require a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach. Analysis methods that were once considered feasible only for advanced and detailed design are now available and even practical at the conceptual design stage. This changing philosophy for conducting conceptual design poses additional challenges beyond those encountered in a low fidelity design of aircraft. This thesis takes some steps towards bridging the gaps in existing technologies and advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft design. The first part of the thesis proposes a new Pareto front approximation method for multiobjective optimization problems. The method employs a hybrid optimization approach using two derivative free direct search techniques, and is intended for solving blackbox simulation based multiobjective optimization problems with possibly nonsmooth functions where the analytical formof the objectives is not known and/or the evaluation of the objective function(s) is very expensive (very common in multidisciplinary design optimization). A new adaptive weighting scheme is proposed to convert a multiobjective optimization problem to a single objective optimization problem. Results show that the method achieves an arbitrarily close approximation to the Pareto front with a good collection of well-distributed nondominated points. The second part deals with the interdisciplinary data communication issues involved in a collaborative mutidisciplinary aircraft design environment. Efficient transfer, sharing, and manipulation of design and analysis data in a collaborative environment demands a formal structured representation of data. XML, a W3C recommendation, is one such standard concomitant with a number of powerful capabilities that alleviate interoperability issues. A compact, generic, and comprehensive XML schema for an aircraft design markup language (ADML) is proposed here to provide a common language for data

  19. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  20. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  1. A new fuel loading design for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, J.C.; Renier, J.P.; Worley, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    A new fuel loading design has been developed for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor. In this reactor the combination of a small core volume and high power results in a very high power density. Using a direct optimization procedure the thermal-hydraulic margins for oxide temperature drop, centerline temperature and incipient boiling (and thus critical heat flux) were maximized to increase the limiting thermal power from 298 MW to 346 MW compared to the previous fuel grading, while maintaining the desired peak reflector thermal flux.

  2. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  3. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary; Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Tucker, P. Kevin; Hutt, John

    1999-01-01

    A practical design tool for the analysis of flowfields near the injector face has been developed and used to analyze the Fastrac engine. The objective was to produce a computational design tool which was detailed enough to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows. To obtain a model which could be used to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe liquid and vapor sub- and super-critical flows, the model included thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. A homogeneous model was constructed such that the local state of the flow was determined directly, i.e. the quality of the flow was calculated. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity to be predicted. It also allows the film coolant flow to be accurately described. The initial evaluation of the injector code was made by simulating cold flow from an unlike injector element and from a like-on-like overlapping fan (LOL) injector element. The predicted mass flux distributions of these injector elements compared well to cold flow test results. These are the same cold flow tests which serve as the data base for the JANNAF performance prediction codes. The flux distributions 1 inch downstream of the injector face are very similar; the differences were somewhat larger at further distances from the faceplate. Since the cold flow testing did not achieve good mass balances when integrations across the entire fan were made, the CFD simulation appears to be reasonable alternative to future cold flow testing. To simulate the Fastrac, an RP-1/LOX combustion model must be chosen. This submodel must be relatively simple to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Single RP-1

  4. Guidance for the Design and Adoption of Analytic Tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandlow, Alisa

    2015-12-01

    The goal is to make software developers aware of common issues that can impede the adoption of analytic tools. This paper provides a summary of guidelines, lessons learned and existing research to explain what is currently known about what analysts want and how to better understand what tools they do and don't need.

  5. An Analysis of Energy Savings Possible Through Advances in Automotive Tooling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-12-03

    The use of lightweight and highly formable advanced materials in automobile and truck manufacturing has the potential to save fuel. Advances in tooling technology would promote the use of these materials. This report describes an energy savings analysis performed to approximate the potential fuel savings and consequential carbon-emission reductions that would be possible because of advances in tooling in the manufacturing of, in particular, non-powertrain components of passenger cars and heavy trucks. Separate energy analyses are performed for cars and heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are considered to be Class 7 and 8 trucks (trucks rated over 26,000 lbs gross vehicle weight). A critical input to the analysis is a set of estimates of the percentage reductions in weight and drag that could be achieved by the implementation of advanced materials, as a consequence of improved tooling technology, which were obtained by surveying tooling industry experts who attended a DOE Workshop, Tooling Technology for Low-Volume Vehicle Production, held in Seattle and Detroit in October and November 2003. The analysis is also based on 2001 fuel consumption totals and on energy-audit component proportions of fuel use due to drag, rolling resistance, and braking. The consumption proportions are assumed constant over time, but an allowance is made for fleet growth. The savings for a particular component is then the product of total fuel consumption, the percentage reduction of the component, and the energy audit component proportion. Fuel savings estimates for trucks also account for weight-limited versus volume-limited operations. Energy savings are assumed to be of two types: (1) direct energy savings incurred through reduced forces that must be overcome to move the vehicle or to slow it down in braking. and (2) indirect energy savings through reductions in the required engine power, the production and transmission of which incur thermodynamic losses, internal friction, and other

  6. 3D printing in pharmaceutics: A new tool for designing customized drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Goole; Karim, Amighi

    2016-02-29

    Three-dimensional printing includes a wide variety of manufacturing techniques, which are all based on digitally-controlled depositing of materials (layer-by-layer) to create freeform geometries. Therefore, three-dimensional printing processes are commonly associated with freeform fabrication techniques. For years, these methods were extensively used in the field of biomanufacturing (especially for bone and tissue engineering) to produce sophisticated and tailor-made scaffolds from patient scans. This paper aims to review the processes that can be used in pharmaceutics, including the parameters to be controlled. In practice, it not straightforward for a formulator to be aware of the various technical advances made in this field, which is gaining more and more interest. Thus, a particular aim of this review is to give an overview on the pragmatic tools, which can be used for designing customized drug delivery systems using 3D printing. PMID:26757150

  7. 3D printing in pharmaceutics: A new tool for designing customized drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Goole; Karim, Amighi

    2016-02-29

    Three-dimensional printing includes a wide variety of manufacturing techniques, which are all based on digitally-controlled depositing of materials (layer-by-layer) to create freeform geometries. Therefore, three-dimensional printing processes are commonly associated with freeform fabrication techniques. For years, these methods were extensively used in the field of biomanufacturing (especially for bone and tissue engineering) to produce sophisticated and tailor-made scaffolds from patient scans. This paper aims to review the processes that can be used in pharmaceutics, including the parameters to be controlled. In practice, it not straightforward for a formulator to be aware of the various technical advances made in this field, which is gaining more and more interest. Thus, a particular aim of this review is to give an overview on the pragmatic tools, which can be used for designing customized drug delivery systems using 3D printing.

  8. Optimal design application on the advanced aeroelastic rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, F. S.; Jones, R.

    1985-01-01

    The vibration and performance optimization procedure using regression analysis was successfully applied to an advanced aeroelastic blade design study. The major advantage of this regression technique is that multiple optimizations can be performed to evaluate the effects of various objective functions and constraint functions. The data bases obtained from the rotorcraft flight simulation program C81 and Myklestad mode shape program are analytically determined as a function of each design variable. This approach has been verified for various blade radial ballast weight locations and blade planforms. This method can also be utilized to ascertain the effect of a particular cost function which is composed of several objective functions with different weighting factors for various mission requirements without any additional effort.

  9. Modern transform design for advanced image/video coding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Trac D.; Topiwala, Pankaj N.

    2008-08-01

    This paper offers an overall review of recent advances in the design of modern transforms for image and video coding applications. Transforms have been an integral part of signal coding applications from the beginning, but emphasis had been on true floating-point transforms for most of that history. Recently, with the proliferation of low-power handheld multimedia devices, a new vision of integer-only transforms that provide high performance yet very low complexity has quickly gained ascendency. We explore two key design approaches to creating integer transforms, and focus on a systematic, universal method based on decomposition into lifting steps, and use of (dyadic) rational coefficients. This method provides a wealth of solutions, many of which are already in use in leading media codecs today, such as H.264, HD Photo/JPEG XR, and scalable audio. We give early indications in this paper, and more fully elsewhere.

  10. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  11. Design of vibration compensation interferometer for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Li, G S; Liu, H Q; Jie, Y X; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Zhu, X; Wang, Z X; Zeng, L; Zou, Z Y; Wei, X C; Lan, T

    2014-11-01

    A vibration compensation interferometer (wavelength at 0.532 μm) has been designed and tested for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). It is designed as a sub-system for EAST far-infrared (wavelength at 432.5 μm) poloarimeter/interferometer system. Two Acoustic Optical Modulators have been applied to produce the 1 MHz intermediate frequency. The path length drift of the system is lower than 2 wavelengths within 10 min test, showing the system stability. The system sensitivity has been tested by applying a periodic vibration source on one mirror in the system. The vibration is measured and the result matches the source period. The system is expected to be installed on EAST by the end of 2014.

  12. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Violette, John A.; Sullivan, William E.; Turnberg, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the design analysis of a very thin, highly swept, propeller blade to be used in the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) test program. The report includes: design requirements and goals, a description of the blade configuration which meets requirements, a description of the analytical methods utilized/developed to demonstrate compliance with the requirements, and the results of these analyses. The methods described include: finite element modeling, predicted aerodynamic loads and their application to the blade, steady state and vibratory response analyses, blade resonant frequencies and mode shapes, bird impact analysis, and predictions of stalled and unstalled flutter phenomena. Summarized results include deflections, retention loads, stress/strength comparisons, foreign object damage resistance, resonant frequencies and critical speed margins, resonant vibratory mode shapes, calculated boundaries of stalled and unstalled flutter, and aerodynamic and acoustic performance calculations.

  13. Design of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight particle fuel tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the newly formed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the next generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature monitoring and control combined with on-line fission product monitoring of the sweep gas. The final design phase has just been completed on the first experiment (AGR-1) in this series and the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation. This paper discusses the development of the experimental hardware and support system designs and the status of the experiment.

  14. Advanced manufacturing rules check (MRC) for fully automated assessment of complex reticle designs: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, J. A.; Aguilar, D.; Buck, P. D.; Dawkins, D.; Gladhill, R.; Nolke, S.; Riddick, J.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced electronic design automation (EDA) tools, with their simulation, modeling, design rule checking, and optical proximity correction capabilities, have facilitated the improvement of first pass wafer yields. While the data produced by these tools may have been processed for optimal wafer manufacturing, it is possible for the same data to be far from ideal for photomask manufacturing, particularly at lithography and inspection stages, resulting in production delays and increased costs. The same EDA tools used to produce the data can be used to detect potential problems for photomask manufacturing in the data. In the previous paper, it was shown how photomask MRC is used to uncover data related problems prior to automated defect inspection. It was demonstrated how jobs which are likely to have problems at inspection could be identified and separated from those which are not. The use of photomask MRC in production was shown to reduce time lost to aborted runs and troubleshooting due to data issues. In this paper, the effectiveness of this photomask MRC program in a high volume photomask factory over the course of a year as applied to more than ten thousand jobs will be shown. Statistics on the results of the MRC runs will be presented along with the associated impact to the automated defect inspection process. Common design problems will be shown as well as their impact to mask manufacturing throughput and productivity. Finally, solutions to the most common and most severe problems will be offered and discussed.

  15. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1998-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. Three Principal Investigators; Drs. Renaud, Brockman and Batill directed this effort. During the four and a half year grant period, six Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student received full or partial support, while four Computer Science and Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student were supported. During each of the summers up to four undergraduate students were involved in related research activities. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (N4DO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to

  16. Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters with application to advanced propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.

  17. The Application of Concurrent Engineering Tools and Design Structure Matrix in Designing Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, Rosnani; Fachrozi Fitra Ramadhan, T.

    2016-02-01

    The development of automobile industry in Indonesia is growing rapidly. This phenomenon causes companies related to the automobile industry such as tire industry must develop products based on customers’ needs and considering the timeliness of delivering the product to the customer. It could be reached by applying strategic planning in developing an integrated concept of product development. This research was held in PT. XYZ that applied the sequential approach in designing and developing products. The need to improve in one stage of product development could occur re-designing that needs longer time in developing a new product. This research is intended to get an integrated product design concept of tire pertaining to the customer's needs using Concurrent Engineering Tools by implementing the two-phased of product development. The implementation of Concurrent Engineering approach results in applying the stage of project planning, conceptual design, and product modules. The product modules consist of four modules that using Product Architecture - Design Structure Matrix to ease the designing process of new product development.

  18. Advanced Aerodynamic Design of Passive Porosity Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Viken, Sally A.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes aerodynamic design work aimed at developing a passive porosity control effector system for a generic tailless fighter aircraft. As part of this work, a computational design tool was developed and used to layout passive porosity effector systems for longitudinal and lateral-directional control at a low-speed, high angle of attack condition. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted using the NASA Langley computational fluid dynamics code USM3D, in conjunction with a newly formulated surface boundary condition for passive porosity. Results indicate that passive porosity effectors can provide maneuver control increments that equal and exceed those of conventional aerodynamic effectors for low-speed, high-alpha flight, with control levels that are a linear function of porous area. This work demonstrates the tremendous potential of passive porosity to yield simple control effector systems that have no external moving parts and will preserve an aircraft's fixed outer mold line.

  19. Micromechanics Based Design/Analysis Codes for Advanced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced high temperature Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) hold an enormous potential for use in aero and space related applications specifically for propulsion system components. Consequently, this has led to a multitude of research activities pertaining to fabrication, testing and modeling of these materials. The efforts directed at the development of ceramic matrix composites have focused primarily on improving the properties of the constituents as individual phases. It has, however, become increasingly clear that for CMC to be successfully employed in high temperature applications, research and development efforts should also focus on optimizing the synergistic performance of the constituent phases within the as-produced microstructure of the complex shaped CMC part. Despite their attractive features, the introduction of these materials in a wide spectrum of applications has been excruciatingly slow. The reasons are the high costs associated with the manufacturing and a complete experimental testing and characterization of these materials. Often designers/analysts do not have a consistent set of necessary properties and design allowables to be able to confidently design and analyze structural components made from these composites. Furthermore, the anisotropy of these materials accentuates the burden both on the test engineers and the designers by requiring a vastly increased amount of data/characterization compared to conventional materials.

  20. Radiation Mitigation and Power Optimization Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Matthew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Wang, Li; Larchev, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. In the second year of the project, design tools that leverage an established FPGA design environment have been created to visualize and analyze an FPGA circuit for radiation weaknesses and power inefficiencies. For radiation, a single event Upset (SEU) emulator, persistence analysis tool, and a half-latch removal tool for Xilinx/Virtex-II devices have been created. Research is underway on a persistence mitigation tool and multiple bit upsets (MBU) studies. For power, synthesis level dynamic power visualization and analysis tools have been completed. Power optimization tools are under development and preliminary test results are positive.

  1. Development and Validation of a Hypersonic Vehicle Design Tool Based On Waverider Design Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasque, Nastassja

    Methodologies for a tool capable of assisting design initiatives for practical waverider based hypersonic vehicles were developed and validated. The design space for vehicle surfaces was formed using an algorithm that coupled directional derivatives with the conservation laws to determine a flow field defined by a set of post-shock streamlines. The design space is used to construct an ideal waverider with a sharp leading edge. A blunting method was developed to modify the ideal shapes to a more practical geometry for real-world application. Empirical and analytical relations were then systematically applied to the resulting geometries to determine local pressure, skin-friction and heat flux. For the ideal portion of the geometry, flat plate relations for compressible flow were applied. For the blunted portion of the geometry modified Newtonian theory, Fay-Riddell theory and Modified Reynolds analogy were applied. The design and analysis methods were validated using analytical solutions as well as empirical and numerical data. The streamline solution for the flow field generation technique was compared with a Taylor-Maccoll solution and showed very good agreement. The relationship between the local Stanton number and skin friction coefficient with local Reynolds number along the ideal portion of the body showed good agreement with experimental data. In addition, an automated grid generation routine was formulated to construct a structured mesh around resulting geometries in preparation for Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis. The overall analysis of the waverider body using the tool was then compared to CFD studies. The CFD flow field showed very good agreement with the design space. However, the distribution of the surface properties was near CFD results but did not have great agreement.

  2. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  3. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70-80% of microbial diversity - recently called the "microbial dark matter" - remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.

  4. Struggling with Theory? A Qualitative Investigation of Conceptual Tool Use in Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanchar, Stephen C.; South, Joseph B.; Williams, David D.; Allen, Stephanie; Wilson, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed a qualitative research design to investigate instructional designers' views and uses of conceptual tools in design work (e.g., learning theories and design theories). While past research has examined how instructional designers spend their time, how they generally make decisions, and expert-novice differences, little attention…

  5. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  6. Exploration of Advanced Probabilistic and Stochastic Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the three year research effort was to explore advanced, non-deterministic aerospace system design methods that may have relevance to designers and analysts. The research pursued emerging areas in design methodology and leverage current fundamental research in the area of design decision-making, probabilistic modeling, and optimization. The specific focus of the three year investigation was oriented toward methods to identify and analyze emerging aircraft technologies in a consistent and complete manner, and to explore means to make optimal decisions based on this knowledge in a probabilistic environment. The research efforts were classified into two main areas. First, Task A of the grant has had the objective of conducting research into the relative merits of possible approaches that account for both multiple criteria and uncertainty in design decision-making. In particular, in the final year of research, the focus was on the comparison and contrasting between three methods researched. Specifically, these three are the Joint Probabilistic Decision-Making (JPDM) technique, Physical Programming, and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory. The next element of the research, as contained in Task B, was focused upon exploration of the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) methodology developed at ASDL, especially with regards to identification of research needs in the baseline method through implementation exercises. The end result of Task B was the documentation of the evolution of the method with time and a technology transfer to the sponsor regarding the method, such that an initial capability for execution could be obtained by the sponsor. Specifically, the results of year 3 efforts were the creation of a detailed tutorial for implementing the TIES method. Within the tutorial package, templates and detailed examples were created for learning and understanding the details of each step. For both research tasks, sample files and

  7. Measuring the development process: A tool for software design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moy, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    The design metrics evaluator (DME), a component of an automated software design analysis system, is described. The DME quantitatively evaluates software design attributes. Its use directs attention to areas of a procedure, module, or complete program having a high potential for error.

  8. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. government announced in February 2006 the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) based on a fast spectrum is one of the three major technologies to be demonstrated in GNEP. In FY06, a pre-conceptual design study was performed to develop an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) that supports development of a prototype full-scale ABR, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR were (1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics (TRU) as part of an advanced fuel cycle, (2) to qualify the TRU-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR, (3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these objectives, core design and fuel cycle studies were performed to develop ABTR core designs, which can accommodate the expected changes of the TRU feed and the conversion ratio. Various option and trade-off studies were performed to determine the appropriate power level and conversion ratio. Both ternary metal alloy (U-TRU-10Zr) and mixed oxide (UO{sub 2}-TRUO{sub 2}) fuel forms have been considered with TRU feeds from weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and TRU recovered from light water reactor spent fuel (LWR-SF). Reactor performances were evaluated in detail including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow, power distribution, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficient, reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins, and spent fuel characteristics. Trade-off studies on power level suggested that about 250 MWt is a reasonable compromise to allow a low project cost, at the same time providing a reasonable prototypic irradiation environment for demonstrating

  9. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-12-31

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  10. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A. ); Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P. . Langley Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  11. Advanced Silicon Solar Cell Device Physics and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deceglie, Michael Gardner

    A fundamental challenge in the development and deployment of solar photovoltaic technology is a reduction in cost enabling direct competition with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. A key driver in this cost reduction is optimized device efficiency, because increased energy output leverages all photovoltaic system costs, from raw materials and module manufacturing to installation and maintenance. To continue progress toward higher conversion efficiencies, solar cells are being fabricated with increasingly complex designs, including engineered nanostructures, heterojunctions, and novel contacting and passivation schemes. Such advanced designs require a comprehensive and unified understanding of the optical and electrical device physics at the microscopic scale. This thesis focuses on a microscopic understanding of solar cell optoelectronic performance and its impact on cell optimization. We consider this in three solar cell platforms: thin-film crystalline silicon, amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions, and thin-film cells with nanophotonic light trapping. The work described in this thesis represents a powerful design paradigm, based on a detailed physical understanding of the mechanisms governing solar cell performance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of understanding not just the individual mechanisms, but also their interactions. Such an approach to device optimization is critical for the efficiency and competitiveness of future generations of solar cells.

  12. Design of advanced ultrasonic transducers for welding devices.

    PubMed

    Parrini, L

    2001-11-01

    A new high frequency ultrasonic transducer has been conceived, designed, prototyped, and tested. In the design phase, an advanced approach was used and established. The method is based on an initial design estimate obtained with finite element method (FEM) simulations. The simulated ultrasonic transducers and resonators are then built and characterized experimentally through laser interferometry and electrical resonance spectra. The comparison of simulation results with experimental data allows the parameters of FEM models to be adjusted and optimized. The achieved FEM simulations exhibit a remarkably high predictive potential and allow full control of the vibration behavior of the transducer. The new transducer is mounted on a wire bonder with a flange whose special geometry was calculated by means of FEM simulations. This flange allows the transducer to be attached on the wire bonder, not only in longitudinal nodes, but also in radial nodes of the ultrasonic field excited in the horn. This leads to a total decoupling of the transducer to the wire bonder, which has not been achieved so far. The new approach to mount ultrasonic transducers on a welding device is of major importance, not only for wire bonding, but also for all high power ultrasound applications and has been patented.

  13. Design of the Advanced Rare Isotope Separator ARIS at FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, M.; Aaron, A. M.; Amthor, A. M.; Avilov, M.; Bandura, L.; Bennett, R.; Bollen, G.; Borden, T.; Burgess, T. W.; Chouhan, S. S.; Graves, V. B.; Mittig, W.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pellemoine, F.; Portillo, M.; Ronningen, R. M.; Schein, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Zeller, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotopes Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University will use projectile fragmentation and induced in-flight fission of heavy-ion primary beams at energies of 200 MeV/u and higher and at a beam power of 400 kW to generate rare isotope beams for experiments in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental symmetries, as well as for societal needs. The Advanced Rare Isotope Separator (ARIS) has been designed as a three-stage fragment separator for the efficient collection and purification of the rare isotope beams of interest. A vertically bending preseparator (first stage) with production target and beam dump is fully integrated into a production target facility hot cell with remote handling. The new separator compresses the accepted momentum width of up to ±5% of the beam by a factor of three in the standard operational mode. Provisions for alternate operational modes for specific cases are included in the design. This preseparator is followed by two, horizontally-bending separator stages (second and third stages) utilizing the magnets from the existing A1900 fragment separator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). These stages can alternatively be coupled to a single high-resolution separator stage, resulting in the flexibility to optimize the operation for different experiments, including momentum tagging and in-flight particle identification of rare isotope beams. The design of ARIS will be presented with an emphasis on beam physics characteristics, and anticipated operational modes will be described.

  14. Advanced neutron source final preconceptual reference core design

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.; Gambill, W.R.; Harrington, R.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Peretz, F.J.; Reutler, H.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Selby, D.L.; West, C.D.; Yoder, G.L.

    1989-08-01

    The preconceptual design phase of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project ended with the selection of a reference reactor core that will be used to begin conceptual design work. The new reference core consists of two involute fuel elements, of different diameters, aligned axially with a small axial gap between them. The use of different element diameters permits a separate flow of coolant to be provided for each one, thus enhancing the heat removal capability and increasing the thermal-hydraulic margins. The improved cooling allows the elements to be relatively long and thin, so self-shielding is reduced and an acceptable core life can be achieved with a relatively small loading of highly enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminium. The new reference design has a fueled volume 67.4 L, each element having a heated length of 474 mm and a radial fuel thickness of 66 mm. The end-of-cycle peak thermal flux in the large heavy-water reflector tank around the core is estimated to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 /times/ 10/sup 20/ m/sup /minus/2/ /center dot/ s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 23 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Advancing the State-of-the-Practice for Liquid Rocket Engine Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. K.; Kenny, R. J.; Richardson, B. R.; Anderso, W. E.; Austin, B. J.; Schumaker, S. A.; Muss, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Current shortcomings in both the overall injector design process and its underlying combustion stability assessment methodology are rooted in the use of empirically based or low fidelity representations of complex physical phenomena and geometry details that have first order effects on performance, thermal environments and combustion stability. The result is a design and analysis capability that is often inadequate to reliably arrive at a suitable injector design in an efficient manner. Specifically, combustion instability has been particularly difficult to predict and mitigate. Large hydrocarbon-fueled booster engines have been especially problematic in this regard. Where combustion instability has been a problem, costly and time-consuming redesign efforts have often been an unfortunate consequence. This paper presents an overview of a recently completed effort at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to advance the state-of-the-practice for liquid rocket engine injector design. Multiple perturbations of a gas-centered swirl coaxial (GCSC) element that burned gaseous oxygen and RP-1 were designed, assessed for combustion stability, and tested. Three designs, one stable, one marginally unstable and one unstable, were used to demonstrate both an enhanced overall injector design process and an improved combustion stability assessment process. High-fidelity results from state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations were used to substantially augment and improve the injector design methodology. The CFD results were used to inform and guide the overall injector design process. They were also used to upgrade selected empirical or low-dimensional quantities in the ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) stability assessment tool. Hot fire single element injector testing was used to verify both the overall injector designs and the stability assessments. Testing was conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory and at Purdue University. Companion papers

  16. A computer tool to support in design of industrial Ethernet.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Alexandre Baratella; Santos, Max Mauro Dias; Franco, Lucia Regina Horta Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a computer tool to support in the project and development of an industrial Ethernet network, verifying the physical layer (cables-resistance and capacitance, scan time, network power supply-POE's concept "Power Over Ethernet" and wireless), and occupation rate (amount of information transmitted to the network versus the controller network scan time). These functions are accomplished without a single physical element installed in the network, using only simulation. The computer tool has a software that presents a detailed vision of the network to the user, besides showing some possible problems in the network, and having an extremely friendly environment.

  17. Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Propulsion Design Options Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Future propulsion options for advanced single-aisle transports have been investigated in a number of previous studies by the authors. These studies have examined the system level characteristics of aircraft incorporating ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) turbofans (direct drive and geared) and open rotor engines. During the course of these prior studies, a number of potential refinements and enhancements to the analysis methodology and assumptions were identified. This paper revisits a previously conducted UHB turbofan fan pressure ratio trade study using updated analysis methodology and assumptions. The changes incorporated have decreased the optimum fan pressure ratio for minimum fuel consumption and reduced the engine design trade-offs between minimizing noise and minimizing fuel consumption. Nacelle drag and engine weight are found to be key drivers in determining the optimum fan pressure ratio from a fuel efficiency perspective. The revised noise analysis results in the study aircraft being 2 to 4 EPNdB (cumulative) quieter due to a variety of reasons explained in the paper. With equal core technology assumed, the geared engine architecture is found to be as good as or better than the direct drive architecture for most parameters investigated. However, the engine ultimately selected for a future advanced single-aisle aircraft will depend on factors beyond those considered here.

  18. Optical design and characterization of an advanced computational imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, R. Hamilton; Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Raskar, Ramesh; Shi, Boxin; Barsi, Christopher; Zhao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    We describe an advanced computational imaging system with an optical architecture that enables simultaneous and dynamic pupil-plane and image-plane coding accommodating several task-specific applications. We assess the optical requirement trades associated with custom and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) optics and converge on the development of two low-cost and robust COTS testbeds. The first is a coded-aperture programmable pixel imager employing a digital micromirror device (DMD) for image plane per-pixel oversampling and spatial super-resolution experiments. The second is a simultaneous pupil-encoded and time-encoded imager employing a DMD for pupil apodization or a deformable mirror for wavefront coding experiments. These two testbeds are built to leverage two MIT Lincoln Laboratory focal plane arrays - an orthogonal transfer CCD with non-uniform pixel sampling and on-chip dithering and a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) with advanced on-chip per-pixel processing capabilities. This paper discusses the derivation of optical component requirements, optical design metrics, and performance analyses for the two testbeds built.

  19. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Linear Accelerator: design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator (linac) system consists of a 200-MeV, 2856-MHz S-band electron linac and a 2-radiation-length- thick tungsten target followed by a 450-MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past two years to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies, and to provide beam for the experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA, and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described, and its operation and performance are discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  1. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  2. Advanced ICRF antenna design for R-TOKAMAK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kako, E.; Ando, R.; Ichimura, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Amano, T.; Watari, T.

    1986-01-01

    The advanced ICRF antennas designed for the R-TOKAMAK (a proposal in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University) are described. They are a standard loop antenna and a panel heater antenna for fast wave heating, and a waveguide antenna for ion Bernstein wave heating. The standard loop antenna is made of Al-alloy and has a simple structure to install because of radioactivation by D-T neutrons. For high power heating, a new type antenna called Panel heater antenna is proposed. It has a wide radiation area and is able to select a parallel wave number k. The field pattern of the panel heater antenna is measured. The feasibility of the waveguide antenna is discussed for ion Bernstein wave heating. The radiation from the aperture of the double ridge waveguide is experimentally estimated with a load simulating the plasma.

  3. Design of Quasi-Travelling Wave Pinger Magnet for Beam Diagnostics on the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. E.; Stover, G.; Thur, W.

    1997-05-01

    A beam diagnostic tool to modify single bunch orbits in all four quadrants is proposed for measuring various machine physics parameters at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Quasi-Travelling Wave Pinger magnets were chosen to provide programmable bipolar horizontal and vertical kicks of sufficient duration while providing negligible deflection on subsequent beam revolutions in the storage ring. This magnet technology, originally investigated at the SSC(D. Anderson and L. Schneider, "Design and Preliminary Testing of the LEB Extraction Kicker Magnet at the SSC", Proceedings of 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, May 1993, pp. 1354-6.), provides a cost-effective method of achieving the moderately fast pulse requirements of the pinger application. The design of the pinger magnet and associated pulsed power drive unit will be presented. Electrical response results of initial pinger magnet prototypes and ceramic beampipe coatings will also be given.

  4. Recent advances in software for beamline design, accelerator operations and personnel training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.; Martono, Hendy; Moore, John M.

    2000-03-01

    Accelerators are finding new applications in research, industry, medicine, as well as other fields, and there is a growing need for new tools to improve the productivity of scientists and engineers involved with these emerging accelerator applications. Several advances in computer software have been made that focus on meeting those needs. This paper summarizes recent work in the development of a unique software framework designed specifically to support the accelerator community: the Multi-Platform Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC MP). SPARC MP includes a sophisticated beamline object model, an extensive library of GUI components, and supports a variety of particle optics codes and add-on tools. This framework has been used to create the Particle Beam Optics Laboratory (PBO Lab TM) family of software applications. PBO Lab has been used for beamline design, as a computer aid for teaching particle optics, and to support accelerator operations. Several popular charged particle optics programs, including MARYLIE, TRANSPORT, TURTLE and TRACE 3-D, have been integrated with a new version of PBO Lab. The modeling and simulation capabilities of these codes allow PBO Lab to support a wide spectrum of accelerator types. New external data interface tools are available to import beamline parameters from other sources, for example, to utilize magnet strengths generated by a control system. An overview of the new version of PBO Lab is presented.

  5. Practical Tools for Designing and Weighting Survey Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valliant, Richard; Dever, Jill A.; Kreuter, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Survey sampling is fundamentally an applied field. The goal in this book is to put an array of tools at the fingertips of practitioners by explaining approaches long used by survey statisticians, illustrating how existing software can be used to solve survey problems, and developing some specialized software where needed. This book serves at least…

  6. An online planning tool for designing terrace layouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A web-based conservation planning tool, WebTERLOC (web-based Terrace Location Program), was developed to provide multiple terrace layout options using digital elevation model (DEM) and geographic information systems (GIS). Development of a terrace system is complicated by the time-intensive manual ...

  7. Narratives as Tools in Designing the School Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on results from a research project which focused on chemistry teachers and student narratives from lived experience. The purpose was to find a way to make abstract chemistry more meaningful. The project began with six experienced teachers who used narratives and stories as a didactic tool. These narratives stemmed from the…

  8. Intrageneric Primer Design: Bringing Bioinformatics Tools to the Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Andre O. S.; Garces, Sergio P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioinformatics is one of the fastest growing scientific areas over the last decade. It focuses on the use of informatics tools for the organization and analysis of biological data. An example of their importance is the availability nowadays of dozens of software programs for genomic and proteomic studies. Thus, there is a growing field (private…

  9. A computational tool to design and generate crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R. C.; Vieira, M. B.; Dantas, S. O.; Lobosco, M.

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of computers, more specifically regarding the increased storage and data processing capacity, allowed the construction of computational tools for the simulation of physical and chemical phenomena. Thus, practical experiments are being replaced, in some cases, by computational ones. In this context, we can highlight models used to simulate different phenomena on atomic scale. The construction of these simulators requires, by developers, the study and definition of accurate and reliable models. This complexity is often reflected in the construction of complex simulators, which simulate a limited group of structures. Such structures are sometimes expressed in a fixed manner using a limited set of geometric shapes. This work proposes a computational tool that aims to generate a set of crystal structures. The proposed tool consists of a) a programming language, which is used to describe the structures using for this purpose their characteristic functions and CSG (Constructive Solid Geometry) operators, and b) a compiler/interpreter that examines the source code written in the proposed language, and generates the objects accordingly. This tool enables the generation of an unrestricted number of structures, which can be incorporated in simulators such as the Monte Carlo Spin Engine, developed by our group at UFJF.

  10. NimbleTools: A Universally Designed Test Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael; Hoffmann, Thomas; Higgins, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities and special needs have faced challenges in accessing educational content, and in taking traditional pen-and-paper tests. How might technology improve the process, while making statewide tests truly accessible to all students? NimbleTools is the first computer-based test delivery system that incorporates principles of…

  11. Proposal for the design of a zero gravity tool storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckwisch, Sue; Carrion, Carlos A.; Phillips, Lee; Laughlin, Julia; Francois, Jason

    1994-04-01

    Astronauts frequently use a variety of hand tools during space missions, especially on repair missions. A toolbox is needed to allow storage and retrieval of tools with minimal difficulties. The toolbox must contain tools during launch, landing, and on-orbit operations. The toolbox will be used in the Shuttle Bay and therefore must withstand the hazardous space environment. The three main functions of the toolbox in space are: to protect the tools from the space environment and from damaging one another, to allow for quick, one-handed access to the tools; and to minimize the heat transfer between the astronaut's hand and the tools. This proposal explores the primary design issues associated with the design of the toolbox. Included are the customer and design specifications, global and refined function structures, possible solution principles, concept variants, and finally design recommendations.

  12. Proposal for the design of a zero gravity tool storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckwisch, Sue; Carrion, Carlos A.; Phillips, Lee; Laughlin, Julia; Francois, Jason

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts frequently use a variety of hand tools during space missions, especially on repair missions. A toolbox is needed to allow storage and retrieval of tools with minimal difficulties. The toolbox must contain tools during launch, landing, and on-orbit operations. The toolbox will be used in the Shuttle Bay and therefore must withstand the hazardous space environment. The three main functions of the toolbox in space are: to protect the tools from the space environment and from damaging one another, to allow for quick, one-handed access to the tools; and to minimize the heat transfer between the astronaut's hand and the tools. This proposal explores the primary design issues associated with the design of the toolbox. Included are the customer and design specifications, global and refined function structures, possible solution principles, concept variants, and finally design recommendations.

  13. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases.1 Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission.2 Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an Advanced Design Methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of Design of Experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development e ort. In order to t a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful

  14. Multi-parameter optimization tool for low-cost commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabinsky, Zelda; Tuttle, Mark; Graesser, Douglas; Kim, Gun-In; Hatcher, Darrin; Swanson, Gary; Ilcewicz, Larry

    1991-01-01

    The work in progress for developing a methodology and software tool to aid in the optimal design of composite structures is discussed. The methodology is being developed to take advantage of the ability to tailor the composite material in conjunction with the design of the structure. The composites optimization design software UWCODA was found to be very successful in preliminary testing and early experience. UWCODA is a composites design code that uses a number of plies and fiber angles as design variables, employs maximum strain failure criteria for objective function and additional constraints, includes Boeing design tools for stiffened panels, and includes stiffener geometry in the design variables.

  15. Tools for Collaboration: Using and Designing Tools in Interorganizational Economic-Crime Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puonti, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Economic-crime investigation in Finland is in transition from hierarchically organized, sequential collaboration between authorities toward parallel, interorganizational collaboration. This article describes the tools used and developed for managing the new collaborative economic-crime-investigation process. The challenge is to find…

  16. Design tools for a DNA-guided self-assembling carbon nanotube technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, C.; Johri, V.; Cheung, M.; Patwardhan, J.; Lebeck, A.; Sorin, D.

    2004-09-01

    The shift in technology away from silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS) to novel nanoscale technologies requires new design tools. In this paper, we explore one particular nanotechnology: carbon nanotube transistors that are self-assembled into circuits by using DNA. We develop design tools and demonstrate how to use them to develop circuitry based on this nanotechnology.

  17. Advanced Launch Technology Life Cycle Analysis Using the Architectural Comparison Tool (ACT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle technology impact comparisons for nanolauncher technology concepts were performed using an Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) prototype. Examined are cost drivers and whether technology investments can dramatically affect the life cycle characteristics. Primary among the selected applications was the prospect of improving nanolauncher systems. As a result, findings and conclusions are documented for ways of creating more productive and affordable nanolauncher systems; e.g., an Express Lane-Flex Lane concept is forwarded, and the beneficial effect of incorporating advanced integrated avionics is explored. Also, a Functional Systems Breakdown Structure (F-SBS) was developed to derive consistent definitions of the flight and ground systems for both system performance and life cycle analysis. Further, a comprehensive catalog of ground segment functions was created.

  18. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  19. A front-end automation tool supporting design, verification and reuse of SOC.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-lang; Yu, Long-li; Wang, Jie-bing

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes an in-house developed language tool called VPerl used in developing a 250 MHz 32-bit high-performance low power embedded CPU core. The authors showed that use of this tool can compress the Verilog code by more than a factor of 5, increase the efficiency of the front-end design, reduce the bug rate significantly. This tool can be used to enhance the reusability of an intellectual property model, and facilitate porting design for different platforms.

  20. Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.