Science.gov

Sample records for advanced detector era

  1. Pi of the Sky preparations towards advanced gravitational detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZadroŻny, Adam; Opiela, Rafał; Obara, Łukasz; Sokołowski, Marcin

    2014-11-01

    Pi of the Sky telescope have taken part in gravitational wave EM follow-up project, runned by LSC-Virgo Collaboration, in its initial run in 2009-2010. Since than gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded and become operation in 2015, when the next science run is planned. The paper focuses on Pi of the Sky preparations to LSC-Virgo EM Follow-up project of gravitational wave transient candidates in 2015+ and on Pi of the Sky results of previous science run 2009-2010.

  2. GW150914: The Advanced LIGO Detectors in the Era of First Discoveries.

    PubMed

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Haris, K; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-04-01

    Following a major upgrade, the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) held their first observation run between September 2015 and January 2016. With a strain sensitivity of 10^{-23}/sqrt[Hz] at 100 Hz, the product of observable volume and measurement time exceeded that of all previous runs within the first 16 days of coincident observation. On September 14, 2015, the Advanced LIGO detectors observed a transient gravitational-wave signal determined to be the coalescence of two black holes [B. P. Abbott et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016)], launching the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. The event, GW150914, was observed with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 24 in coincidence by the two detectors. Here, we present the main features of the detectors that enabled this observation. At full sensitivity, the Advanced LIGO detectors are designed to deliver another factor of 3 improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio for binary black hole systems similar in mass to GW150914. PMID:27081966

  3. GW150914: The Advanced LIGO Detectors in the Era of First Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. 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J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Following a major upgrade, the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) held their first observation run between September 2015 and January 2016. With a strain sensitivity of 10-23/√{Hz } at 100 Hz, the product of observable volume and measurement time exceeded that of all previous runs within the first 16 days of coincident observation. On September 14, 2015, the Advanced LIGO detectors observed a transient gravitational-wave signal determined to be the coalescence of two black holes [B. P. Abbott et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016)], launching the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. The event, GW150914, was observed with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 24 in coincidence by the two detectors. Here, we present the main features of the detectors that enabled this observation. At full sensitivity, the Advanced LIGO detectors are designed to deliver another factor of 3 improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio for binary black hole systems similar in mass to GW150914.

  4. GW150914: The Advanced LIGO Detectors in the Era of First Discoveries.

    PubMed

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Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-04-01

    Following a major upgrade, the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) held their first observation run between September 2015 and January 2016. With a strain sensitivity of 10^{-23}/sqrt[Hz] at 100 Hz, the product of observable volume and measurement time exceeded that of all previous runs within the first 16 days of coincident observation. On September 14, 2015, the Advanced LIGO detectors observed a transient gravitational-wave signal determined to be the coalescence of two black holes [B. P. Abbott et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016)], launching the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. The event, GW150914, was observed with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 24 in coincidence by the two detectors. Here, we present the main features of the detectors that enabled this observation. At full sensitivity, the Advanced LIGO detectors are designed to deliver another factor of 3 improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio for binary black hole systems similar in mass to GW150914.

  5. Low-latency analysis pipeline for compact binary coalescences in the advanced gravitational wave detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Buskulic, D.; Germain, V.; Guidi, G. M.; Marion, F.; Montani, M.; Mours, B.; Piergiovanni, F.; Wang, G.

    2016-09-01

    The multi-band template analysis (MBTA) pipeline is a low-latency coincident analysis pipeline for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences. MBTA runs with a low computational cost, and can identify candidate GW events online with a sub-minute latency. The low computational running cost of MBTA also makes it useful for data quality studies. Events detected by MBTA online can be used to alert astronomical partners for electromagnetic follow-up. We outline the current status of MBTA and give details of recent pipeline upgrades and validation tests that were performed in preparation for the first advanced detector observing period. The MBTA pipeline is ready for the outset of the advanced detector era and the exciting prospects it will bring.

  6. Selecting gravitational wave events for EM follow-up in the advanced detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-A.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational wave sources with emissions in the frequency band detectable by ground-based instruments may have electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. The EM counterpart could help confirm the existence of the gravitational wave signature and provide complementary information regarding the source event. However, observable emissions are transient, requiring rapid communication between observing partners and members of the LSC (LIGO Scientific Collaboration) and Virgo in order to be captured. During the past year, we developed and began testing software known as the VOEvent Approval Processor that oversees the selection of events and generation of alerts to be sent to GCN for distribution. This talk will cover how VOEvent Approval Processor has been tested, thus far, and what kind of work is still to be done for its use in the advanced detector era. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation through Grants PHY-1068549 and PHY-1404121.

  7. Observing Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae in the Advanced Detector Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossan, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    The next galactic core-collapse supernova (CCSN) has already exploded, and its electromagnetic (EM) waves, neutrinos, and gravitational waves (GWs) may arrive at any moment. We present an extensive study on the potential sensitivity of prospective detection scenarios for GWs from CCSN sources within 5Mpc, using realistic noise at the predicted sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors for 2015, 2017, and 2019. We make statements on the detectability of the core collapse event for sources within the galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud, for which there will be an associated neutrino burst, and consider the exclusion of extreme post-core collapse emission models for more distant SNe with an associated EM signature. Given a detection of GW from core collapse, we discuss the potential to infer the CCSN explosion mechanism.

  8. Observing gravitational waves from core-collapse supernovae in the advanced detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossan, S. E.; Sutton, P.; Stuver, A.; Zanolin, M.; Gill, K.; Ott, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    The next galactic core-collapse supernova (CCSN) has already exploded, and its electromagnetic (EM) waves, neutrinos, and gravitational waves (GWs) may arrive at any moment. We present an extensive study on the potential sensitivity of prospective detection scenarios for GWs from CCSNe within 5 Mpc, using realistic noise at the predicted sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors for 2015, 2017, and 2019. We quantify the detectability of GWs from CCSNe within the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud, for which there will be an observed neutrino burst. We also consider extreme GW emission scenarios for more distant CCSNe with an associated EM signature. We find that a three-detector network at design sensitivity will be able to detect neutrino-driven CCSN explosions out to ˜5.5 kpc , while rapidly rotating core collapse will be detectable out to the Large Magellanic Cloud at 50 kpc. Of the phenomenological models for extreme GW emission scenarios considered in this study, such as long-lived bar-mode instabilities and disk fragmentation instabilities, all models considered will be detectable out to M31 at 0.77 Mpc, while the most extreme models will be detectable out to M82 at 3.52 Mpc and beyond.

  9. Frequency-domain gravitational waves from nonprecessing black-hole binaries. II. A phenomenological model for the advanced detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sebastian; Husa, Sascha; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank; Pürrer, Michael; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    We present a new frequency-domain phenomenological model of the gravitational-wave signal from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of nonprecessing (aligned-spin) black-hole binaries. The model is calibrated to 19 hybrid effective-one-body-numerical-relativity waveforms up to mass ratios of 1 ∶18 and black-hole spins of |a /m |˜0.85 (0.98 for equal-mass systems). The inspiral part of the model consists of an extension of frequency-domain post-Newtonian expressions, using higher-order terms fit to the hybrids. The merger ringdown is based on a phenomenological ansatz that has been significantly improved over previous models. The model exhibits mismatches of typically less than 1% against all 19 calibration hybrids and an additional 29 verification hybrids, which provide strong evidence that, over the calibration region, the model is sufficiently accurate for all relevant gravitational-wave astronomy applications with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. Beyond the calibration region the model produces physically reasonable results, although we recommend caution in assuming that any merger-ringdown waveform model is accurate outside its calibration region. As an example, we note that an alternative nonprecessing model, SEOBNRv2 (calibrated up to spins of only 0.5 for unequal-mass systems), exhibits mismatch errors of up to 10% for high spins outside its calibration region. We conclude that waveform models would benefit most from a larger number of numerical-relativity simulations of high-aligned-spin unequal-mass binaries.

  10. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  11. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  12. Advanced detectors and signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greve, D. W.; Rasky, P. H. L.; Kryder, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Continued progress is reported toward development of a silicon on garnet technology which would allow fabrication of advanced detection and signal processing circuits on bubble memories. The first integrated detectors and propagation patterns have been designed and incorporated on a new mask set. In addition, annealing studies on spacer layers are performed. Based on those studies, a new double layer spacer is proposed which should reduce contamination of the silicon originating in the substrate. Finally, the magnetic sensitivity of uncontaminated detectors from the last lot of wafers is measured. The measured sensitivity is lower than anticipated but still higher than present magnetoresistive detectors.

  13. Advanced Radiation Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    The University of Michigan

    1998-07-01

    Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

  14. Towards low-latency real-time detection of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences in the era of advanced detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing; Hooper, Shaun; Wen, Linqing; Chen, Yanbei

    2012-05-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of gravitational wave events will help shed light on the nature of the sources, and more can be learned if the EM follow-ups can start as soon as the gravitational wave event becomes observable. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient time-domain algorithm capable of detecting inspiral gravitational waves from coalescing binaries of compact objects with nearly no further delay in addition to the time required to condition the data into a time series of calibrated gravitational-wave strain. Our algorithm, if can be expanded to include sky localization, will serve as the first step towards triggering EM observation before the merger. The key to the efficiency of our algorithm arises from the use of chains of so-called infinite impulse response filters, which filter time-series data recursively. Computational cost is further reduced by a template interpolation technique that requires filtering only done for a “coarse bank”, much sparser than the “fine bank” normally required to sufficiently recover the optimal signal-to-noise ratio: the filter chain of each coarse-bank template is divided into several sections, filtering output from these sections are combined appropriately to reconstruct the output of each of the nearby fine-bank templates. The filter construction and interpolation techniques are illustrated in this paper using Newtonian-chirp waveforms, although these will be generalizable to more accurate post-Newtonian waveforms. Towards future detectors with sensitivity extending to lower frequencies, our algorithm’s computational cost is shown to increase rather insignificantly compared to the conventional time-domain correlation method using finite impulse response filters.

  15. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  16. Advanced UV Detectors and Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Torvik, John

    1998-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) with its wide energy bandgap of 3.4 eV holds excellent promise for solar blind UV detectors. We have successfully designed, fabricated and tested GaN p-i-n detectors and detector arrays. The detectors have a peak responsivity of 0.14A/W at 363 nm (3.42 eV) at room temperature. This corresponds to an internal quantum efficiency of 56%. The responsivity decreases by several orders of magnitude to 0.008 A/W at 400 nm (3.10 eV) giving the excellent visible rejection ratio needed for solar-blind applications.

  17. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  18. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  19. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  20. Advances in pyroelectric infrared detectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerman, H. P.; Schwarz, F.; Weiner, S.

    1972-01-01

    Recent improvements in the pyroelectric detector have been due to the development of locked-in polarization, further reduction of the FET leakage current, and reduction of short circuit noise. The pyroelectric detector has been successfully employed in these typical applications: (1) thermograph using a single detector and X-Y scanner, (2) focal plane reticle scanner, (3) linear array thermal imaging system, (4) pyroelectric image tube, (5) radiometers (vertical temperature profile radiometer, carbon dioxide sensor), (6) high speed spectrometer, and (7) laser detector.

  1. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (3/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Tracking Detectors - Part I. Calorimetry, muon detection, vertexing, and tracking will play a central role in determining the physics reach for the High Luminosity LHC Era. In these lectures we will cover the requirements, options, and the R&D; efforts necessary to upgrade the current LHC detectors and enabling discoveries.

  2. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (4/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Tracking Detectors - Part II. Calorimetry, muon detection, vertexing, and tracking will play a central role in determining the physics reach for the High Luminosity LHC Era. In these lectures we will cover the requirements, options, and the R&D; efforts necessary to upgrade the current LHC detectors and enabling discoveries.

  3. The Era of Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Halzen, Francis; Katz, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. KM3NeT, an instrument that aims to exploit several cubic kilometers of the deep Mediterranean sea as its detector medium, is in its final design stages. The scientific missions of these instruments include searching for sources of cosmic rays and for dark matter, observing Galactic supernova explosions, and studying the neutrinos themselves. Identifying the accelerators that produce Galacticmore » and extragalactic cosmic rays has been a priority mission of several generations of high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino telescopes; success has been elusive so far. Detecting the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes associated with cosmic rays reaches a new watershed with the completion of IceCube, the first neutrino detector with sensitivity to the anticipated fluxes. In this paper, we will first revisit the rationale for constructing kilometer-scale neutrino detectors. We will subsequently recall the methods for determining the arrival direction, energy and flavor of neutrinos, and will subsequently describe the architecture of the IceCube and KM3NeT detectors.« less

  4. Advances in sickle cell therapies in the hydroxyurea era.

    PubMed

    Field, Joshua J; Nathan, David G

    2014-01-01

    In the hydroxyurea era, insights into mechanisms downstream of erythrocyte sickling have led to new therapeutic approaches for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Therapies have been developed that target vascular adhesion, inflammation and hemolysis, including innovative biologics directed against P-selectin and invariant natural killer T cells. Advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and gene therapy may also provide more opportunities for cures in the near future. Several clinical studies are underway to determine the safety and efficacy of these new treatments. Novel approaches to treat SCD are desperately needed, since current therapies are limited and rates of morbidity and mortality remain high. PMID:25549232

  5. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (1/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Calorimetry and Muon Spectrometers - Part I : In the first part of the lecture series, the motivation for a high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will be quickly reviewed together with the challenges for the LHC detectors. In particular, the plans and ongoing research for new calorimeter detectors will be explained. The main issues in the high-luminosity era are an improved radiation tolerance, natural ageing of detector components and challenging trigger and physics requirements. The new technological solutions for calorimetry at a high-luminosity LHC will be reviewed.

  6. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (1/4)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-22

    Calorimetry and Muon Spectrometers - Part I : In the first part of the lecture series, the motivation for a high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will be quickly reviewed together with the challenges for the LHC detectors. In particular, the plans and ongoing research for new calorimeter detectors will be explained. The main issues in the high-luminosity era are an improved radiation tolerance, natural ageing of detector components and challenging trigger and physics requirements. The new technological solutions for calorimetry at a high-luminosity LHC will be reviewed.

  7. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  8. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, S.W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies-imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution-will enable precision cosmological constraints and also awide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the AdvancedACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the AdvancedACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  9. Advanced features of SCD's uncooled detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Bykov, L.; Adin, A.; Malkinson, E.; Zabar, Y.; Seter, D.; Gebil, Y.; Kopolovich, Z.

    2006-03-01

    SCD has recently presented an uncooled detector product line based on the high-end VOx bolometer technology. The first FPA launched, BIRD, is a 384×288 (or 320×240) configurable format with 25 μm pitch. Typical NETD values for these FPAs range at 50 mK with an F/1 aperture and 60 Hz frame rate. These detectors also exhibit a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 ms. In this paper we elaborate on the special advanced features that were incorporated within the ROIC and supporting algorithms. In this framework we have addressed two important issues: the power consumption and the time span between shutter activations. Minimum power consumption is a critical issue for many un-cooled applications. SCD has addressed this by introducing the "power-save" concept accompanied with flexible dilution architecture. The paper will present recent results exhibiting the various advantages. One of the limiting factors on the performance of uncooled detectors is their vulnerability to ambient drift. Usually, even minor temperature fluctuations are manifested as high residual non-uniformity (RNU) or fixed pattern noise (FPN). As a result frequent shutter operations must be applied, with the risk of blocking the scenery in critical time frames. The challenge is thus twofold: to increase the time span between shutter corrections and achieve better control of its activation. For this purpose BIRD provides two complementing mechanisms: A real-time (frame-by-frame) ambient drift compensation accompanied by an RNU prediction mechanism. The paper will discuss these features in detail and present illustrative system implementations.

  10. Advanced features of SCD's uncooled detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Bykov, L.; Adin, A.; Malkinson, E.; Zabar, Y.; Seter, D.; Gebil, Y.; Kopolovich, Z.

    2005-09-01

    SCD has recently presented an un-cooled detector product line based on the high-end VOx bolometer technology1. The first PFA launched, BIRD, is a 384x288 (or 320x240) configurable format with 25μm pitch. Typical NETD values for these FPAs range at 50mK with an F/1 aperture and 60 Hz frame rate. These detectors also exhibit a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. In this paper we elaborate on the special advanced features that were incorporated within the ROIC and supporting algorithms. In this framework we have addressed two important issues: the power consumption and the time span between shutter activations. Minimum power consumption is a critical issue for many un-cooled applications. SCD has addressed this by introducing the "Power-Save" concept accompanied with flexible dilution architecture. The paper will present recent results exhibiting the various advantages. One of the limiting factors on the performance of un-cooled detectors is their vulnerability to ambient drift. Usually, even minor temperature fluctuations are manifested as high residual non-uniformity (RNU) or fixed pattern noise (FPN). As a result frequent shutter operations must be applied, with the risk of blocking the scenery in critical time frames. The challenge is thus twofold: increase the time span between shutter corrections and achieve better control of its activation. For this purpose BIRD provides two complementing mechanisms: A real-time (frame-by-frame) ambient drift compensation accompanied by an RNU prediction mechanism. The paper will discuss these features in detail and present illustrative system implementations.

  11. LOCALIZATION OF SHORT DURATION GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENTS WITH THE EARLY ADVANCED LIGO AND VIRGO DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik; Vedovato, Gabriele; Klimenko, Sergey

    2015-02-20

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin collecting science data in 2015. With first detections expected to follow, it is important to quantify how well generic gravitational-wave transients can be localized on the sky. This is crucial for correctly identifying electromagnetic counterparts as well as understanding gravitational-wave physics and source populations. We present a study of sky localization capabilities for two search and parameter estimation algorithms: coherent WaveBurst, a constrained likelihood algorithm operating in close to real-time, and LALInferenceBurst, a Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithm developed to recover generic transient signals with latency of a few hours. Furthermore, we focus on the first few years of the advanced detector era, when we expect to only have two (2015) and later three (2016) operational detectors, all below design sensitivity. These detector configurations can produce significantly different sky localizations, which we quantify in detail. We observe a clear improvement in localization of the average detected signal when progressing from two-detector to three-detector networks, as expected. Although localization depends on the waveform morphology, approximately 50% of detected signals would be imaged after observing 100-200 deg{sup 2} in 2015 and 60-110 deg{sup 2} in 2016, although knowledge of the waveform can reduce this to as little as 22 deg{sup 2}. This is the first comprehensive study on sky localization capabilities for generic transients of the early network of advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, including the early LIGO-only two-detector configuration.

  12. Advances in Detector Technology for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreight, Craig; Cheng, P. L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Progress in semiconductor materials and processing technology has allowed the development of infrared detector arrays with unprecedented sensitivity, for imaging and spectroscopic applications in astronomy. The earlier discrete-detector approach has been replaced by large-element (up to 1024 x 1024 pixel), multiplexed devices. Progress has been made against a number of key limiting factors, such as quantum efficiency, noise, spectral response, linearity, and dark current. Future developments will focus on the need for even larger arrays, which operate at higher temperatures.

  13. Advances in solid state photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renker, D.; Lorenz, E.

    2009-04-01

    Semiconductor photodiodes were developed in the early `Forties approximately at the time when the photomultiplier tube became a commercial product (RCA 1939). Only in recent years, with the invention of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, have the semiconductor photo detectors reached sensitivity comparable to that of photomultiplier tubes. The evolution started in the `Sixties with the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode, a very successful device, which is still used in many detectors for high energy physics and a large number of other applications like radiation detection and medical imaging. The next step was the development of the avalanche photodiode (APD) leading to a substantial reduction of noise but not yet achieving single photon response. The weakest light flashes that can be detected by the PIN diode need to contain several hundreds of photons. An improvement of the sensitivity by 2 orders of magnitude was achieved by the development of the avalanche photodiode, a device with internal gain. At the end of the millennium, the semiconductor detectors evolved with the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode into highly sensitive devices, which have an internal gain comparable to the gain of photomultiplier tubes and a response to single photons. A review of the semiconductor photo detector design and development, the properties and problems, some applications and a speculative outlook on the future evolution will be presented.

  14. Advanced digital detectors for neutron imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2003-12-01

    Neutron interrogation provides unique information valuable for Nonproliferation & Materials Control and other important applications including medicine, airport security, protein crystallography, and corrosion detection. Neutrons probe deep inside massive objects to detect small defects and chemical composition, even through high atomic number materials such as lead. However, current detectors are bulky gas-filled tubes or scintillator/PM tubes, which severely limit many applications. Therefore this project was undertaken to develop new semiconductor radiation detection materials to develop the first direct digital imaging detectors for neutrons. The approach relied on new discovery and characterization of new solid-state sensor materials which convert neutrons directly to electronic signals via reactions BlO(n,a)Li7 and Li6(n,a)T.

  15. Infrared detectors: Advances, challenges and new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Amir; Andersson, Jan Y.

    2013-12-01

    Human knowledge of infrared (IR) radiation is about 200 years old. However it was in the late 20th century that we developed a wide range of smart technologies for detection and started to take advantage for our benefit. Today IR detector technology is in its 3rd generation and comes with challenging demands. Based on the propagation of IR radiation through free space it is divided into different transmission windows. The most interesting for thermal imaging are the mid-wave IR (MWIR) and the long-wave IR (LW IR). Infrared detectors for thermal imaging have a number of applications in industry, security, search & rescue, surveillance, medicine, research, meteorology, climatology and astronomy. Currently high-performance IR imaging technology is mainly based on epitaxially grown structures of the small-bandgap bulk alloy mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT), indium antimonide (InSb) and GaAs based quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), depending on the application and wavelength range. However, they operate at low temperatures requiring costly and bulky cryogenic systems. In addition there is always a need for better performance, which generates possibilities for developing new technologies. Some emerging technologies are quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs), type-II strained layer super-lattice, and QDIPs with type-II band alignment. In this report a brief review of the current and new technologies for high performance IR detectors, will be presented.

  16. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than thirty years of technological advances. Genome editing provides new opportunities to...

  17. Enhancing the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Macon, K.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Taddeucci, T. N; Ullmann, J. L.; et al

    2015-05-28

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons.

  18. Enhancing the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Macon, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons.

  19. Advanced Placement English in a Solipsistic Era: How Structuralism Can Renew Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) courses within secondary English education can fail to meet the needs of gifted students in the postmodern era. Because AP courses often are standardized, despite the College Board's efforts to allow freedom in course design, gifted students, as especially attuned to discrepancies between practice and theory, are being…

  20. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  1. Advanced radiation detector development: Advanced semiconductor detector development: Development of a oom-temperature, gamma ray detector using gallium arsenide to develop an electrode detector

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    The advanced detector development project at the University of Michigan has completed the first full year of its current funding. Our general goals are the development of radiation detectors and spectrometers that are capable of portable room temperature operation. Over the past 12 months, we have worked primarily in the development of semiconductor spectrometers with {open_quotes}single carrier{close_quotes} response that offer the promise of room temperature operation and good energy resolution in gamma ray spectroscopy. We have also begun a small scale effort at investigating the properties of a small non-spectroscopic detector system with directional characteristics that will allow identification of the approximate direction in which gamma rays are incident. These activities have made use of the extensive clean room facilities at the University of Michigan for semiconductor device fabrication, and also the radiation measurement capabilities provided in our laboratory in the Phoenix Building on the North Campus. In addition to our laboratory based activities, Professor Knoll has also been a participant in several Department of Energy review activities held in the Forrestal Building and at the Germantown site. The most recent of these has been service on a DOE review panel chaired by Dr. Hap Lamonds that is reviewing the detector development programs supported through the Office of Arms Control and International Security.

  2. Noise Performance of the Advanced LIGO Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Evan; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Advanced LIGO has completed a four-month search for gravitational wave events using two 4-km laser interferometers separated by a 3000 km baseline. These instruments can sense spacetime strain to better than 10-23 /Hz 1 / 2 in their most sensitive frequency band (80 Hz to 400 Hz). The interferometers' sensitivity is limited by a variety of noise sources, including thermal fluctuations of the test masses and their suspensions, quantum and classical fluctuations of the laser light used to interrogate the test masses, residual environmental disturbances, and noises arising from the sensing and control of the interferometers' length and angular degrees of freedom. We present a budget of these noise sources as they appeared during the first observing run, and discuss ongoing improvements as we look forward to Advanced LIGO achieving full design sensitivity. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the National Science Foundation and operates under cooperative agreement PHY-0757058.

  3. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Altpeter, Fredy; Springer, Nathan M; Bartley, Laura E; Blechl, Ann E; Brutnell, Thomas P; Citovsky, Vitaly; Conrad, Liza J; Gelvin, Stanton B; Jackson, David P; Kausch, Albert P; Lemaux, Peggy G; Medford, June I; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L; Tricoli, David M; Van Eck, Joyce; Voytas, Daniel F; Walbot, Virginia; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-07-01

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than 30 years of technological advances. Genome editing provides novel opportunities to enhance crop productivity but relies on genetic transformation and plant regeneration, which are bottlenecks in the process. Here, we review the state of plant transformation and point to innovations needed to enable genome editing in crops. Plant tissue culture methods need optimization and simplification for efficiency and minimization of time in culture. Currently, specialized facilities exist for crop transformation. Single-cell and robotic techniques should be developed for high-throughput genomic screens. Plant genes involved in developmental reprogramming, wound response, and/or homologous recombination should be used to boost the recovery of transformed plants. Engineering universal Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and recruiting other microbes, such as Ensifer or Rhizobium, could facilitate delivery of DNA and proteins into plant cells. Synthetic biology should be employed for de novo design of transformation systems. Genome editing is a potential game-changer in crop genetics when plant transformation systems are optimized. PMID:27335450

  4. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Altpeter, Fredy; Springer, Nathan M; Bartley, Laura E; Blechl, Ann E; Brutnell, Thomas P; Citovsky, Vitaly; Conrad, Liza J; Gelvin, Stanton B; Jackson, David P; Kausch, Albert P; Lemaux, Peggy G; Medford, June I; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L; Tricoli, David M; Van Eck, Joyce; Voytas, Daniel F; Walbot, Virginia; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-07-01

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than 30 years of technological advances. Genome editing provides novel opportunities to enhance crop productivity but relies on genetic transformation and plant regeneration, which are bottlenecks in the process. Here, we review the state of plant transformation and point to innovations needed to enable genome editing in crops. Plant tissue culture methods need optimization and simplification for efficiency and minimization of time in culture. Currently, specialized facilities exist for crop transformation. Single-cell and robotic techniques should be developed for high-throughput genomic screens. Plant genes involved in developmental reprogramming, wound response, and/or homologous recombination should be used to boost the recovery of transformed plants. Engineering universal Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and recruiting other microbes, such as Ensifer or Rhizobium, could facilitate delivery of DNA and proteins into plant cells. Synthetic biology should be employed for de novo design of transformation systems. Genome editing is a potential game-changer in crop genetics when plant transformation systems are optimized.

  5. The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Reifarth, R.; Haight, R.C.; Hunt, L.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Rundberg, R.S.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Fowler, M.M.; Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.; Strottman, D.D.; Kaeppeler, F.; Heil, M.; Chamberlin, E.P.

    2003-08-26

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 159-element 4{pi} barium fluoride array designed to study neutron capture on small quantities, 1 mg or less, of radioactive nuclides. It is being built on a 20 m neutron flight path which views the 'upper tier' water moderator at the Manuel J. Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The detector design is based on Monte Carlo calculations which have suggested ways to minimize backgrounds due to neutron scattering events. A data acquisition system based on fast transient digitizers is being implemented.

  6. Detector for advanced neutron capture experiments at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J. L.; Reifarth, R.; Haight, Robert C.; Hunt, L. F.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Strottman, D.; Kaeppeler, F.; Heil, M.; Chamberlin, E. P.

    2002-01-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 159-element 4x barium fluoride array designed to study neutron capture on small quantities, 1 mg or less, of radioactive nuclides. It is being built on a 20 m neutron flight path which views the 'upper tier' water moderator at the Manuel J. Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The detector design is based on Monte Carlo calculations which have suggested ways to minimize backgrounds due to neutron scattering events. A data acquisition system based on fast transient digitizers is bcing implemented

  7. Advanced Two-Dimensional Thermal Neutron Detectors for Scattering Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, J.; Harder, J.; Mahler, G.J.; Makowiecki, D.S.; Mead, J.A.; Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B.

    2002-11-18

    Advances in neutron scattering studies will be given a large boost with the advent of new spallation and reactor sources at present under consideration or construction. An important element for future experiments is a commensurate improvement in neutron detection techniques. At Brookhaven, a development program is under way for greatly increasing the angular coverage, rate capability and resolution of detectors for scattering studies. For example, a curved detector with angular coverage of 120{sup o} by 15{sup o} has recently been developed for protein crystallography at a spallation source. Based on neutron detection using {sup 3}He, the detector has the following major, new attributes: eight identical proportional wire segments operating in parallel, a single gas volume with seamless readout at segment boundaries, parallax errors eliminated in the horizontal plane by the detector's appropriate radius of curvature, high-throughput front-end electronics, position decoding based on high performance digital signal processing. The detector has a global rate capability greater than 1 million per second, position resolution less than 1.5 mm FWHM, timing resolution about 1 {micro}s, efficiency of 50% and 90% at 1{angstrom} and 4 {angstrom} respectively, and an active area 1.5 m x 20 cm.

  8. Advance Care Planning and HIV Infection in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sangarlangkarn, Aroonsiri; Merlin, Jessica S; Tucker, Rodney O; Kelley, Amy S

    In the era of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has become a chronic illness with associated multimorbidity, and practitioners are faced with an emerging population of HIV-infected patients with evolving needs for advance care planning (ACP), defined as communication between individuals and their proxies to plan for future health care decisions. This article provides a review of original research studies on ACP in HIV-infected adults in the era of antiretroviral therapy (1996-present) from PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Eleven studies conducted between 1996 and 2015 met the selection criteria, with study sizes ranging from 9 to 2864 participants. Most studies consisted of white men in outpatient settings and had poorly defined definitions of ACP. Prevalence of ACP was variable (36%-54% had end-of-life communication, 8%-47% had advance directives). Lack of ACP was most commonly associated with low income, followed by lower severity of illness, low education level, black or Hispanic race, female sex, younger age, injection drug use, and social isolation. Practitioners reported limited time or energy and inadequate preparation or training as barriers to ACP. Existing literature on ACP in the era of antiretroviral therapy is limited, but shows that ACP prevalence in HIV-infected individuals is variable depending on socioeconomic factors, severity of illness, and practitioner resources and training. More research is needed to increase ACP among HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27398771

  9. The Suitability of Hybrid Waveforms for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Ilana; Pfeiffer, H.; Nissanke, S.; Mroue, A.

    2013-01-01

    General relativity predicts that the coalescence of two compact objects, such as black holes, will produce gravitational radiation; i.e., ripples in the curvature of space-time. Detectors like Advanced LIGO (the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory) are expected to measure such events within the next few years. In order to be able to characterize the gravitational waves they measure, these detectors require accurate waveform models, which can be constructed by fusing an analytical post-Newtonian inspiral waveform with a numerical relativity late-inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform. Numerical relativity, though the most accurate model, is computationally expensive: the longest simulations to date taking several months to run. Post-Newtonian theory, an analytic approximation to General Relativity, is easy to compute but becomes increasingly inaccurate near merger. Because of this trade-off, it is important to determine the optimal length of the numerical waveform, while maintaining the necessary accuracy for gravitational wave detectors. We present a study of the sufficient accuracy of post-Newtonian and numerical relativity waveforms for the most demanding usage case: parameter estimation of strong sources in advanced gravitational wave detectors. We perform a comprehensive analysis of errors that enter such “hybrid waveforms” in the case of equal-mass and unequal mass non-spinning binaries. We also explore the possibility of using these hybrid waveforms as a detection template bank for Advanced LIGO. Accurate hybrids play an important role in investigating the efficiency of gravitational wave search pipelines, as with NINJA (Numerical INJection Analysis); and also in constructing analytical models that span the entire parameter space of binary black hole mass ratios and spins, as with NRAR (Numerical Relativity and Analytic Relativity).

  10. Advancing Cancer Prevention and Behavior Theory in the Era of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Atienza, Audie A.; Serrano, Katrina J.; Riley, William T.; Moser, Richard P.; Klein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The era of “Big Data” presents opportunities to substantively address cancer prevention and control issues by improving health behaviors and refining theoretical models designed to understand and intervene in those behaviors. Yet, the terms “model” and “Big Data” have been used rather loosely, and clarification of these terms is required to advance the science in this area. The objectives of this paper are to discuss conceptual definitions of the terms “model” and “Big Data”, as well as examine the promises and challenges of Big Data to advance cancer prevention and control research using behavioral theories. Specific recommendations for harnessing Big Data for cancer prevention and control are offered. PMID:27722147

  11. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (2/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Calorimetry and Muon Spectromers - Part II: When upgrading the LHC to higher luminosities, the detector and trigger performance shall be preserved - if not improved - with respect to the nominal performance. The ongoing R&D; for new radiation tolerant front-end electronics for calorimeters with higher read-out bandwidth are summarized and new possibilities for the trigger systems are presented. Similar developments are foreseen for the muon spectrometers, where also radiation tolerance of the muon detectors and functioning at high background rates is important. The corresponding plans and research work for the calorimeter and muon detectors at a LHC with highest luminsity are presented.

  12. Advanced Antenna-Coupled Superconducting Detector Arrays for CMB Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James

    2014-01-01

    We are developing high-sensitivity millimeter-wave detector arrays for measuring the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This development is directed to advance the technology readiness of the Inflation Probe mission in NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program. The Inflation Probe is a fourth-generation CMB satellite that will measure the polarization of the CMB to astrophysical limits, characterizing the inflationary polarization signal, mapping large-scale structure based on polarization induced by gravitational lensing, and mapping Galactic magnetic fields through measurements of polarized dust emission. The inflationary polarization signal is produced by a background of gravitational waves from the epoch of inflation, an exponential expansion of space-time in the early universe, with an amplitude that depends on the physical mechanism producing inflation. The inflationary polarization signal may be distinguished by its unique 'B-mode' vector properties from polarization from the density variations that predominantly source CMB temperature anisotropy. Mission concepts for the Inflation Probe are being developed in the US, Europe and Japan. The arrays are based on planar antennas that provide integral beam collimation, polarization analysis, and spectral band definition in a compact lithographed format that eliminates discrete fore-optics such as lenses and feedhorns. The antennas are coupled to transition-edge superconducting bolometers, read out with multiplexed SQUID current amplifiers. The superconducting sensors and readouts developed in this program share common technologies with NASA X-ray and FIR detector applications. Our program targets developments required for space observations, and we discuss our technical progress over the past two years and plans for future development. We are incorporating arrays into active sub-orbital and ground-based experiments, which advance technology readiness while producing state of the art CMB

  13. Prisoners' bodies: methods and advances in convict medicine in the transportation era.

    PubMed

    Brasier, Angeline

    2010-01-01

    Recent historical research looks upon the plight of Australian convicts not as victims of a harsh penal system, but as workers whose health had to be judiciously maintained. What then can be said for the medical treatments provided for convict patients during this chapter in Australia's past? Did convicts receive medical treatments with the same measure of importance and urgency as the free populace, or were prisoners' bodies considered with such a measure of insignificance that they provided veritable opportunities for advances in medicine? This article will provide general insight into prison medicine in Australia during the transportation era and how some convicts were subjected to experimental medical practices. It will also place these techniques into a wider global context by considering experimental practices involving convict patients in establishments in other places, such as Wakefield and Bermuda.

  14. Advances in insect phylogeny at the dawn of the postgenomic era.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Michelle D; Wiegmann, Brian M; Beutel, Rolf; Kjer, Karl M; Yeates, David K

    2012-01-01

    Most species on Earth are insects and thus, understanding their evolutionary relationships is key to understanding the evolution of life. Insect relationships are increasingly well supported, due largely to technological advances in molecular sequencing and phylogenetic computational analysis. In this postgenomic era, insect systematics will be furthered best by integrative methods aimed at hypothesis corroboration from molecular, morphological, and paleontological evidence. This review of the current consensus of insect relationships provides a foundation for comparative study and offers a framework to evaluate incoming genomic evidence. Notable recent phylogenetic successes include the resolution of Holometabola, including the identification of the enigmatic Strepsiptera as a beetle relative and the early divergence of Hymenoptera; the recognition of hexapods as a crustacean lineage within Pancrustacea; and the elucidation of Dictyoptera orders, with termites placed as social cockroaches. Regions of the tree that require further investigation include the earliest winged insects (Palaeoptera) and Polyneoptera (orthopteroid lineages). PMID:22149269

  15. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  16. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  17. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.; Kanner, J. B.; Hobbs, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  18. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  19. Gravitational waves from known pulsars: Results from the initial detector era

    SciTech Connect

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ajith, P.; Abbott, T.; Accadia, T.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amariutei, D.; Collaboration: LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  20. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  1. Advanced Si IR detectors using molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Jones, E. W.; George, T.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) long wavelength infrared (LWIR) detectors have been fabricated by MBE. The SiGe/Si HIP detector offers a tailorable spectral response in the long wavelength infrared regime by varying the SiGe/Si heterojunction barrier. Degenerately doped p(+) SiGe layers were grown using elemental boron, as the dopant source allows a low growth temperature. Good crystalline quality was achieved for boron-doped SiGe due to the reduced growth temperature. The dark current density of the boron-doped HIP detectors was found to be thermionic emission limited. HIP detectors with a 0.066 eV were fabricated and characterized using activation energy analysis, corresponding to a 18 micron cutoff wavelength. Photoresponse of the detectors at wavelengths ranging from 2 to 12 microns has been characterized with corresponding quantum efficiencies of 5 - 0.1 percent.

  2. Development of an advanced antineutrino detector for reactor monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Classen, T.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N. S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Ho, A.; Jonkmans, G.; Kogler, L.; Reyna, D.; Sur, B.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a compact antineutrino detector for the purpose of nuclear reactor monitoring, improving upon a previously successful design. This paper will describe the design improvements of the detector which increases the antineutrino detection efficiency threefold over the previous effort. There are two main design improvements over previous generations of detectors for nuclear reactor monitoring: dual-ended optical readout and single volume detection mass. The dual-ended optical readout eliminates the need for fiducialization and increases the uniformity of the detector's optical response. The containment of the detection mass in a single active volume provides more target mass per detector footprint, a key design criteria for operating within a nuclear power plant. This technology could allow for real-time monitoring of the evolution of a nuclear reactor core, independent of reactor operator declarations of fuel inventories, and may be of interest to the safeguards community.

  3. Advanced Ge detectors for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnell, Larry S.

    1991-01-01

    Externally segmented coaxial detectors are fabricated for high efficiency in detecting gamma rays from cosmic sources with good sensitivities. The external background is reduced by enclosing the Ge detector array inside a thick active shield. The outer electrode of the coaxial detectors is subdivided into five segments, and internal beta activity is rejected by operating the segmented detector in a multisegment mode. The multisegment mode requires that events be detected in two or more segments before they are recorded. The full-energy-peak (FEP) efficiency of the unit is tested as a function of the incident gamma-ray energy and of the discriminator threshold of the segments. Measurements of beta-rejection and FEP efficiency are compared with Monte Carlo calculations, and good agreement is noted.

  4. Finite mirror effects in advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, Andrew P.; Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Tsang, David; Bondarescu, Mihai

    2008-02-15

    Thermal noise is expected to be the dominant source of noise in the most sensitive frequency band of second-generation, ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. Reshaping the beam to a flatter, wider profile which probes more of the mirror surface reduces this noise. The 'Mesa' beam shape has been proposed for this purpose and was subsequently generalized to a family of hyperboloidal beams with two parameters: twist angle {alpha} and beam width D. Varying {alpha} allows a continuous transition from the nearly flat ({alpha}=0) to the nearly concentric ({alpha}={pi}) Mesa beam configurations. We analytically prove that in the limit D{yields}{infinity} hyperboloidal beams become Gaussians. The ideal beam choice for reducing thermal noise is the widest possible beam that satisfies the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) diffraction loss design constraint of 1 part per million (ppm) per bounce for a mirror radius of 17 cm. In the past the diffraction loss has often been calculated using the clipping approximation that, in general, underestimates the diffraction loss. We develop a code using pseudospectral methods to compute the diffraction loss directly from the propagator. We find that the diffraction loss is not a strictly monotonic function of beam width, but has local minima that occur due to finite mirror effects and leads to natural choices of D. For an {alpha}={pi} Mesa beam a local minimum occurs at D=10.67 cm and leads to a diffraction loss of 1.4 ppm. We then compute the thermal noise for the entire hyperboloidal family. We find that if one requires a diffraction loss of strictly 1 ppm, the {alpha}=0.91{pi} hyperboloidal beam is optimal, leading to the coating thermal noise (the dominant source of noise for fused-silica mirrors) being lower by about 10% than for a Mesa beam while other types of thermal noise decrease as well. We then develop an iterative process that reconstructs the mirror to specifically account for finite

  5. Advanced radiation detector development: Advanced semiconductor detector development: Development of a room-temperature, gamma ray detector using gallium arsenide to develop an electrode detector. Annual progress report, September 30, 1994--September 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    The advanced detector development project at the University of Michigan has completed the first full year of its current funding. The general goals are the development of radiation detectors and spectrometers that are capable of portable room temperature operation. Over the past 12 months, the authors have worked primarily in the development of semiconductor spectrometers with ``single carrier`` response that offer the promise of room temperature operation and good energy resolution in gamma ray spectroscopy. They have also begun a small scale effort at investigating the properties of a small non-spectroscopic detector system with directional characteristics that will allow identification of the approximate direction in which gamma rays are incident. These activities have made use of the extensive clean room facilities at the University of Michigan for semiconductor device fabrication, and also the radiation measurement capabilities provided in the laboratory in the Phoenix Building on the North Campus.

  6. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  7. Advanced Silicon Detectors for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of silicon detectors for high energy astrophysics missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Background: Motivation for Event-Driven CCD; 2) Report of Grant Activity; 3) Packaged EDCCD; 4) Measured X-ray Energy Resolution of the Gen1 EDCCDs Operated in "Conventional Mode"; and 5) EDCCD Gen 1.5-Lot 1 Planning.

  8. Advances in Inorganic Scintillation Detectors for Geophysical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Julie L. Champlin; Carlos M. Grodsinsky; William D. Sekela

    1998-12-31

    The ability to distinguish between geological formations and the change from one formation to another is crucial to the oil exploration and well logging industry. These changes are distinguished by the use of gamma-ray measurements, which detect the radioactive isotope combinations of potassium, thorium, and uranium present in the rock and fluid of these geological formations. A gamma radiation detector consisting of a sodium iodide crystal optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube is used for making these measurements. Because of the harsh environment seen while down hole, these detectors must be rugged in order to survive and perform under the conditions of extreme temperature, shock, and vibration. The two main geophysical applications designed for are wireline and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) environments. Three major product designs that fall under these environmental survival and performance criteria are discussed.

  9. Beyond Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: Beating the Quantum Limit with Squeezed States of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsotti, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    After two decades of technology development, the first direct observation of gravitational waves appears to be imminent. Ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors world-wide are about to come back on-line after a major upgrade aimed to significantly improve their sensitivity. As these advanced detectors become a reality, the gravitational wave community is looking at new ways of further expanding their astrophysical reach. The quantum nature of light imposes a fundamental limit to the sensitivity that gravitational wave detectors can achieve, due to statistical fluctuations in the arrival time of photons at the interferometer output (shot noise) and the recoil of the mirrors due to radiation pressure noise. In this talk I will show how mature technology can be used to push interferometric precision measurement beyond the standard quantum limit by means of squeezed states of light, and current ideas on how to integrate this technology into the Advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO).

  10. Advanced Microstructured Semiconductor Neutron Detectors: Design, Fabrication, and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellinger, Steven Lawrence

    The microstructured semiconductor neutron detector (MSND) was investigated and previous designs were improved and optimized. In the present work, fabrication techniques have been refined and improved to produce three-dimensional microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors with reduced leakage current, reduced capacitance, highly anisotropic deep etched trenches, and increased signal-to-noise ratios. As a result of these improvements, new MSND detection systems function with better gamma-ray discrimination and are easier to fabricate than previous designs. In addition to the microstructured diode fabrication improvement, a superior batch processing backfill-method for 6LiF neutron reactive material, resulting in a nearly-solid backfill, was developed. This method incorporates a LiF nano-sizing process and a centrifugal batch process for backfilling the nanoparticle LiF material. To better transition the MSND detector to commercialization, the fabrication process was studied and enhanced to better facilitate low cost and batch process MSND production. The research and development of the MSND technology described in this work includes fabrication of variant microstructured diode designs, which have been simulated through MSND physics models to predict performance and neutron detection efficiency, and testing the operational performance of these designs in regards to neutron detection efficiency, gamma-ray rejection, and silicon fabrication methodology. The highest thermal-neutron detection efficiency reported to date for a solid-state semiconductor detector is presented in this work. MSNDs show excellent neutron to gamma-ray (n/γ) rejection ratios, which are on the order of 106, without significant loss in thermal-neutron detection efficiency. Individually, the MSND is intrinsically highly sensitive to thermal neutrons, but not extrinsically sensitive because of their small size. To improve upon this, individual MSNDs were tiled together into a 6x6-element array

  11. Advances in Performance of Microchannel Plate Detectors for HEDP Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ming Wu, Craig Kruschwitz, Ken Moy, Greg Rochau

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, a team from NSTec and SNL has built a unique capability to develop microchannel plate (MCP)?based framing x-ray cameras for HEDP diagnostics. At the SNL Z facility, multistrip MCP detectors to record up to eight channels are employed in 2-D, sub-nanosecond time-resolved imaging and time- and space-resolved spectroscopy diagnostics. Progressively more stringent technical temporal resolution and response uniformity requirements have necessitated a systematic design approach based on iterative modeling of the MCP using inputs from electrical circuit characterization. An inherently large exponential dependence in MCP gain, V{sup 11.5}, has mandated a firm understanding of the applied voltage pulse shape propagating across the strip. We pioneered direct measurements of the propagating waveform using a Picoprobe{reg_sign} and developed a Monte Carlo code to simulate MCP response to compare against test measurements. This scheme is shown in Figure 1. The simulation detailed a physical model of the cascade and amplification process of the MCP that includes energy conservation for the secondary electrons, the effects of elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from the channel wall, and gain saturation mechanisms from wall charging and space charge. Our model can simulate MCP response for both static and pulsed voltage waveforms. Using this design approach, we began to characterize the newly developed second-generation detector (H-CA-65) by using a Manson x-ray source to evaluate the following DC characteristics: MCP sensitivity as a function of bias voltage, flat-field uniformity and spatial resolution, and variation of spatial resolution and sensitivity as a function of phosphor bias voltage. Dynamic performance and temporal response were obtained by using an NSTec short-pulse laser to measure optical gate profiles, saturation, and dynamic range. These data were processed and combined to obtain the gain variation and gate profiles for any position along

  12. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  13. Further advancements for large area-detector based computed tomography system

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A. W.; Keating, S. C.; Claytor, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    We present advancements made to a large area-detector based system for industrial x-ray computed tomography. Past performance improvements in data acquisition speeds were made by use of high-resolution large area, flat-panel amorphous-silicon (a-Si) detectors. The detectors have proven, over several years, to be a robust alternative to CCD-optics and image intensifier CT systems. These detectors also provide the advantage of area detection as compared with the single slice geometry of linear array systems. New advancements in this system include parallel processing of sinogram reconstructions, improved visualization software and migration to frame-rate a-Si detectors. Parallel processing provides significant speed improvements for data reconstruction, and is implemented for parallel-beam, fan-beam and Feldkamp cone-beam reconstruction algorithms. Reconstruction times are reduced by an order of magnitude by use of a cluster of ten or more equal-speed computers. Advancements in data visualization are made through interactive software, which allows interrogation of the full three-dimensional dataset. Inspection examples presented in this paper include an electromechanical device, a nonliving biological specimen and a press-cast plastic specimen. We also present a commonplace item for the benefit of the layperson.

  14. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  15. Advanced Detector and Waveform Digitizer for Water Vapor DIAL Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor has become a major requirement for understanding moist-air processes. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is a technique best suited for the measurement of atmospheric water vapor. NASA Langley Research Center is continually developing improved DIAL systems. One aspect of current development is focused on the enhancement of a DIAL receiver by applying state-of-the-art technology in building a new compact detection system that will be placed directly on the DIAL receiver telescope. The newly developed detection system has the capability of being digitally interfaced with a simple personal computer, using a discrete input/output interface. This has the potential of transmitting digital data over relatively long distances instead of analog signals, which greatly reduces measurement noise. In this paper, we discuss some results from the new compact water vapor DIAL detection system which includes a silicon based avalanche photodiode (APD) detector, a 14-bit, 10-MHz waveform digitizer, a microcontroller and other auxiliary electronics. All of which are contained on a small printed-circuit-board. This will significantly reduce the weight and volume over the current CAMAC system and eventually will be used in a water vapor DIAL system on an unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) aircraft, or alternatively on an orbiting spacecraft.

  16. Seismic Attenuation Technology for the Advanced Virgo Gravitational Wave Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beker, M. G.; Blom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.

    The current interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded to what are termed 'second generation' devices. Sensitivities will be increased by an order of magnitude and these new instruments are expected to uncover the field of gravitational astronomy. A main challenge in this endeavor is the mitigation of noise induced by seismic motion. Detailed studies with Virgo show that seismic noise can be reinjected into the dark fringe signal. For example, laser beam jitter and backscattered light limit the sensitivity of the interferometer. Here, we focus on seismic attenuators based on compact inverted pendulums in combination with geometric anti-prings to obtain 40 dB of attenuation above 4 Hz in six degrees of freedom. Low frequency resonances (< 0.5 Hz) are damped by using a control system based on input from LVDTs and geophones. Such systems are under development for the seismic attenuation of optical benches operated both in air and vacuum. The design and realization of the seismic attenuation system for the Virgo external injection bench, including its control scheme, will be discussed and stand-alone performance presented.

  17. Advanced Fluorescence Protein-Based Synapse-Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hojin; Oh, Won Chan; Seong, Jihye; Kim, Jinhyun

    2016-01-01

    The complex information-processing capabilities of the central nervous system emerge from intricate patterns of synaptic input-output relationships among various neuronal circuit components. Understanding these capabilities thus requires a precise description of the individual synapses that comprise neural networks. Recent advances in fluorescent protein engineering, along with developments in light-favoring tissue clearing and optical imaging techniques, have rendered light microscopy (LM) a potent candidate for large-scale analyses of synapses, their properties, and their connectivity. Optically imaging newly engineered fluorescent proteins (FPs) tagged to synaptic proteins or microstructures enables the efficient, fine-resolution illumination of synaptic anatomy and function in large neural circuits. Here we review the latest progress in fluorescent protein-based molecular tools for imaging individual synapses and synaptic connectivity. We also identify associated technologies in gene delivery, tissue processing, and computational image analysis that will play a crucial role in bridging the gap between synapse- and system-level neuroscience. PMID:27445785

  18. Advanced Fluorescence Protein-Based Synapse-Detectors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hojin; Oh, Won Chan; Seong, Jihye; Kim, Jinhyun

    2016-01-01

    The complex information-processing capabilities of the central nervous system emerge from intricate patterns of synaptic input-output relationships among various neuronal circuit components. Understanding these capabilities thus requires a precise description of the individual synapses that comprise neural networks. Recent advances in fluorescent protein engineering, along with developments in light-favoring tissue clearing and optical imaging techniques, have rendered light microscopy (LM) a potent candidate for large-scale analyses of synapses, their properties, and their connectivity. Optically imaging newly engineered fluorescent proteins (FPs) tagged to synaptic proteins or microstructures enables the efficient, fine-resolution illumination of synaptic anatomy and function in large neural circuits. Here we review the latest progress in fluorescent protein-based molecular tools for imaging individual synapses and synaptic connectivity. We also identify associated technologies in gene delivery, tissue processing, and computational image analysis that will play a crucial role in bridging the gap between synapse- and system-level neuroscience. PMID:27445785

  19. Report from the AIDS Impact Conference: the post-AIDS era and the effect of treatment advances.

    PubMed

    DeCarlo, P; Grinstead, O

    1999-10-01

    This article presents highlights of the AIDS Impact Conference. The effects of HIV treatment advances and the concept of a "post-AIDS era" were major topics of the conference. As highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) improves therapy outcomes, many AIDS agencies are shifting focus from physical health issues to mental health concerns and prevention efforts. However, in developing countries, drugs, physicians, and a medical infrastructure are often inaccessible. Therefore, focusing on prevention, nutrition, and family relationships may be the better approach for dealing with AIDS and HIV in these countries. Related conference topics included HIV prevention programs directed toward HIV-positive individuals, challenges to adherence, and whether HIV is a chronic manageable disease. Due to lack of scholarships, many individuals from developing countries could not attend the conference and most presentation pertained to the effects of HIV in developed countries and to gay men.

  20. Report from the AIDS Impact Conference: the post-AIDS era and the effect of treatment advances.

    PubMed

    DeCarlo, P; Grinstead, O

    1999-10-01

    This article presents highlights of the AIDS Impact Conference. The effects of HIV treatment advances and the concept of a "post-AIDS era" were major topics of the conference. As highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) improves therapy outcomes, many AIDS agencies are shifting focus from physical health issues to mental health concerns and prevention efforts. However, in developing countries, drugs, physicians, and a medical infrastructure are often inaccessible. Therefore, focusing on prevention, nutrition, and family relationships may be the better approach for dealing with AIDS and HIV in these countries. Related conference topics included HIV prevention programs directed toward HIV-positive individuals, challenges to adherence, and whether HIV is a chronic manageable disease. Due to lack of scholarships, many individuals from developing countries could not attend the conference and most presentation pertained to the effects of HIV in developed countries and to gay men. PMID:11366893

  1. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: detector spectral response effects on thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will be aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) to supply data needed for operational weather forecasts and long-term climate variability studies, which depend on high quality data. Unlike the heritage operational GOES systems that have two or four detectors per band, ABI has hundreds of detectors per channel requiring calibration coefficients for each one. This increase in number of detectors poses new challenges for next generation sensors as each detector has a unique spectral response function (SRF) even though only one averaged SRF per band is used operationally to calibrate each detector. This simplified processing increases computational efficiency. Using measured system-level SRF data from pre-launch testing, we have the opportunity to characterize the calibration impact using measured SRFs, both per detector and as an average of detector-level SRFs similar to the operational version. We calculated the spectral response impacts for the thermal emissive bands (TEB) theoretically, by simulating the ABI response viewing an ideal blackbody and practically, with the measured ABI response to an external reference blackbody from the pre-launch TEB calibration test. The impacts from the practical case match the theoretical results using an ideal blackbody. The observed brightness temperature trends show structure across the array with magnitudes as large as 0.1 K for and 12 (9.61 µm), and 0.25 K for band 14 (11.2 µm) for a 300 K blackbody. The trends in the raw ABI signal viewing the blackbody support the spectral response measurements results, since they show similar trends in bands 12 (9.61µm), and 14 (11.2 µm), meaning that the spectral effects dominate the response differences between detectors for these bands. We further validated these effects using the radiometric bias calculated between calibrations using the external blackbody and

  2. Real-world treatment practice in patients with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab: results from the IMAGE study.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Mark R; Dalle, Stéphane; Claveau, Joel; Mut, Pilar; Hallmeyer, Sigrun; Plantin, Patrice; Highley, Martin; Kotapati, Srividya; Le, Trong Kim; Brokaw, Jane; Abernethy, Amy P

    2016-07-01

    The therapeutic landscape for advanced melanoma has recently been transformed by several novel agents (immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecular-targeted agents). The prospective, multi-site, observational study IMAGE (ipilimumab: management of advanced melanoma in real practice) included a retrospective cohort to describe real-world treatment prior to approval of the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. This retrospective cohort of patients, who started second-line/subsequent treatment (index therapy) for advanced melanoma within 3 years before ipilimumab approval, was selected randomly by chart review. Collected data included treatment history, patient outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization. All patients had ≥1 year of follow-up data. This analysis included 177 patients from Europe (69%) and North America (31%). The most common index therapies (used alone or in combination) were fotemustine (23%), dacarbazine (21%), temozolomide (14%), and platinum-based chemotherapy (14%). Most patients (89%) discontinued index treatment during the study period; the most common reason was disease progression (59%). Among patients with tumor assessment (153/177; 86%), 2% had complete response, 5% had partial response, and 12% had stable disease on last tumor assessment. At 1-year study follow-up, median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-2.9) and median overall survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 6.5-9.7). During follow-up, 95% of the patients had healthcare visits for advanced melanoma, 74% of whom were hospitalized or admitted to a hospice facility. These results provide insights into patient care with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab and may serve as a benchmark for new agents in future real-world studies.

  3. Real-world treatment practice in patients with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab: results from the IMAGE study.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Mark R; Dalle, Stéphane; Claveau, Joel; Mut, Pilar; Hallmeyer, Sigrun; Plantin, Patrice; Highley, Martin; Kotapati, Srividya; Le, Trong Kim; Brokaw, Jane; Abernethy, Amy P

    2016-07-01

    The therapeutic landscape for advanced melanoma has recently been transformed by several novel agents (immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecular-targeted agents). The prospective, multi-site, observational study IMAGE (ipilimumab: management of advanced melanoma in real practice) included a retrospective cohort to describe real-world treatment prior to approval of the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. This retrospective cohort of patients, who started second-line/subsequent treatment (index therapy) for advanced melanoma within 3 years before ipilimumab approval, was selected randomly by chart review. Collected data included treatment history, patient outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization. All patients had ≥1 year of follow-up data. This analysis included 177 patients from Europe (69%) and North America (31%). The most common index therapies (used alone or in combination) were fotemustine (23%), dacarbazine (21%), temozolomide (14%), and platinum-based chemotherapy (14%). Most patients (89%) discontinued index treatment during the study period; the most common reason was disease progression (59%). Among patients with tumor assessment (153/177; 86%), 2% had complete response, 5% had partial response, and 12% had stable disease on last tumor assessment. At 1-year study follow-up, median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-2.9) and median overall survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 6.5-9.7). During follow-up, 95% of the patients had healthcare visits for advanced melanoma, 74% of whom were hospitalized or admitted to a hospice facility. These results provide insights into patient care with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab and may serve as a benchmark for new agents in future real-world studies. PMID:27118102

  4. The Era of “E”: The Use of New Technologies in Advance Care Planning

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J.; Levi, Benjamin H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review developments in technology that can help patients, their loved ones, and healthcare providers engage in more effective advance care planning (ACP). We begin with a brief description of ACP and its purpose; then proceed to discuss various electronically available resources for ACP in the U.S.; and finally provide a critical assessment of the achievements, challenges, and future prospects for electronic advance care planning, or “e-planning.” PMID:23141197

  5. The era of "e": the use of new technologies in advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael J; Levi, Benjamin H

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors review developments in technology that can help patients, their loved ones, and healthcare providers engage in more effective advance care planning (ACP). The article begins with a brief description of ACP and its purpose and then discusses various electronically available resources for ACP in the U.S. Finally the authors provide a critical assessment of the achievements, challenges, and future prospects for electronic advance care planning, or "e-planning."

  6. Method for detection and reconstruction of gravitational wave transients with networks of advanced detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, S.; Vedovato, G.; Drago, M.; Salemi, F.; Tiwari, V.; Prodi, G. A.; Lazzaro, C.; Ackley, K.; Tiwari, S.; Da Silva, C. F.; Mitselmakher, G.

    2016-02-01

    We present a method for detection and reconstruction of the gravitational wave (GW) transients with the networks of advanced detectors. Originally designed to search for transients with the initial GW detectors, it uses significantly improved algorithms, which enhance both the low-latency searches with rapid localization of GW events for the electromagnetic follow-up and high confidence detection of a broad range of the transient GW sources. In this paper, we present the analytic framework of the method. Following a short description of the core analysis algorithms, we introduce a novel approach to the reconstruction of the GW polarization from a pattern of detector responses to a GW signal. This polarization pattern is a unique signature of an arbitrary GW signal that can be measured independently from the other source parameters. The polarization measurements enable rapid reconstruction of the GW waveforms, sky localization, and helps identification of the source origin.

  7. Feasibility and Timing of Cytoreduction Surgery in Advanced (Metastatic or Recurrent) Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors During the Era of Imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Chun; Liao, Chien-Hung; Wang, Shang-Yu; Tsai, Chun-Yi; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Yen-Yang; MA, Ming-Chun; Liu, Chien-Ting; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The prognosis of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) was dramatically improved in the era of imatinib. Cytoreduction surgery was advocated as an additional treatment for advanced GISTs, especially when patients having poor response to imatinib or developing resistance to it. However, the efficacy and benefit of cytoreduction were still controversial. Likewise, the sequence between cytoreduction surgery and imatinib still need evaluation. In this study, we tried to assess the feasibility and efficiency of cytoreduction in advanced GISTs. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of timing of the cytoreduction surgery on the prognosis of advanced GISTs. We conducted a prospective collecting retrospective review of patients with advanced GISTs (metastatic, unresectable, and recurrent GISTs) treated in Chang Gung memorial hospital (CGMH) since 2001 to 2013. We analyzed the impact of cytoreduction surgery to response to imatinib, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced GISTs. Moreover, by the timing of cytoreduction to imatinib, we divided the surgical patients who had surgery before imatinib use into early group and those who had surgery after imatinib into late. We compared the clinical response to imatinib, PFS and OS between early and late cytoreduction surgical groups. Totally, 182 patients were enrolled into this study. Seventy-six patients underwent cytoreduction surgery. The demographic characteristics and tumor presentation were similar between surgical and non-surgical groups. The surgical group showed better complete response rate (P < 0.001) and partial response rate (P = 0.008) than non-surgical group. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year PFS were significantly superior in surgical group (P = 0.003). The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year OS were superior in surgical group, but without statistical significance (P = 0.088). Dividing by cytoreduction surgical timing, the demographic

  8. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project. Results from the Texas ERA Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Karin; Hendra, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the implementation and the two-year impacts of a program in Texas that aimed to promote job placement, employment retention, and advancement among applicants and recipients to the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The program in Texas is part of the Employment Retention and Advancement…

  9. Genitourinary tumours in the targeted therapies era: new advances in clinical practice and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carlo; Buzzatti, Giulia; Dellepiane, Chiara; Cavo, Alessia; Tolomeo, Francesco; Cattrini, Carlo; Boccardo, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Genitourinary cancers represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from genitourinary tract, and are responsible for almost 359 000 newly diagnosed cases and 58 420 related deaths in USA. Continuous advances in cancer genetics and genomics have contributed towards changing the management paradigms of these neoplasms. Neoangiogenesis, through the activation of the tyrosine-kinase receptors signalling pathways, represents the key mediator event in promoting tumour proliferation, differentiation, invasiveness and motility. In the last decade, several treatments have been developed with the specific aim of targeting different cell pathways that have been recognized to drive tumour progression. The following review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature, focusing on new advances in targeted therapies for genitourinary tumours. Furthermore, the promising results of the latest clinical trials and future perspectives will be discussed.

  10. Prostate Radiotherapy in the Era of Advanced Imaging and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dulaney, Caleb R.; Osula, Daniel O.; Yang, Eddy S.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous technological advancements in prostate radiotherapy have decreased treatment toxicity and improved clinical outcomes for men with prostate cancer. While these advances have allowed for significant treatment volume reduction and whole-organ dose escalation, further improvement in prostate radiotherapy has been limited by classic techniques for diagnosis and risk stratification. Developments in prostate imaging, image-guided targeted biopsy, next-generation gene expression profiling, and targeted molecular therapies now provide information to stratify patients and select treatments based on tumor biology. Image-guided targeted biopsy improves detection of clinically significant cases of prostate cancer and provides important information about the biological behavior of intraprostatic lesions which can further guide treatment decisions. We review the evolution of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy. Recent advancements in radiation therapy including dose escalation, moderate and extreme hypofractionation, partial prostate radiation therapy, and finally dose escalation by simultaneous integrated boost are discussed. We also review next-generation sequencing and discuss developments in targeted molecular therapies. Last, we review ongoing clinical trials and future treatment paradigms that integrate targeted biopsy, molecular profiling and therapy, and prostate radiotherapy. PMID:27022486

  11. Advances in understanding itching and scratching: a new era of targeted treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kristen M.; Nattkemper, Leigh A.; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Chronic itch is a significant health burden with few effective treatments. As such, itch researchers seek to understand the mechanisms behind itch and to find potential targets for treatment. The field of itch research is dynamic, and many advances have been made so far this decade. In particular, major steps forward include the identification of new peripheral and central itch mediators and modulators, the discovery of greater roles for immune cells and glia in itch transmission, and a focus on the brain processing of itching and scratching. Finally, several new therapeutic interventions for itch have shown success in clinical trials. PMID:27610225

  12. Advances in understanding itching and scratching: a new era of targeted treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kristen M.; Nattkemper, Leigh A.; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Chronic itch is a significant health burden with few effective treatments. As such, itch researchers seek to understand the mechanisms behind itch and to find potential targets for treatment. The field of itch research is dynamic, and many advances have been made so far this decade. In particular, major steps forward include the identification of new peripheral and central itch mediators and modulators, the discovery of greater roles for immune cells and glia in itch transmission, and a focus on the brain processing of itching and scratching. Finally, several new therapeutic interventions for itch have shown success in clinical trials.

  13. Advances in understanding itching and scratching: a new era of targeted treatments.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kristen M; Nattkemper, Leigh A; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Chronic itch is a significant health burden with few effective treatments. As such, itch researchers seek to understand the mechanisms behind itch and to find potential targets for treatment. The field of itch research is dynamic, and many advances have been made so far this decade. In particular, major steps forward include the identification of new peripheral and central itch mediators and modulators, the discovery of greater roles for immune cells and glia in itch transmission, and a focus on the brain processing of itching and scratching. Finally, several new therapeutic interventions for itch have shown success in clinical trials. PMID:27610225

  14. Management of advanced bladder cancer in the era of targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Soave, A; Engel, O; Von Amsberg, G; Becker, A; Dahlem, R; Shariat, S F; Fisch, M; Rink, M

    2015-06-01

    Systemic chemotherapy is the standard treatment of advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). Unfortunately, systemic chemotherapy is ineffective in a significant number of patients, while side effects occur frequently. Detailed molecular-genetic investigations revealed a broad heterogeneity of underlying genomic mutations in UCB and led to the detection of cancer-specific therapeutic targets. These findings may allow a more tailored and individualized patient-based therapy, focusing on specific genomic variations, which may cause chemo-resistance in patients progressing or relapsing after standard chemotherapy. Targeted therapies hold the potential to be more effective in inhibiting cancer cell growth and progression, as well as to cause fewer side effects. While targeted therapies have been successfully established in the treatment of various malignancies including renal cell carcinoma, the clinical impact of these modern treatment strategies still remains unsettled for UCB. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the most current and relevant findings on targeted therapy in advanced and metastatic UCB, elucidating chances and limitations and discussing future perspectives.

  15. Technology assessment for the advanced life detector. Final technical report, May 1987-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, W.D.; George, D.T.

    1988-01-29

    This report summarizes an assessment of technology available to develop a noninvasive life detector for use on the battlefield. The detectors determine if casualties wearing chemical protective overgarments are alive or dead without further exposing either the casualties or the aidmen to the contaminated environment. Seven technology approaches sponsored by the Department of Defense (comprising 11 devices), four technologies identified in a market survey, and one device described in a Broad Agency Announcement proposal were examined as candidate Advanced Life Detectors. The technologies and instruments surveyed included three transmitter-receiver technologies, an electrocardiogram (ECG) technology, pacemaker-transmitter/receiver, dry electrode heart rate monitor, five microwave technologies, flash reflectance oximetry, an ultrasound technology, a streaming potential technology, a dry electrode ECG monitor coupled to a microphone, a statometric technique for determining heart rate and blood pressure, and a vital-signs monitor that determines heart rate and blood pressure using blood pressure cuff and microphones incorporated into the cuff. Analysis of the state-of-the-art of each device indicates that none of them are advanced enough to fulfill all the requirements of the draft Joint Services Operational Requirement. Three of the devices identified are recommended for further evaluation.

  16. Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, A. N.; Williams, D. A.; Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Horan, D.; Smith, A.; Wagner, R. G.; Falcone, A.; Funk, S.; Tajima, H.; Mukherjee, R.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel diameter is reduced to the order of 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than the pixel diameter of current Cherenkov telescope cameras. At these dimensions, photon detectors with smaller physical dimensions can be attractive alternatives to the classical photomultiplier tube (PMT). Furthermore, the operation of an experiment with the size of AGIS requires photon detectors that are among other things more reliable, more durable, and possibly higher efficiency photon detectors. Alternative photon detectors we are considering for AGIS include both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Here we present results from laboratory testing of MAPMTs and SiPMs along with results from the first incorporation of these devices into cameras on test bed Cherenkov telescopes.

  17. Advanced combined iodine dispenser and detector. [for microorganism annihilation in potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, J. B.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.; Powell, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    A total weight of 1.23 kg (2.7 lb), a total volume of 1213 cu m (74 cu in), and an average power consumption of 5.5W was achieved in the advanced combined iodine dispenser/detector by integrating the detector with the iodine source, arranging all iodinator components within a compact package and lowering the parasitic power to the detector and electronics circuits. These achievements surpassed the design goals of 1.36 kg (3.0 lb), 1671 cu m (102 cu in) and 8W. The reliability and maintainability were improved by reducing the detector lamp power, using an interchangeable lamp concept, making the electronic circuit boards easily accessible, providing redundant water seals and improving the accessibility to the iodine accumulator for refilling. The system was designed to iodinate (to 5 ppm iodine) the fuel cell water generated during 27 seven-day orbiter missions (equivalent to 18,500 kg (40,700 lb) of water) before the unit must be recharged with iodine crystals.

  18. Liver transplantation for chronic liver disease: advances and controversies in an era of organ shortages

    PubMed Central

    Prince, M; Hudson, M

    2002-01-01

    Since liver transplantation was first performed in 1968 by Starzl et al, advances in case selection, liver surgery, anaesthetics, and immunotherapy have significantly increased the indications for and success of this operation. Liver transplantation is now a standard therapy for many end stage liver disorders as well as acute liver failure. However, while demand for cadaveric organ grafts has increased, in recent years the supply of organs has fallen. This review addresses current controversies resulting from this mismatch. In particular, methods for increasing graft availability and difficulties arising from transplantation in the context of alcohol related cirrhosis, primary liver tumours, and hepatitis C are reviewed. Together these three indications accounted for 42% of liver transplants performed for chronic liver disease in the UK in 2000. Ethical frameworks for making decisions on patients' suitability for liver transplantation have been developed in both the USA and the UK and these are also reviewed. PMID:11884694

  19. Microsurgical varicocelectomy for infertile couples with advanced female age: natural history in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeanne H; Bowles, Ben; Kamal, Khaled M; Jarvi, Keith; Zini, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Varicocele represents the most common cause of male infertility, and most reports indicate that varicocelectomy has a beneficial effect on male fertility and pregnancy outcome. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are an alternative to varicocelectomy for the management of couples with a varicocele. The age of the female partner is important in the decision-making process; however, the true influence of female age on pregnancy outcome following varicocelectomy or ART in these couples is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of 2 cohorts of infertile men with a varicocele and a female partner 35 years of age or older; one group selected varicocelectomy and the other a nonsurgical approach. We reviewed a group of consecutive infertile men who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 110). We also reviewed a consecutive group of men with varicoceles who elected not to have surgery and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 94). The outcome measures included changes in semen parameters, pregnancy rates (assisted and unassisted), and use of ART. The surgical and nonsurgical groups had comparable semen parameters and female ages. Mean sperm concentration and motility increased significantly after varicocelectomy (P < .05). At a mean of 30 months follow-up, 35% of couples in the surgical group achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 6% achieved a pregnancy via ART (20% of this group attempted ART). In the nonsurgical group, 25% achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 16% achieved a pregnancy with ART (40% of this group attempted ART). This study on the natural history of infertile men with varicocele and advanced female age suggests that the surgical and nonsurgical approaches offer comparable pregnancy outcome (combined assisted and unassisted pregnancy rates are about 40%). Overall, these data suggest that varicocelectomy is an acceptable option for couples with advanced female age

  20. An overview of reference user services during the ATDRSS (Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System) era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is an integral part of the overall NASA Space Network (SN) that will continue to evolve into the 1990's. Projections for the first decade of the 21st century indicate the need for an SN evolution that must accommodate growth int he LEO user population and must further support the introduction of new/improved user services. A central ingredient of this evolution is an Advanced TDRSS (ATDRSS) follow-on to the current TDRSS that must initiate operations by the late 1990's in a manner that permits an orderly transition from the TDRSS to the ATDRSS era. An SN/ATDRSS architectural and operational concept that will satisfy the above goals is being developed. To this date, an SN/ATDRSS baseline concept was established that provides users with an end-to-end data transport (ENDAT) service. An expanded description of the baseline ENDAT concept, from the user perspective, is provided with special emphasis on the TDRSS/ATDRSS evolution. A high-level description of the end-to-end system that identifies the role of ATDRSS is presented; also included is a description of the baseline ATDRSS architecture and its relationship with the TDRSS 1996 baseline. Other key features of the ENDAT service are then expanded upon, including the multiple grades of service, and the RF telecommunications/tracking services to be available. The ATDRSS service options are described.

  1. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blechl, Ann E.; Brutnell, Thomas P.; Conrad, Liza J.; Gelvin, Stanton B.; Jackson, David P.; Kausch, Albert P.; Lemaux, Peggy G.; Medford, June I.; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L.; Tricoli, David M.; Van Eck, Joyce; Voytas, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than 30 years of technological advances. Genome editing provides novel opportunities to enhance crop productivity but relies on genetic transformation and plant regeneration, which are bottlenecks in the process. Here, we review the state of plant transformation and point to innovations needed to enable genome editing in crops. Plant tissue culture methods need optimization and simplification for efficiency and minimization of time in culture. Currently, specialized facilities exist for crop transformation. Single-cell and robotic techniques should be developed for high-throughput genomic screens. Plant genes involved in developmental reprogramming, wound response, and/or homologous recombination should be used to boost the recovery of transformed plants. Engineering universal Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and recruiting other microbes, such as Ensifer or Rhizobium, could facilitate delivery of DNA and proteins into plant cells. Synthetic biology should be employed for de novo design of transformation systems. Genome editing is a potential game-changer in crop genetics when plant transformation systems are optimized. PMID:27335450

  2. Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: Flourishing Novel Approaches in the Era of Biological Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Joanne W.; Wong, Hilda; Leung, Roland; Pang, Roberta; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung-Tat; Poon, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    The progress in the development of systemic treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) has been slow. The mainstream treatment remains using chemotherapy including gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, and nab-paclitaxel. Erlotinib is the only approved biological therapy with marginal benefit. Studies of agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, angiogenesis, and RAS signaling have not been satisfying, and the usefulness of targeted therapy in APC is uncertain. Understanding in molecular processes and tumor biology has opened the door for new treatment strategies such as targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, transforming growth factor β, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, and Notch pathway. New directions also include the upcoming immunotherapy and many novel agents that act on the microenvironment. The practice of personalized medicine using predictive biomarkers and pharmacogenomics signatures may also enhance the effectiveness of existing treatment. Future treatment approaches may involve comprehensive genomic assessment of tumor and integrated combinations of multiple agents to overcome treatment resistance. PMID:25117068

  3. Advanced pancreatic cancer: flourishing novel approaches in the era of biological therapy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Joanne W; Wong, Hilda; Leung, Roland; Pang, Roberta; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung-Tat; Poon, Ronnie; Yau, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The progress in the development of systemic treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) has been slow. The mainstream treatment remains using chemotherapy including gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, and nab-paclitaxel. Erlotinib is the only approved biological therapy with marginal benefit. Studies of agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, angiogenesis, and RAS signaling have not been satisfying, and the usefulness of targeted therapy in APC is uncertain. Understanding in molecular processes and tumor biology has opened the door for new treatment strategies such as targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, transforming growth factor β, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, and Notch pathway. New directions also include the upcoming immunotherapy and many novel agents that act on the microenvironment. The practice of personalized medicine using predictive biomarkers and pharmacogenomics signatures may also enhance the effectiveness of existing treatment. Future treatment approaches may involve comprehensive genomic assessment of tumor and integrated combinations of multiple agents to overcome treatment resistance. PMID:25117068

  4. Acute pulmonary embolism in the era of multi-detector CT: a reality in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The advantages of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) have made it the imaging modality of choice for some patients with suspected cardiothoracic disease, of which pulmonary embolism (PE) is an exponent. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of PE in patients with clinical suspicion of acute PE using MDCT in a sub-Saharan setting, and to describe the demographic characteristics of these patients. Methods Consecutive records of patients who underwent MDCT pulmonary angiography for suspected acute PE over a two-year period at the Radiology Department of a university-affiliated hospital were systematically reviewed. All MDCT pulmonary angiograms were performed with a 16-detector computed tomography (CT) scanner using real-time bolus tracking technique. Authorization for the study was obtained from the institutional authorities. Results Forty-one MDCT pulmonary angiograms were reviewed of which 37 were retained. Of the 4 excluded studies, 3 were repeat angiograms and 1 study was not technically adequate. Twelve of 37 patients (32.4%) had CT angiograms that were positive for PE, of which 7 were males. The mean age of these patients was 47.6±10.5 years (age range from 33 to 65 years). Twenty five patients out of 37 (67.6%) had CT angiograms that were negative for PE. Eleven PE-positive patients (91.7%) had at least 1 identifiable thromboembolic risk factor whilst 5 PE-negative patients (20%) also had at least a thromboembolic risk factor. The relative risk of the occurrence of PE in patients with at least a thromboembolic risk factor was estimated at 14.4. Conclusion Acute PE is a reality in sub-Saharan Africa, with an increased likelihood of MDCT evidence in patients with clinical suspicion of PE who have at least a thromboembolic risk factor. The increasing availability of MDCT will help provide more information on the occurrence of PE in these settings. PMID:23072500

  5. Development of an ultrahigh-performance infrared detector platform for advanced spectroscopic sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Manish; Wicks, Gary; Marshall, Andrew; Craig, Adam; Golding, Terry; Hossain, Khalid; McEwan, Ken; Howle, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Laser-based stand-off sensing of threat agents (e.g. explosives, toxic industrial chemicals or chemical warfare agents), by detection of distinct infrared spectral absorption signature of these materials, has made significant advances recently. This is due in part to the availability of infrared and terahertz laser sources with significantly improved power and tunability. However, there is a pressing need for a versatile, high performance infrared sensor that can complement and enhance the recent advances achieved in laser technology. This work presents new, high performance infrared detectors based on III-V barrier diodes. Unipolar barrier diodes, such as the nBn, have been very successful in the MWIR using InAs(Sb)-based materials, and in the MWIR and LWIR using type-II InAsSb/InAs superlattice-based materials. This work addresses the extension of the barrier diode architecture into the SWIR region, using GaSb-based and InAs-based materials. The program has resulted in detectors with unmatched performance in the 2-3 μm spectral range. Temperature dependent characterization has shown dark currents to be diffusion limited and equal to, or within a factor of 5, of the Rule 07 expression for Auger-limited HgCdTe detectors. Furthermore, D* values are superior to those of existing detectors in the 2-3 μm band. Of particular significance to spectroscopic sensing systems is the ability to have near-background limited performance at operation temperatures compatible with robust and reliable solid state thermoelectric coolers.

  6. Detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, M.; Meyers, P.; Thrane, E.; Luo, J.; Christensen, N.

    2015-03-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass (Mtotal≤10 M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parametrization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity (0 ≤ɛ ≤0.6 ) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parametrization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Based on these results, we conclude that advanced detectors will have a chance of detecting eccentric binaries if optimistic models prove true. However, a null observation is unlikely to firmly rule out models of eccentric binary populations.

  7. Clinical Outcome of Palliative Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Symptomatic Gastric Cancer in the Modern Era

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Jeremy; Choo, Bok Ai; Leong, Cheng Nang; Loy, En Yun; Wong, Lea Choung; Lim, Keith; Lu, Jiade Jay; Koh, Wee Yao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of patients with symptomatic locally advanced/recurrent gastric cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) using modern 3-dimensional conformal techniques. We retrospectively reviewed patients who had palliative RT for index symptoms of gastric bleeding, pain, and obstruction. Study endpoints included symptom response, median survival, and treatment toxicity. Of 115 patients with median age of 77 years, 78 (67.8%) patients had metastatic disease at the time of treatment. Index symptoms were gastric bleeding, pain, and obstruction in 89.6%, 9.2%, and 14.3% of patients, respectively. Dose fractionation regimen ranged from 8-Gy single fraction to 40 Gy in 16 fractions. One hundred eleven patients (93.3%) were computed tomography (CT) planned. Median follow-up was 85 days. Response rates for bleeding, pain, and obstruction were 80.6% (83/103), 45.5% (5/11), and 52.9% (9/17), respectively, and median duration of response was 99 days, 233 days, and 97 days, respectively. Median survival was 85 days. Actuarial 12-month survival was 15.3%. There was no difference in response rates between low (≤39 Gy) and high (>39 Gy) biologically effective dose (BED) regimens (α/β ratio = 10). Median survival was significantly longer in patients who responded to RT compared with patients who did not (113.5 vs 47 days, P < 0.001). Three patients (2.6%) had grade 3 Common Toxicity Criteria equivalent toxicity (nausea/vomiting/anorexia). External beam RT delivered using 3-dimensional conformal techniques is highly effective and well tolerated in the local palliation of gastric cancer, with palliation lasting the majority of patient’s lives. Short (≤39 Gy BED) RT schedules are adequate for effective symptom palliation. A phase II study of palliative gastric RT is ongoing. PMID:25396330

  8. Advances in targeted and immunobased therapies for colorectal cancer in the genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Heng Fong; Yip, Wai Kien; Fifis, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies require information on specific defective signaling pathways or mutations. Advances in genomic technologies and cell biology have led to identification of new therapeutic targets associated with signal-transduction pathways. Survival times of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) can be extended with combinations of conventional cytotoxic agents and targeted therapies. Targeting EGFR- and VEGFR-signaling systems has been the major focus for treatment of metastatic CRC. However, there are still limitations in their clinical application, and new and better drug combinations are needed. This review provides information on EGFR and VEGF inhibitors, new therapeutic agents in the pipeline targeting EGFR and VEGFR pathways, and those targeting other signal-transduction pathways, such as MET, IGF1R, MEK, PI3K, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, and death-receptor signaling pathways for treatment of metastatic CRC. Additionally, multitargeted approaches in combination therapies targeting negative-feedback loops, compensatory networks, and cross talk between pathways are highlighted. Then, immunobased strategies to enhance antitumor immunity using specific monoclonal antibodies, such as the immune-checkpoint inhibitors anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1, as well as the challenges that need to be overcome for increased efficacy of targeted therapies, including drug resistance, predictive markers of response, tumor subtypes, and cancer stem cells, are covered. The review concludes with a brief insight into the applications of next-generation sequencing, expression profiling for tumor subtyping, and the exciting progress made in in silico predictive analysis in the development of a prescription strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:27099521

  9. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Dark Current and Noise Characterization and Anomalous Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The dark current and noise characteristics of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager measured during ground calibration at MIT Lincoln Laboratory are presented. Data were collected for the nominal focal plane operating temperature of 220 K as well as supplemental operating temperatures (215 and 225 K). Dark current baseline values are provided, and noise characterization includes the evaluation of white, coherent, low frequency, and high frequency components. Finally, anomalous detectors, characterized by unusual dark current, noise, gain, or cross-talk properties are investigated.

  10. Stabilized high-power laser system for the gravitational wave detector advanced LIGO.

    PubMed

    Kwee, P; Bogan, C; Danzmann, K; Frede, M; Kim, H; King, P; Pöld, J; Puncken, O; Savage, R L; Seifert, F; Wessels, P; Winkelmann, L; Willke, B

    2012-05-01

    An ultra-stable, high-power cw Nd:YAG laser system, developed for the ground-based gravitational wave detector Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), was comprehensively characterized. Laser power, frequency, beam pointing and beam quality were simultaneously stabilized using different active and passive schemes. The output beam, the performance of the stabilization, and the cross-coupling between different stabilization feedback control loops were characterized and found to fulfill most design requirements. The employed stabilization schemes and the achieved performance are of relevance to many high-precision optical experiments.

  11. Application of Pixel-cell Detector Technology for Advanced Neutron Beam Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Daniel M.

    2011-01-11

    Application of Pixel-Cell Detector Technology for Advanced Neutron Beam Monitors Specifications of currently available neutron beam detectors limit their usefulness at intense neutron beams of large-scale national user facilities used for the advanced study of materials. A large number of neutron-scattering experiments require beam monitors to operate in an intense neutron beam flux of >10E+7 neutrons per second per square centimeter. For instance, a 4 cm x 4 cm intense beam flux of 6.25 x 10E+7 n/s/cm2 at the Spallation Neutron Source will put a flux of 1.00 x 10E+9 n/s at the beam monitor. Currently available beam monitors with a typical efficiency of 1 x 10E-4 will need to be replaced in less than two years of operation due to wire and gas degradation issues. There is also a need at some instruments for beam position information that are beyond the capabilities of currently available He-3 and BF3 neutron beam monitors. ORDELA, Inc.’s research under USDOE SBIR Grant (DE-FG02-07ER84844) studied the feasibility of using pixel-cell technology for developing a new generation of stable, long-life neutron beam monitors. The research effort has led to the development and commercialization of advanced neutron beam detectors that will directly benefit the Spallation Neutron Source and other intense neutron sources such as the High Flux Isotope Reactor. A prototypical Pixel-Cell Neutron Beam Monitor was designed and constructed during this research effort. This prototype beam monitor was exposed to an intense neutron beam at the HFIR SNS HB-2 test beam site. Initial measurements on efficiency, uniformity across the detector, and position resolution yielded excellent results. The development and test results have provided the required data to initiate the fabrication and commercialization of this next generation of neutron-detector systems. ORDELA, Inc. has (1) identified low-cost design and fabrication strategies, (2) developed and built pixel-cell detectors and

  12. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P.

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) — i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on “augmentation” of weight of evidence — using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards “integration” of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for “expansion” of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual “reorientation” of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes.

  13. Sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, D. V.; Hall, E. D.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Aston, S. M.; Austin, L.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barbet, M.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Batch, J. C.; Bell, A. S.; Belopolski, I.; Bergman, J.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Black, E.; Blair, C. D.; Bogan, C.; Bork, R.; Bridges, D. O.; Brooks, A. F.; Celerier, C.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Cook, D.; Countryman, S. T.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Damjanic, M.; Dannenberg, R.; Danzmann, K.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Driggers, J. C.; Dwyer, S. E.; Effler, A.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fair, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Foley, S.; Frede, M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, R.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Grote, H.; Guido, C. J.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Heefner, J.; Heintze, M. C.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hoak, D.; Hough, J.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jones, R.; Kandhasamy, S.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kells, W.; Kijbunchoo, N.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kokeyama, K.; Korth, W. Z.; Kuehn, G.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Le Roux, A.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Lhuillier, V.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lormand, M.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lundgren, A. P.; MacDonald, T.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Merilh, E. L.; Meyer, M. S.; Meyers, P. M.; Miller, J.; Mittleman, R.; Moreno, G.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dell, J.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Palamos, J. R.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Patrick, Z.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Phelps, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I.; Poeld, J.; Principe, M.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Raab, F. J.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Ramet, C. R.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Ryan, K.; Sadecki, T.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Savage, R. L.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schultz, B.; Schwinberg, P.; Sellers, D.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sigg, D.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Sorazu, B.; Staley, A.; Stein, A. J.; Stochino, A.; Strain, K. A.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vargas, M.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Weaver, B.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Weßels, P.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Wipf, C. C.; Worden, J.; Wu, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two widely separated 4 km laser interferometers designed to detect gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The first observation run of the Advanced LIGO detectors started in September 2015 and ended in January 2016. A strain sensitivity of better than 10-23/√{Hz } was achieved around 100 Hz. Understanding both the fundamental and the technical noise sources was critical for increasing the astrophysical strain sensitivity. The average distance at which coalescing binary black hole systems with individual masses of 30 M⊙ could be detected above a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 was 1.3 Gpc, and the range for binary neutron star inspirals was about 75 Mpc. With respect to the initial detectors, the observable volume of the Universe increased by a factor 69 and 43, respectively. These improvements helped Advanced LIGO to detect the gravitational wave signal from the binary black hole coalescence, known as GW150914.

  14. Revolutionary visible and infrared sensor detectors for the most advanced astronomical AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guieu, Sylvain; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Rothman, Johan; de Borniol, Eric D.; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Coussement, Jérome; Kolb, Johann; Hubin, Norbert; Derelle, Sophie; Robert, Clélia; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Rochat, Sylvain; Delpoulbé, Alain; Lebouqun, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-07-01

    We report in this paper decisive advance on the detector development for the astronomical applications that require very fast operation. Since the CCD220 and OCAM2 major success, new detector developments started in Europe either for visible and IR wavelengths. Funded by ESO and the FP7 Opticon European network, the NGSD CMOS device is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with strong ESO involvement. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate and providing digital outputs. A camera development, based on this CMOS device and also funded by the Opticon European network, is ongoing. Another major AO wavefront sensing detector development concerns IR detectors based on Avalanche Photodiode (e- APD) arrays within the RAPID project. Developed by the SOFRADIR and CEA/LETI manufacturers, the latter offers a 320x255 8 outputs 30 microns IR array, sensitive from 0.4 to 3 microns, with less than 2 e readout noise at 1600 fps. A rectangular window can also be programmed to speed up even more the frame rate when the full frame readout is not required. The high QE response, in the range of 70%, is almost flat over this wavelength range. Advanced packaging with miniature cryostat using pulse tube cryocoolers was developed in the frame of this programme in order to allow use on this detector in any type of environment. The characterization results of this device are presented here. Readout noise as low as 1.7 e at 1600 fps has been measured with a 3 microns wavelength cut-off chip and a multiplication gain of 14 obtained with a limited photodiode polarization of 8V. This device also exhibits excellent linearity, lower than 1%. The pulse tube cooling allows smart and easy cooling down to 55 K. Vibrations investigations using centroiding and FFT measurements were performed proving that the miniature pulse tube does not induce measurable vibrations to the optical bench, allowing use of this

  15. Modelling an advanced ManPAD with dual band detectors and a rosette scanning seeker head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenall, Richard P.; Richardson, Mark A.; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Man Portable Air Defence Systems (ManPADs) have been a favoured anti aircraft weapon since their appearance on the military proliferation scene in the mid 1960s. Since this introduction there has been a 'cat and mouse' game of Missile Countermeasures (CMs) and the aircraft protection counter counter measures (CCMs) as missile designers attempt to defeat the aircraft platform protection equipment. Magnesium Teflon Viton (MTV) flares protected the target aircraft until the missile engineers discovered the art of flare rejection using techniques including track memory and track angle bias. These early CCMs relied upon CCM triggering techniques such as the rise rate method which would just sense a sudden increase in target energy and assume that a flare CM had been released by the target aircraft. This was not as reliable as was first thought as aspect changes (bringing another engine into the field of view) or glint from the sun could inadvertently trigger a CCM when not needed. The introduction of dual band detectors in the 1980s saw a major advance in CCM capability allowing comparisons between two distinct IR bands to be made thus allowing the recognition of an MTV flare to occur with minimal false alarms. The development of the rosette scan seeker in the 1980s complemented this advancement allowing the scene in the missile field of view (FOV) to be scanned by a much smaller (1/25) instantaneous FOV (IFOV) with the spectral comparisons being made at each scan point. This took the ManPAD from a basic IR energy detector to a pseudo imaging system capable of analysing individual elements of its overall FOV allowing more complex and robust CCM to be developed. This paper continues the work published in [1,2] and describes the method used to model an advanced ManPAD with a rosette scanning seeker head and robust CCMs similar to the Raytheon Stinger RMP.

  16. Inverted pendulum as low-frequency pre-isolation for advanced gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamori, A.; Raffai, P.; Márka, S.; DeSalvo, R.; Sannibale, V.; Tariq, H.; Bertolini, A.; Cella, G.; Viboud, N.; Numata, K.; Takahashi, R.; Fukushima, M.

    2007-11-01

    We have developed advanced seismic attenuation systems for Gravitational Wave (GW) detectors. The design consists of an Inverted Pendulum (IP) holding stages of Geometrical Anti-Spring Filters (GASF) and pendula, which isolate the test mass suspension from ground noise. The ultra-low-frequency IP suppresses the horizontal seismic noise, while the GASF suppresses the vertical ground vibrations. The three legs of the IP are supported by cylindrical maraging steel flexural joints. The IP can be tuned to very low frequencies by carefully adjusting its load. As a best result, we have achieved an ultra low, ˜12 mHz pendulum frequency for the system prototype made for Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory). The measured quality factor, Q, of this IP, ranging from Q˜2500 (at 0.45 Hz) to Q˜2 (at 12 mHz), is compatible with structural damping, and is proportional to the square of the pendulum frequency. Tunable counterweights allow for precise center-of-percussion tuning to achieve the required attenuation up to the first leg internal resonance (˜60 Hz for advanced LIGO prototype). All measurements are in good agreement with our analytical models. We therefore expect good attenuation in the low-frequency region, from ˜0.1to ˜50 Hz, covering the micro-seismic peak. The extremely soft IP requires minimal control force, which simplifies any needed actuation.

  17. Applications of Gas Imaging Micro-Well Detectors to an Advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Miller, R. S.; Jackson, T. N.; Bai, B.; Jung, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a concept for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) based on the use of pixelized gas micro-well detectors to form a three-dimensional electron track imager. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with thin film transistor array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this approach is the excellent tracking of the Compton recoil electron that is possible in a gas volume. Such good electron tracking allows us to reduce the point spread function of a single incident photon dramatically, greatly improving the imaging capability and sensitivity. The polarization sensitivity, which relies on events with large Compton scattering angles, is particularly enhanced. We describe a possible ACT implementation of this technique, in which the gas tracking volume is surrounded by a CsI calorimeter, and present our plans to build and test a small prototype over the next three years.

  18. Development of an advanced combined iodine dispenser/detector. [for spacecraft water supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, J. B.; Jensen, F. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Schubert, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    Injection of iodine into water is widely used to control microbial growth. An entirely automated device for I2 injection has been developed for spacecraft application. Transfer of I2 into the water from a concentrated form is controlled electrochemically via feedback from an integrated photometric I2 level detector. All components are contained within a package weighing only 1.23 kg (2.7 lb) dry, which occupies only 1213 cu cm (74 cu in) of space, and which has the capacity to iodinate 10,900 kg (24,000 lb) of water of 5 ppm. These features exceed design specifications. The device performed satisfactorily during extended testing at variable water flow rates and temperatures. Designed to meet specifications of the Shuttle Orbiter, the device will find application in the regenerative water systems of advanced spacecraft.

  19. Optimizing the regimes of the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector for multiple source types

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashov, I. S.; Simakov, D. A.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Danilishin, S. L.

    2008-09-15

    We developed algorithms which allow us to find regimes of the signal-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer [for example, the Advanced Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO)], optimized concurrently for two (binary inspirals + bursts) and three (binary inspirals + bursts + millisecond pulsars) types of gravitational wave sources. We show that there exists a relatively large area in the interferometer parameters space where the detector sensitivity to the first two kinds of sources differs only by a few percent from the maximal ones for each kind of source. In particular, there exists a specific regime where this difference is {approx_equal}0.5% for both of them. Furthermore, we show that even more multipurpose regimes are also possible that provide significant sensitivity gain for millisecond pulsars with only minor sensitivity degradation for binary inspirals and bursts.

  20. The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments: A 4{pi} BaF2 Detector for Neutron Capture Measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Esch, E.-I.; Haight, R.C.; Hunt, L.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Reifarth, R.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Alpizar, A.; Hatarik, R.; Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Kronenberg, A.; Rundberg, R.S.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Folden, C.M.; Hoffman, D.C.; Greife, U.; Schwantes, J.M.; Strottman, D.D.

    2005-05-24

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 162-element 4{pi} BaF2 array designed to make neutron capture cross-section measurements on rare or radioactive targets with masses as little as one milligram. Accurate capture cross sections are needed in many research areas, including stellar nucleosynthesis, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, waste transmutation, and other applied programs. These cross sections are difficult to calculate accurately and must be measured. The design and initial performance results of DANCE is discussed.

  1. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Neal, John S; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Beck, P; Burger, Arnold; Rowe, E; Bhattacharya, P.

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  2. Advances in the growth of alkaline-Earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Neal, J. S.; Cherepy, N. J.; Beck, P. R.; Payne, S. A.; Burger, A.; Rowe, E.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2014-09-01

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystalgrowth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  3. Advancements in the development of a directional-position sensing fast neutron detector using acoustically tensioned metastable fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Brian C.; Webster, Jeffrey A.; Grimes, Thomas F.; Fischer, Kevin F.; Hagen, Alex R.; Taleyakhan, Rusi P.

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in the development of a direction and position sensing fast neutron detector which utilizes the directional acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detector (D-ATMFD) are described. The resulting D-ATMFD sensor is capable of determining the direction of neutron radiation with a single compact detector versus use of arrays of detectors in conventional directional systems. Directional neutron detection and source positioning offer enhanced detection speeds in comparison to traditional proximity searching; including enabling determination of the neutron source shape, size, and strength in near real time. This paper discusses advancements that provide the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality and source localization information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on-demand enlargement capability of the detector sensitive volume. These advancements were accomplished utilizing experimentation and theoretical modeling. Benchmarking and qualifications studies were successfully conducted with random and fission based special nuclear material (SNM) neutron sources (239Pu-Be and 252Cf). These results of assessments have indicated that the D-ATMFD compares well in technical performance with banks of competing directional fast neutron detector technologies under development worldwide, but it does so with a single detector unit, an unlimited field of view, and at a significant reduction in both cost and size while remaining completely blind to common background (e.g., beta-gamma) radiation. Rapid and direct SNM neutron source imaging with two D-ATMFD sensors was experimentally demonstrated, and furthermore, validated via multidimensional nuclear particle transport simulations utilizing MCNP-PoliMi. Characterization of a scaled D-ATMFD based radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a cost-effective and efficient 3He sensor replacement was performed utilizing MCNP-PoliMi simulations, the results of which

  4. Aspects of suspension design for the development of advanced gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul

    The Institute for Gravitational Research in the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the Albert Einstein Institute in Hannover, Golm and the University of Cardiff has been actively involved in the research for the development of instruments and data analysis techniques to detect gravitational waves. This includes construction of a long ground based interferometer in Germany called GEO 600 (upgraded to GEO-HF) having an arm length 600 m and strong involvement in the larger detectors of the LIGO (Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory) project in USA having arm lengths of 4 km (Operated by MIT, Boston and CALTECH, Pasadena). An upgrade to LIGO called Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) is currently under construction with significant input from the University of Glasgow. Thermal noise is one of the most significant noise sources affecting the sensitivity of the detector at a range of frequencies. Thermal noise arises due to the random fluctuations of atoms and molecules in the materials of the test mass mirrors and suspension elements, and is related to mechanical loss in these materials. The work presented in chapter 3 of this thesis is devoted to the analysis of aspects of mechanical loss and thermal noise in the final stages of the GEO suspension. The work in chapter 4 focuses on the theory of photoelasticty and birefringence techniques. A study of mechanical and thermal stress induced in fused silica has been discussed in chapter 5 of this thesis. To understand the working of photoelastic techniques learned in chapter 4, a study of mechanical stress was undertaken by applying a load on the sample to induce temporary birefringence. A study of thermal stress in fused silica welds has also been presented in chapter 5.

  5. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping

    2011-01-01

    NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve fuel efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.

  6. Quantum Well and Quantum Dot Modeling for Advanced Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Hill, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of Quantum Well Infrared Detectors (QWIP) and Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors (QDIP) in the development of Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). The QWIP Detector being developed is a dual band detector. It is capable of running on two bands Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) and Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR). The same large-format dual-band FPA technology can be applied to Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) with no modification, once QDIP exceeds QWIP in single device performance. Details of the devices are reviewed.

  7. Advanced technologies for future ground-based, laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Giles; Hild, Stefan; Pitkin, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of modern optical techniques being used and developed for the field of gravitational wave detection. We describe the current state-of-the-art of gravitational waves detector technologies with regard to optical layouts, suspensions and test masses. We discuss the dominant sources and noise in each of these subsystems and the developments that will help mitigate them for future generations of detectors. We very briefly summarise some of the novel astrophysics that will be possible with these upgraded detectors. PMID:25705087

  8. The value of clinical electrophysiology in the assessment of the eye and visual system in the era of advanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Whatham, Andrew R; Nguyen, Vincent; Zhu, Yuan; Hennessy, Michael; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Electrophysiological techniques allow clinical investigations to include a 'dissection' of the visual system. Using suitable electrophysiological techniques, the 'dissection' allows function to be ascribed to the different photoreceptors (rod and cone photoreceptors), retinal layers, retinal location or the visual pathway up to the visual cortex. Combined with advances in genetics, retinal biochemistry, visual fields and ocular imaging, it is now possible to obtain a better understanding of diseases affecting the retina and visual pathways. This paper reviews core electrophysiological principles that can complement other examination techniques, including advanced ocular imaging, and help the interpretation of other clinical data and thus, refine and guide clinical diagnosis. PMID:23865913

  9. Advanced far infrared blocked impurity band detectors based on germanium liquid phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C S

    1998-05-01

    This research has shown that epilayers with residual impurity concentrations of 5 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} can be grown by producing the purest Pb available in the world. These epilayers have extremely low minority acceptor concentrations, which is ideal for fabrication of IR absorbing layers. The Pb LPE growth of Ge also has the advantageous property of gettering Cu from the epilayer and the substrate. Epilayers have been grown with intentional Sb doping for IR absorption on lightly doped substrates. This research has proven that properly working Ge BIB detectors can be fabricated from the liquid phase as long as pure enough solvents are available. The detectors have responded at proper wavelengths when reversed biased even though the response did not quite reach minimum wavenumbers. Optimization of the Sb doping concentration should further decrease the photoionization energy of these detectors. Ge BIB detectors have been fabricated that respond to 60 cm{sup {minus}1} with low responsivity. Through reduction of the minority residual impurities, detector performance has reached responsivities of 1 A/W. These detectors have exhibited quantum efficiency and NEP values that rival conventional photoconductors and are expected to provide a much more sensitive tool for new scientific discoveries in a number of fields, including solid state studies, astronomy, and cosmology.

  10. Advanced far infrared blocked impurity band detectors based on germanium liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    This research has shown that epilayers with residual impurity concentrations of 5 x 10(sup 13) cm(exp -3) can be grown by producing the purest Pb available in the world. These epilayers have extremely low minority acceptor concentrations, which is ideal for fabrication of IR absorbing layers. The Pb LPE growth of Ge also has the advantageous property of gettering Cu from the epilayer and the substrate. Epilayers have been grown with intentional Sb doping for IR absorption on lightly doped substrates. This research has proven that properly working Ge BIB detectors can be fabricated from the liquid phase as long as pure enough solvents are available. The detectors have responded at reach minimum wavenumbers. Optimization of the Sb doping concentration should further decrease the photoionization energy of these detectors. Ge BIB detectors have been fabricated that respond to 60 cm(exp -1) with low responsivity. Through reduction of the minority residual impurities, detector performance has reached responsivities of 1 A/W. These detectors have exhibited quantum efficiency and NEP values that rival conventional photoconductors and are expected to provide a much more sensitive tool for new scientific discoveries in a number of fields, including solid state studies, astronomy, and cosmology.

  11. Symmetrical Josephson vortex interferometer as an advanced ballistic single-shot detector

    SciTech Connect

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Pankratov, A. L.; Kuzmin, L. S.

    2014-11-17

    We consider a ballistic detector formed in an interferometer manner which operational principle relies on Josephson vortex scattering at a measurement potential. We propose an approach to symmetrize the detector scheme and explore arising advantages in the signal-to-noise ratio and in the back-action on a measured object by means of recently presented numerical and analytical methods for modeling of a soliton scattering dynamics in the presence of thermal fluctuations. The obtained characteristics for experimentally relevant parameters reveal practical applicability of the considered schemes including possibility of coupling with standard digital rapid single flux quantum circuits.

  12. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Fleissner, Joachim; Rutz, Frank; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) based on GaSb, InAs and AlSb have proven their great potential for high performance infrared detectors. Lots of interest is currently focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation infrared detectors between 3 - 30 μm. For the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) a manufacturable technology for high responsivity thermal imaging systems has been developed. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also ideally suited for the fabrication of dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels.

  13. Management of advanced heart failure in the elderly: ethics, economics, and resource allocation in the technological era.

    PubMed

    Swetz, Keith M; Stulak, John M; Dunlay, Shannon M; Gafford, Ellin F

    2012-01-01

    Significant strides have been made in the durability, portability, and safety of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCS). Although transplant is considered the standard treatment for advanced heart failure, limits in organ availability leave a much larger pool of recipients in need versus donors. MCS is used as bridge to transplantation and as destination therapy (DT) for patients who will have MCS as their final invasive therapy with transplant not being an option. Despite improvements in quality of life (QOL) and survival, defining the optimal candidate for DT may raise questions regarding the economics of this approach as well as ethical concerns regarding just distribution of goods and services. This paper highlights some of the key ethical issues related to justice and the costs of life-prolonging therapies with respect to resource allocations. Available literature, current debates, and future directions are discussed herein. PMID:23259150

  14. Management of Advanced Heart Failure in the Elderly: Ethics, Economics, and Resource Allocation in the Technological Era

    PubMed Central

    Swetz, Keith M.; Stulak, John M.; Dunlay, Shannon M.; Gafford, Ellin F.

    2012-01-01

    Significant strides have been made in the durability, portability, and safety of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCS). Although transplant is considered the standard treatment for advanced heart failure, limits in organ availability leave a much larger pool of recipients in need versus donors. MCS is used as bridge to transplantation and as destination therapy (DT) for patients who will have MCS as their final invasive therapy with transplant not being an option. Despite improvements in quality of life (QOL) and survival, defining the optimal candidate for DT may raise questions regarding the economics of this approach as well as ethical concerns regarding just distribution of goods and services. This paper highlights some of the key ethical issues related to justice and the costs of life-prolonging therapies with respect to resource allocations. Available literature, current debates, and future directions are discussed herein. PMID:23259150

  15. Oversampling advances in millimeter-wave scan imaging using inexpensive neon indicator lamp detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Assaf; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir; Rozban, Daniel; Joseph, Hezi; Aharon, Avihai; Belenky, Alex; Gefen, Michael; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop room temperature inexpensive, but sensitive, millimeter wave (MMW) and terahertz (THz) detectors that can be used as pixels in focal plane arrays, which is important for real-time imaging. A new 18×2 neon indicator lamp MMW/THz scanner was developed. The components of the camera include horizontally shifted two-column glow discharge detectors in a scanning array. The detectors, costing about 50 cents each, are wired to a preprocessing card, a VLSI board, and a motor for scanner movement. A description of the VLSI Verilog programmable hardware of the new scanner, the physical architecture, the software user interface, and imaging results at 97 GHz are presented. At this stage, the emphasis is focused on the lamp exposure time and spatial resolution when the scanning is performed horizontally. In the future it is planned to expose all pixels simultaneously for real-time imaging. New software capabilities allow the application of digital image enhancement algorithms. Fast scanning permits obtaining images in 1 to 5 s. Oversampling yields a sharper edge response and a higher signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Advances in CMOS Solid-state Photomultipliers for Scintillation Detector Applications

    PubMed Central

    Christian, James F.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Johnson, Erik B.; McClish, Mickel; Dokhale, Purushotthom; Shah, Kanai S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Chapman, Eric; Augustine, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) are a compact, lightweight, potentially low-cost alternative to a photomultiplier tube for a variety of scintillation detector applications, including digital-dosimeter and medical-imaging applications. Manufacturing SSPMs with a commercial CMOS process provides the ability for rapid prototyping, and facilitates production to reduce the cost. RMD designs CMOS SSPM devices that are fabricated by commercial foundries. This work describes the characterization and performance of these devices for scintillation detector applications. This work also describes the terms contributing to device noise in terms of the excess noise of the SSPM, the binomial statistics governing the number of pixels triggered by a scintillation event, and the background, or thermal, count rate. The fluctuations associated with these terms limit the resolution of the signal pulse amplitude. We explore the use of pixel-level signal conditioning, and characterize the performance of a prototype SSPM device that preserves the digital nature of the signal. In addition, we explore designs of position-sensitive SSPM detectors for medical imaging applications, and characterize their performance. PMID:25540471

  17. Backscatter tolerant squeezed light source for advanced gravitational-wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Chua, Sheon S Y; Stefszky, Michael S; Mow-Lowry, Conor M; Buchler, Ben C; Dwyer, Sheila; Shaddock, Daniel A; Lam, Ping Koy; McClelland, David E

    2011-12-01

    We report on the performance of a dual-wavelength resonant, traveling-wave optical parametric oscillator to generate squeezed light for application in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. Shot noise suppression of 8.6±0.8 dB was measured across the detection band of interest to Advanced LIGO, and controlled squeezing measured over 5900 s. Our results also demonstrate that the traveling-wave design has excellent intracavity backscattered light suppression of 47 dB and incident backscattered light suppression of 41 dB, which is a crucial design issue for application in advanced interferometers. PMID:22139282

  18. Advanced IR detector design at SCD: from D3C to ABCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, Ofer; Klipstein, Philip C.; Weiss, Eliezer

    2004-07-01

    Over the past 27 years, SCD has developed and manufactured more than 30 types of Infrared Detector, both with support from the Israeli MOD and in cooperation with institutions and companies such as the Technion, Soreq NRC, RICOR and RAFAEL. SCD's current production line includes Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT) devices with up to 480x6 elements operating in Time Delay and Integration (TDI) mode and InSb Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) with up to 640x512 elements, all available in various configurations including fully integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler (DDC) packages. Such DDCs have been designed to range from the very small to the very large. At one end the Piccolo DDC is a small, low weight and power detector, ideal for compact low cost imagers such as handheld IR cameras. At the other end, we manufacture a very long (2048x16) bi-directional TDI InSb detector designed for "whiskbroom scanning" systems. This device consists of four modules precisely butted on a single substrate, with each 512x16 module connected to a single signal processor. In 2003, SCD announced its new breakthrough Digital Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) technology: Digital DDC or D3C. This readout system, with excellent performance and increased flexibility is the first in a series of new imaging solutions that SCD is developing to meet future demands of noise and power reduction, combined with greater wavelength selectivity. To continue along this path we have also been developing our new ABCS (Antimonide Based Compound Semiconductor) technology, which we first reported in 2002. The ABCS program, combining SCD's existing strengths in InSb FPA systems with new concepts in bandgap engineering and smart structure design, is aimed at multispectral IR detectors operating at higher temperatures. This review discusses some of the key trends at SCD as described above. After surveying the performance of SCD's current InSb technology, SCD's evolution towards the next generations will be described, including the

  19. Up-conversion detectors at 1550 nm for quantum communication: review and recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, M.; Alibart, O.; Doutre, F.; Tascu, S.; de Micheli, M. P.; Ostrowsky, D. B.; Thyagarajan, K.; Tanzilli, S.

    Up-conversion, or hybrid, detectors have been investigated in quantum communication experiments to replace Indium-Gallium-Arsenide avalanche photodiodes (InGaAs-APD) for the detection of infrared and telecom single photons. Those detectors are based on the supposedly noise-free process of frequency up-conversion, also called sum-frequency generation (SFG), using a second order (χ^2) non-linear crystal. Powered by an intense pump laser, this process permits transposing with a certain probability the single photons at telecom wavelengths to the visible range where silicon APDs (Si-APD) operate with a much better performance than InGaAs detectors. To date, the literature reports up-conversion detectors having efficiency and noise figures comparable to that of the best commercially available IngaAs-APDs. However, in all of these previous realizations, a pump-induced noise is always observed which was initially expected to be as low as the dark count level of the Si-APDs. Although this additional noise represents a problem for the detection, up-conversion detectors have advantageously replaced InGaAs-APDs in various long-distance quantum cryptography schemes since they offer a continuous regime operation mode instead of a gated mode necessary for InGaAs-APDs, and the possibility of much higher counting rates. Despite attempted explanations, no detailed nor conclusive study of this noise has been reported. The aim of this paper is to offer a definitive explanation for this noise. We first give a review of the state of the art by describing already demonstrated up-conversion detectors. We discuss these realizations especially regarding the choices made for the material, in bulk or guided configurations, the single photon wavelengths, and the pump scheme. Then we describe an original device made of waveguides integrated on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN)or on single-domain lithium niobate aimed at investigating the origin of the additional pump-induced noise

  20. Advanced Photon Counting Imaging Detectors with 100ps Timing for Astronomical and Space Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O.; Vallerga, J.; Welsh, B.; Rabin, M.; Bloch, J.

    In recent years EAG has implemented a variety of high-resolution, large format, photon-counting MCP detectors in space instrumentation for satellite FUSE, GALEX, IMAGE, SOHO, HST-COS, rocket, and shuttle payloads. Our scheme of choice has been delay line readouts encoding photon event position centroids, by determination of the difference in arrival time of the event charge at the two ends of a distributed resistive-capacitive (RC) delay line. Our most commonly used delay line configuration is the cross delay line (XDL). In its simplest form the delay-line encoding electronics consists of a fast amplifier for each end of the delay line, followed by time-to-digital converters (TDC's). We have achieved resolutions of < 25 μm in tests over 65 mm x 65 mm (3k x3k resolution elements) with excellent linearity. Using high speed TDC's, we have been able to encode event positions for random photon rates of ~1 MHz, while time tagging events using the MCP output signal to better than 100 ps. The unique ability to record photon X,Y,T high fidelity information has advantages over "frame driven" recording devices for some important applications. For example we have built open face and sealed tube cross delay line detectors used for biological fluorescence lifetime imaging, observation of flare stars, orbital satellites and space debris with the GALEX satellite, and time resolved imaging of the Crab Pulsar with a telescope as small as 1m. Although microchannel plate delay line detectors meet many of the imaging and timing demands of various applications, they have limitations. The relatively high gain (107) reduces lifetime and local counting rate, and the fixed delay (10's of ns) makes multiple simultaneous event recording problematic. To overcome these limitations we have begun development of cross strip readout anodes for microchannel plate detectors. The cross strip (XS) anode is a coarse (~0.5 mm) multi-layer metal and ceramic pattern of crossed fingers on an alumina

  1. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  2. Lunar Seismic Detector to Advance the Search for Strange Quark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas B.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of small seismic signals on the Moon are needed to study lunar internal structure and to detect possible signals from Strange Quark m&er transit events. The immediate objective is to create a prototype seismic detector using a tunnel diode oscillator with a variable capacitor attached to a proof mass. The device is designed to operate effectively on the Moon, which requires a low power consumption to operate through lunar night, while preserving sensitivity. The goal is capacitance resolution of better than 1 part in 10' and power consumption of less than 1 watt.

  3. Displacement noise from back scattering and specular reflection of input optics in advanced gravitational wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Canuel, B; Genin, E; Vajente, G; Marque, J

    2013-05-01

    The second generation of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors are currently being built and installed. They are designed to be better in strain sensitivity by about a factor 10 with respect to the first generation. Light originating from the laser and following unintended paths, called stray light, has been a major problem during the commissioning of all of the first generation detectors. Indeed, stray light carries information about the phase of the emitting object. Therefore, in the next generation all the optics will be suspended in the vacuum in order to mitigate their associated stray light displacement noise. Despite this additional precaution, the challenging target sensitivity at low frequency which is partially limited by quantum radiation pressure combined with up-conversion effects, requires more detailed investigation. In this paper, we turn our attention to stray light originating from auxiliary optical benches. We use a dedicated formalism to compute the re-coupling of back-reflected and back-scattered light. We show, in particular, how much care should be taken in designing and setting requirements for the input bench optics.

  4. The potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors to detect generic deviations from general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narikawa, Tatsuya; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the predictions of general relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess what magnitude of deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters for different binary masses from the observation of a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order. We also find that neglect of orbital eccentricity or tidal deformation effects do not cause a significant bias on the detectable region of generic deviations from general relativity.

  5. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, R. M.; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Jauregui, F.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Valentine, T.; Smirnov, A.

    2016-11-01

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 107 n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  6. The Urey Instrument: An Advanced In Situ Organic and Oxidant Detector for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, Andrew D.; Chalmers, John H.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M.; Mathies, Richard A.; Quinn, Richard C.; Zent, Aaron P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin Daniel P.; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Musée, François Robert; Sephton, Mark A.; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life.

  7. The Urey instrument: an advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Andrew D; Chalmers, John H; Bada, Jeffrey L; Grunthaner, Frank J; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Quinn, Richard C; Zent, Aaron P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin, Daniel P; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L; Clark, Benton C; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Robert, François; Sephton, Mark A; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life. PMID:18680409

  8. The Urey instrument: an advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Andrew D; Chalmers, John H; Bada, Jeffrey L; Grunthaner, Frank J; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Quinn, Richard C; Zent, Aaron P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin, Daniel P; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L; Clark, Benton C; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Robert, François; Sephton, Mark A; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life.

  9. Dual-detector optical MEMS spectrum analyzer: advances, applications, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Weiss, Alexander; Stock, Volker; Wiesner, Kerstin; Lampe, Uwe; Fleischer, Maximilian; Gessner, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    The spectroscopy market is enduring and growing one, in which the near infrared spectroscopy by means of the advances plays an important and indispensable role. Some nameable advances are the noninvasive character, the rapidity, which allows real-time measurements or the flexible sampling and sample presentation. To establish near infrared spectroscopic methods and tests at a wide variety of applications new technological innovations are necessary. One of these technological innovations is a modern scanning micro mirror spectrometers. We have developed a small sized, light weight MOEMS-spectrometers for different spectral regions which are due to the optical parameters less expensive, more flexible and offer better performance than traditional spectrometers even yet. The central component of the optical set-up is a large area scanning micro mirror, which oscillates in resonance with 250Hz. Thus, to record a single spectrum only 4 milliseconds are necessary. One of the important factors of NIR spectroscopy, which affects qualitative and quantitative determination, is the sample presentation. For optimal signal processing different sample presentation techniques such as transmission and flow cells, integrating spheres and attenuated total reflection (ATR) probes were realized. Consequently in combination with chemometric methods e.g. partial least square or principal component analysis several applications could be performed and investigated. This article describes the principles and the advances of the promising technology as well as some realized applications. Furthermore influences of the sample presentation and calibration procedures will be discussed closer.

  10. Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Jiang, Xudong; Entwistle, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Tosi, Alberto; Acerbi, Fabio; Zappa, Franco; Cova, Sergio

    2011-02-01

    In this Topical Review, we survey the state-of-the-art of single photon detectors based on avalanche diodes fabricated in the InGaAsP materials system for photon counting at near infrared wavelengths in the range from 0.9-1.6 µm. The fundamental trade-off between photon detection efficiency and dark count rate can now be managed with performance that adequately serves many applications, with low dark count rates of ∼1 kHz having been demonstrated at photon detection efficiencies of 20% for 25 µm diameter fiber-coupled devices with thermoelectric cooling. Timing jitter of less than 50 ps has been achieved, although device uniformity is shown to be essential in obtaining good jitter performance. Progress is also reported towards resolving the limitations imposed on photon counting rate by afterpulsing, with at least 50 MHz repetition frequencies demonstrated for 1 ns gated operation with afterpulsing limited to the range of 1-5%. We also present a discussion of future trends and challenges related to these devices organized according to the hierarchy of materials properties, device design concepts, signal processing and electronic circuitry, and multiplexing concepts. Whereas the materials properties of these devices may pose significant challenges for the foreseeable future, there has been considerable progress in device concepts and circuit solutions towards the present imperatives for higher counting rates and simpler device operation.

  11. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    PubMed

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater. PMID:26551801

  12. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    PubMed

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater.

  13. Electron multiplication CCD detector technology advancement for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA (Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset) is a NASA space observatory. It will host two major astronomical instruments: a wide-field imager (WFI) to search for dark energy and carry out wide field near infrared (NIR) surveys, and a coronagraph instrument (CGI) to image and spectrally characterize extrasolar planets. In this paper, we discuss the work that has been carried out at JPL in advancing Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) technology to higher flight maturity, with the goal of reaching a NASA technology readiness level of 6 (TRL-6) by early-to-mid 2016. The EMCCD has been baselined for both the coronagraph's imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) based on its sub-electron noise performance at extremely low flux levels - the regime where the AFTA CGI will operate. We present results from a study that fully characterizes the beginning of life performance of the EMCCD. We also discuss, and present initial results from, a recent radiation test campaign that was designed and carried out to mimic the conditions of the WFIRST-AFTA space environment in an L2 orbit, where we sought to assess the sensor's end of life performance, particularly degradation of its charge transfer efficiency, in addition to other parameters such as dark current, electron multiplication gain, clock induced charge and read noise.

  14. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  15. Schools of Education in a New Era of Accountability: A Case Study of an Annual Report Process Used to Advance a Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceves, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are entering a new era, one where cost, value, and quality are at the front of mind. To proactively ensure long-term viability, institutions must operate differently. This qualitative case study examined how the St. Alexander University School of Education's Annual Report Process impacted institutional…

  16. Preparation of a one-curie 171Tm target for the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Rundberg, Robert S.; Vieira, David J.

    2008-05-15

    Roughly one curie of 171Tm (t1/2=1.92a) has been produced and purified for the purpose of making a nuclear target for the first measurements of its neutron capture cross section. Target preparation consisted of three key steps: (1) material production; (2) separation and purification; and (3) electrodeposition onto a suitable backing material. Approximately 1.5 mg of the target material (at the time of separation) was produced by irradiating roughly 250 mg of its stable enriched 170Er lanthanide neighbor with neutrons at the ILL reactor in France. This production method resulted in a “difficult-to-separate” 1:167 mixture of near-neighboring lanthanides, Tm and Er. Separation and purification was accomplished using high-performance liquid chromatorgraphy (HPLC), with a proprietary cation exchange column (Dionex, CS-3) and alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid (a-HIB) eluent. This technique yielded a final product of ~95% purity with respect to Tm. A portion (20 ug) of the Tm was electrodeposited on thin Be foil and delivered to the Los Alamos Neutron Science CEnter (LANSCE) for preliminary analysis of its neutron capture cross section using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). This paper discusses the major hurdles associated with the separation and purification step including, scale-up issues related to the use of HPLC for material separation and purification of the target material from a-HIB and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) colorant.

  17. Determining the Magnitude of Neutron and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Fluxes at the Moon using the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector during the Historic Space-Age Era of High GCR Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Milikh, G. M.; Su, J. J.; Livengood, T. A.; McClanahan, T. P.; Evans, L.; Starr, R. D.; litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched June 18, 2009 during an historic space-age era of minimum solar activity [1]. The lack of solar sunspot activity signaled a complex set of heliospheric phenomena [2,3,4] that also gave rise to a period of unprecedentedly high Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux [5]. These events coincided with the primary mission of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND, [6]), onboard LRO in a nominal 50-km circular orbit of the Moon [7]. Methods to calculate the emergent neutron albedo population using Monte Carlo techniques [8] rely on an estimate of the GCR flux and spectra calibrated at differing periods of solar activity [9,10,11]. Estimating the actual GCR flux at the Moon during the LEND's initial period of operation requires a correction using a model-dependent heliospheric transport modulation parameter [12] to adjust the GCR flux appropriate to this unique solar cycle. These corrections have inherent uncertainties depending on model details [13]. Precisely determining the absolute neutron and GCR fluxes is especially important in understanding the emergent lunar neutrons measured by LEND and subsequently in estimating the hydrogen/water content in the lunar regolith [6]. LEND is constructed with a set of neutron detectors to meet differing purposes [6]. Specifically there are two sets of detector systems that measure the flux of epithermal neutrons: a) the uncollimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (SETN) and b) the Collimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (CSETN). LEND SETN and CSETN observations form a complementary set of simultaneous measurements that determine the absolute scale of emergent lunar neutron flux in an unambiguous fashion and without the need for correcting to differing solar-cycle conditions. LEND measurements are combined with a detailed understanding of the sources of instrumental back-ground, and the performance of CSETN and SETN. This comparison allows us to calculate a constant scale factor

  18. Searching for Intermediate Mass Black Holes with Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghian, Laleh; Wade, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are conjectured to occupy the mass space between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes, roughly between 100 and 105 solar masses. The coalescence and merger of IMBH binaries with masses of a few hundred solar masses is an intriguing possible source of gravitational waves for Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. A single detection of an IMBH binary merger would provide the first unambiguous proof of IMBH existence. Searches for these sources have started on data collected by the Advanced LIGO since September 2015. In this talk I will present a search method for these sources in the advanced detector era, based on known signal morphology.

  19. The PixFEL project: development of advanced X-ray pixel detectors for application at future FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, G.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Forti, F.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Pancheri, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.; Mendicino, R.; Benkechkache, M. A.

    2015-02-01

    The PixFEL project aims to develop an advanced X-ray camera for imaging suited for the demanding requirements of next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities. New technologies can be deployed to boost the performance of imaging detectors as well as future pixel devices for tracking. In the first phase of the PixFEL project, approved by the INFN, the focus will be on the development of the microelectronic building blocks, carried out with a 65 nm CMOS technology, implementing a low noise analog front-end channel with high dynamic range and compression features, a low power ADC and high density memory. At the same time PixFEL will investigate and implement some of the enabling technologies to assembly a seamless large area X-ray camera composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. A pixel matrix with active edge will be developed to minimize the dead area of the sensor layer. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be explored to build a four-side buttable readout chip with small pixel pitch and all the on-board required functionalities. The ambitious target requirements of the new pixel device are: single photon resolution, 1 to 104 photons @ 1 keV to 10 keV input dynamic range, 10-bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, 1 kevent in-pixel memory and 100 μm pixel pitch. The long term goal of PixFEL will be the development of a versatile X-ray camera to be operated either in burst mode (European XFEL), or in continuous mode to cope with the high frame rates foreseen for the upgrade phase of the LCLS-II at SLAC.

  20. Hybrid deterministic and stochastic x-ray transport simulation for transmission computed tomography with advanced detector noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Lucretiu M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a model for simulation of noisy X-ray computed tomography data sets. The model is made of two main components, a photon transport simulation component that generates the noiseless photon field incident on the detector, and a detector response model that takes as input the incident photon field parameters and given the X-ray source intensity and exposure time can generate noisy data sets, accordingly. The photon transport simulation component combines direct ray-tracing of polychromatic X-rays for calculation of transmitted data, with Monte Carlo simulation for calculation of the scattered-photon data. The Monte Carlo scatter simulation is accelerated by implementing particle splitting and importance sampling variance reduction techniques. The detector-incident photon field data are stored as energy expansion coefficients on a refined grid that covers the detector area. From these data the detector response model is able to generate noisy detector data realizations, by reconstituting the main parameters that describe each detector element response in statistical terms, including spatial correlations. The model is able to generate very fast, on the fly, CT data sets corresponding to different radiation doses, as well as detector response characteristics, facilitating data management in extensive optimization studies by reducing the computation time and storage space demands.

  1. SNM Movement Detection/Radiation Sensors and Advanced Materials Portfolio Review, CdMnTe (CMT) Gamma Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov,A.

    2009-06-02

    The project goals are: (1) Develop CMT radiation detectors - Demonstrate feasibility (Phase 1 is complete) and Improve material properties and device performance; (2) This project will lead to novel radiation detectors - high detection efficiency, high energy-resolution, ambient-temperature operation, and low production cost; and (3) Such detectors are needed in areas of nonproliferation and national security for detection of SNM. Research highlights are: (1) We achieved our Phase-I goal - Demonstration of CMT detector performance approaching that of CZT detectors; (2) Demonstrated that In-doped CMT is much closer to its anticipated performance as radiation detectors than other alternative materials, TlBr and HgI{sub 2} - Large crystal volumes, 10{sup 10}{Omega}{center_dot}cm, 3 x 10{sup -3}cm{sup 2}/V, and stable response; and (3) Conducted material and device characterization experiments - Detectors: I-V, {mu}{sub e}, ({mu}{tau}){sub e}, internal E fields, energy spectra, and high-resolution x-ray response mapping data and Materials - DLTS, TCT, PL, EPDs, XRD, PCD and IR transmission.

  2. Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector Technologies and RD51 Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim; Ropelewski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    Discoveries in particle physics vitally depend on parallel advances in radiation-detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements — the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992. This invention revolutionized particle detection which moved from optical-readout devices (cloud chamber, emulsion or bubble chambers) to the electronics era. Over the past two decades advances in photo-lithography, microelectronics and printed-circuit board (PCB) techniques triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to the Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts. The excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low mass, large active areas, and radiation hardness make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the frontiers of research. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel devices where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout serve as an "electronic bubble chamber" allowing to record space points and tracks in 3D. In 2008, the RD51 collaboration at CERN has been established to further advance technological developments of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of the MPGD technologies and summarizes ongoing activities within the framework of the RD51 collaboration.

  3. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Advances in Telescope and Detector Technologies - Impacts on the Study and Understanding of Binary Star and Exoplanet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott; Devinney, Edward J.

    2012-04-01

    Current and planned telescope systems (both on the ground and in space) as well as new technologies will be discussed with emphasis on their impact on the studies of binary star and exoplanet systems. Although no telescopes or space missions are primarily designed to study binary stars (what a pity!), several are available (or will be shortly) to study exoplanet systems. Nonetheless those telescopes and instruments can also be powerful tools for studying binary and variable stars. For example, early microlensing missions (mid-1990s) such as EROS, MACHO and OGLE were initially designed for probing dark matter in the halos of galaxies but, serendipitously, these programs turned out to be a bonanza for the studies of eclipsing binaries and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Galactic Bulge. A more recent example of this kind of serendipity is the Kepler Mission. Although Kepler was designed to discover exoplanet transits (and so far has been very successful, returning many planetary candidates), Kepler is turning out to be a ``stealth'' stellar astrophysics mission returning fundamentally important and new information on eclipsing binaries, variable stars and, in particular, providing a treasure trove of data of all types of pulsating stars suitable for detailed Asteroseismology studies. With this in mind, current and planned telescopes and networks, new instruments and techniques (including interferometers) are discussed that can play important roles in our understanding of both binary star and exoplanet systems. Recent advances in detectors (e.g. laser frequency comb spectrographs), telescope networks (both small and large - e.g. Super-WASP, HAT-net, RoboNet, Las Combres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network), wide field (panoramic) telescope systems (e.g. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-Starrs), huge telescopes (e.g. the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the Overwhelming Large Telescope (OWL) and the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT

  5. Neutron radiography as a non-destructive method for diagnosing neutron converters for advanced thermal neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraro, A.; Albani, G.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Croci, G.; Angella, G.; Birch, J.; Cazzaniga, C.; Caniello, R.; Dell'Era, F.; Ghezzi, F.; Grosso, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Höglund, C.; Hultman, L.; Schimdt, S.; Robinson, L.; Rebai, M.; Salvato, G.; Tresoldi, D.; Vasi, C.; Tardocchi, M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the well-known problem of 3He shortage, a series of different thermal neutron detectors alternative to helium tubes are being developed, with the goal to find valid candidates for detection systems for the future spallation neutron sources such as the European Spallation Source (ESS). A possible 3He-free detector candidate is a charged particle detector equipped with a three dimensional neutron converter cathode (3D-C). The 3D-C currently under development is composed by a series of alumina (Al2O3) lamellas coated by 1 μ m of 10B enriched boron carbide (B4C). In order to obtain a good characterization in terms of detector efficiency and uniformity it is crucial to know the thickness, the uniformity and the atomic composition of the B4C neutron converter coating. In this work a non-destructive technique for the characterization of the lamellas that will compose the 3D-C was performed using neutron radiography. The results of these measurements show that the lamellas that will be used have coating uniformity suitable for detector applications. This technique (compared with SEM, EDX, ERDA, XPS) has the advantage of being global (i.e. non point-like) and non-destructive, thus it is suitable as a check method for mass production of the 3D-C elements.

  6. Results from the characterisation of Advanced GAmma Tracking Array prototype detectors and their consequences for the next-generation nuclear physics spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, M. R.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nelson, L.; Nolan, P.; Rigby, S.; Unsworth, C.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Parisel, C.; Santos, C.

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project that is aiming to construct a complete 4π High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer for nuclear structure studies at future Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) Facilities. The proposed array will utilise digital electronics, Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) and Gamma-Ray Tracking (GRT) algorithms, to overcome the limited efficiencies encountered by current Escape Suppressed Spectrometers (ESS), whilst maintaining the high Peak-to-Total ratio. Two AGATA symmetrical segmented Canberra Eurisys (CE) prototype HPGe detectors have been tested at the University of Liverpool. A highly collimated Cs-137 (662keV) beam was raster scanned across each detector and data were collected in both singles and coincidence modes. The charge sensitive preamplifier output pulse shapes from all 37 channels (one for each of the 36 segments and one for the centre contact) were digitised and stored for offline analysis. The shapes of the real charge and image charge pulses have been studied to give detailed information on the position dependent response of each detector. 1mm position sensitivity has been achieved with the parameterisation of average pulse shapes, calculated from data collected with each of the detectors. The coincidence data has also been utilised to validate the electric field simulation code Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS). The precisely determined 3D interaction positions allow the comparison of experimental pulse shapes from single site interactions with those generated by the simulation. It is intended that the validated software will be used to calculate a basis data set of pulse shapes for the array, from which any interaction site can be determined through a χ2 minimisation of the digitized pulse with linear combinations of basis pulseshapes. The results from this partial validation, along with those from the investigation into the position sensitivity of each detector are presented.

  7. Pyroelectric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey; Hansen, William L.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The multi-agency, long-term Global Change programs, and specifically NASA's Earth Observing system, will require some new and advanced photon detector technology which must be specifically tailored for long-term stability, broad spectral range, cooling constraints, and other parameters. Whereas MCT and GaAs alloy based photovoltaic detectors and detector arrays reach most impressive results to wavelengths as long as 12 microns when cooled to below 70 K, other materials, such as ferroelectrics and pyroelectrics, appear to offer special opportunities beyond 12 microns and above 70 K. These materials have found very broad use in a wide variety of room temperature applications. Little is known about these classes of materials at sub-room temperatures and no photon detector results have been reported. From the limited information available, researchers conclude that the room temperature values of D asterisk greater than or equal to 10(exp 9) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W may be improved by one to two orders of magnitude upon cooling to temperatures around 70 K. Improvements of up to one order of magnitude appear feasible for temperatures achievable by passive cooling. The flat detector response over a wavelength range reaching from the visible to beyond 50 microns, which is an intrinsic advantage of bolometric devices, makes for easy calibration. The fact that these materials have been developed for reduced temperature applications makes ferro- and pyroelectric materials most attractive candidates for serious exploration.

  8. Opportunities for new era projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggshall, William L.

    2009-02-01

    Advances in front projection technology, particularly imager chips and illumination sources, are heralding a whole "New Era" of sub-500 lumen projectors that are significantly smaller and/or cheaper than the classical (500+ lumen) models available up to now. Liquid crystal and MEMS technology imager chips are being joined by MOEMS scanner chips, and lamps are being joined by LEDs and lasers. These New Era models are finding myriad applications, from wall-powered toy and gaming projectors (for which price, not size, is the key consideration) and personal projectors that can be used for a variety of vertical markets, to a host of viewing needs that can be filled by tiny battery-powered pico projectors.

  9. Design of an advanced positron emission tomography detector system and algorithms for imaging small animal models of human disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudray, Angela Marie Klohs

    Detecting, quantifying and visualizing biochemical mechanism in a living system without perturbing function is the goal of the instrument and algorithms designed in this thesis. Biochemical mechanisms of cells have long been known to be dependent on the signals they receive from their environment. Studying biological processes of cells in-vitro can vastly distort their function, since you are removing them from their natural chemical signaling environment. Mice have become the biological system of choice for various areas of biomedical research due to their genetic and physiological similarities with humans, the relatively low cost of their care, and their quick breeding cycle. Drug development and efficacy assessment along with disease detection, management, and mechanism research all have benefited from the use of small animal models of human disease. A high resolution, high sensitivity, three-dimensional (3D) positioning positron emission tomography (PET) detector system was designed through device characterization and Monte Carlo simulation. Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) were characterized in various packaging configurations; coupled to various configurations of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals. Forty novelly packaged final design devices were constructed and characterized, each providing characteristics superior to commercially available scintillation detectors used in small animal imaging systems: ˜1mm crystal identification, 14-15% of 511 keV energy resolution, and averaging 1.9 to 5.6 ns coincidence time resolution. A closed-cornered box-shaped detector configuration was found to provide optimal photon sensitivity (˜10.5% in the central plane) using dual LSO-PSAPD scintillation detector modules and Monte Carlo simulation. Standard figures of merit were used to determine optimal system acquisition parameters. A realistic model for constituent devices was developed for understanding the signals reported by the

  10. Advanced High School Biology in an Era of Rapid Change: A Summary of the Biology Panel Report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, "Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools", evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study,…

  11. Ground-based gravitational wave interferometric detectors of the first and second generation: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losurdo, Giovanni

    2012-06-01

    The era of first-generation gravitational wave interferometric detectors is ending. No signals have been detected so far. However, remarkable results have been achieved: the design sensitivity has been approached (and in some cases even exceeded) together with the achievement of robustness and reliability; a world-wide network of detectors has been established; the data collected so far has allowed upper limits to be put on several types of sources; some second-generation technologies have been tested on these detectors. The scenario for the next few years is very exciting. The projects to upgrade LIGO and Virgo to second-generation interferometers, capable of increasing the detection rate by a factor of ˜1000, have been funded. The construction of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has started. GEO600 has started the upgrade to GEO HF, introducing light squeezing for the first time on a large detector. LCGT has been partly funded and the construction of the vacuum system is underway. There is a possibility that the third Advanced LIGO interferometer will be constructed in India. So, a powerful worldwide network could be in operation by the end of the decade. In this paper, we review the results achieved so far and the perspectives for the advanced detectors.

  12. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  13. Flight performance of an advanced CZT imaging detector in a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope—ProtoEXIST1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Barthelemy, S.; Baker, R.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Apple, J.; Cleveland, W. H.

    2011-10-01

    We successfully carried out the first high-altitude balloon flight of a wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescope ProtoEXIST1, which was launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on October 9, 2009. ProtoEXIST1 is the first implementation of an advanced CdZnTe (CZT) imaging detector in our ongoing program to establish the technology required for next generation wide-field hard X-ray telescopes such as the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The CZT detector plane in ProtoEXIST1 consists of an 8×8 array of closely tiled 2 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm thick pixellated CZT crystals, each with 8×8 pixels, mounted on a set of readout electronics boards and covering a 256 cm2 active area with 2.5 mm pixels. A tungsten mask, mounted at 90 cm above the detector provides shadowgrams of X-ray sources in the 30-600 keV band for imaging, allowing a fully coded field of view of 9°×9° (and 19°×19° for 50% coding fraction) with an angular resolution of 20‧. In order to reduce the background radiation, the detector is surrounded by semi-graded (Pb/Sn/Cu) passive shields on the four sides all the way to the mask. On the back side, a 26 cm×26 cm×2 cm CsI(Na) active shield provides signals to tag charged particle induced events as well as ≳100keV background photons from below. The flight duration was only about 7.5 h due to strong winds (60 knots) at float altitude (38-39 km). Throughout the flight, the CZT detector performed excellently. The telescope observed Cyg X-1, a bright black hole binary system, for ˜1h at the end of the flight. Despite a few problems with the pointing and aspect systems that caused the telescope to track about 6.4° off the target, the analysis of the Cyg X-1 data revealed an X-ray source at 7.2σ in the 30-100 keV energy band at the expected location from the optical images taken by the onboard daytime star camera. The success of this first flight is very

  14. (Data acquisition for Ge detector arrays)

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.C.

    1989-10-09

    The traveler presented three invited lectures entitled An Overview of Data Acquisition for Ge Detector Arrays,'' Specialized Data Acquisition for Ge Detector Arrays,'' and Gamma-Ray Angular Correlations from Heavy-Ion Inelastic Scattering Measured in the Spin Spectrometer'' and acted as a Study Group Coordinator at the Nuclear Structure in the Era of New Spectroscopy Workshop in Copenhagen, Denmark.

  15. Advanced high school biology in an era of rapid change: a summary of the biology panel report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools.

    PubMed

    Wood, William B

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study, discipline-specific panels were formed to evaluate advanced programs in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Among the conclusions of the Content Panel for Biology were that AP courses in particular suffer from inadequate quality control as well as excessive pressure to fulfill their advanced placement function, which encourages teachers to attempt coverage of all areas of biology and emphasize memorization of facts rather than in-depth understanding. In this essay, the Panel's principal findings are discussed, with an emphasis on its recommendation that colleges and universities should be strongly discouraged from using performance on either the AP examination or the IB examination as the sole basis for automatic placement out of required introductory courses for biology majors and distribution requirements for nonmajors.

  16. Nanotechnology: A new era for photodetection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Ambrosio, A.; Ambrosone, G.; Campajola, L.; Cantele, G.; Carillo, V.; Coscia, U.; Iadonisi, G.; Ninno, D.; Maddalena, P.; Perillo, E.; Raulo, A.; Russo, P.; Trani, F.; Esposito, E.; Grossi, V.; Passacantando, M.; Santucci, S.; Allegrini, M.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Patanè, S.; Bobba, F.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Giubileo, F.; Iemmo, L.; Scarfato, A.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays we live in the so-called "Silicon Era", in which devices based on the silicon technology permeate all aspects of our daily life. One can simply think how much silicon is in the everyday household objects, gadgets and appliances. The impact of silicon technology has been very relevant in photodetection as well. It enables designing large or very large-scale integration devices, in particular microchips and pixelled detectors like the Silicon Photo Multiplier made of micrometric channels grouped in mm 2 pixels. However, on the horizon, the recent development of nanotechnologies is opening a new direction in the design of sub-micron photodevices, owing to the capability to deal with individual molecules of compounds or to chemically grow various kinds of materials. Among them, carbon compounds appear to be the most promising materials being chemically very similar to silicon, abundant and easy to handle. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a very intriguing new form of material, whose properties are being studied worldwide providing important results. The photoelectric effects observed on carbon nanotubes indicate the possibility to build photodetectors based on CNTs inducing many people to claim that we are at the beginning of a Post Silicon Era or of the Carbon Era. In this paper, we report on the most important achievements obtained on the application of nanotechnologies to photodetection and medical imaging, as well as to the development of radiation detectors for astro-particle physics experiments.

  17. Studies of waveform requirements for intermediate mass-ratio coalescence searches with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J. E.; Mandel, I.; Vecchio, A.

    2013-08-01

    The coalescence of a stellar-mass compact object into an intermediate-mass black hole (intermediate mass-ratio coalescence; IMRAC) is an important astrophysical source for ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers in the so-called advanced (or second-generation) configuration. However, the ability to carry out effective matched-filter-based searches for these systems is limited by the lack of reliable waveforms. Here we consider binaries in which the intermediate-mass black hole has a mass in the range 24M⊙-200M⊙ with a stellar-mass companion having masses in the range 1.4M⊙-18.5M⊙. In addition, we constrain the mass ratios, q, of the binaries to be in the range 1/140≤q≤1/10 and we restrict our study to the case of circular binaries with nonspinning components. We investigate the relative contribution to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the three different phases of the coalescence—inspiral, merger and ringdown—using waveforms computed within the effective one-body formalism matched to numerical relativity. We show that merger and ringdown contribute to a substantial fraction of the total SNR over a large portion of the mass parameter space, although in a limited portion the SNR is dominated by the inspiral phase. We further identify three regions in the IMRAC mass space in which (i) inspiral-only searches could be performed with losses in detection rates L in the range 10%≲L≲27%, (ii) searches based on inspiral-only templates lead to a loss in detection rates in the range 27%≲L≲50%, and (iii) templates that include merger and ringdown are essential to prevent losses in detection rates greater than 50%. In addition we find that using inspiral-only templates as filters can lead to large biases in the estimates of the mass parameters of IMRACs. We investigate the effectiveness with which the inspiral-only portion of the IMRAC waveform space is covered by comparing several existing waveform families in this regime. We find that

  18. New Media, New Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, John Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the new communications technologies on the generation born in the 1980s, the first to grow up under the dominance of the computer. It considers some of the parameters for discussing the close of one era and the beginning of another and draws on the writings of major civilizationist historians and futurologists,…

  19. ERA: Adverse Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Excellence in Research for Australia has a number of limitations: inputs are counted as outputs, time is wasted, disciplinary research is favoured and public engagement is discouraged. Most importantly, by focusing on measurement and emphasising competition, ERA may actually undermine the cooperation and intrinsic motivation that underpin research…

  20. The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  1. History of infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  2. Transmutation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Kučera, J.; Kůs, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-03-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  3. Parameter estimation and tests of General Relativity with GW transients in Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced LIGO observatories have successfully completed their first observation run. Data were collected from September 2015 to January 2016, with a sensitivity a few times better than initial instruments in the hundreds of Hertz band. Bayesian parameter estimation and model selection algorithms can be used to estimate the astrophysical parameters of gravitational-wave sources, as well as to perform tests of General Relativity in its strong-field dynamical regime. In this talk we will describe the methods devised to characterize transient gravitational wave sources and their applications in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era.

  4. Multisensor mine detector for peacekeeping: improved landmine detector concept (ILDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Carruthers, Al

    1996-05-01

    The Improved Landmine Detector Concept Project was initiated in Autumn 1994 to develop a prototype vehicle mounted mine detector for low metal content and nonmetallic mines for a peacekeeping role on roads. The system will consist of a teleoperated vehicle carrying a highly sensitive electromagnetic induction (EMI) detector, an infrared imager (IR), ground probing radar (GPR), and a thermal neutron activation (TNA) detector for confirmation. The IR, EMI and TNA detectors have been under test since 1995 and the GPR will be received in June 1996. Results of performance trials of the individual detectors are discussed. Various design configurations and their tradeoffs are discussed. Fusion of data from the detectors to reduce false alarm rate and increase probability of detection, a key element to the success of the system, is discussed. An advanced development model of the system is expected to be complete by Spring 1997.

  5. Improved CO [lidar detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

    1999-07-18

    A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

  6. Parameter estimation of neutron star-black hole binaries using an advanced gravitational-wave detector network: Effects of the full post-Newtonian waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Mishra, Chandra Kant; Pai, Archana; Arun, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the effects of using the full waveform (FWF) over the conventional restricted waveform of the inspiral signal from a coalescing compact binary system in extracting the parameters of the source, using a global network of second generation interferometric detectors. We study a hypothetical population of (1.4-10)M⊙ neutron star-black hole binaries (uniformly distributed and oriented in the sky) by employing the full post-Newtonian waveforms, which not only include contributions from various harmonics other than the dominant one (quadrupolar mode) but also the post-Newtonian amplitude corrections associated with each harmonic, of the inspiral signal expected from this system. It is expected that the GW detector network consisting of the two LIGO detectors and a Virgo detector will be joined by KAGRA (a Japanese detector) and by proposed LIGO-India. We study the problem of parameter estimation with all 16 possible detector configurations. Comparing medians of error distributions obtained using FWFs with those obtained using restricted waveforms (which only include contributions from the dominant harmonic with Newtonian amplitude) we find that the measurement accuracies for luminosity distance and the cosine of the inclination angle improve almost by a factor of 1.5-2 depending upon the network under consideration. We find that this improvement can be attributed to the presence of additional inclination angle dependent terms, which appear in the amplitude corrections to various harmonics, which break the strong degeneracy between the luminosity distance and inclination angle. Although the use of FWF does not improve the source localization accuracy much, the global network consisting of five detectors will improve the source localization accuracy by a factor of 4 as compared to the estimates using a three-detector LIGO-Virgo network for the same waveform model.

  7. Second Nuclear Era

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S.; Phung, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  8. The Progressive Era.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation. PMID:16350929

  9. Rework of the ERA software system: ERA-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    The software system that has been powering many products of the IAA during decades has undergone a major rework. ERA has capabilities for: processing tables of observations of different kinds, fitting parameters to observations, integrating equations of motion of the Solar system bodies. ERA comprises a domain-specific language called SLON, tailored for astronomical tasks. SLON provides a convenient syntax for reductions of observations, choosing of IAU standards to use, applying rules for filtering observations or selecting parameters for fitting. Also, ERA includes a table editor and a graph plotter. ERA-8 has a number of improvements over previous versions such as: integration of the Solar system and TT xA1 TDB with arbitrary number of asteroids; option to use different ephemeris (including DE and INPOP); integrator with 80-bit floating point. The code of ERA-8 has been completely rewritten from Pascal to C (for numerical computations) and Racket (for running SLON programs and managing data). ERA-8 is portable across major operating systems. The format of tables in ERA-8 is based on SQLite. The SPICE format has been chosen as the main format for ephemeris in ERA-8.

  10. Interdisciplinarity in an Era of New Public Management: A Case Study of Graduate Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Neumann, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    In an era of rapid knowledge transmission and creation spurred on by advances in technology and globalisation, calls for interdisciplinarity to solve "wicked" problems are common. In the same era, universities are increasingly adopting new public management practices. The extent to which these practices affect knowledge production is an…

  11. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  12. Optical Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goushcha, Alexander; Tabbert, Bernd

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities - from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  13. Optical Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  14. Refining Radchem Detectors: Iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Moody, W. A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Couture, A. J.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Accurate determination of neutron fluence is an important diagnostic of nuclear device performance, whether the device is a commercial reactor, a critical assembly or an explosive device. One important method for neutron fluence determination, generally referred to as dosimetry, is based on exploiting various threshold reactions of elements such as iridium. It is possible to infer details about the integrated neutron energy spectrum to which the dosimetry sample or ``radiochemical detector'' was exposed by measuring specific activation products post-irradiation. The ability of radchem detectors like iridium to give accurate neutron fluence measurements is limited by the precision of the cross-sections in the production/destruction network (189Ir-193Ir). The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) located at LANSCE is ideal for refining neutron capture cross sections of iridium isotopes. Recent results from a measurement of neutron capture on 193-Ir are promising. Plans to measure other iridium isotopes are underway.

  15. Big data era in meteor science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinković, D.; Gritsevich, M.; Srećković, V.; Pečnik, B.; Szabó, G.; Debattista, V.; Škoda, P.; Mahabal, A.; Peltoniemi, J.; Mönkölä, S.; Mickaelian, A.; Turunen, E.; Kákona, J.; Koskinen, J.; Grokhovsky, V.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades technological advancements in observational techniques in meteor science have yielded drastic improvements in the quality, quantity and diversity of meteor data, while even more ambitious instruments are about to become operational. This empowers meteor science to boost its experimental and theoretical horizons and seek more advanced science goals. We review some of the developments that push meteor science into the big data era that requires more complex methodological approaches through interdisciplinary collaborations with other branches of physics and computer science. We argue that meteor science should become an integral part of large surveys in astronomy, aeronomy and space physics, and tackle the complexity of micro-physics of meteor plasma and its interaction with the atmosphere.

  16. Status of ERA Airframe Technology Demonstrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela; Jegley, Dawn; Rigney, Tom

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise. The Airframe Technology subproject contains two elements. Under the Damage Arresting Composite Demonstration an advanced material system is being explored which will lead to lighter airframes that are more structural efficient than the composites used in aircraft today. Under the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flight Experiment a new concept of a flexible wing trailing edge is being evaluated which will reduce weight and improve aerodynamic performance. This presentation will describe the development these two airframe technologies.

  17. Lasers, Spectrographs, and Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaPlant, Fred

    The introduction of Raman spectroscopy into new fields has been driven largely by advances in the underlying technology. While the spectrometer is still comprised of a light source, a wavelength selector, and a detector, the improvement in functionality of each of these components has had dramatic impacts on areas where Raman was once thought impractical, if not impossible. In addition, esoteric techniques once confined to academic spectroscopy labs are now finding wide application.

  18. Recent developments in semiconductor gamma-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Paul N.; Amman, Mark; Tindall, Craig; Lee, Julie S.

    2003-10-28

    The successful development of lithium-drifted Ge detectors in the 1960's marked the beginning of the significant use of semiconductor crystals for direct detection and spectroscopy of gamma rays. In the 1970's, high-purity Ge became available, which enabled the production of complex detectors and multi-detector systems. In the following decades, the technology of semiconductor gamma-ray detectors continued to advance, with significant developments not only in Ge detectors but also in Si detectors and room-temperature compound-semiconductor detectors. In recent years, our group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a variety of gamma ray detectors based on these semiconductor materials. Examples include Ge strip detectors, lithium-drifted Si strip detectors, and coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors. These advances provide new capabilities in the measurement of gamma rays, such as the ability to perform imaging and the realization of highly compact spectroscopy systems.

  19. The first two years of electromagnetic follow-up with advanced LIGO and Virgo

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Leo P.; Price, Larry R.; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Pankow, Chris; Downes, Tom; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Graff, Philip

    2014-11-10

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves (GWs) with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global GW detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star (BNS) mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most BNS events, the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, is as accurate as the full parameter estimation. We demonstrate that Advanced Virgo will play an important role in sky localization, even though it is anticipated to come online with only one-third as much sensitivity as the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find that the median 90% confidence region shrinks from ∼500 deg{sup 2} in 2015 to ∼200 deg{sup 2} in 2016. A few distinct scenarios for the first LIGO/Virgo detections emerge from our simulations.

  20. The First Two Years of Electromagnetic Follow-Up with Advanced LIGO and Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Benjamin F.; Singer, Leo; Price, Larry; Urban, Alex; Pankow, Chris; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Downes, Tom; Graff, Philip; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global gravitational-wave detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most binary neutron star events the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, is as accurate as the full parameter estimation. We demonstrate that Advanced Virgo will play an important role in sky localization, even though it is anticipated to come online with only 1/3 as much sensitivity as the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find that the median 90% confidence region shrinks from ~500 square degrees in 2015 to ~200 square degrees in 2016. From hundreds of simulated events unfold some likely detection scenarios.

  1. The First Two Years of Electromagnetic Follow-up with Advanced LIGO and Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Price, Larry R.; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Pankow, Chris; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Downes, Tom; Graff, Philip; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves (GWs) with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global GW detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star (BNS) mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most BNS events, the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, is as accurate as the full parameter estimation. We demonstrate that Advanced Virgo will play an important role in sky localization, even though it is anticipated to come online with only one-third as much sensitivity as the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find that the median 90% confidence region shrinks from ~500 deg2 in 2015 to ~200 deg2 in 2016. A few distinct scenarios for the first LIGO/Virgo detections emerge from our simulations.

  2. MS Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

    2005-11-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  3. The Swift Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Burrows, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains highly dependent on the capabilities of the observatories that carry out the measurements. The large detector size of BATSE produced an impressively large sample of GRBs for duration and sky distribution studies. The burst localization and repointing capabilities of BeppoSAX led to breakthroughs in host and progenitor understanding. The next phase in our understanding of GRBs is being provided by the Swift mission. In this chapter we discuss the capabilities and findings of the Swift mission and their relevance to our understanding of GRBs. We also examine what is being learned about star formation, supernovae and the early Universe from the new results. In each section of the chapter, we close with a discussion of the new questions and issues raised by the Swift findings.

  4. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  5. ZnCdMgSe as a Materials Platform for Advanced Photonic Devices: Broadband Quantum Cascade Detectors and Green Semiconductor Disk Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus, Joel

    The ZnCdMgSe family of II-VI materials has unique and promising characteristics that may be useful in practical applications. For example they can be grown lattice matched to InP substrates with lattice matched bandgaps that span from 2.1 to 3.5 eV, they can be successfully doped n-type, have a large conduction band offset (CBO) with no intervalley scattering present when strained, they have lower average phonon energies, and the InP lattice constant lies in the middle of the ZnSe and CdSe binaries compounds giving room to experiment with tensile and compressive stress. However they have not been studied in detail for use in practical devices. Here we have identified two types of devices that are being currently developed that benefit from the ZnCdMgSe-based material properties. These are the intersubband (ISB) quantum cascade (QC) detectors and optically pumped semiconductor lasers that emit in the visible range. The paucity for semiconductor lasers operating in the green-orange portion of the visible spectrum can be easily overcome with the ZnCdMgSe materials system developed in our research. The non-strain limited, large CBO available allows to expand the operating wavelength of ISB devices providing shorter and longer wavelengths than the currently commercially available devices. This property can also be exploited to develop broadband room temperature operation ISB detectors. The work presented here focused first on using the ZnCdMgSe-based material properties and parameter to understand and predict the interband and intersubband transitions of its heterostructures. We did this by studying an active region of a QC device by contactless electroreflectance, photoluminescence, FTIR transmittance and correlating the measurements to the quantum well structure by transfer matrix modeling. Then we worked on optimizing the ZnCdMgSe material heterostructures quality by studying the effects of growth interruptions on their optical and optoelectronic properties of

  6. Photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  7. PHASE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kippenhan, D.O.

    1959-09-01

    A phase detector circuit is described for use at very high frequencies of the order of 50 megacycles. The detector circuit includes a pair of rectifiers inverted relative to each other. One voltage to be compared is applied to the two rectifiers in phase opposition and the other voltage to be compared is commonly applied to the two rectifiers. The two result:ng d-c voltages derived from the rectifiers are combined in phase opposition to produce a single d-c voltage having amplitude and polarity characteristics dependent upon the phase relation between the signals to be compared. Principal novelty resides in the employment of a half-wave transmission line to derive the phase opposing signals from the first voltage to be compared for application to the two rectifiers in place of the transformer commonly utilized for such purpose in phase detector circuits for operation at lower frequency.

  8. Research Advances: A New Approach to Natural Product Identification; Acrylamide in French Fries; Selectively Sensing Mercury with Oligonucleotide-Based Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation of some recent scientific advances reported in other journals, three topics are briefly discussed. The first topic concerns an unusual analysis that allows natural product identification without purification. The second topic is about research suggesting how to reduce acrylamide levels in french fries. The third topic reviews a novel sensor for detecting mercury contamination.

  9. Hydrogen detector

    DOEpatents

    Kanegae, Naomichi; Ikemoto, Ichiro

    1980-01-01

    A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

  10. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  11. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  12. Silicon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrozinski, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    The use of silicon detectors has experienced an exponential growth in accelerator and space based experiments, similar to trends in the semiconductor industry as a whole, usually paraphrased as ``Moore's Law.'' Some of the essentials for this phenomenon will be presented, together with examples of the exciting science results which it enabled. With the establishment of a ``semiconductor culture'' in universities and laboratories around the world, an increased understanding of the sensors results in thinner, faster, more radiation-resistant detectors, spawning an amazing wealth of new technologies and applications, which will be the main subject of the presentation.

  13. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  14. Advanced light element and low energy X-ray line analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) with Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salge, T.; Palasse, L.; Berlin, J.; Hansen, B.; Terborg, R.; Falke, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Characterization at the micro- to nano-scale is crucial for understanding many processes in earth, planetary, material and biological sciences. The composition of thin electron transparent samples can be analyzed in the nm-range using transmission electron microscopes (TEM) or, specific sample holders provided, in the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Nevertheless both methods often require complex sample preparation. An alternative method is to analyze bulk samples with a FE-SEM. In order to decrease the excitation volume for generated X-rays, low accelerating voltages (HV<10) are required. Consequently, only low to intermediate energy X-ray lines can be evaluated and many peak overlaps have to be deconvoluted since the high energy range is not available. Methods: A BRUKER Quantax EDS system with an XFlash Silicon Drift Detector acquired EDS spectra in spectrum images. To separate overlapping peaks, an extended atomic database [1] was used. For single channel EDS the electron beam current, solid angle, take-off angle and exposure time can be optimized to investigate the element composition. Multiple SDD setups ensure an even higher efficiency and larger collection angles for the X-ray analysis than single channel detectors. Shadowing effects are minimized in element distribution maps so that samples can be investigated quickly and sometimes in a close to natural state, with little preparation. A new type of EDS detector, the annular four channel SDD (XFlash 5060F), is placed between the pole piece and sample. It covers a very large solid angle (1.1 sr) and allows sufficient data collection at low beam currents on beam sensitive samples with substantial surface topography. Examples of applications: Results demonstrate that SDD-based EDS analysis contributes essential information on the structure at the micro- to nano scale of the investigated sample types. These include stardust analogue impact experiments [2], Chicxulub asteroid

  15. Engineering Education for a New Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgaki, Shinichiro

    Engineering education is composed of five components, the idea what engineering education ought to be, the knowledge in engineering fields, those who learn engineering, those who teach engineering and the stakeholders in engineering issues. The characteristics of all these five components are changing with the times. When we consider the engineering education for the next era, we should analyze the changes of all five components. Especially the knowledge and tools in engineering fields has been expanding, and advanced science and technology is casting partly a dark shadow on the modern convenient life. Moral rules or ethics for developing new products and engineering systems are now regarded as most important in engineering fields. All those who take the responsibility for engineering education should understand the change of all components in engineering education and have a clear grasp of the essence of engineering for sustainable society.

  16. Vertex detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10{sup {minus}13} s, among them the {tau} lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation.

  17. Large Format Detector Arrays for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    Improvements in detector design and advances in fabrication techniques has resulted in devices which can reach fundamental sensitivity limits in many cases. Many pressing astrophysical questions require large arrays of such sensitive detectors. I will describe the state of far infrared through millimeter detector development at NASA/GSFC, the design and production of large format arrays, and the initial deployment of these powerful new tools.

  18. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  19. Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

  20. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  1. Neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Andrew C.; Jardret; Vincent D.

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  2. Neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Andrew C; Jardret, Vincent D

    2009-04-07

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  3. Angle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, G. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

  4. Flame Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Scientific Instruments, Inc. has now developed a second generation, commercially available instrument to detect flames in hazardous environments, typically refineries, chemical plants and offshore drilling platforms. The Model 74000 detector incorporates a sensing circuit that detects UV radiation in a 100 degree conical field of view extending as far as 250 feet from the instrument. It operates in a bandwidth that makes it virtually 'blind' to solar radiation while affording extremely high sensitivity to ultraviolet flame detection. A 'windowing' technique accurately discriminates between background UV radiation and ultraviolet emitted from an actual flame, hence the user is assured of no false alarms. Model 7410CP is a combination controller and annunciator panel designed to monitor and control as many as 24 flame detectors. *Model 74000 is no longer being manufactured.

  5. Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

    The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water Čerenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

  6. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or

  7. Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Harigel, G.G.

    2004-06-23

    In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

  8. Dust Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a recent sounding rocket experiment which found charged dust in the Earth's tropical mesosphere. The dust detector was designed to measure small (5000 - 10000 amu.) charged dust particles, most likely of meteoric origin. A 5 km thick layer of positively charged dust was found at an altitude of 90 km, in the vicinity of an observed sporadic sodium layer and sporadic E layer. The observed dust was positively charged in the bulk of the dust layer, but was negatively charged near the bottom.

  9. Ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Tullis, Andrew M.

    1987-01-01

    An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber ype comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

  10. Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, L.; Dimmock, M. R.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.

    2007-04-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at the University of Liverpool. A 137Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented.

  11. Proceedings of the Second Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The workshop focused on infrared detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers are organized into the following categories: discrete infrared detectors and readout electronics; advanced bolometers; intrinsic integrated infrared arrays; and extrinsic integrated infrared arrays. Status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) programs are also included.

  12. Broadband Electromagnetic Follow-up of Advanced LIGO Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Leo; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Advanced LIGO began observing in September 2015 with over 3 times the distance reach (27 times the sensitive volume) of its previous configuration. Some gravitational-wave sources, particularly neutron star binary mergers, are expected to produce broadband electromagnetic transients which may be crucial to understanding the astrophysical context of these events. We have assembled a consortium of over 60 ground- and space-based gamma-ray, x-ray, optical, infrared, and radio facilities collaborating to search for broadband electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational-wave sources. In this talk, we describe the LIGO/Virgo EM follow-up program and the astronomical facilities that participated during this first LIGO observing run. Then, we survey the multi-wavelength observing campaigns embarked upon for specific gravitational-wave events. Finally, we discuss lessons learned and the way forward for joint GW-EM observations in an era of increasingly sensitive GW detectors.

  13. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) is a 4π array of BaF2 crystals installed at LANSCE, Lujan Center. Neutron capture measurements on ^157Gd and ^89Y nuclei were conducted using this facility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyzh, A.; Mitchell, G.; Vieira, D.; Bredeweg, T.; Ullmann, J.; Jandel, M.; Couture, A.; Keksis, A.; Rundberg, R.; Wilhelmy, J.; O'Donnell, J.; Baramsai, B.; Haight, R.; Wouters, J.; Krticka, M.; Parker, W.; Becker, J.; Agvaanlusan, U.

    2009-10-01

    DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) is a 4π array of BaF2 crystals installed at LANSCE, Lujan Center. Neutron capture measurements on ^157Gd and ^89Y nuclei were conducted using this facility. The absolute cross sections of the ^89Y(n,γ) reaction was measured for the first time ever in the neutron energy range of 10 eV -- 10 keV and improvements were made in the 10 -- 300 keV range. The error bars were significantly reduced and number of cross section points was increased since the past ^89Y(n,γ) experiments. The ^157Gd(n,γ) cross section was determined at En = 20 eV -- 300 keV by normalizing the experimental DANCE data to a well known resonance taken from the ENDF/B-VII library. Computer simulations of the ^157Gd(n,γ) cascades and DANCE pulse height function were made using DICEBOX and GEANT4 codes and simulated Esum and Eγ spectra are compared to the experimental DANCE data. Values of spin and photon strength function (PSF) of the ^157Gd(n,γ) resonances are provided in the range of En = 2 -- 300 eV using spin dependence upon a γ-ray multiplicity.

  14. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  15. Oscillator detector

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-05-13

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

  16. Far-Infrared Blocked Impurity Band Detector Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, H. H.; Guptill, M. T.; Monson, J. C.; Stewart, J. W.; Huffman, J. E.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Abedin, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems, supported by detector materials supplier Lawrence Semiconductor Research Laboratory, is developing far-infrared detectors jointly with NASA Langley under the Far-IR Detector Technology Advancement Partnership (FIDTAP). The detectors are intended for spectral characterization of the Earth's energy budget from space. During the first year of this effort we have designed, fabricated, and evaluated pilot Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors in both silicon and germanium, utilizing pre-existing customized detector materials and photolithographic masks. A second-year effort has prepared improved silicon materials, fabricated custom photolithographic masks for detector process, and begun detector processing. We report the characterization results from the pilot detectors and other progress.

  17. Deltopectoral Flap in the Era of Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Chan, R. C. L.; Chan, J. Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Our study aimed to review the role of deltopectoral (DP) flap as a reconstructive option for defects in the head and neck region in the microvascular era. Methods. All patients who received DP flap reconstruction surgery at the Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, between 1999 and 2011 were recruited. Demographic data, indications for surgery, defect for reconstruction, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results. Fifty-four patients were included. All but two patients were operated for reconstruction after tumour resection. The remaining two patients were operated for necrotizing fasciitis and osteoradionecrosis. The majority of DP flaps were used to cover neck skin defect (63.0%). Other reconstructed defects included posterior pharyngeal wall (22.2%), facial skin defect (11.1%), and tracheal wall (3.7%). All donor sites were covered with partial thickness skin graft. Two patients developed partial flap necrosis at the tip and were managed conservatively. The overall flap survival rate was 96.3%. Conclusions. Albeit the technical advancements in microvascular surgery, DP still possesses multiple advantages (technical simplicity, reliable axial blood supply, large size, thinness, and pliability) which allows it to remain as a useful, reliable, and versatile surgical option for head and neck reconstruction. PMID:25374953

  18. Human rights in the biotechnology era 1

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R

    2002-01-01

    Backgound The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond human rights language. PMID:11960562

  19. Sputtered film thermistor IR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliga, Shankar B.; Rost, Martin R.; Doctor, Alan P.

    1994-07-01

    The thermistor infrared detector or bolometer is the detector of choice in many classical remote sensing applications such as horizon sensing, noncontact thermometry, and industrial applications. In recent years, the authors have developed a thin film process where the thermistor material is deposited from a target directly onto the substrate. This is an advance over the labor intensive ceramic technology, where sintered flakes of the thermistor are bonded to the substrate. The thin film technique permits a variety of device constructions and configurations. Detectors fabricated on heat-sunk ceramic substrates can withstand high operating temperatures and large incident optical power, in both pulsed and CW laser measurements. For dc or low frequency measurements, the films can be deposited onto a thermally isolated membrane with applications in motion sensing, gas detection, and temperature measurement. Utilizing advances in micromachining a 2D array of thermally isolated microbolometer sensors, integrated onto a silicon wafer containing readout circuitry may be achieved. This paper describes the construction of the sputtered film thermistor detectors, their operation, and applications.

  20. Emerging interdisciplinary fields in the coming intelligence/convergence era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Dramatic advances are in the horizon resulting from rapid pace of development of several technologies, including, computing, communication, mobile, robotic, and interactive technologies. These advances, along with the trend towards convergence of traditional engineering disciplines with physical, life and other science disciplines will result in the development of new interdisciplinary fields, as well as in new paradigms for engineering practice in the coming intelligence/convergence era (post-information age). The interdisciplinary fields include Cyber Engineering, Living Systems Engineering, Biomechatronics/Robotics Engineering, Knowledge Engineering, Emergent/Complexity Engineering, and Multiscale Systems engineering. The paper identifies some of the characteristics of the intelligence/convergence era, gives broad definition of convergence, describes some of the emerging interdisciplinary fields, and lists some of the academic and other organizations working in these disciplines. The need is described for establishing a Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Ecosystem for facilitating interdisciplinary collaborations, and accelerating development of skilled workforce in the new fields. The major components of the ecosystem are listed. The new interdisciplinary fields will yield critical advances in engineering practice, and help in addressing future challenges in broad array of sectors, from manufacturing to energy, transportation, climate, and healthcare. They will also enable building large future complex adaptive systems-of-systems, such as intelligent multimodal transportation systems, optimized multi-energy systems, intelligent disaster prevention systems, and smart cities.

  1. Micro UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-09-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  2. Micro-UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-12-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  3. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

  4. Performance of an AGATA asymmetric detector

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, A. J.; Dimmock, M. R.; Unsworth, C.; Boston, H. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Grint, A. N.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, M.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Slee, M.; Lazarus, I. H.; Simpson, J.

    2008-11-11

    Each major technical advance in gamma-ray detection devices has resulted in significant new insights into the structure of atomic nuclei. The next major step in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves achieving the goal of a 4{pi} ball of germanium detectors by using the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented germanium crystals. The resulting spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for nuclear electromagnetic radiation. Collaborations have been established in Europe (AGATA)[1] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA)[2] to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the first AGATA (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array) asymmetric detector that has been tested at the University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

  5. Advanced Fire Detector for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutzner, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses an optical carbon monoxide sensor for early fire detection. During the sensor development, a concept was implemented to allow reliable carbon monoxide detection in the presence of interfering absorption signals. Methane interference is present in the operating wavelength range of the developed prototype sensor for carbon monoxide detection. The operating parameters of the prototype sensor have been optimized so that interference with methane is minimized. In addition, simultaneous measurement of methane is implemented, and the instrument automatically corrects the carbon monoxide signal at high methane concentrations. This is possible because VCSELs (vertical cavity surface emitting lasers) with extended current tuning capabilities are implemented in the optical device. The tuning capabilities of these new laser sources are sufficient to cover the wavelength range of several absorption lines. The delivered carbon monoxide sensor (COMA 1) reliably measures low carbon monoxide levels even in the presence of high methane signals. The signal bleed-over is determined during system calibration and is then accounted for in the system parameters. The sensor reports carbon monoxide concentrations reliably for (interfering) methane concentrations up to several thousand parts per million.

  6. Race and Ethnicity in the Genome Era: The Complexity of the Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Vence L.; Warshauer-Baker, Esther; Collins, Francis S.

    2005-01-01

    The vast amount of biological information that is now available through the completion of the Human Genome Project presents opportunities and challenges. The genomic era has the potential to advance an understanding of human genetic variation and its role in human health and disease. A challenge for genomics research is to understand the…

  7. Teaching the Past in the Early Modern Era: Two Different Ways to Make Use of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruter, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Were teachers, of the early modern era not longing for the present? Most colleges of that time did not offer a history course. Still, they did teach a lot about the past since the teaching consisted in the reading of the works of ancient writers. This is because ancient science and literature were considered much more advanced than the science and…

  8. Science Policy: Patent Power; No ERA? No AAAS; VA Budget Cuts Threaten Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1978-01-01

    Brief updates are presented regarding institutional patent arrangements and whether an institution, individual, or government owns a patent; the decision of the American Association for the Advancement of Science not to hold its convention in non-ERA-ratified states; and the impact of the Carter Administration budget on VA biomedical research.…

  9. Pixel detectors for diffraction-limited storage rings.

    PubMed

    Denes, Peter; Schmitt, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    Dramatic advances in synchrotron radiation sources produce ever-brighter beams of X-rays, but those advances can only be used if there is a corresponding improvement in X-ray detectors. With the advent of storage ring sources capable of being diffraction-limited (down to a certain wavelength), advances in detector speed, dynamic range and functionality is required. While many of these improvements in detector capabilities are being pursued now, the orders-of-magnitude increases in brightness of diffraction-limited storage ring sources will require challenging non-incremental advances in detectors. This article summarizes the current state of the art, developments underway worldwide, and challenges that diffraction-limited storage ring sources present for detectors.

  10. Enhanced neutron imaging detector using optical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1992-08-01

    Existing neutron imaging detectors have limited count rates due to inherent property and electronic limitations. The popular multiwire proportional counter is qualified by gas recombination to a count rate of less than 10{sup 5} n/s over the entire array and the neutron Anger camera, even though improved with new fiber optic encoding methods, can only achieve 10{sup 6} cps over a limited array. We present a preliminary design for a new type of neutron imaging detector with a resolution of 2--5 mm and a count rate capability of 10{sup 6} cps pixel element. We propose to combine optical and electronic processing to economically increase the throughput of advanced detector systems while simplifying computing requirements. By placing a scintillator screen ahead of an optical image processor followed by a detector array, a high throughput imaging detector may be constructed.

  11. Independent detector testing laboratory and the NGST detector characterization project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, Donald F.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Regan, Michael W.; Balleza, Jesus C.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Bergeron, Louis E.; Greene, Gretchen R.; Kim, Sungsoo; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Morse, Ernie; Pelton, Russell; Reeves, Thomas; Sharma, Utkarsh; Stemniski, P.; Stockman, Hervey S.; Telewicz, M.

    2003-03-01

    The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL) has been established by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), and it will assist the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) mission in choosing and operating the best near-infrared detectors. The NGST is the centerpiece of the NASA Office of Space Science theme, the Astronomical Search for Origins, and the highest priority astronomy project for the next decade, according to the National Academy of Science. NGST will need to have the sensitivity to see the first light in the Universe to determine how galaxies formed in the web of dark matter that existed when the Universe was in its infancy (z ~10-20). To achieve this goal, the NGST Project must pursue an aggressive technology program and advance infrared detectors to performance levels beyond what is now possible. As part of this program, NASA has selected the IDTL to verify comparative performance between prototype NGST detectors developed by Rockwell Scientific (HgCdTe) and Raytheon (InSb). The IDTL is charged with obtaining an independent assessment of the ability of these two competing technologies to achieve the demanding specifications of the NGST program within the 0.6-5 μm bandpass and in an ultra-low background (<0.01 e-/s/pixel) environment. We describe the NGST Detector Characterization Project that is being performed in the IDTL. In this project, we will measure first-order detector parameters, i.e. dark current, read noise, QE, intra-pixel sensitivity, linearity, as functions of temperature, well size, and operational mode.

  12. The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the JWST Detector Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, D. F.; Rauscher, B. J.; Regan, M. W.; Balleza, J.; Barkhouser, R.; Bergeron, L.; Greene, G. R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Morse, E.; Reeves, T.; Stockman, H. S.

    2002-12-01

    The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL) is jointly operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), and is assisting the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission in choosing and operating the best near-infrared detectors. The JWST is the centerpiece of the NASA Office of Space Science theme, the Astronomical Search for Origins, and the highest priority astronomy project for the next decade, according to the National Academy of Science. JWST will need to have the sensitivity to see the first light in the Universe to determine how galaxies formed in the web of dark matter that existed when the Universe was in its infancy (z ~10-20). To achieve this goal, the JWST Project must pursue an aggressive technology program and advance infrared detectors to performance levels beyond what is now possible. As part of this program, NASA has selected the IDTL to verify comparative performance between prototype JWST detectors developed by Rockwell Scientific (HgCdTe) and Raytheon (InSb). The IDTL is charged with obtaining an independent assessment of the ability of these two competing technologies to achieve the demanding specifications of the JWST program within the 0.6-5 μ m bandpass and in an ultra-low background (<0.01 e-/s/pixel) environment. We describe the JWST Detector Characterization Project that is being performed in the IDTL. In this project, we will measure first-order detector parameters, i.e. dark current, read noise, QE, intra-pixel sensitivity, linearity, as functions of temperature, well size, and operational mode.

  13. MCP detector development for WSO-UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, Sebastian; Barnstedt, Jürgen; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf; Ganz, Philipp; Hermanutz, Stephan; Kalkuhl, Christoph; Kappelmann, Norbert; Pfeifer, Marc; Schaadt, Daniel; Schanz, Thomas; Tanirah, Omar; Werner, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    The spectrographs of WSO-UV cover the wavelength range of 102 - 310 nm. The essential requirements for the associated detectors are high quantum effciency, solar blindness, and single photon detection. To achieve this, we develop a microchannel plate detector in a sealed tube. We plan to use cesium activated gallium nitride as semitransparent photocathode, a stack of two microchannel plates and a cross strip anode with advanced readout electronics. Challenges are the degradation of the photocathode under atmospheric conditions and the sealing process. We present the detector concept, details of the transfer and sealing processes under UHV, and the current status.

  14. The Modern Era of Research in Biosphere Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I. Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dr. Diane Wickland, the Program Scientist for NASA's EOS InterDisciplinary Science (IDS), encouraged and nurtured the growth of the field of global ecology and eco-climatology. This talk reviews the developments in, and integration of, theory, satellite and field observations that enabled the global modeling of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Emphasis will be placed on the advances made during the EOS era in global datasets and global coupled carbon-climate models. The advances include functional classifications of the land surface using the NDVI, a global terrestrial carbon-energy-water model, and the greening of the CSU GCM. An equally important achievement of the EOS-IDS program is a new generation of multi-disciplinary scientists who are now leaders in the field.

  15. Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.; Sizov, F.

    2011-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is one of emerging technologies that will change our life. A lot of attractive applications in security, medicine, biology, astronomy, and non-destructive materials testing have been demonstrated already. However, the realization of THz emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. As a result, THz radiation is resistant to the techniques commonly employed in these well established neighbouring bands. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of THz radiation detectors and focal plane arrays are discussed. Historical impressive progress in THz detector sensitivity in a period of more than half century is analyzed. More attention is put on the basic physical phenomena and the recent progress in both direct and heterodyne detectors. After short description of general classification of THz detectors, more details concern Schottky barrier diodes, pair braking detectors, hot electron mixers and field-effect transistor detectors, where links between THz devices and modern technologies such as micromachining are underlined. Also, the operational conditions of THz detectors and their upper performance limits are reviewed. Finally, recent advances in novel nanoelectronic materials and technologies are described. It is expected that applications of nanoscale materials and devices will open the door for further performance improvement in THz detectors.

  16. NED for a New Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, J. M.; NED Team

    2007-10-01

    The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED {http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/}) is a thematic, on-line research facility that supports scientists, educators, space missions, and observatories in planning, data analysis, discovery, and publication of research on extragalactic objects. NED's ongoing mission is to provide a comprehensive and easy-to-use, multi-wavelength fusion of fundamental data for all known (cataloged and published) objects beyond the Milky Way. The contents and services span the entire spectrum from gamma rays through radio frequencies, and they are continuously updated to reflect the current literature and releases of large-scale sky survey catalogs. After a brief overview of NED's primary features, we review current developments that are vastly extending the content and capabilities of NED for our modern era of research involving very large, multi-dimensional, multi-wavelength data sets in the context of an interoperable, global Virtual Observatory. We then illustrate how researchers can program various types of queries to NED and retrieve machine readable tabular output using modern programming/scripting languages, and review how developers around the world are integrating content from NED Web services into various applications. We close with a discussion of the challenges for managing increasingly large and diverse data sets while maintaining quality in NED operations, which are centered around the core activity of establishing cross-identifications and relating information from thousands of journal articles and catalogs containing observations of hundreds of millions of extragalactic objects and candidates.

  17. The TALE Tower Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  18. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  19. The upgraded DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; De, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; DeMaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J.; Kalmani, S. D.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, J.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Ke, Z.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Kesisoglou, S.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Kim, H.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, T. J.; Kirsch, N.; Klima, B.; Klute, M.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Komissarov, E. V.; Kopal, M.; Korablev, V. M.; Kostritski, A.; Kotcher, J.; Kothari, B.; Kotwal, A. V.; Koubarovsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozminski, J.; Kryemadhi, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krane, J.; Kravchuk, N.; Krempetz, K.; Krider, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubinski, R.; Kuchinsky, N.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Kwarciany, R.; Lager, S.; Lahrichi, N.; Landsberg, G.; Larwill, M.; Laurens, P.; Lavigne, B.; Lazoflores, J.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Le Meur, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Leggett, C.; Lehner, F.; Leitner, R.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Leveque, J.; Lewis, P.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Li, X.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Litmaath, M.; Lizarazo, J.; Lobo, L.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lounis, A.; Love, P.; Lu, J.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Luo, C.; Lynker, M.; Lyon, A. L.; Machado, E.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Magnan, A.-M.; Maity, M.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Manakov, V.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Markley, D.; Markus, M.; Marshall, T.; Martens, M.; Martin, M.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Mattingly, S. E. K.; Matulik, M.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McCroskey, R.; McKenna, M.; McMahon, T.; Meder, D.; Melanson, H. L.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendes, A.; Mendoza, D.; Mendoza, L.; Meng, X.; Merekov, Y. P.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Michaut, M.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mikhailov, V.; Miller, D.; Mitrevski, J.; Mokhov, N.; Molina, J.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mostafa, M.; Moua, S.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Mutaf, Y. D.; Nagaraj, P.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimhan, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Naumann, N. A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nelson, S.; Neuenschwander, R. T.; Neustroev, P.; Noeding, C.; Nomerotski, A.; Novaes, S. F.; Nozdrin, A.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurczyk, A.; Nurse, E.; O'Dell, V.; O'Neil, D. C.; Oguri, V.; Olis, D.; Oliveira, N.; Olivier, B.; Olsen, J.; Oshima, N.; Oshinowo, B. O.; Otero y Garzón, G. J.; Padley, P.; Papageorgiou, K.; Parashar, N.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pawloski, G.; Perea, P. M.; Perez, E.; Peters, O.; Pétroff, P.; Petteni, M.; Phaf, L.; Piegaia, R.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pogorelov, Y.; Pol, M.-E.; Pompoš, A.; Polosov, P.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Porokhovoy, S.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Pritchard, W.; Prokhorov, I.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Przybycien, M. B.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ramberg, E.; Ramirez-Gomez, R.; Rani, K. J.; Ranjan, K.; Rao, M. V. S.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rapisarda, S.; Raskowski, J.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ray, R. E.; Reay, N. W.; Rechenmacher, R.; Reddy, L. V.; Regan, T.; Renardy, J.-F.; Reucroft, S.; Rha, J.; Ridel, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robinson, S.; Rodrigues, R. F.; Roco, M.; Rotolo, C.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rucinski, R.; Rud, V. I.; Russakovich, N.; Russo, P.; Sabirov, B.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santoro, A.; Satyanarayana, B.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schmitt, C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schukin, A. A.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sengupta, S.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shankar, H. C.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Sheahan, P.; Shephard, W. D.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shishkin, A. A.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skow, D.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smith, D. E.; Smith, R. P.; Smolek, K.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Song, X.; Song, Y.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sopczak, A.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Spartana, N.; Spurlock, B.; Stanton, N. R.; Stark, J.; Steele, J.; Stefanik, A.; Steinberg, J.; Steinbrück, G.; Stevenson, K.; Stolin, V.; Stone, A.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strandberg, J.; Strang, M. A.; Strauss, M.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Sznajder, A.; Talby, M.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Tamburello, P.; Taylor, W.; Telford, P.; Temple, J.; Terentyev, N.; Teterin, V.; Thomas, E.; Thompson, J.; Thooris, B.; Titov, M.; Toback, D.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tolian, C.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Toole, T.; Torborg, J.; Touze, F.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trippe, T. G.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; Utes, M.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Vachon, B.; van den Berg, P. J.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vartapetian, A.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vaupel, M.; Vaz, M.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vigneault, M.; Villeneuve-Seguier, F.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Vlimant, J.-R.; Von Toerne, E.; Vorobyov, A.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vysotsky, V.; Wahl, H. D.; Walker, R.; Wallace, N.; Wang, L.; Wang, Z.-M.; Warchol, J.; Warsinsky, M.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weber, M.; Weerts, H.; Wegner, M.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; White, A.; White, V.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wijnen, T.; Wijngaarden, D. A.; Wilcer, N.; Willutzki, H.; Wilson, G. W.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wittlin, J.; Wlodek, T.; Wobisch, M.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wu, Z.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Q.; Xuan, N.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, R.; Yan, M.; Yarema, R.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yen, Y.; Yip, K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yoffe, F.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabi, A.; Zanabria, M.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zitoun, R.; Zmuda, T.; Zutshi, V.; Zviagintsev, S.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    2006-09-01

    The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

  20. The MINOS detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, A.; Grashorn, E.W.; /Minnesota U., Duluth

    2005-07-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

  1. Pancreas Transplantation in the Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Robert R; Rickels, Michael R; Naji, Ali; Odorico, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    The field of pancreas transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure in the 1980s to become a routine transplant in the modern era. With short- and long-term outcomes continuing to improve and the significant mortality, quality-of-life, and end-organ disease benefits, pancreas transplantation should be offered to more patients. In this article, we review current indications, patient selection, surgical considerations, complications, and outcomes in the modern era of pancreas transplantation.

  2. Era of the cyberROV

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    For years the kingdom of the ultradeep has been ruled by conventional, heavy and box-like ROVs, but smaller, faster and more streamlined opponents are challenging their hegemony. Hitec's HiROV series is one of the new breed, and with the addition of its Mark II working ROV, a new era could be under way--the era of the CyberROV. The paper describes the development of the CyberROV, its functionality, client feedback, and operator feedback.

  3. Competitive strategy a new era.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing.

  4. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  5. Segmented pyroelector detector

    DOEpatents

    Stotlar, S.C.; McLellan, E.J.

    1981-01-21

    A pyroelectric detector is described which has increased voltage output and improved responsivity over equivalent size detectors. The device comprises a plurality of edge-type pyroelectric detectors which have a length which is much greater than the width of the segments between the edge-type electrodes. External circuitry connects the pyroelectric detector segments in parallel to provide a single output which maintains 50 ohm impedance characteristics.

  6. Gamma ray detector shield

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

    1985-08-26

    A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

  7. LGB neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    The double pulse signature of the Gadolinium Lithium Borate Cerium doped plastic detector suggests its effectiveness for analyzing neutrons while providing gamma ray insensitivity. To better understand this detector, a californium gamma/neutron time of flight facility was constructed in our lab. Reported here are efforts to understand the properties and applications of the LGB detector with regards to neutron spectroscopy.

  8. Tevatron Detector Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Ronald

    2005-03-22

    The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. We discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

  9. Tevatron detector upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

  10. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  11. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2013-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  12. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  13. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  14. Downscaling Reanalysis over Continental Africa with a Regional Model: NCEP Versus ERA Interim Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Five annual climate cycles (1998-2002) are simulated for continental Africa and adjacent oceans by a regional atmospheric model (RM3). RM3 horizontal grid spacing is 0.44deg at 28 vertical levels. Each of 2 simulation ensembles is driven by lateral boundary conditions from each of 2 alternative reanalysis data sets. One simulation downs cales National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis 2 (NCPR2) and the other the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis (ERA-I). NCPR2 data are archived at 2.5deg grid spacing, while a recent version of ERA-I provides data at 0.75deg spacing. ERA-I-forced simulations are recomrp. ended by the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). Comparisons of the 2 sets of simulations with each other and with observational evidence assess the relative performance of each downscaling system. A third simulation also uses ERA-I forcing, but degraded to the same horizontal resolution as NCPR2. RM3-simulated pentad and monthly mean precipitation data are compared to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, gridded at 0.5deg, and RM3-simulated circulation is compared to both reanalyses. Results suggest that each downscaling system provides advantages and disadvantages relative to the other. The RM3/NCPR2 achieves a more realistic northward advance of summer monsoon rains over West Africa, but RM3/ERA-I creates the more realistic monsoon circulation. Both systems recreate some features of JulySeptember 1999 minus 2002 precipitation differences. Degrading the resolution of ERA-I driving data unrealistically slows the monsoon circulation and considerably diminishes summer rainfall rates over West Africa. The high resolution of ERA-I data, therefore, contributes to the quality of the downscaling, but NCPR2laterai boundary conditions nevertheless produce better simulations of some features.

  15. Improved Scintillator Materials for Compact Electron Antineutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkstra, Peter; Wortche, Heinrich J.; Browne, Wesley R.

    2011-04-27

    Developments in the fields of chemistry and materials science provide new components that hold the potential to improve the performance of liquid scintillation electron antineutrino detectors used for the monitoring of nuclear reactors. New compounds can provide for more efficient, stable, and safer operation of these detectors. Current detectors and their detector materials raise issues regarding size, quantum efficiency, stability, and spatial resolution for the vertex detection. For compact detectors (1 m{sup 3} active volume) improvement of these issues with existing liquid scintillation cocktails can be obtained by means of developing stable and efficient neutron capture agents. These agents comprise of boron or lithium containing coordination compounds, in addition advances in fluorescence detection technologies and optimization of solvent characteristics can improve the overall efficiency. Focus points of the new detector material design are to enable a compact, robust, and direction sensitive electron antineutrino detector.

  16. Life Finder Detectors; Detector Needs and Status for Spectroscopic Biosignature Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; McElwain, Michael W.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stahle, Carl; Stark, Christopher C.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life on other worlds looms large in NASA's future. Outside our solar system, direct spectroscopic biosignature characterization using very large UV-Optical-IR telescopes with coronagraphs or starshades is a core technique to both AURA's High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) concept and NASA's 30-year strategic plan. These giant space observatories require technological advancements in several areas, one of which is detectors. In this presentation, we review the detector requirements for spectroscopic biosignature characterization and discuss the status of some existing and proposed detector technologies for meeting them.

  17. Single-sided CZT strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macri, John R.; Dönmez, Burçin; Widholm, Mark; Hamel, Louis-Andre; Julien, Manuel; Narita, Tomohiko; Ryan, James M.; McConnell, Mark L.

    2004-09-01

    We report progress in the study of thick CZT strip detectors for 3-d imaging and spectroscopy and discuss two approaches to device design. We present the spectroscopic, imaging, detection efficiency and response uniformity performance of prototype devices. Unlike double-sided strip detectors, these devices feature both row and column contacts implemented on the anode surface. This electron-only approach circumvents problems associated with poor hole transport in CZT that normally limit the thickness and energy range of double-sided strip detectors. These devices can achieve similar performance to pixel detectors. The work includes laboratory and simulation studies aimed at developing compact, efficient, detector modules for 0.05 to 1 MeV gamma radiation measurements. The low channel count strip detector approach can significantly reduce the complexity and power requirements of the readout electronics. This is particularly important in space-based coded aperture or Compton telescope instruments requiring large area, large volume detector arrays. Such arrays will be required for NASA's Black Hole Finder Probe (BHFP) and Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT).

  18. Nuclear Electronics: Superconducting Detectors and Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polushkin, Vladimir

    2004-06-01

    With the commercialisation of superconducting particles and radiation detectors set to occur in the very near future, nuclear analytical instrumentation is taking a big step forward. These new detectors have a high degree of accuracy, stability and speed and are suitable for high-density multiplex integration in nuclear research laboratories and astrophysics. Furthermore, superconducting detectors can also be successfully applied to food safety, airport security systems, medical examinations, doping tests & forensic investigations. This book is the first to address a new generation of analytical tools based on new superconductor detectors demonstrating outstanding performance unsurpassed by any other conventional devices. Presenting the latest research and development in nanometer technologies and biochemistry this book: * Discusses the development of nuclear sensing techniques. * Provides guidance on the design and use of the next generation of detectors. * Describes cryogenic detectors for nuclear measurements and spectrometry. * Covers primary detectors, front-end readout electronics and digital signal processing. * Presents applications in nanotechnology and modern biochemistry including DNA sequencing, proteinomics, microorganisms. * Features examples of two applications in X-ray electron probe nanoanalysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This comprehensive treatment is the ideal reference for researchers, industrial engineers and graduate students involved in the development of high precision nuclear measurements, nuclear analytical instrumentation and advanced superconductor primary sensors. This book will also appeal to physicists, electrical and electronic engineers in the nuclear industry.

  19. High-energy detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph B.

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  20. The nano era in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Sneha S.; Mantri, Shivkumar P.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new transnational and transcultural development that is growing rapidly and pervasively. The potential impact of novel Nanodentistry Applications in disease diagnosis, therapy and prevention is foreseen to change oral health care in a fundamental way. This review presents a general overview of the novel nanomaterial and relevant advances of nanotechnology, focusing on promising dental applications. In particular, relevant applications are reported in Restorative dentistry, minimally invasive dental procedures, cancer diagnosis and treatment, molecular imaging and implant dentistry. Many applications are still in their infancy. An increasing number of products are currently under clinical investigation while some are commercially available. PMID:23633833

  1. Bacterial targeted tumour therapy-dawn of a new era.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming Q; Mengesha, Asferd; Good, David; Anné, Jozef

    2008-01-18

    Original observation of patients' spontaneous recovery from advanced tumours after an infection or a "fever" inspired extensive research. As a result, Coley's toxin for the therapy of sarcomas and live Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer were born. In addition, three genera of anaerobic bacteria have been shown to specifically and preferentially target solid tumours and cause significant tumour lyses. Initial research had focused on determining the best tumour colonizing bacteria, and assessing the therapeutic efficacy of different strategies either as a single or combination treatment modalities. However, although clinical trials were carried out as early as the 1960s, lack of complete tumour lyses with injection of Clostridial spores had limited their further use. Recent progress in the field has highlighted the rapid development of new tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridia which have otherwise been a hurdle for a long time, such as plasmid transformation using electroporation that bore the problems of inefficiency, instability and plasmid loss. A new Clostridium strain, C. novyi-NT made apathogenic by genetic modification, is under clinical trials. New genetic engineering tools, such as the group II intron has shown promise for genetic manipulation of bacteria and forecast the dawn of a new era for a tumour-targeted bacterial vector system for gene therapy of solid tumours. In this review we will discuss the potential of genetically manipulated bacteria that will usher in the new era of bacterial therapy for solid tumours, and highlight strategies and tools used to improve the bacterial oncolytic capability.

  2. Overview of ERA Ultra High Bypass Propulsor Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A review of the current research being conducted under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Ultra High Bypass (UHB) Testing subelement is presented. The four exiting tasks under the subelement, a description of each task, and the current status of each are given. The four tasks are: 1. Collaborate with P&W to design, fabricate and test a second generation of Geared Turbofan 2. Design, fabricate and test advanced Over the Rotor acoustic treatment and acoustically treated Soft Vanes 3. Develop a Shape Memory Alloy Variable Area Nozzle concept and demonstrate prototype 4. Refurbish and update the GRC Ultra High Bypass Drive Rig Following the current task updates, an overview of three proposed additional tasks to support the existing tasks is presented. The additional tasks would allow noise reduction and noise diagnostic testing technologies to be demonstrated at TRL 4 as part of existing planned fan model testing in the NASA Glenn 9 x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel under the ERA UHB Testing subelement.

  3. Advanced biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

  4. The ERA Strain of Rabies Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, K. F.; Crawley, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    An antigenic extinction trial in cats showed that the ERA rabies vaccine had superior antigenic properties over Flury H.E.P. C.E.O. and killed tissue culture rabies vaccine. Dogs and cats on a duration of immunity study of ERA rabies vaccine were challenged with fox salivary gland “street” rabies virus. The results of this challenge show a duration of immunity of five years in dogs and four years in cats. Vaccination of dams in late pregnancy with ERA rabies vaccine resulted in transference of maternal antibody to the newborn, in both cattle and dogs. This maternally derived antibody interfered with the successful active immunization of the young calf. Calves free of antibodies for rabies could be successfully vaccinated as early as 17 days of age and were able to withstand a challenge with virulent “street” rabies virus two years later. PMID:4263912

  5. Pillar Structured Thermal Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, R; Conway, A; Reinhardt, C; Graff, R; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C

    2008-06-10

    This work describes an innovative solid state device structure that leverages advanced semiconductor fabrication technology to produce an efficient device for thermal neutron detection which we have coined the 'Pillar Detector'. State-of-the-art thermal neutron detectors have shortcomings in simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low operating voltage while maintaining adequate fieldability performance. By using a three dimensional silicon PIN diode pillar array filled with isotopic {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B), a high efficiency device is theoretically possible. Here we review the design considerations for going from a 2-D to 3-D device and discuss the materials trade-offs. The relationship between the geometrical features and efficiency within our 3-D device is investigated by Monte Carlo radiation transport method coupled with finite element drift-diffusion carrier transport simulations. To benchmark our simulations and validate the predicted efficiency scaling, experimental results of a prototype device are illustrated. The fabricated pillar structures reported in this work are composed of 2 {micro}m diameter silicon pillars with a 2 {micro}m spacing and pillar height of 12 {micro}m. The pillar detector with a 12 {micro}m height achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 7.3% at a reverse bias of -2 V.

  6. Advanced approaches to focal plane integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. D.; Smith, E. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Both visible and infrared focal plane assemblies have common architectural driving parameters which guide their design approaches. The key drivers for advanced focal plane assemblies (FPA) are: the detector type and performance required; the number of detector chips; the packaging density; and the geometry. The impact of these drivers is seen to determine the engineering compromises necessary to establish FPA design approach. Several new designs are discussed which show a range of applications from single detector assemblies to monolithic detector chips with on-chip signal processing. The main objective of many advanced designs is to integrate the focal plane components in order to reduce power and reduce the number of interconnections.

  7. Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

  8. Particle Detectors: Research and Development at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabjan, C. W.

    2008-04-01

    Over the past 15 years a worldwide Detector R&D Programme has made the LHC experiments possible. These experiments operate at a new level of event rate and detection capabilities. Based on these advances, Detector R&D is continuing at CERN in close collaboration with University and Research Institutes. Several main directions are being pursued for solid-state and gaseous tracking devices, advanced crystal and noble liquid calorimetry, particle identification methods, and advanced signal-processing techniques. This effort is directed towards experiments at even higher collision rates at the LHC, the requirements for the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders and for applications outside particle physics, such as medical diagnostics instrumentation. We shall illustrate this challenging, stimulating and creative programme with examples and show how these developments are taking place in close collaboration between CERN and institutions around the globe.

  9. Cherenkov neutron detector for fusion reaction and runaway electron diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, MunSeong Kim, Junghee

    2015-08-15

    A Cherenkov-type neutron detector was newly developed and neutron measurement experiments were performed at Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. It was shown that the Cherenkov neutron detector can monitor the time-resolved neutron flux from deuterium-fueled fusion plasmas. Owing to the high temporal resolution of the detector, fast behaviors of runaway electrons, such as the neutron spikes, could be observed clearly. It is expected that the Cherenkov neutron detector could be utilized to provide useful information on runaway electrons as well as fusion reaction rate in fusion plasmas.

  10. Reproductive biology in the era of genomics biology.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E

    2005-08-01

    Current and emerging technologies in reproductive biology, including assisted reproductive technologies and animal cloning, are discussed in the context of the impact of genomics era biology. The discussion focuses on the endocrinology associated with establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, fetal-placental development, lactation, and neonatal survival. Various aspects of uterine biology, including development during the neonatal period and function in adult females, are discussed with respect to reproductive efficiency. It is clear that combining strategies for use of conventional animal models for studying the reproductive system with new genomics technologies will provide exceptional opportunities in discovery research involving data integration and application of functional genomics to benefit animal agriculture and the biomedical community. New and emerging biotechnologies and comparative genomics approaches will greatly advance our understanding of genes that are critical to development of the reproductive system and to key events at each stage of the reproductive cycle of females and males.

  11. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Todd E.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-09-01

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic.

  12. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Todd E.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous NaI(Tl) scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic. PMID:21828904

  13. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Todd E; Furenlid, Lars R

    2011-09-01

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic. PMID:21828904

  14. Design philosophy of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory infrared detector test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R.; Blessinger, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    To support the development of advanced infrared remote sensing instrumentation using line and area arrays, a test facility has been developed to characterize the detectors. The necessary performance characteristics of the facility were defined by considering current and projected requirements for detector testing. The completed facility provides the desired level of detector testing capability as well as providing ease of human interaction.

  15. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  16. Intelligent Detector Design

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

  17. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  18. Detectors (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  19. Detectors (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  20. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Carini, Gabriella; Denes, Peter; Gruener, Sol; Lessner, Elianne

    2012-08-01

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) X-ray and neutron user facilities attract more than 12,000 researchers each year to perform cutting-edge science at these state-of-the-art sources. While impressive breakthroughs in X-ray and neutron sources give us the powerful illumination needed to peer into the nano- to mesoscale world, a stumbling block continues to be the distinct lag in detector development, which is slowing progress toward data collection and analysis. Urgently needed detector improvements would reveal chemical composition and bonding in 3-D and in real time, allow researchers to watch “movies” of essential life processes as they happen, and make much more efficient use of every X-ray and neutron produced by the source The immense scientific potential that will come from better detectors has triggered worldwide activity in this area. Europe in particular has made impressive strides, outpacing the United States on several fronts. Maintaining a vital U.S. leadership in this key research endeavor will require targeted investments in detector R&D and infrastructure. To clarify the gap between detector development and source advances, and to identify opportunities to maximize the scientific impact of BES user facilities, a workshop on Neutron and X-ray Detectors was held August 1-3, 2012, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Participants from universities, national laboratories, and commercial organizations from the United States and around the globe participated in plenary sessions, breakout groups, and joint open-discussion summary sessions. Sources have become immensely more powerful and are now brighter (more particles focused onto the sample per second) and more precise (higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution). To fully utilize these source advances, detectors must become faster, more efficient, and more discriminating. In supporting the mission of today’s cutting-edge neutron and X-ray sources, the workshop identified six detector research challenges

  1. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  2. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  3. The CDFII Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-07-23

    The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

  4. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  5. New Strategies To Promote Stable Employment and Career Progression: An Introduction to the Employment Retention and Advancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Anderson, Jacquelyn; Wavelet, Melissa; Gardiner, Karen N.; Fishman, Michael E.

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project was undertaken to identify effective strategies for helping low-income parents work more steadily and advance in the labor market. The 15 ERA demonstration projects that were operating in nine states (California, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, South Carolina; Tennessee, and…

  6. Resonant-mass detectors: status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafone, Viviana

    2004-03-01

    We review the main features and the perspectives of the resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors. Bar detectors have been taking data for the last few years with burst sensitivity h sime 4 × 10-19 at SNR = 1, or, in spectral units, 3 × 10-22 Hz -1/2 over a bandwidth of about 1 Hz, with a duty cycle mainly limited by cryogenic operations. In addition to the systematic search for impulsive events, the data collected are being used to detect periodic waves over long time periods, to give new upper limits for the stochastic background of cosmological origin, and to study possible correlation with gamma ray bursts. The recent developments of readout electronics have allowed us to increase the detection bandwidth to a few tens of Hz, and even larger bandwidths are expected in the near future. Resonant-mass detectors of spherical shape have been investigated and many different solutions have been proposed. Two small (about 60 cm in diameter) spheres are under construction in Holland and Brazil. Recently, a new scheme has been proposed, the 'dual' detector, which can provide a wideband performance. We briefly describe the status of traditional resonant-mass detectors and the main features and the state of the art of the advanced acoustic detectors.

  7. Pulsed discharge detector: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, D S

    2004-09-24

    The pulsed discharge detector (PDD) is a significant advancement in gas chromatography (GC) detector design which can be operated in three different modes: pulsed discharge helium ionization (He-PDPID), pulsed discharge electron capture (PDECD) and helium ionization emission (PDED). The He-PDPID can detect permanent gases, volatile inorganics and other compounds which give little or no response with the flame ionization detector (FID) and has significantly better limits of detection (minimum detectable quantities (MDQs) in low picogram range) than can be achieved with a thermal conductivity detector (typically not lower than 1 ng). The PDECD has similar or better sensitivity (MDQs of 10(-15) to 10(-12) g) than radioactive source ECD but does not require licensing, wipe tests and other administrative or safety requirements which have increased over security concerns. The PDED shows promise as an extremely selective and sensitive elemental detector but a commercial unit is not presently available. In this report, the theory of operation, applications of the PDD and the practical aspects of using this novel detector are presented. PMID:15503926

  8. Opening Universities in a Digital Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfrey, John; Gasser, Urs

    2008-01-01

    The digital era brings with it far-reaching changes. These changes can and will be good for society, on balance, if individuals are able to look down the road and around corners and plan ahead accordingly. Those individuals in higher education have an enormous role to play during this transition. Much turns on whether they are able to seize the…

  9. Time Management in the Digital Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2013-01-01

    School business officials can strike a balance between setting a long-term strategy and responding to short-term situations by implementing time management strategies. This article presents tips for time management that could help boost productivity and save time in this digital era. Tips include decreasing meeting times via Skype or…

  10. Dynamical downscaling of Era40 in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorteberg, A.; Barstad, I.; Flatoy, F.; Deque, M.

    2008-12-01

    A novel approach for downscaling of the Era40 data set has been taken and results from comparison with observations in Norway will be presented. The approach make use of a nudging technique in a stretched global model with the grid focus at (67N, 5W). The effective resolution is three times the one of the Era40, equivalent to about 30km grid spacing in the area of focus. Longer waves are nudged towards Era40 while the short waves are set free to evolve. The comparison to observations incorporate numerous station data points of i) precipitation (#357), ii) temperature (#98) and iii) wind (#10), and the new data set shows large improvements over Era40. The results from daily precipitation show considerably reduction in bias (from 50% to 11%), and a two-fold reduction (-59% to 29%) at 99.9%tile level. The daily temperature bias was reduced by about a degree in most areas, and the RMSE was reduced significantly (from 7.5 to 5.0 except winter). The wind comparison indicated a slight improvement in bias, and significant improvement in RMSE.

  11. Green Era Should Herald Smarter Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, the most elite and ambitious colleges have commissioned buildings by "starchitects" for notoriety. However, people live in a green era now and there is a need for a new kind of star architecture to go with it, one in which the building is a star for its efficiency as well as its elegance. The new star architecture would…

  12. Dinosaur dynamics in the Jurassic Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott

    2010-04-01

    Dinosaurs were fascinating animals and elicit much excitement in the classroom. Analysis of fossilized dinosaur trackways permits one to estimate the locomotion speeds and accelerations of these extinct beasts. Such analysis allows one to apply Newton's laws of motion to examples from the Jurassic Era.

  13. Rethinking Education in an Era of Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects on the historic tensions of education under capitalism, arguing that they have been exacerbated in our era of neo-liberal globalisation. Government drives for greater "accountability" and "effectiveness" are a blinkered response to the threefold global crisis we face: poverty and debt; a collapse of the planet's ecosystem;…

  14. A New Era of Open Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Paul; Macauley, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been a push for open access journals for more than a decade in a higher education and research environment in which the "publish or perish" syndrome is as dominant as ever. This article examines the success, or otherwise, of open access schemes in light of the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. It compares the…

  15. Faculty Recruitment in an Era of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marilyn; Schimpf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Faculty recruitment is a challenge for administration and departments, especially in an era of change in the academy. This article builds on information from an interactive conference panel session that focused on faculty recruitment best practices. The article addresses faculty recruitment strategies that focus on the optimization of search…

  16. Rethinking Academic Work in the Global Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the academic profession in Australia is undergoing a profound transformation with four dimensions: (1) globalization and strategic response to concomitant pressures and opportunities; (2) decline of governmental commitment to and funding of higher education; (3) the crisis of collegial values in an era of corporate and professional…

  17. School Mathematics in the Era of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namukasa, Immaculate

    2004-01-01

    This essay reviews the principles motivating contemporary"critical mathematics" discourses. Drawing from varied critical discourses including ethno-mathematics, critical theory, post-structural theory, and situated and ecological cognition, the essay examines the pragmatics of critiques to the privileged role of school mathematics in the era of…

  18. Chicano Education in the Era of Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gilbert G.

    This book examines the education of Mexican Americans in the U.S. Southwest during the era of de jure segregation, 1900-50. The book focuses on the influence of the national political economy and the socioeconomic position of Mexican Americans as contributing factors to inequality in education. During the early 1900s, dynamic economic processes…

  19. Detector non-uniformity in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S D; LeBeau, J M

    2013-01-01

    A non-uniform response across scanning transmission electron microscope annular detectors has been found experimentally, but is seldom incorporated into simulations. Through case study simulations, we establish the nature and scale of the discrepancies which may arise from failing to account for detector non-uniformity. If standard detectors are used at long camera lengths such that the detector is within or near to the bright field region, we find errors in contrast of the order of 10%, sufficiently small for qualitative work but non-trivial as experiments become more quantitative. In cases where the detector has been characterized in advance, we discuss the detector response normalization and how it may be incorporated in simulations.

  20. Experience with the CSPAD during dedicated detector runs at LCLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, G. A.; Boutet, S.; Chollet, M.; Dragone, A.; Haller, G.; Hart, P. A.; Herrmann, S. C.; Kenney, C. J.; Koglin, J.; Messerschmidt, M.; Nelson, S.; Pines, J.; Robert, A.; Song, S.; Thayer, J. B.; Williams, G. J.; Zhu, D.

    2014-03-01

    In-house developed cameras and other commercial detectors are typically tested with x-ray tubes and at synchrotron beamlines before being deployed and used for science experiments. In a prototyping phase, this is needed to understand and characterize the behavior of the detector. In a more advanced development phase, measurements with x-rays are required to characterize and calibrate the camera. Tests at synchrotron beamlines in actual experimental conditions are indeed a valuable source for detector developers. However, when all photons arrive at once, as for FELs, the response of the detector can be very different from that obtained with a synchrotron beam which behaves more like a CW (continuous) source. This behavior was already observed during users runs at LCLS and recently investigated during dedicated detector beamtime. The linearity of the response of the Cornell-SLAC Pixel Array Detector (CSPAD) was investigated. Results are presented and discussed.

  1. Privacy in the Genomic Era

    PubMed Central

    NAVEED, MUHAMMAD; AYDAY, ERMAN; CLAYTON, ELLEN W.; FELLAY, JACQUES; GUNTER, CARL A.; HUBAUX, JEAN-PIERRE; MALIN, BRADLEY A.; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward. PMID:26640318

  2. Compton imager using room temperature silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfess, James D.; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2007-08-01

    We have been developing a multi-layer Compton Gamma Ray Imager using position-sensitive, intrinsic silicon detectors. Advantages of this approach include room temperature operation, reduced Doppler broadening, and use of conventional silicon fabrication technologies. We have obtained results on the imaging performance of a multi-layer instrument where each layer consists of a 2×2 array of double-sided strip detectors. Each detector is 63 mm×63 mm×2 mm thick and has 64 strips providing a strip pitch of approximately 0.9 mm. The detectors were fabricated by SINTEF ICT (Oslo Norway) from 100 mm diameter wafers. The use of large arrays of silicon detectors appears especially advantageous for applications that require excellent sensitivity, spectral resolution and imaging such as gamma ray astrophysics, detection of special nuclear materials, and medical imaging. The multiple Compton interactions (three or more) in the low-Z silicon enable the energy and direction of the incident gamma ray to be determined without full deposition of the incident gamma-ray energy in the detector. The performance of large volume instruments for various applications are presented, including an instrument under consideration for NASA's Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) mission and applications to Homeland Security. Technology developments that could further extend the sensitivity and performance of silicon Compton Imagers are presented, including the use of low-energy (few hundred keV) electron tracking within novel silicon detectors and the potential for a wafer-bonding approach to produce thicker, position-sensitive silicon detectors with an associated reduction of required electronics and instrument cost.

  3. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  4. The Zero-Degree Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Howell, Leonard W.; Kouznetsov, Evgueni

    2006-01-01

    We will report on a detector system used for accelerator measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross sections. This system consists of two detector planes, each carrying a ring of 8 detectors. Each detector has 64 pads. These two detector planes are arranged facing each other so that the matching detector pads on each plane form a two element charged particle telescope. Each of these telescopes is capable of determining the elemental identity of nuclear fragments passing through it. The system is used to measure light fragment production in the presence of heavier fragments. We will present a detailed discussion of the 64-pad detector design, the substrate design. The front-end electronics used to read out the signals is based on a custom VLSI chip developed for the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter experiment which has been flown successfully twice in Antarctica. Each of these chips has 16 channels and each channel consists of a charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaping amplifier and a track-and-hold circuit. The track-and-hold circuits are connected via a multiplexer to an output line driver. This allows the held signals to be presented, one-by-one via a common data line to a analog-to-digital converter. Because the output line driver can be placed in a high input impedance state when not in use, it is possible to daisy-change many chips on the same common data line. The front-end electronics and data readout scheme will be discussed in detail. The Zero Degree Detector has been used in several accelerator experiments conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory as well as at the HIMAC accelerator in Japan. We will show examples of data taken at these accelerator runs to demonstrate how the system works.

  5. Final Report for the UNIVERSITY-BASED DETECTOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, James E

    2013-04-22

    The U.S Linear Collider Detector R&D program, supported by the DOE and NSF umbrella grants to the University of Oregon, made significant advances on many critical aspects of the ILC detector program. Progress advanced on vertex detector sensor development, silicon and TPC tracking, calorimetry on candidate technologies, and muon detection, as well as on beamline measurements of luminosity, energy, and polarization.

  6. SCINTILLATION EXPOSURE RATE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spears, W.G.

    1960-11-01

    A radiation detector for gamma and x rays is described. The detector comprises a scintillation crystal disposed between a tantalum shield and the input of a photomultiplier tube, the crystal and the shield cooperating so that their combined response to a given quantity of radiation at various energy levels is substantially constant.

  7. Smoke Detectors and Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

  8. Alkali ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Hrizo, John; Bauerle, James E.; Witkowski, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

  9. The CLAS Cherenkov detector

    SciTech Connect

    G. Adams; V. Burkert; R. Carl; T. Carstens; V. Frolov; L. Houghtlin; G. Jacobs; M. Kossov; M. Klusman; B. Kross; M. Onuk; J. Napolitano; J. W. Price; C. Riggs; Y. Sharabian; A. Stavinsky; L. C. Smith; W. A. Stephens; P. Stoler; W. Tuzel; K. Ullrich; A. Vlassovc; A. Weisenberger; M. Witkowski; B. Wojtekhowski; P. F. Yergin; C. Zorn

    2001-06-01

    The design, construction, and performance of the CLAS Cerenkov threshold gas detector at Jefferson Lab is described. The detector consists of 216 optical modules. Each module consists of 3 adjustable mirrors, of lightweight composite construction, a Winston light collecting cone, a 5-inch photomultiplier tube, and specially designed magnetic shielding.

  10. Future particle detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-09-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√s =2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √s =14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described.

  11. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  12. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  13. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  14. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  15. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software%u2013Detector Response Function

    2015-04-01

    Version 00 GADRAS-DRF contains a suite of capabilities related to radiation detection. Its primary function is the simulation of gamma-ray and neutron detector signals to radiation sources. It also contains limited analysis functionality. GADRAS-DRF is the public version of the full version of GADRAS with capabilities such as radiation transport and advanced analyses removed.

  16. Topological detector: measuring continuous dosimetric quantities with few-element detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaohui; Brivio, Davide; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    A prototype topological detector was fabricated and investigated for quality assurance of radiation producing medical devices. Unlike a typical array or flat panel detector, a topological detector, while capable of achieving a very high spatial resolution, consists of only a few elements and therefore is much simpler in construction and more cost effective. The key feature allowing this advancement is a geometry-driven design that is customized for a specific dosimetric application. In the current work, a topological detector of two elements was examined for the positioning verification of the radiation collimating devices (jaws, MLCs, and blades etc). The detector was diagonally segmented from a rectangular thin film strip (2.5 cm  ×  15 cm), giving two contiguous but independent detector elements. The segmented area was the central portion of the strip measuring 5 cm in length. Under irradiation, signals from each detector element were separately digitized using a commercial multichannel data acquisition system. The center and size of an x-ray field, which were uniquely determined by the collimator positions, were shown mathematically to relate to the difference and sum of the two signals. As a proof of concept, experiments were carried out using slit x-ray fields ranging from 2 mm to 20 mm in size. It was demonstrated that, the collimator positions can be accurately measured with sub-millimeter precisions.

  17. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  18. Accurate determination of segmented X-ray detector geometry

    PubMed Central

    Yefanov, Oleksandr; Mariani, Valerio; Gati, Cornelius; White, Thomas A.; Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in X-ray detector technology have resulted in the introduction of segmented detectors composed of many small detector modules tiled together to cover a large detection area. Due to mechanical tolerances and the desire to be able to change the module layout to suit the needs of different experiments, the pixels on each module might not align perfectly on a regular grid. Several detectors are designed to permit detector sub-regions (or modules) to be moved relative to each other for different experiments. Accurate determination of the location of detector elements relative to the beam-sample interaction point is critical for many types of experiment, including X-ray crystallography, coherent diffractive imaging (CDI), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and spectroscopy. For detectors with moveable modules, the relative positions of pixels are no longer fixed, necessitating the development of a simple procedure to calibrate detector geometry after reconfiguration. We describe a simple and robust method for determining the geometry of segmented X-ray detectors using measurements obtained by serial crystallography. By comparing the location of observed Bragg peaks to the spot locations predicted from the crystal indexing procedure, the position, rotation and distance of each module relative to the interaction region can be refined. We show that the refined detector geometry greatly improves the results of experiments. PMID:26561117

  19. Accurate determination of segmented X-ray detector geometry.

    PubMed

    Yefanov, Oleksandr; Mariani, Valerio; Gati, Cornelius; White, Thomas A; Chapman, Henry N; Barty, Anton

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in X-ray detector technology have resulted in the introduction of segmented detectors composed of many small detector modules tiled together to cover a large detection area. Due to mechanical tolerances and the desire to be able to change the module layout to suit the needs of different experiments, the pixels on each module might not align perfectly on a regular grid. Several detectors are designed to permit detector sub-regions (or modules) to be moved relative to each other for different experiments. Accurate determination of the location of detector elements relative to the beam-sample interaction point is critical for many types of experiment, including X-ray crystallography, coherent diffractive imaging (CDI), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and spectroscopy. For detectors with moveable modules, the relative positions of pixels are no longer fixed, necessitating the development of a simple procedure to calibrate detector geometry after reconfiguration. We describe a simple and robust method for determining the geometry of segmented X-ray detectors using measurements obtained by serial crystallography. By comparing the location of observed Bragg peaks to the spot locations predicted from the crystal indexing procedure, the position, rotation and distance of each module relative to the interaction region can be refined. We show that the refined detector geometry greatly improves the results of experiments.

  20. Accurate determination of segmented X-ray detector geometry.

    PubMed

    Yefanov, Oleksandr; Mariani, Valerio; Gati, Cornelius; White, Thomas A; Chapman, Henry N; Barty, Anton

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in X-ray detector technology have resulted in the introduction of segmented detectors composed of many small detector modules tiled together to cover a large detection area. Due to mechanical tolerances and the desire to be able to change the module layout to suit the needs of different experiments, the pixels on each module might not align perfectly on a regular grid. Several detectors are designed to permit detector sub-regions (or modules) to be moved relative to each other for different experiments. Accurate determination of the location of detector elements relative to the beam-sample interaction point is critical for many types of experiment, including X-ray crystallography, coherent diffractive imaging (CDI), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and spectroscopy. For detectors with moveable modules, the relative positions of pixels are no longer fixed, necessitating the development of a simple procedure to calibrate detector geometry after reconfiguration. We describe a simple and robust method for determining the geometry of segmented X-ray detectors using measurements obtained by serial crystallography. By comparing the location of observed Bragg peaks to the spot locations predicted from the crystal indexing procedure, the position, rotation and distance of each module relative to the interaction region can be refined. We show that the refined detector geometry greatly improves the results of experiments. PMID:26561117

  1. Antimonide superlattice complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.-Y.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Nguyen, Jean; Keo, Sam A.; Rafol, B., , Sir; Yang, Baohua; Lee, Mike C.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Höglund, Linda; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-05-01

    The nearly lattice-matched InAs/GaSb/AlSb (antimonide) material system offers tremendous flexibility in realizing high-performance infrared detectors. Antimonide-based superlattice infrared absorbers can be customized to have cutoff wavelengths ranging from the short-wave infrared (SWIR) to the very long-wave infrared (VLWIR). They can be used in constructing sophisticated heterostructures to enable advanced infrared photodetector designs. In particular, they facilitate the construction of unipolar barriers, which can block one carrier type but allow the un-impeded flow of the other. Unipolar barriers are used to implement the barrier infrared detector (BIRD) design for increasing the collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, and reducing dark current generation without impeding photocurrent flow. We report our recent efforts in achieving state-of-the-art performance in antimonide superlattice based long-wavelength infrared photodetectors using a complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design.

  2. Evolution of miniature detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Louis A.

    1993-01-01

    Sensors that are sensitive in the infrared spectral region have been under continuous development since the WW2 era. A quest for the military advantage of 'seeing in the dark' has pushed thermal imaging technology toward high spatial and temporal resolution for night vision equipment, fire control, search track, and seeker 'homing' guidance sensing devices. Similarly, scientific applications have pushed spectral resolution for chemical analysis, remote sensing of earth resources, and astronomical exploration applications. As a result of these developments, focal plane arrays (FPA) are now available with sufficient sensitivity for both high spatial and narrow bandwidth spectral resolution imaging over large fields of view. Such devices combined with emerging opto-electronic developments in integrated FPA data processing techniques can yield miniature sensors capable of imaging reflected sunlight in the near IR and emitted thermal energy in the Mid-wave (MWIR) and longwave (LWIR) IR spectral regions. Robotic space sensors equipped with advanced versions of these FPA's will provide high resolution 'pictures' of their surroundings, perform remote analysis of solid, liquid, and gas matter, or selectively look for 'signatures' of specific objects. Evolutionary trends and projections of future low power micro detector FPA developments for day/night operation or use in adverse viewing conditions are presented in the following test.

  3. Conceptual Design and Structural Optimization of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving the fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project requires innovative and unconventional aircraft concepts. In response, advanced hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft concepts have been proposed and analyzed as a means of meeting these objectives. For the current study, several HWB concepts were analyzed using the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) analysis code. HCDstruct is a medium-fidelity finite element based conceptual design and structural optimization tool developed to fill the critical analysis gap existing between lower order structural sizing approaches and detailed, often finite element based sizing methods for HWB aircraft concepts. Whereas prior versions of the tool used a half-model approach in building the representative finite element model, a full wing-tip-to-wing-tip modeling capability was recently added to HCDstruct, which alleviated the symmetry constraints at the model centerline in place of a free-flying model and allowed for more realistic center body, aft body, and wing loading and trim response. The latest version of HCDstruct was applied to two ERA reference cases, including the Boeing Open Rotor Engine Integration On an HWB (OREIO) concept and the Boeing ERA-0009H1 concept, and results agreed favorably with detailed Boeing design data and related Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) analyses. Following these benchmark cases, HCDstruct was used to size NASA's ERA HWB concepts and to perform a related scaling study.

  4. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  5. ACCESS: Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Foltz, R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R. S.; Wright, E. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

    2013-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  6. Barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2014-06-01

    In 1959, Lawson and co-workers publication triggered development of variable band gap Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) alloys providing an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Over the five decades, this material system has successfully fought off major challenges from different material systems, but despite that it has more competitors today than ever before. It is interesting however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. They may promise to be more manufacturable, but never to provide higher performance or, with the exception of thermal detectors, to operate at higher temperatures. In the last two decades a several new concepts of photodetectors to improve their performance have been proposed including trapping detectors, barrier detectors, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage detectors. This paper describes the present status of infrared barrier detectors. It is especially addressed to the group of III-V compounds including type-II superlattice materials, although HgCdTe barrier detectors are also included. It seems to be clear that certain of these solutions have merged as a real competitions of HgCdTe photodetectors.

  7. Geoneutrinos and the Sno+ Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolich, N.

    2014-12-01

    When the SNO+ detector begins operation within two years, it will be a sensitive geo-neutrino detector. The detectors location in Sudbury, Canada, will allow us to study the geo-neutrino signal originating from the surrounding continental crust. Combining future results from the SNO+ detector with those from the KamLAND and Borexino geo-neutrino detectors, respectively in Japan and Italy, will allow us to study the variation in the geo-neutrino signal for detectors located in very different crust types. I will talk about the status of the SNO+ detector along with the potential geo-neutrino results from such a detector.

  8. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  9. Cosmology with a stiff matter era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2015-11-01

    We consider the possibility that the Universe is made of a dark fluid described by a quadratic equation of state P =K ρ2 , where ρ is the rest-mass density and K is a constant. The energy density ɛ =ρ c2+K ρ2 is the sum of two terms: a rest-mass term ρ c2 that mimics "dark matter" (P =0 ) and an internal energy term u =K ρ2=P that mimics a "stiff fluid" (P =ɛ ) in which the speed of sound is equal to the speed of light. In the early universe, the internal energy dominates and the dark fluid behaves as a stiff fluid (P ˜ɛ , ɛ ∝a-6). In the late universe, the rest-mass energy dominates and the dark fluid behaves as pressureless dark matter (P ≃0 , ɛ ∝a-3). We provide a simple analytical solution of the Friedmann equations for a universe undergoing a stiff matter era, a dark matter era, and a dark energy era due to the cosmological constant. This analytical solution generalizes the Einstein-de Sitter solution describing the dark matter era, and the Λ CDM model describing the dark matter era and the dark energy era. Historically, the possibility of a primordial stiff matter era first appeared in the cosmological model of Zel'dovich where the primordial universe is assumed to be made of a cold gas of baryons. A primordial stiff matter era also occurs in recent cosmological models where dark matter is made of relativistic self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). When the internal energy of the dark fluid mimicking stiff matter is positive, the primordial universe is singular like in the standard big bang theory. It expands from an initial state with a vanishing scale factor and an infinite density. We consider the possibility that the internal energy of the dark fluid is negative (while, of course, its total energy density is positive), so that it mimics anti-stiff matter. This happens, for example, when the BECs have an attractive self-interaction with a negative scattering length. In that case, the primordial universe is nonsingular and

  10. Nonhuman Primate Models in the Genomic Era: A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Vallender, Eric J.; Miller, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Because of their strong similarities to humans across physiologic, developmental, behavioral, immunologic, and genetic levels, nonhuman primates are essential models for a wide spectrum of biomedical research. But unlike other animal models, nonhuman primates possess substantial outbred genetic variation, reducing statistical power and potentially confounding interpretation of results in research studies. Although unknown genetic variation is a hindrance in studies that allocate animals randomly, taking genetic variation into account in study design affords an opportunity to transform the way that nonhuman primates are used in biomedical research. New understandings of how the function of individual genes in rhesus macaques mimics that seen in humans are greatly advancing the rhesus macaques utility as research models, but epistatic interaction, epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, and the intricacies of gene networks limit model development. We are now entering a new era of nonhuman primate research, brought on by the proliferation and rapid expansion of genomic data. Already the cost of a rhesus macaque genome is dwarfed by its purchase and husbandry costs, and complete genomic datasets will inevitably encompass each rhesus macaque used in biomedical research. Advancing this outcome is paramount. It represents an opportunity to transform the way animals are assigned and used in biomedical research and to develop new models of human disease. The genetic and genomic revolution brings with it a paradigm shift for nonhuman primates and new mandates on how nonhuman primates are used in biomedical research. PMID:24174439

  11. Choosing a future for epidemiology: I. Eras and paradigms.

    PubMed Central

    Susser, M; Susser, E

    1996-01-01

    To inform choices about the future of epidemiology, the present condition of epidemiology is examined, in terms of its evolution through three eras, each demarcated by its own paradigm: (1) the era of sanitary statistics with its paradigm, miasma; (2) the era of infectious disease epidemiology with its paradigm, the germ theory; and (3) the era of chronic disease epidemiology with its paradigm, the black box. The historical context in which these eras arose is briefly described. In each era, the public health was at the center of the concerns of the founders and early protagonists of the prevailing paradigm. Around this intellectual development we weave a further theme. We argue that in the present era, the public health has become less central a concern. At the same time, in epidemiology today the dominant black box paradigm is of declining utility and is likely soon to be superseded. PMID:8629717

  12. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  13. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  14. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  15. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  16. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  17. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  18. PIN Diode Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, F. J.

    2008-07-01

    A review of the application of PIN diodes as radiation detectors in particle counting, X- and γ-ray spectroscopy, medical applications and charged particle spectroscopy is presented. As a practical example of its usefulness, a PIN diode and a low noise preamplifier are included in a nuclear spectroscopy chain for X-ray measurements. This is a laboratory session designed to review the main concepts needed to set up the detector-preamplifier array and to make measurements of X-ray energy spectra with a room temperature PIN diode. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with a high resolution cooled Si-Li detector.

  19. Sensors and detectors in NASA's future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, B.

    1978-01-01

    Advances in electronics are responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future space missions. Technologies such as charge-transfer devices, tunable diode lasers, millimeter and submillimeter wave solid-state receiver components, large-scale circuit integration, new electronic materials and processing techniques, and novel detector electronics are contributing to the goal of a tenfold increase in the capacity of data collection from future platforms and will be used for space exploration and utilization.

  20. Charged-coupled detector sky surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, D P

    1993-01-01

    Sky surveys have played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of the cosmos. The current pictures of stellar evolution and structure and kinematics of our Galaxy were made possible by the extensive photographic and spectrographic programs performed in the early part of the 20th century. The Palomar Sky Survey, completed in the 1950s, is still the principal source for many investigations. In the past few decades surveys have been undertaken at radio, millimeter, infrared, and x-ray wavelengths; each has provided insights into new astronomical phenomena (e.g., quasars, pulsars, and the 3 degrees cosmic background radiation). The advent of high quantum efficiency, linear solid-state devices, in particular charged-coupled detectors, has brought about a revolution in optical astronomy. With the recent development of large-format charged-coupled detectors and the rapidly increasing capabilities of data acquisition and processing systems, it is now feasible to employ the full capabilities of electronic detectors in projects that cover an appreciable fraction of the sky. This talk reviews the first "large scale" charged-coupled detector survey. This program, designed to detect very distant quasars, reveals the powers and limitations of charged-coupled detector surveys. PMID:11607431

  1. Detectors for the NIRCAM Instrument on JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. T.; Rieke, M. J.; Hall, D. N. B.; Garnett, J.; Loose, M.; Magoncelli, A.; Winters, G.

    2005-12-01

    NIRCAM is the near infrared camera for the James Webb Space Telescope. It will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, and angular resolution between the wavelengths of 0.6 to 5 μ m. To cover this wide range, the instrument uses two versions of the Rockwell Scientific HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG detector technology. The short wavelength channel consists of a 2 x 2 mosaic of 2.5 μ m cutoff detectors, producing a 4096 x 4096 array. The mid-wavelength channel consists of a single 2048x2048 5 μ m cutoff array. For redundancy and areal coverage, the instrument has two copies of each of these channels, yielding a total of 40 megapixels on the sky. The focal plane array effort includes detector and cryogenic electronics development at Rockwell Scientific, detector packaging at the University of Arizona, and electronics development at Lockheed-Martin Advanced Technology Center. We report on the current status in all these areas. We present data that indicate the NIRCAM detectors will meet the performance goals of JWST. We also discuss testing plans for the next few months that will bring the focal plane arrays to flight technical readiness. The NIRCAM instrument is funded by NASA/GSFC under contract NAS5-02105.

  2. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas; Klann, Raymond

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  3. Burst diaphragm leak detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascolla, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    New method replaces flowmeter approach with readily available burst diaphragm leak detector assembly mounted to all drain ports. This allows simultaneous leak detection of all flange seals under operating conditions.

  4. Microwave Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  5. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived.

  6. The CBM RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Akishin, P.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Bendarouach, J.; Boldyreva, N.; Chernogorov, A.; Deveaux, C.; Dobyrn, V.; Dürr, M.; Eschke, J.; Förtsch, J.; Heep, J.; Höohne, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kochenda, L.; Kopfer, J.; Kravtsov, P.; Kres, I.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Leonova, E.; Linev, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Niebur, W.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pauly, C.; Pfeifer, D.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Reinecke, S.; Riabov, Y.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Tarasenkova, O.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2016-05-01

    The CBM RICH detector will use CO2 as radiator gas, focussing glass mirrors with Al+MgF2 reflective and protective coating and Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs as photon detectors. The detector will serve for electron to pion separation up to momenta of 8 GeV/c and thus enable in CBM the measurement of electromagnetic radiation from the early and dense fireball in A+A collisions at SIS 100. In this article, the current status of the CBM RICH development will be presented including new measurements of the radiation hardness of the H12700 MAPMT and WLS coatings with p-terphenyl, the new concept for the readout electronics, and optimizations ongoing with respect to the mirror mount structure and overall geometry. Prior to the usage in CBM, part of the already ordered MAPMTs will be used to upgrade the HADES RICH detector for a new measurement campaign at SIS 18 from 2018-2020.

  7. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904

  8. Ultrafast neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Wang, C.L.

    1985-06-19

    A neutron detector of very high temporal resolution is described. It may be used to measure distributions of neutrons produced by fusion reactions that persist for times as short as about 50 picoseconds.

  9. Subspace Detectors: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B

    2006-07-11

    Broadband subspace detectors are introduced for seismological applications that require the detection of repetitive sources that produce similar, yet significantly variable seismic signals. Like correlation detectors, of which they are a generalization, subspace detectors often permit remarkably sensitive detection of small events. The subspace detector derives its name from the fact that it projects a sliding window of data drawn from a continuous stream onto a vector signal subspace spanning the collection of signals expected to be generated by a particular source. Empirical procedures are presented for designing subspaces from clusters of events characterizing a source. Furthermore, a solution is presented for the problem of selecting the dimension of the subspace to maximize the probability of detecting repetitive events at a fixed false alarm rate. An example illustrates subspace design and detection using events in the 2002 San Ramon, California earthquake swarm.

  10. Pendulum detector testing device

    DOEpatents

    Gonsalves, J.M.

    1997-09-30

    A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs.

  11. Pendulum detector testing device

    DOEpatents

    Gonsalves, John M.

    1997-01-01

    A detector testing device which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: 1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, 2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and 3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements.

  12. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  13. Multi Electrode Semiconductor Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendolia, S. R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M. L.

    1981-04-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in our laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments.

  14. Fiber optic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, Judy K.; Ward, Thomas E.; Grey, Alan E.

    1990-04-01

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  15. Fiber optic detector

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  16. MONDE: MOmentum Neutron DEtector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa Rita, P.; Acosta, L.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; Ortiz, M. E.; Policroniades, R.; Chávez, E.

    2016-07-01

    MONDE is a large area neutron momentum detector, consisting of a 70x160x5 cm3 plastic scintillator slab surrounded by 16 photomultiplier tubes, standard NIM signal processing electronics and a CAMAC data acquisition system. In this work we present data from a characterization run using an external trigger. For that purpose, coincident gamma rays from a 60Co radioactive source were used together with a NaI external detector. First results with an "external" trigger are presented.

  17. Gaseous leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Juravic, Jr., Frank E.

    1988-01-01

    In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

  18. Improved gaseous leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Juravic, F.E. Jr.

    1983-10-06

    In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the nonlinear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

  19. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  20. Gamma ray detector modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

  1. Science and Engineering in the Petascale Era

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Thom H.; Schulten, Klaus; Tromp, Jeroen; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Droegemeier, Kelvin; Xue, Ming; Fussell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    What breakthrough advances will petascale computing bring to various science and engineering fields? Experts in everything from astronomy to seismology envision the opportunities ahead and the impact they’ll have on advancing our understanding of the world. PMID:21998556

  2. Increased threat of tropical cyclones and coastal flooding to New York City during the anthropogenic era.

    PubMed

    Reed, Andra J; Mann, Michael E; Emanuel, Kerry A; Lin, Ning; Horton, Benjamin P; Kemp, Andrew C; Donnelly, Jeffrey P

    2015-10-13

    In a changing climate, future inundation of the United States' Atlantic coast will depend on both storm surges during tropical cyclones and the rising relative sea levels on which those surges occur. However, the observational record of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin is too short (A.D. 1851 to present) to accurately assess long-term trends in storm activity. To overcome this limitation, we use proxy sea level records, and downscale three CMIP5 models to generate large synthetic tropical cyclone data sets for the North Atlantic basin; driving climate conditions span from A.D. 850 to A.D. 2005. We compare pre-anthropogenic era (A.D. 850-1800) and anthropogenic era (A.D.1970-2005) storm surge model results for New York City, exposing links between increased rates of sea level rise and storm flood heights. We find that mean flood heights increased by ∼1.24 m (due mainly to sea level rise) from ∼A.D. 850 to the anthropogenic era, a result that is significant at the 99% confidence level. Additionally, changes in tropical cyclone characteristics have led to increases in the extremes of the types of storms that create the largest storm surges for New York City. As a result, flood risk has greatly increased for the region; for example, the 500-y return period for a ∼2.25-m flood height during the pre-anthropogenic era has decreased to ∼24.4 y in the anthropogenic era. Our results indicate the impacts of climate change on coastal inundation, and call for advanced risk management strategies. PMID:26417111

  3. Increased threat of tropical cyclones and coastal flooding to New York City during the anthropogenic era

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andra J.; Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Lin, Ning; Horton, Benjamin P.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    In a changing climate, future inundation of the United States’ Atlantic coast will depend on both storm surges during tropical cyclones and the rising relative sea levels on which those surges occur. However, the observational record of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin is too short (A.D. 1851 to present) to accurately assess long-term trends in storm activity. To overcome this limitation, we use proxy sea level records, and downscale three CMIP5 models to generate large synthetic tropical cyclone data sets for the North Atlantic basin; driving climate conditions span from A.D. 850 to A.D. 2005. We compare pre-anthropogenic era (A.D. 850–1800) and anthropogenic era (A.D.1970–2005) storm surge model results for New York City, exposing links between increased rates of sea level rise and storm flood heights. We find that mean flood heights increased by ∼1.24 m (due mainly to sea level rise) from ∼A.D. 850 to the anthropogenic era, a result that is significant at the 99% confidence level. Additionally, changes in tropical cyclone characteristics have led to increases in the extremes of the types of storms that create the largest storm surges for New York City. As a result, flood risk has greatly increased for the region; for example, the 500-y return period for a ∼2.25-m flood height during the pre-anthropogenic era has decreased to ∼24.4 y in the anthropogenic era. Our results indicate the impacts of climate change on coastal inundation, and call for advanced risk management strategies. PMID:26417111

  4. Increased threat of tropical cyclones and coastal flooding to New York City during the anthropogenic era.

    PubMed

    Reed, Andra J; Mann, Michael E; Emanuel, Kerry A; Lin, Ning; Horton, Benjamin P; Kemp, Andrew C; Donnelly, Jeffrey P

    2015-10-13

    In a changing climate, future inundation of the United States' Atlantic coast will depend on both storm surges during tropical cyclones and the rising relative sea levels on which those surges occur. However, the observational record of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin is too short (A.D. 1851 to present) to accurately assess long-term trends in storm activity. To overcome this limitation, we use proxy sea level records, and downscale three CMIP5 models to generate large synthetic tropical cyclone data sets for the North Atlantic basin; driving climate conditions span from A.D. 850 to A.D. 2005. We compare pre-anthropogenic era (A.D. 850-1800) and anthropogenic era (A.D.1970-2005) storm surge model results for New York City, exposing links between increased rates of sea level rise and storm flood heights. We find that mean flood heights increased by ∼1.24 m (due mainly to sea level rise) from ∼A.D. 850 to the anthropogenic era, a result that is significant at the 99% confidence level. Additionally, changes in tropical cyclone characteristics have led to increases in the extremes of the types of storms that create the largest storm surges for New York City. As a result, flood risk has greatly increased for the region; for example, the 500-y return period for a ∼2.25-m flood height during the pre-anthropogenic era has decreased to ∼24.4 y in the anthropogenic era. Our results indicate the impacts of climate change on coastal inundation, and call for advanced risk management strategies.

  5. ERA-MIN: The European network (ERA-NET) on non-energy raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vidal, o.; christmann, p.; Bol, d.; Goffé, b.; Groth, m.; Kohler, e.; Persson Nelson, k.; Schumacher, k.

    2012-04-01

    Non-energy raw materials are vital for the EU's economy, and for the development of environmentally friendly technologies. The EU is the world's largest consumers of non-energy minerals, but it remains dependent on the importation of many metals, as its domestic production is limited to about 3% of world production. We will present the project ERA-MIN, which is an ERA-NET on the Industrial Handling of Raw Materials for European industries, financially supported by the European Commission. The main objectives of ERA-MIN are: 1) Mapping and Networking: interconnecting the members of the currently fragmented European mineral resources research area, to the aim of fostering convergence of public research programs, industry, research institutes, academia and the European Commission, 2) Coordinating: establishing a permanent mechanism for planning and coordination of the European non-energy mineral raw materials research community (ENERC). 3) Roadmapping: defining the most important scientific and technological challenges that should be supported by the EU and its state members, 4) Programming: designing a Joint European Research Programme model and implementating it into a call for proposals open to academic and industrial research. The topics of interest in ERA-MIN are the primary continental and marine resources, the secondary resources and their related technologies, substitution and material efficiency, along with transversal topics such as environmental impact, public policy support, mineral intelligence, and public education and teaching. Public scientific research is very central in the scope of the ERA-MIN activity, whose consortium is indeed lead by a public organisation of fundamental research. Thus, universities and public research organisations are warmly invited to play an active role in defining the scientific questions and challenges that shall determine the European Raw Materials Roadmap and should be addressed by joint programming at the European scale

  6. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

  7. Test bench for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    The Bench for Infrared Detectors (BIRD 210) has been designed for testing IRFPA detectors up to 1024 x 1024 pixels. It is also suitable for single element detectors. The detectors are required to be equipped with their coolers (Stirling or thermo electrics) and cooler electronics.

  8. A Photon Counting Imaging Detector for NASA Exoplanet Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, Donald

    The key objective of the proposed project is to advance the maturity of a 256x256 pixel single-photon optical imaging detector. The detector has zero read noise and is resilient against the harsh effects of radiation in space. We expect that the device will have state-of-the-art performance in other parameters, e.g., high quantum efficiency from UV to 1 #m, low dark current, etc.

  9. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  10. Treatment of brain metastases of lung cancer in the era of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Haughton, Michael E; Chan, Michael D; Watabe, Kounosuke; Bonomi, Marcelo; Debinski, Waldemar; Lesser, Glenn J; Ruiz, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Common and deadly complications of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are brain metastases (BM). BM portends a poorer prognosis with limited effective treatment options and current management strategies present several challenges from iatrogenic complications of supportive medications, optimal delivery of drug across the blood-brain barrier, and preservation of neurocognitive function. Long term side effects and survivorship issues have become more evident in the era of targeted therapy where a systemic disease is much better controlled. Targeted therapies and immunotherapy are beginning to provide improvements in responses and survival rates. With further advancements and experience, our knowledge in this era of precision medicine will likely lead to strides in improving the quality of life and overall survival of patients with BM from NSCLC. In this review, we present the most recent updates in treatment of BM in NSCLC in regards to targeted and immunotherapy. PMID:26709658

  11. Fast response pyroelectric detector-preamplifier assembled device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, PiJi; Tai, Yunjian; Liu, Huiping

    2008-03-01

    The pyroelectric detector is wide used for its simple structure and high performance to price ratio. It has been used in thermal detecting, infrared spectrum and laser testing. When the pyroelectric detector was applied in practice, fast reponse speed is need. For improving the response speed of the pyroelectric detector some specific technology has been used in the preamplifier schematic. High sense and fast response character of the pyroelectric detector-preamplifier assembled device had been achieved. When the device is applied in acute concussion condition, it must survive from the acute concussion condition testing. For it reliability some specific technology was used in the device fabricating procedure. At last the performance parameter testing result and simulation application condition result given in this paper show the performance of the pyroelectric detector-preamplifier assembled device had achieved the advance goal.

  12. Charge Detector for the Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Cosmic Ray Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) Mission is planned to consist of a transition radiation detector (TRD) and a thin ionization calorimeter. In order to measure the charge of the primary cosmic ray, it is necessary for the calorimeter to have its own charge detector. Silicon detectors are chosen for the charge detector because of their excellent resolution, small size and nearly square shape. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to find the probability of misidentifying protons as alpha particles due to backscattered radiation from the calorimeter. Simulations were also used to investigate identifying primary cosmic rays that fragmented in the TRD before reaching the calorimeter. For this study algorithms have been developed for determining a direction of the core shower in the calorimeter. These algorithms are used to find the approximate location of the primary particle in the silicon detectors. Results show the probability to misidentify the charge depends upon the energy and direction of the primary particles.

  13. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Results from the Valuing Individual Success and Increasing Opportunities Now (VISION) Program in Salem, Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Frieda; Cheng, Wan-Lae; Hendra, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project is the most comprehensive effort thus far to ascertain which approaches help welfare recipients and other low-income people stay steadily employed and advance in their jobs. Launched in 1999 and slated to end in 2009, the ERA project encompasses more than a dozen demonstration programs and…

  14. SNM Detection with a Large Water Cerenkov Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dazeley, S; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Ouedraogo, S; Svoboda, R; Sweeny, M

    2009-06-04

    Special Nuclear Material (SNM) can either spontaneously fission, or be induced to do so. Either case results in neutron emission. Since neutrons are highly penetrating and difficult to shield, they could, potentially, be detected escaping even a well shielded cargo container. Obviously, if the shielding is sophisticated, detecting it would require a highly efficient detector with close to 4{pi} solid angle coverage. Water Cerenkov detectors may be a cost effective way to achieve that goal if it can be shown that the neutron capture signature is large enough and if sufficient background rejection can be employed as detectors get larger. In 2008 the LLNL Advanced Detector Group reported the successful detection of neutrons with a 1/4 ton gadolinium doped water Cerenkov prototype. We have now built a 4 ton version. This detector is not only bigger, it was designed with photon detection efficiency in mind from the beginning. We are employing increased photocathode coverage and more reflective walls, coated with PTFE. The increased efficiency should allow better energy resolution. We expect that the better diffusive wall reflectivity will reduce the overall dependence of the detector response on particle direction, again producing a more consistent response. We also believe that as detectors get larger, both uncorrelated and correlated backgrounds due to gamma-rays and cosmic ray interactions near the detector will increase. To prove the effectiveness of the technology we must develop new ways to reject these backgrounds while maintaining our sensitivity to SNM neutrons. Better energy resolution will enable us to reject more of the low energy gamma-ray backgrounds on this basis. Overcoming cosmic ray induced neutrons is perhaps an even larger concern as detectors get larger. Our detector is designed so that we can test various segmentation schemes - effectively dividing the detector up into smaller ones. In this presentation, we will describe our detector in detail.

  15. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Berrah, Nora

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  16. Broadband Electromagnetic Follow-up of Advanced LIGO Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound Singer, Leo

    2016-04-01

    Advanced LIGO began observing in September 2015 with over 3 times the distance reach (27 times the sensitive volume) of its previous configuration. Some gravitational-wave sources, particularly neutron star binary mergers, are expected to produce broadband electromagnetic transients which may be crucial to understanding the astrophysical context of these events. We have assembled a consortium of over 60 ground- and space-based gamma-ray, x-ray, optical, infrared, and radio facilities collaborating to search for broadband electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational-wave sources. In this talk, we describe the LIGO/Virgo EM follow-up program and the astronomical facilities that participated during this first LIGO observing run. Then, we survey the multi-wavelength observing campaigns embarked upon for specific gravitational-wave events. Finally, we discuss lessons learned and the way forward for joint GW-EM observations in an era of increasingly sensitive GW detectors.Submitted with The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration.

  17. Clinical Trials in the Era of Personalized Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Maitland, Michael L.; Schilsky, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid pace of discoveries in tumor biology, imaging technology, and human genetics hold promise for an era of personalized oncology care. The successful development of a handful of new targeted agents has generated much hope and hype about the delivery of safer and more effective new treatments for cancer. The design and conduct of clinical trials has not yet adjusted to a new era of personalized oncology and so we are more in transition to that era than in it. With the development of treatments for breast cancer as a model, we review the approaches to clinical trials and development of novel therapeutics in the prior era of population oncology, the current transitional era, and the future era of personalized oncology. PMID:22034206

  18. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Esposito, E.; Lisitskyi, M. P.; Nappi, C.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.

    2006-03-01

    Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy.

  19. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Blaj, G.; Carini, G.; Carron, S.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  20. Antibacterial drug discovery in the resistance era.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric D; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-01-21

    The looming antibiotic-resistance crisis has penetrated the consciousness of clinicians, researchers, policymakers, politicians and the public at large. The evolution and widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistance elements in bacterial pathogens has made diseases that were once easily treatable deadly again. Unfortunately, accompanying the rise in global resistance is a failure in antibacterial drug discovery. Lessons from the history of antibiotic discovery and fresh understanding of antibiotic action and the cell biology of microorganisms have the potential to deliver twenty-first century medicines that are able to control infection in the resistance era. PMID:26791724

  1. Antibacterial drug discovery in the resistance era.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric D; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-01-21

    The looming antibiotic-resistance crisis has penetrated the consciousness of clinicians, researchers, policymakers, politicians and the public at large. The evolution and widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistance elements in bacterial pathogens has made diseases that were once easily treatable deadly again. Unfortunately, accompanying the rise in global resistance is a failure in antibacterial drug discovery. Lessons from the history of antibiotic discovery and fresh understanding of antibiotic action and the cell biology of microorganisms have the potential to deliver twenty-first century medicines that are able to control infection in the resistance era.

  2. [Ethical issues in genome-era].

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Shinji

    2016-06-01

    Handling of personal genome information is one of the most important current ethical issues in the era of next generation sequencer which is technically progressing at a furious speed, making it 100,000 times faster in only in five years. The author picked up topics of(1) research and clinical guidelines of handling of human genome information, (2) incidental and secondary findings of next generation sequencer in clinical exome and genome sequencing, and (3) so-called direct-to-consumer genetic testing services. In the topic(2), ACMG (American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics) recommendations inreporting incidental findings proposed in 2013 and 2014 are focused.

  3. Superbend era begins swiftly at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2001-11-29

    The successful installation and commissioning of high-field superconducting bend magnets (superbends) in three curved sectors of ALS storage ring was the first time the magnet lattice of an operating synchrotron light source has been retrofitted in this fundamental way. As a result, the ALS now offers an expanded spectral range well into the hard x-ray region without compromising either the number of undulators or their high brightness in the soft x-ray region for which the ALS design was originally optimized. In sum, when the superbend-enhanced ALS started up for user operations in October 2001, it marked the beginning of a new era in its history.

  4. Two-dimensional Detector for High Resolution Soft X-ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ejima, Takeo; Ogasawara, Shodo; Hatano, Tadashi; Yanagihara, Mihiro; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2010-06-23

    A new two-dimensional (2D) detector for detecting soft X-ray (SX) images was developed. The detector has a scintillator plate to convert a SX image into a visible (VI) one, and a relay optics to magnify and detect the converted VI image. In advance of the fabrication of the detector, quantum efficiencies of scintillators were investigated. As a result, a Ce:LYSO single crystal on which Zr thin film was deposited was used as an image conversion plate. The spatial resolution of fabricated detector is 3.0 {mu}m, and the wavelength range which the detector has sensitivity is 30-6 nm region.

  5. Independent Testing of JWST Detector Prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figer, Donald F.; Rauscher, Bernie J.; Regan, Michael W.; Morse, Ernie; Balleza, Jesus; Bergeron, Louis; Stockman, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL) is jointly operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), and is assisting the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission in choosing and operating the best near-infrared detectors. The JWST is the centerpiece of the NASA Office of Space Science theme, the Astronomical Search for Origins, and the highest priority astronomy project for the next decade, according to the National Academy of Science. JWST will need to have the sensitivity to see the first light in the Universe to determine how galaxies formed in the web of dark matter that existed when the Universe was in its infancy (z is approximately 10-20). To achieve this goal, the JWST Project must pursue an aggressive technology program and advance infrared detectors to performance levels beyond what is now possible. As part of this program, NASA has selected the IDTL to verify comparative performance between prototype JWST detectors developed by Rockwell Scientific (HgCdTe) and Raytheon (InSb). The IDTL is charged with obtaining an independent assessment of the ability of these two competing technologies to achieve the demanding specifications of the JWST program within the 0.6-5 micron bandpass and in an ultra-low background (less than 0.01 e(-)/s/pixel) environment. We describe results from the JWST Detector Characterization Project that is being performed in the LDTL. In this project, we are measuring first-order detector parameters, i.e. dark current, read noise, QE, intra-pixel sensitivity, linearity, as functions of temperature, well size, and operational mode.

  6. Independent Testing of JWST Detector Prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figer, D. F.; Rauscher, B. J.; Regan, M. W.; Balleza, J.; Bergeron, L.; Morse, E.; Stockman, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL) is jointly operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University (MU), and is assisting the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission in choosing and operating the best near-infrared detectors under a NASA Grant. The JWST is the centerpiece of the NASA Office of Space Science theme, the Astronomical Search for Origins, and the highest priority astronomy project for the next decade, according to the National Academy of Science. JWST will need to have the sensitivity to see the first light in the Universe to determine how galaxies formed in the web of dark matter that existed when the Universe was in its infancy (z approx. 10 - 20). To achieve this goal, the JWST Project must pursue an aggressive technology program and advance infrared detectors to performance levels beyond what is now possible. As part of this program, NASA has selected the IDTL to verify comparative performance between prototype JWST detectors developed by Rockwell Scientific (HgCdTe) and Raytheon (InSb). The IDTL is charged with obtaining an independent assessment of the ability of these two competing technologies to achieve the demanding specifications of the JWST program within the 0.6 - 5 approx. mum bandpass and in an ultra-low background (less than 0.01 e'/s/pixel) environment. We describe results from the JWST Detector Characterization Project that is being performed in the IDTL. In this project, we are measuring first-order detector parameters, i.e. dark current, read noise, QE, intra-pixel sensitivity, linearity, as functions of temperature, well size, and operational mode.

  7. Independent testing of JWST detector prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, Donald F.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Regan, Michael W.; Morse, Ernie; Balleza, Jesus; Bergeron, Louis; Stockman, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL) is jointly operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), and is assisting the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission in choosing and operating the best near-infrared detectors. The JWST is the centerpiece of the NASA Office of Space Science theme, the Astronomical Search for Origins, and the highest priority astronomy project for the next decade, according to the National Academy of Science. JWST will need to have the sensitivity to see the first light in the Universe to determine how galaxies formed in the web of dark matter that existed when the Universe was in its infancy (z~10-20). To achieve this goal, the JWST Project must pursue an aggressive technology program and advance infrared detectors to performance levels beyond what is now possible. As part of this program, NASA has selected the IDTL to verify comparative performance between prototype JWST detectors developed by Rockwell Scientific (HgCdTe) and Raytheon (InSb). The IDTL is charged with obtaining an independent assessment of the ability of these two competing technologies to achieve the demanding specifications of the JWST program within the 0.6-5 μm bandpass and in an ultra-low background (<0.01 e-/s/pixel) environment. We describe results from the JWST Detector Characterization Project that is being performed in the IDTL. In this project, we are measuring first-order detector parameters, i.e. dark current, read noise, QE, intra-pixel sensitivity, linearity, as functions of temperature, well size, and operational mode.

  8. Teachers as Cultural Mediators: A Comparison of the Accountability Era to the Assimilation Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Caroline; Valli, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article examines teachers' relationships with foreign students during eras marked by large waves of immigration to the United States and by policies that shifted from cultural assimilation (1900-1920) to present-day accountability. We compare teachers' understandings of and instructional practices regarding foreign-born English language…

  9. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  10. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  11. CMOS Detector Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Alan; Loose, Markus; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    An entry level overview of state-of-the-art CMOS detector technology is presented. Operating principles and system architecture are explained in comparison to the well-established CCD technology, followed by a discussion of important benefits of modern CMOS-based detector arrays. A number of unique CMOS features including different shutter modes and scanning concepts are described. In addition, sub-field stitching is presented as a technique for producing very large imagers. After a brief introduction to the concept of monolithic CMOS sensors, hybrid detectors technology is introduced. A comparison of noise reduction methods for CMOS hybrids is presented. The final sections review CMOS fabrication processes for monolithic and vertically integrated image sensors.

  12. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  13. JSATS Detector Field Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Eric Y.; Flory, Adam E.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2014-06-01

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) Detector is a software and hardware system that captures JSATS Acoustic Micro Transmitter (AMT) signals. The system uses hydrophones to capture acoustic signals in the water. This analog signal is then amplified and processed by the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) board in the computer. This board digitizes and processes the acoustic signal to determine if a possible JSATS tag is present. With this detection, the data will be saved to the computer for further analysis. This document details the features and functionality of the JSATS Detector software. The document covers how to install the software, setup and run the detector software. The document will also go over the raw binary waveform file format and CSV files containing RMS values

  14. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  15. Radiation Detectors and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, Andrea

    The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, γ-rays, β particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE).

  16. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-15

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R and D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R and D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  17. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  18. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  19. Edgeless silicon pad detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea Solano, B.; Abreu, M. C.; Avati, V.; Boccali, T.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Mirabito, L.; Morelli, A.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rodrigues, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silvestris, L.; Sousa, P.; Tapprogge, S.; Trocmé, B.

    2006-05-01

    We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in "edgeless" planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5±8 stat..±6 syst.) μm.

  20. RADIATION WAVE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1958-10-28

    The detection of the shape and amplitude of a radiation wave is discussed, particularly an apparatus for automatically indicating at spaced lntervals of time the radiation intensity at a flxed point as a measure of a radiation wave passing the point. The apparatus utilizes a number of photomultiplier tubes surrounding a scintillation type detector, For obtainlng time spaced signals proportional to radiation at predetermined intervals the photolnultiplier tubes are actuated ln sequence following detector incidence of a predetermined radiation level by electronic means. The time spaced signals so produced are then separately amplified and relayed to recording means.

  1. Glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2002-01-01

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

  2. Intelligent Detector Design

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne

    2007-02-13

    At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

  3. Dosimetry with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Marino, C.; Silvestri, F.; Lavagno, A.; Truc, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

  4. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

  5. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  6. Fissile material detector

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Alexander I.; Lushchikov, Vladislav I.; Shabalin, Eugeny P.; Maznyy, Nikita G.; Khvastunov, Michael M.; Rowland, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

  7. Gaseous Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    2014-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Electromagnetic interactions of charged particles with matter; 3. Interactions of photons and neutrons with matter; 4. Drift and diffusion of charges in gases; 5. Collisional excitations and charge multiplication in uniform fields; 6. Parallel plate counters; 7. Proportional counters; 8. Multiwire proportional chambers; 9. Drift chambers; 10. Time projection chambers; 11. Multitube arrays; 12. Resistive plate chambers; 13. Micro-pattern gas detectors; 14. Cherenkov ring imaging; 15. Miscellaneous detectors and applications; 16. Time degeneracy and aging; Further reading; References; Index.

  8. Special Nuclear Material Detection with a Water Cherenkov based Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sweany, M; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Dazeley, S; Svoboda, R

    2008-11-10

    Fission events from Special Nuclear Material (SNM), such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, produce a number of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. Assuming the neutron multiplicity is approximately Poissonian with an average of 2 to 3, the observation of time correlations between these particles from a cargo container would constitute a robust signature of the presence of SNM inside. However, in order to be sensitive to the multiplicity, one would require a high total efficiency. There are two approaches to maximize the total efficiency; maximizing the detector efficiency or maximizing the detector solid angle coverage. The advanced detector group at LLNL is investigating one way to maximize the detector size. We are designing and building a water Cerenkov based gamma and neutron detector for the purpose of developing an efficient and cost effective way to deploy a large solid angle car wash style detector. We report on our progress in constructing a larger detector and also present preliminary results from our prototype detector that indicates detection of neutrons.

  9. Molecular anthropology in the genomic era.

    PubMed

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Jobling, Mark A; Rocha, Jorge; Novembre, John; Richards, Martin B; Mulligan, Connie; Batini, Chiara; Manni, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Molecular Anthropology is a relatively young field of research. In fact, less than 50 years have passed since the symposium "Classification and Human Evolution" (1962, Burg Wartenstein, Austria), where the term was formally introduced by Emil Zuckerkandl. In this time, Molecular Anthropology has developed both methodologically and theoretically and extended its applications, so covering key aspects of human evolution such as the reconstruction of the history of human populations and peopling processes, the characterization of DNA in extinct humans and the role of adaptive processes in shaping the genetic diversity of our species. In the current scientific panorama, molecular anthropologists have to face a double challenge. As members of the anthropological community, we are strongly committed to the integration of biological findings and other lines of evidence (e.g. linguistic and archaeological), while keeping in line with methodological innovations which are moving the approach from the genetic to the genomic level. In this framework, the meeting "DNA Polymorphisms in Human Populations: Molecular Anthropology in the Genomic Era" (Rome, December 3-5, 2009) offered an opportunity for discussion among scholars from different disciplines, while paying attention to the impact of recent methodological innovations. Here we present an overview of the meeting and discuss perspectives and prospects of Molecular Anthropology in the genomic era.

  10. CMOS Hybrid Pixel Detectors for Scientific, Industrial and Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broennimann, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Crystallography is the principal technique for determining macromolecular structures at atomic resolution and uses advantageously the high intensity of 3rd generation synchrotron X-ray sources . Macromolecular crystallography experiments benefit from excellent beamline equipment, recent software advances and modern X-ray detectors. However, the latter do not take full advantage of the brightness of modern synchrotron sources. CMOS Hybrid pixel array detectors, originally developed for high energy physics experiments, meet these requirements. X-rays are recorded in single photon counting mode and data thus are stored digitally at the earliest possible stage. This architecture leads to several advantages over current detectors: No detector noise is added to the signal. Readout time is reduced to a few milliseconds. The counting rates are matched to beam intensities at protein crystallography beamlines at 3rd generation synchrotrons. The detector is not sensitive to X-rays during readout; therefore no mechanical shutter is required. The detector has a very sharp point spread function (PSF) of one pixel, which allows better resolution of adjacent reflections. Low energy X-rays can be suppressed by the comparator At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland the first and largest array based on this technology was constructed: The Pilatus 6M detector. The detector covers an area of 43.1 x 44.8 cm2 , has 6 million pixels and is read out noise free in 3.7 ms. Since June 2007 the detector is in routine operation at the beamline 6S of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The company DETCRIS Ltd, has licensed the technology from PSI and is commercially offering the PILATUS detectors. Examples of the wide application range of the detectors will be shown.

  11. Astrophysical calibration of gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitkin, M.; Messenger, C.; Wright, L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a method to assess the validity of gravitational-wave detector calibration through the use of gamma-ray bursts as standard sirens. Such signals, as measured via gravitational-wave observations, provide an estimated luminosity distance that is subject to uncertainties in the calibration of the data. If a host galaxy is identified for a given source then its redshift can be combined with current knowledge of the cosmological parameters yielding the true luminosity distance. This will then allow a direct comparison with the estimated value and can validate the accuracy of the original calibration. We use simulations of individual detectable gravitational-wave signals from binary neutron star (BNS) or neutron star-black hole systems, which we assume to be found in coincidence with short gamma-ray bursts, to estimate any discrepancy in the overall scaling of the calibration for detectors in the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo network. We find that the amplitude scaling of the calibration for the LIGO instruments could on average be confirmed to within ˜10 % for a BNS source within 100 Mpc. This result is largely independent of the current detector calibration method and gives an uncertainty that is competitive with that expected in the current calibration procedure. Confirmation of the calibration accuracy to within ˜20 % can be found with BNS sources out to ˜500 Mpc .

  12. Antimonide-based barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Nguyen, Jean; Keo, Sam A.; Lee, Michael C.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2010-04-01

    The nearly lattice-matched InAs/GaSb/AlSb (antimonide) material system offers tremendous flexibility in realizing high-performance infrared detectors. Antimonide-based alloy and superlattice infrared absorbers can be customized to have cutoff wavelengths ranging from the short wave infrared (SWIR) to the very long wave infrared (VLWIR). They can be used in constructing sophisticated heterostructures to enable advanced infrared photodetector designs. In particular, they facilitate the construction of unipolar barriers, which can block one carrier type but allow the unimpeded flow of the other. Unipolar barriers are used to implement the barrier infra-red detector (BIRD) design for increasing the collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, and reducing dark current generation without impeding photocurrent flow. We report our recent efforts in achieving state-of-the-art performance in antimonide alloy and superlattice based infrared photodetectors using the BIRD architecture. Specifically, we report a 10 μm cutoff superlattice device based on a complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design. The detector, without antireflection coating or passivation, exhibits a responsivity of 1.5 A/W and a dark current density of 1×10-5 A/cm2 at 77K under 0.2 V bias. It reaches 300 K background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) operation at 87 K, with a blackbody BLIP D* value of 1.1×1011 cm-Hz1/2/W for f/2 optics under 0.2 V bias.

  13. Antenna Enhanced Graphene THz Emitter and Detector.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jiayue; Muthee, Martin; Chen, Shao-Yu; Yngvesson, Sigfrid K; Yan, Jun

    2015-08-12

    Recent intense electrical and optical studies of graphene have pushed the material to the forefront of optoelectronic research. Of particular interest is the few terahertz (THz) frequency regime where efficient light sources and highly sensitive detectors are very challenging to make. Here we present THz sources and detectors made with graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) enhanced by a double-patch antenna and an on-chip silicon lens. We report the first experimental observation of 1-3 THz radiation from graphene, as well as more than 3 orders of magnitude performance improvements in a half-edge-contacted GFET thermoelectric detector operating at ∼2 THz. The quantitative analysis of the emitting power and its unusual charge density dependence indicate significant nonthermal noise contribution from the GFET. The polarization resolved detection measurements with different illumination geometries allow for detailed and quantitative analysis of various factors that contribute to the overall detector performance. Our experimental results represent a significant advance toward practically useful graphene THz devices. PMID:26218887

  14. Characterisation of an asymmetric AGATA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, C.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Colosimo, S.; Cresswell, J.; Dimmock, M. R.; Filmer, F.; Judson, D.; Moon, S.; Nolan, P. J.; Norman, M. J.; Slee, M.

    2009-08-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a next-generation gamma-ray spectrometer for nuclear physics being developed as part of a Europe-wide collaboration. AGATA aims to vastly improve upon the sensitivity of today's arrays by removing the BGO shields used to suppress the Compton background and instead, tracking gamma rays through a complete 4π shell of Germanium using Gamma Ray Tracking (GRT). In order to facilitate this, Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) must be used to accurately locate the position of each gamma-ray interaction within each detector. The preferred approach to PSA relies on the generation of a database of typical pulse shapes produced by interactions at each position on a grid throughout the detector. This paper details current progress at the University of Liverpool toward validating the electric field simulation, which will be used to generate the pulse shape database, with experimental data from an asymmetric AGATA detector. The field simulation is discussed and some comparisons are made between this and a two dimensional raster scan of the detector with a highly collimated source.

  15. Plant Microbe Interactions in Post Genomic Era: Perspectives and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Jahangir; Singh, Puneet K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering plant–microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various ‘omics’ tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement. The plant innate immunity has always been an important aspect of research and leads to some interesting information like the adaptation of unique immune mechanisms of plants against pathogens. The development of new techniques in the post - genomic era has greatly enhanced our understanding of the regulation of plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. The present review also provides an overview of beneficial plant–microbe interactions with special reference to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-plant interactions where plant derived signal molecules and plant immune responses are important in pathogenicity and transformation efficiency. The construction of various Genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms and plants presented a better understanding of all metabolic interactions activated during the interactions. This review also lists the emerging repertoire of phytopathogens and its impact on plant disease resistance. Outline of different aspects of plant-pathogen interactions is presented in this review to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and their immune responses. PMID:27725809

  16. Drosophila and experimental neurology in the post-genomic era.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Joshua M

    2015-12-01

    For decades, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been among the premiere genetic model systems for probing fundamental neurobiology, including elucidation of mechanisms responsible for human neurologic disorders. Flies continue to offer virtually unparalleled versatility and speed for genetic manipulation, strong genomic conservation, and a nervous system that recapitulates a range of cellular and network properties relevant to human disease. I focus here on four critical challenges emerging from recent advances in our understanding of the genomic basis of human neurologic disorders where innovative experimental strategies are urgently needed: (1) pinpointing causal genes from associated genomic loci; (2) confirming the functional impact of allelic variants; (3) elucidating nervous system roles for novel or poorly studied genes; and (4) probing network interactions within implicated regulatory pathways. Drosophila genetic approaches are ideally suited to address each of these potential translational roadblocks, and will therefore contribute to mechanistic insights and potential breakthrough therapies for complex genetic disorders in the coming years. Strategic collaboration between neurologists, human geneticists, and the Drosophila research community holds great promise to accelerate progress in the post-genomic era.

  17. A New Era of Low-Dose Radiation Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Cari M; Linet, Martha S; Rajaraman, Preetha; Ntowe, Estelle; Berrington de González, Amy

    2015-09-01

    The last decade has introduced a new era of epidemiologic studies of low-dose radiation facilitated by electronic record linkage and pooling of cohorts that allow for more direct and powerful assessments of cancer and other stochastic effects at doses below 100 mGy. Such studies have provided additional evidence regarding the risks of cancer, particularly leukemia, associated with lower-dose radiation exposures from medical, environmental, and occupational radiation sources, and have questioned the previous findings with regard to possible thresholds for cardiovascular disease and cataracts. Integrated analysis of next generation genomic and epigenetic sequencing of germline and somatic tissues could soon propel our understanding further regarding disease risk thresholds, radiosensitivity of population subgroups and individuals, and the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. These advances in low-dose radiation epidemiology are critical to our understanding of chronic disease risks from the burgeoning use of newer and emerging medical imaging technologies, and the continued potential threat of nuclear power plant accidents or other radiological emergencies. PMID:26231501

  18. New data visualization of the LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Fedorko; Veronique, Lefebure; Daniel, Lenkes; Omar, Pera Mira

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, new requirements have been received for visualization of monitoring data: advanced graphics, flexibility in configuration and decoupling of the presentation layer from the monitoring repository. Lemonweb is the data visualization component of the LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system. Lemonweb consists of two subcomponents: a data collector and a web visualization interface. The data collector is a daemon, implemented in Python, responsible for data gathering from the central monitoring repository and storing into time series data structures. Data is stored on disk in Round Robin Database (RRD) files: one file per monitored entity, with set of entity related metrics. Entities may be grouped into a hierarchical structure, called “clusters” and supporting mathematical operations over entities and clusters (e.g. cluster A + cluster B /clusters C - entity XY). Using the configuration information, a cluster definition is evaluated in the collector engine and, at runtime, a sequence of data selects is built, to optimize access to the central monitoring repository. In this article, an overview of the design and architecture as well as highlights of some implemented features will be presented.

  19. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  20. The Upgraded D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  1. Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps, Detector Descriptions in GODL

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

    2005-07-06

    Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays. In addition to three built-in detector configurations, detector descriptions can also be read from files in the new GODL file format.

  2. Directional gamma detector

    DOEpatents

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

  3. Smoke Detector Resource Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.; Powell, Pamela, Ed.

    This manual is one of a series developed for public education on smoke detectors. First, basic facts are given including guidelines for selection and purchasing, installation, maintenance, and what to do if the alarm goes off. Second, five case studies are presented which are examples of public education programs. (The script to one slide…

  4. Smoke Detector Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

    This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

  5. Leak detector uses ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.; Keir, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    Probe located on outer wall of vacuum-jacketed fluid lines detects leaks on inner wall. Probe picks up and amplifies vibrations that occur when gas rushes through leak and converts them to audible signal or CRT display. System is considerably simpler to use than helium leak detectors and allows rapid checks to be made as part of routine maintenance.

  6. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  7. Understanding the SNO+ Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, K.

    SNO+, a large liquid scintillator experiment, is the successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. The scintillator volume will be loaded with large quantities of 130Te, an isotope that undergoes double beta decay, in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In addition to this search, SNO+ has a broad physics program due to its sensitivity to solar and supernova neutrinos, as well as reactor and geo anti-neutrinos. SNO+ can also place competitive limits on certain modes of invisible nucleon decay during its first phase. The detector is currently undergoing commissioning in preparation for its first phase, in which the detector is filled with ultra pure water. This will be followed by a pure scintillator phase, and then a Tellurium-loaded scintillator phase to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Here we present the work done to model detector aging, which was first observed during SNO. The aging was found to reduce the optical response of the detector. We also describe early results from electronics calibration of SNO+.

  8. Understanding the SNO+ Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kamdin, K.

    2015-03-24

    SNO+, a large liquid scintillator experiment, is the successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. The scintillator volume will be loaded with large quantities of 130Te, an isotope that undergoes double beta decay, in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In addition to this search, SNO+ has a broad physics program due to its sensitivity to solar and supernova neutrinos, as well as reactor and geo anti-neutrinos. SNO+ can also place competitive limits on certain modes of invisible nucleon decay during its first phase. The detector is currently undergoing commissioning in preparation for its first phase, in which the detector is filled with ultra pure water. This will be followed by a pure scintillator phase, and then a Tellurium-loaded scintillator phase to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Here we present the work done to model detector aging, which was first observed during SNO. The aging was found to reduce the optical response of the detector. We also describe early results from electronics calibration of SNO+.

  9. Understanding the SNO+ Detector

    DOE PAGES

    Kamdin, K.

    2015-03-24

    SNO+, a large liquid scintillator experiment, is the successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. The scintillator volume will be loaded with large quantities of 130Te, an isotope that undergoes double beta decay, in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In addition to this search, SNO+ has a broad physics program due to its sensitivity to solar and supernova neutrinos, as well as reactor and geo anti-neutrinos. SNO+ can also place competitive limits on certain modes of invisible nucleon decay during its first phase. The detector is currently undergoing commissioning in preparation for its first phase, inmore » which the detector is filled with ultra pure water. This will be followed by a pure scintillator phase, and then a Tellurium-loaded scintillator phase to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Here we present the work done to model detector aging, which was first observed during SNO. The aging was found to reduce the optical response of the detector. We also describe early results from electronics calibration of SNO+.« less

  10. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1999-08-03

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

  11. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  12. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  13. The Watchman Detector Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dazeley, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The Watchman collaboration is proposing a kiloton scale antineutrino detector of reactor-based antineutrinos for non-proliferation purposes. As an added bonus the detector will also have the capability to search for evidence of sterile neutrino oscillation, super-nova antineutrinos and, in a second phase, measure the neutrino mass hierarchy. Despite that fact that KamLAND demonstrated the feasibility of kiloton scale, long distance antineutrino detection with liquid scintillator, similar detectors at the megaton scale remain problematic for environmental, cost and light attenuation reasons. Water, with gadolinium added for neutron sensitivity, may be the detection medium of choice if its efficiency can be shown to be competitive with scintillator. The goal of the Watchman project, therefore, is to demonstrate medium distance reactor antineutrino detection, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of moving to water-based megaton scale antineutrino detectors in the future. In this talk I will describe the scope of the experiment, the physics and engineering challenges involved, the proposed design and the predicted performance of the experimental non-proliferation and high-energy physics program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-648381.

  14. Smoke Detectors Save Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominski, John

    This resource bulletin provides information which can be used in classrooms, at conferences, and at meetings with parents to increase public awareness and acceptance of a new New York City ordinance which requires the installation of smoke detectors in apartments. The booklet contains information on the following: (1) background information for…

  15. Gas Detectors, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The report contains annotated references on gas detectors compiled from the Defense Documentation Center's data bank. The range of the topics deals with detection of toxic propellants, odors, gas leaks, oxygen, etc. Included with the bibliographic reference are the corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, and title indexes. (Author/JR)

  16. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  17. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  18. The Friendship Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Scott

    2012-01-01

    After years of using Rube Goldberg-inspired projects to teach concepts of simple machines, the author sought a comparable project to reinforce electricity lessons in his ninth-grade Science and Technology course. The Friendship Detector gives students a chance to design, test, and build a complex circuit with multiple switches and battery-powered…

  19. Large-Area Liquid Scintillation Detector Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, M. F.; Gurr, H. S.; Hruschka, A. A.; Jenkins, T. L.; Kropp, W. P.; Reines, P.; Sobel, H.

    The following sections are included: * SUMMARY * INTRODUCTION * DETECTOR RESPONSE FUNCTION F(z) AND EVENT POSITION DETERMINATION * REFINEMENTS IN THE DETECTOR CONFIGURATION DESIGN * DETECTOR PERFORMANCE * APPENDIX * REFERENCES

  20. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Rojeski, Ronald A.

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  1. Comparative study between ERA-20C and ERA INTERIM reanalysis datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisztina Balázs, Zita; Ihász, István

    2016-04-01

    The continuous development of the 20th century had a positive effect on the meteorological forecasts as well. Thanks to that the numerical models and their forecasts became more precise by the end of the century. Therefore in the 1990s scientists required to verify the results of previous numerical models with the available new technologies. In this way now it is possible to get a more accurate picture of the atmosphere's past. To meet this need reanalyses were improved. Reanalyses not only help to represent the conditions of the atmosphere more precisely, but they also help to recognize the errors of the numerical models. All these progresses are the basics of making trustworthy forecasts, and getting precise results of global climate models as well. Thanks to the innovation of data-assimilated methods and further technical developments several reanalysis projects were improved in the last decades. In our current studies we are making a proper, comparative study between the two most modern ECMWF reanalysis datasets (ERA INTERIM, ERA-20C). In the first step we assigned three periods of ERA-20C (1901-2000, 1901-1950 and 1951-2000) where we examine several selected parameters. We also assigned a collective period from both ERA INTERIM and ERA-20C (1981-2010). Four different meteorological parameters - 500 hPa height, 850 hPa temperature, mean sea level pressure, and ice coverage in the Arctic- Circle regions were investigated in our study. Emphasis is also placed on extreme weather situations. Firstly we are monitoring the detectability and the changes in frequencies of rapid cyclones in the period 1981-2010 collectively in both reanalysis datasets. Besides we examine some selected cyclones' frequency and spatial location in three periods of ERA-20C (1901-2000, 1901-1950 and 1951-2000). By the results we can recognize the strengths and weaknesses of the two reanalyses. It is a great benefit for all the reanalysis users, such as climate researchers, and the developers

  2. Reappraisal of Regional Growth Charts in the Era of WHO Growth Standards

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    After the WHO Growth Standards (WHOGS) was published in 2006, many countries in the world endorsed and adopted the new growth references as a standard measure for the growth of infants and young children. Certainly, the WHOGS has an impact on the global policy about obesity and underweight in children. Such WHOGS innovation has influenced many regional health authorities and academies, which have managed their own growth charts for a long time, in changing their strategies to develop and use regional growth charts. In Korea, along with the tradition to create a national growth chart every decade, we now face a new era of advancing with the WHOGS. PMID:24224146

  3. The -omics Era- Toward a Systems-Level Understanding of Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhan; Gu, Jianying; Du, Yi-Ling; Li, Yong-Quan; Wang, Yufeng

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces is a group of soil bacteria of medicinal, economic, ecological, and industrial importance. It is renowned for its complex biology in gene regulation, antibiotic production, morphological differentiation, and stress response. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in Streptomyces biology inspired by -omics based high throughput technologies. In this post-genomic era, vast amounts of data have been integrated to provide significant new insights into the fundamental mechanisms of system control and regulation dynamics of Streptomyces. PMID:22379394

  4. Common Era Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Kemp, A.; Kopp, R. E., III

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic coast of North America provides a sedimentary record of Common Era sea levels with the resolution to identify the mechanisms that cause spatial variability in sea-level rise. This coast has a small tidal range, improving the precision of sea-level reconstructions. Coastal subsidence (from glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) creates accommodation space that is filled by salt-marsh peat and preserves accurate and precise sea-level indicators and abundant material for radiocarbon dating. In addition, the western North Atlantic Ocean is sensitive to spatial variability in sea-level change, because of static equilibrium effects from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, ocean circulation and wind-driven variability in the Gulf Stream and GIA induced land-level change from ongoing collapse of Laurentide forbuldge. We reveal three distinct patters in sea-level during the Common Era along the North American Atlantic coast, likely linked to wind-driven changes in the Gulf Stream: (1) Florida, sea level is essentially flat, with the record dominated by long-term geological processes; (2) North Carolina, sea level falls to a minimum near the beginning of the second millennium, climbing to an early Little Ice Age maximum in the fifteenth century, and then declining through most of the nineteenth century; and (3) New Jersey, a sea-level maximum around 900 CE, a sea-level minimum around 1500 CE, and a long-term sea-level rise through the second half of the second millennium. We combine the salt-marsh data from North American Atlantic coast with tide-gauge records and lower resolution proxies from the northern and southern hemispheres. We apply a noisy-input Gaussian process spatio-temporal modeling framework, which identifies a long-term falling global mean sea-level (GMSL), interrupted in the middle of the 19th century by an acceleration yielding a 20th century rate of rise extremely likely (probability P = 0:95) faster than any previous century in the Common Era.

  5. Infrared SWAP detectors: pushing the limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Yann; Taalat, R.; Brunner, A.; Rubaldo, L.; Augey, T.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Manissadjian, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.; Destéfanis, G.

    2015-06-01

    The growing demand for compact and low consumption infrared cooled detectors is driven by different products segments. Hand Held Thermal Imagers, UAV, small gimbals are some of them. End users are requiring devices easy to use with fast cool down time, excellent portability, low acoustic noise with no trade-offs in reliability and performance. These requirements are pushing the technology developments toward constant innovations on detectors, coolers, read out circuits and proximity electronic boards. In this paper we are discussing the different figures of merit and highlighting the challenges for the different components. An update on the developments of HOT technology for most advanced pixel pitch will be presented. Very compact products are driving the developments for innovative coolers and cryogenic solutions. A low power compact architecture is a must for electronic boards to optimize the overall system power consumption. Finally a look to the future requirements for further shrink will be addressed.

  6. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossington, Carolyn Sally

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the Star Wars nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  7. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  8. "Reading Progress": Historians and Public Literacy in the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler-Kassner, Linda

    Controlling "literacy processes" was a concern of members of the dominant culture during the Progressive Era (about 1890-1917). Educators wanted to set students on the "right" course before formal schooling was over. Four history textbooks from the era share a general sense of what is required for public literacy, but they present multiple public…

  9. Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS) Scores in Academically Talented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Roth, David A.; Gabelko, Nina H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and structural validity of Elementary Reading Attitude Survey ([ERAS]; McKenna and Kear, 1990) scores in 575 academically talented students attending an academic summer program. Results indicated that ERAS Academic and Recreational scores had satisfactory internal consistency coefficients, and that…

  10. Community Colleges: Key to Vietnam Era GI Bill Shortfall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, J. Michael

    The Vietnam Era GI Bill was clearly influenced by the social and educational success of World War II veterans, but also reflected the policy objectives of equity and access of the 1960's. A 1987 monograph by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs reported that 60% of all Vietnam Era veterans received some training benefit from the GI Bill, but…

  11. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Outstanding Problems in the Swift Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2008-01-01

    The study of gamma-ray bursts has entered a new era since the successful launch of NASA's dedicated mission Swift. I discuss several new outstanding problems raised in the Swift era, including GRB classification schemes, diverse manifestations of the delayed GRB central engine activity, as well as mysterious temporal breaks in the multi-wavelength afterglows.

  12. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howenstein, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…

  13. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  14. Image blurring due to light-sharing in PET block detectors

    SciTech Connect

    St James, Sara; Thompson, Christopher J.

    2006-02-15

    The spatial resolution in PET is poorer than that of CT or MRI. All modern PET scanners use block detectors, i.e., clusters of scintillation crystals coupled to four photomultiplier tubes. Some of the loss of spatial resolution in PET is attributed to the use of block detectors, because a photon that interacts with one crystal in the cluster may be incorrectly positioned, resulting in blurring of the reconstructed image. This is called the ''block effect.'' The block effect was measured for detectors from the CTI HR+ scanner, and the GE Advance scanner; two popular clinical PET scanners. The effect of changing the depth of first interaction of a gamma ray in the scintillation crystals was also studied to determine if it may be a contributor to the block effect. The block effect was found to be 1.2{+-}0.5 mm for the central crystals and negligible for the edge crystals in the CTI HR+ block. It was 0.9{+-}0.3 mm in the central crystals of the GE Advance detector, and 0.7{+-}0.3 mm in the edge crystals of the GE Advance detector. In the CTI HR+ detector, a depth dependence on the positioning of the event was observed, as was a dependence on the crystal location (edge versus center). In the GE Advance detector events that occurred at different interaction depths were positioned consistently. The percentage of events that may be positioned inaccurately was also calculated for both detectors. In the CTI HR+ detector as many as 16% of all events in the block detector may be positioned incorrectly. In the GE Advance detector as many as 13% of all events in the block detector may be positioned inaccurately. These results suggest that the depth of interaction of an annihilation photon may contribute to the block effect in detectors that use crystals cut from a single scintillation crystal (pseudodiscrete crystals), and is less dominant a factor for detectors that use discrete crystals with light sharing between the crystals. Investigating the effect of changing photon

  15. Cooled and uncooled infrared detectors for missile seekers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, Rami; Haski, Jacob; Mizrahi, Udi; Shkedy, Lior; Shtrichman, Itay; Pinsky, Ephi

    2014-06-01

    Electro-optical missile seekers pose exceptional requirements for infrared (IR) detectors. These requirements include: very short mission readiness (time-to-image), one-time and relatively short mission duration, extreme ambient conditions, high sensitivity, fast frame rate, and in some cases small size and cost. SCD is engaged in the development and production of IR detectors for missile seeker applications for many years. 0D, 1D and 2D InSb focal plane arrays (FPAs) are packaged in specially designed fast cool-down Dewars and integrated with Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers. These cooled MWIR detectors were integrated in numerous seekers of various missile types, for short and long range applications, and are combat proven. New technologies for the MWIR, such as epi-InSb and XBn-InAsSb, enable faster cool-down time and higher sensitivity for the next generation seekers. The uncooled micro-bolometer technology for IR detectors has advanced significantly over the last decade, and high resolution - high sensitivity FPAs are now available for different applications. Their much smaller size and cost with regard to the cooled detectors makes these uncooled LWIR detectors natural candidates for short and mid-range missile seekers. In this work we will present SCD's cooled and uncooled solutions for advanced electro-optical missile seekers.

  16. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  17. [From the analogic to the digital era: technical EEG progress for presurgical investigations of refractory partial epilepsies].

    PubMed

    Gagnepain, J-P; Allouche, L; Toussaint, D; Landré, E

    2008-05-01

    Over the past two decades, exploration of epileptic patients has benefited from technological advances in electroencephalography. Computerized equipment can simultaneously retrieve cerebral electric activity and signs of the patient's ictal activity. The computer era has improved reliability, storage and analysis of the recorded data and provides easier communication tools for multidisciplinary staff and patient case studies. Therefore, an increasing number of patients could benefit from presurgical investigations and surgical treatment.

  18. Position sensitive solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnatterly, S. E.; Husk, D.

    1986-05-01

    Solid state detectors have been used for years as high quantum efficiency detectors for visible light. In this paper the use of PDA and CCD, solid state detectors, in the X-ray region will be discussed. In particular examples of data in the soft X-ray region are presented. Finally the use of phosphor coatings to enhance the sensitivity of solid state detectors is described.

  19. The PAMELA Transition Radiation Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafagna, Francesco

    A Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) has been developed for the PAMELA instrument. PAMELA is a satellite born magnetic spectrometer; its primary scientific objective is the study of antiparticles in cosmic rays. The TRD detector was developed to provide particle identification, in addition to calorimetric measurements. This detector is composed of 9 active layers made of proportional straw tubes, piled up with interleaved carbon fibers radiator layers. Detector description and test beam performances will be presented.

  20. Radiotherapy in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yard, Brian; Chie, Eui Kyu; Adams, Drew J; Peacock, Craig; Abazeed, Mohamed E

    2015-10-01

    Current predictors of radiation response are largely limited to clinical and histopathologic parameters, and extensive systematic analyses of the correlation between radiation sensitivity and genomic parameters remain lacking. In the era of precision medicine, the lack of -omic determinants of radiation response has hindered the personalization of radiation delivery to the unique characteristics of each patient׳s cancer and impeded the discovery of new therapies that can be administered concurrently with radiation therapy. The cataloging of the -omic determinants of radiation sensitivity of cancer has great potential in enhancing efficacy and limiting toxicity in the context of a new approach to precision radiotherapy. Herein, we review concepts and data that contribute to the delineation of the radiogenomic landscape of cancer.

  1. AGN Physics in the CTA Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, Andreas; Boisson, Catherine; Sol, Hélène

    With the start of its Preparatory Phase, a new step has been made towards the construction of CTA, the future large Cherenkov Telescope Array of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. A two-day workshop devoted to "AGN physics in the CTA era" will be held in Toulouse, May 16th-17th 2011, in parallel to a general meeting of the CTA consortium. Combining reviews and contributed talks, the meeting will aim to present the current state of the art and to characterize future observing programmes for the various facets of AGN science at very high energies (VHE). Topics to be discussed include AGN population studies, particle acceleration and VHE emission models, variability studies, multiwavelength approach, EBL connection, VHE extended emission (radiogalaxies, pair haloes, diffuse background), passive black holes, primordial black holes ... Further information, including the full program, can be found on the conference webpage: http://cta.obspm.fr/agnworkshop2011/

  2. Riverland ERA cleanup sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heiden, C.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Riverland Expedited Response Action taking place at the Hanford Reservation. Characterization of potential waste sites within the Riverland ERA boundaries was conducted in October and November 1992. This sampling and analysis plan contains two parts: The field sampling plan (Part 1) and the quality assurance project plan (Part 2). The field sampling plan describes the activities to be performed, defines sample designation, and identifies sample analysis to be performed. The quality assurance project plan establishes data quality objectives, defines analytical methods and procedures and documentation requirements, and provides established technical procedures to be used for field sampling and measurement. The quality assurance project plan details all quality assurance/quality control procedures to be followed to ensure that usable and defensible data are collected.

  3. Laplace and the era of differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Between about 1790 and 1850 French mathematicians dominated not only mathematics, but also all other sciences. The belief that a particular physical phenomenon has to correspond to a single differential equation originates from the enormous influence Laplace and his contemporary compatriots had in all European learned circles. It will be shown that at the beginning of the nineteenth century Newton's "fluxionary calculus" finally gave way to a French-type notation of handling differential equations. A heated dispute in the Philosophical Magazine between Challis, Airy and Stokes, all three of them famous Cambridge professors of mathematics, then serves to illustrate the era of differential equations. A remark about Schrödinger and his equation for the hydrogen atom finally will lead back to present times.

  4. The role of the toxicologic pathologist in the post-genomic era(#).

    PubMed

    Maronpot, Robert R

    2013-06-01

    molecular biologists. In this present era newly emerging DVM and MD scientists enter the work arena with a PhD in pathology often based on some aspect of molecular biology or molecular pathology research. In molecular biology, the almost daily technological advances require one's complete dedication to remain at the cutting edge of the science. Similarly, the practice of toxicologic pathology, like other morphological disciplines, is based largely on experience and requires dedicated daily examination of pathology material to maintain a well-trained eye capable of distilling specific information from stained tissue slides - a dedicated effort that cannot be well done as an intermezzo between other tasks. It is a rare individual that has true expertise in both molecular biology and pathology. In this genomic era, the newly emerging DVM-PhD or MD-PhD pathologist enters a marketplace without many job opportunities in contrast to the pre-genomic era. Many face an identity crisis needing to decide to become a competent pathologist or, alternatively, to become a competent molecular biologist. At the same time, more PhD molecular biologists without training in pathology are members of the research teams working in drug development and toxicology. How best can the toxicologic pathologist interact in the contemporary team approach in drug development, toxicology research and safety testing? Based on their biomedical training, toxicologic pathologists are in an ideal position to link data from the emerging technologies with their knowledge of pathobiology and toxicology. To enable this linkage and obtain the synergy it provides, the bench-level, slide-reading expert pathologist will need to have some basic understanding and appreciation of molecular biology methods and tools. On the other hand, it is not likely that the typical molecular biologist could competently evaluate and diagnose stained tissue slides from a toxicology study or a cancer bioassay. The post-genomic era: The post

  5. The Role of the Toxicologic Pathologist in the Post-Genomic Era#

    PubMed Central

    Maronpot, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    molecular biologists. In this present era newly emerging DVM and MD scientists enter the work arena with a PhD in pathology often based on some aspect of molecular biology or molecular pathology research. In molecular biology, the almost daily technological advances require one’s complete dedication to remain at the cutting edge of the science. Similarly, the practice of toxicologic pathology, like other morphological disciplines, is based largely on experience and requires dedicated daily examination of pathology material to maintain a well-trained eye capable of distilling specific information from stained tissue slides - a dedicated effort that cannot be well done as an intermezzo between other tasks. It is a rare individual that has true expertise in both molecular biology and pathology. In this genomic era, the newly emerging DVM-PhD or MD-PhD pathologist enters a marketplace without many job opportunities in contrast to the pre-genomic era. Many face an identity crisis needing to decide to become a competent pathologist or, alternatively, to become a competent molecular biologist. At the same time, more PhD molecular biologists without training in pathology are members of the research teams working in drug development and toxicology. How best can the toxicologic pathologist interact in the contemporary team approach in drug development, toxicology research and safety testing? Based on their biomedical training, toxicologic pathologists are in an ideal position to link data from the emerging technologies with their knowledge of pathobiology and toxicology. To enable this linkage and obtain the synergy it provides, the bench-level, slide-reading expert pathologist will need to have some basic understanding and appreciation of molecular biology methods and tools. On the other hand, it is not likely that the typical molecular biologist could competently evaluate and diagnose stained tissue slides from a toxicology study or a cancer bioassay. The post-genomic era: The

  6. Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B; Paik, T

    2006-07-26

    The optimum detector for a known signal in white Gaussian background noise is the matched filter, also known as a correlation detector [Van Trees, 1968]. Correlation detectors offer exquisite sensitivity (high probability of detection at a fixed false alarm rate), but require perfect knowledge of the signal. The sensitivity of correlation detectors is increased by the availability of multichannel data, something common in seismic applications due to the prevalence of three-component stations and arrays. When the signal is imperfectly known, an extension of the correlation detector, the subspace detector, may be able to capture much of the performance of a matched filter [Harris, 2006]. In order to apply a subspace detector, the signal to be detected must be known to lie in a signal subspace of dimension d {ge} 1, which is defined by a set of d linearly-independent basis waveforms. The basis is constructed to span the range of signals anticipated to be emitted by a source of interest. Correlation detectors operate by computing a running correlation coefficient between a template waveform (the signal to be detected) and the data from a window sliding continuously along a data stream. The template waveform and the continuous data stream may be multichannel, as would be true for a three-component seismic station or an array. In such cases, the appropriate correlation operation computes the individual correlations channel-for-channel and sums the result (Figure 1). Both the waveform matching that occurs when a target signal is present and the cross-channel stacking provide processing gain. For a three-component station processing gain occurs from matching the time-history of the signals and their polarization structure. The projection operation that is at the heart of the subspace detector can be expensive to compute if implemented in a straightforward manner, i.e. with direct-form convolutions. The purpose of this report is to indicate how the projection can be

  7. ISS/IDS Detector Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-02-21

    This article summarises the results obtained by the detector working group of the 'International Scooping Study' (ISS) of a future neutrino oscillations facility. Special emphasis is put on far detectors, for which some of the main issues are identified. A detector R and D strategy in the context of the 'International Design Study' (IDS) for a neutrino factory is also presented.

  8. Characterisations of GEM detector prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Rajendra Nath; Nanda, Amit; Rudra, Sharmili; Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S.

    2016-07-01

    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  9. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  10. A robot-based detector manipulator system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument.

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D., Maser, J., Holt, M. , Winarski, R., Preissner, C.,Lai, B., Vogt, S., Stephenson, G.B.

    2007-11-11

    This paper presents the design of a robot-based detector manipulator for microdiffraction applications with a hard X-ray nanoprobe instrument system being constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Applications for detectors weighing from 1.5 to 100 kg were discussed in three configurations.

  11. Interferometry in the Era of Very Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Research in modern stellar interferometry has focused primarily on ground-based observatories, with very long baselines or large apertures, that have benefited from recent advances in fringe tracking, phase reconstruction, adaptive optics, guided optics, and modern detectors. As one example, a great deal of effort has been put into development of ground-based nulling interferometers. The nulling technique is the sparse aperture equivalent of conventional coronography used in filled aperture telescopes. In this mode the stellar light itself is suppressed by a destructive fringe, effectively enhancing the contrast of the circumstellar material located near the star. Nulling interferometry has helped to advance our understanding of the astrophysics of many distant objects by providing the spatial resolution necessary to localize the various faint emission sources near bright objects. We illustrate the current capabilities of this technique by describing the first scientific results from the Keck Interferometer Nuller that combines the light from the two largest optical telescopes in the world including new, unpublished measurements of exozodiacal dust disks. We discuss prospects in the near future for interferometry in general, the capabilities of secondary masking interferometry on very large telescopes, and of nulling interferometry using outriggers on very large telescopes. We discuss future development of a simplified space-borne NIR nulling architecture, the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer, capable of detecting and characterizing an Earth twin in the near future and how such a mission would benefit from the optical wavelength coverage offered by large, ground-based instruments.

  12. High-efficiency neutron detectors and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Klann, Raymond

    2007-01-16

    Neutron detectors, advanced detector process techniques and advanced compound film designs have greatly increased neutron-detection efficiency. One embodiment of the detectors utilizes a semiconductor wafer with a matrix of spaced cavities filled with one or more types of neutron reactive material such as 10B or 6LiF. The cavities are etched into both the front and back surfaces of the device such that the cavities from one side surround the cavities from the other side. The cavities may be etched via holes or etched slots or trenches. In another embodiment, the cavities are different-sized and the smaller cavities extend into the wafer from the lower surfaces of the larger cavities. In a third embodiment, multiple layers of different neutron-responsive material are formed on one or more sides of the wafer. The new devices operate at room temperature, are compact, rugged, and reliable in design.

  13. LIGO and the network of terrestrial gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, David

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational Wave detectors based on the idea of measuring GW-induced strains via laser interferometry are poised to make first detections in the next few years. This talk will give an overview of this approach to developing a new astrophysical window, using the US LIGO effort as the example. The basic detection mechanism--and its limitations--will be described, and the interesting upper limits and non-detections to date with the initial detectors reviewed. The second generation of instruments, exemplified by Advanced LIGO, is just coming on line, and those instruments and the astrophysics potential with the more sensitive detectors will be discussed. Lastly, means to move beyond the Advanced LIGO sensitivity will be sketched. David Shoemaker speaking on behalf of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.

  14. Applications Of A Spatial Filtering Detector To Dynamic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichirou

    1987-01-01

    Interferometry has recently shown great advances in practical applications owing to progress and utility of electrooptic devices and computers. For objects of interferometry it is now strongly desired to measure such dynamic quantities as displacement, vibration, strain, and temperature. In this case rapid movement of interference fringes or speckle patterns has to be detected. However, the conventional image processing techniques using digital computers are not quick enough for this purpose. For reducing computation time it is necessary to endow the detector with a preprocessing function. One of the solutions is a spatial filtering detector with electronic scanning facility which has been used for three dimensional displacement meter [1] and for accerelating a laser speckle strain gauge [2]. This detector, which consists of a photodiode array and its control circuit, delivers a voltage that is proportional to speckle displacement normal to the array. This paper reports applications of this detector to catch the movement of speckles and interference fringes obtained from optical fiber interferometers.

  15. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  16. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  17. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.; Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J.; Wormser, G.; Gomez, J.J.; Kent, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Integrated Dual Imaging Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, David M.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of image detector was designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The integrated Dual Imaging detector (IDID) consists of a lenslet array and a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a commercial charge coupled device (CCD). The IDID simplifies the design and operation of solar vector magnetographs and the imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmosphere and solar research. When used in a solar telescope, the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface. Other applications include environmental monitoring, robot vision, and medical diagnoses (through the eye). Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 5) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout and display of both images; and (4) laptop computer signal processing to produce polarization maps in field situations.

  19. Stable glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2004-05-18

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

  20. Ultrafast neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Ching L.

    1987-01-01

    The invention comprises a neutron detector (50) of very high temporal resolution that is particularly well suited for measuring the fusion reaction neutrons produced by laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets. The detector comprises a biased two-conductor traveling-wave transmission line (54, 56, 58, 68) having a uranium cathode (60) and a phosphor anode (62) as respective parts of the two conductors. A charge line and Auston switch assembly (70, 72, 74) launch an electric field pulse along the transmission line. Neutrons striking the uranium cathode at a location where the field pulse is passing, are enabled to strike the phosphor anode and produce light that is recorded on photographic film (64). The transmission line may be variously configured to achieve specific experimental goals.