Science.gov

Sample records for advanced dewatering techniques

  1. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Karekh, B K; Tao, D; Groppo, J G

    1998-08-28

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 - March 31, 1998.

  2. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Rawls, P.

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  3. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

  4. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  5. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  6. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  7. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-05-03

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1- March 31, 1996.

  8. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-07-31

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 - June 30, 1996.

  9. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 4, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1995-11-06

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 29, 1995.

  10. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 2, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1995-05-05

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 to March 31, 1995.

  11. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique: Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1997-01-21

    The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter in the laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using copper and aluminum ions showed that for the low sulfur clean coal slurry addition of 0.1 Kg/t of copper ions was effective in lowering the filter cake moisture from 29 percent to 26.3 percent. Addition of 0.3 Kg/t of aluminum ions provided filter cake with 28 percent moisture. For the high sulfur clean coal slurry 0.5 Kg/t of copper and 0.1 Kg/t of aluminum ions reduced cake moisture from 30.5 percent to 28 percent respectively. Combined addition of anionic (10 g/t) and cationic (10 g/t) flocculants was effective in providing a filter cake with 29.8 percent moisture. Addition of flocculants was not effective in centrifuge dewatering. In pilot scale screen bowl centrifuge dewatering studies it was found that the clean coal slurry feed rate of 30 gpm was optimum to the centrifuge, which provided 65 percent solids capture. Addition of anionic or cationic flocculants was not effective in lowering of filter cake moisture, which remained close to 30 percent for both clean coal slurries.

  12. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-02-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74{mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultrafine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  13. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  14. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  15. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Annual technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-12-31

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  16. Advanced echocardiographic techniques

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Echocardiography has advanced significantly since its first clinical use. The move towards more accurate imaging and quantification has driven this advancement. In this review, we will briefly focus on three distinct but important recent advances, three‐dimensional (3D) echocardiography, contrast echocardiography and myocardial tissue imaging. The basic principles of these techniques will be discussed as well as current and future clinical applications. PMID:28191159

  17. Effects of calcined aluminum salts on the advanced dewatering and solidification/stabilization of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guangyin; Yan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Haiyan; Chen, Hua; Zhao, Tiantao; Zhao, Youcai

    2011-01-01

    The high moisture content (80%) in the sewage dewatered sludge is the main obstacle to disposal and recycling. A chemical dewatering and stabilization/solidification (S/S) alternative for the sludge was developed, using calcined aluminum salts (AS) as solidifier, and CaCl2, Na2SO4 and CaSO4 as accelerators, to enhance the mechanical compressibility making the landfill operation possible. The properties of the resultant matrixes were determined in terms of moisture contents, unconfined compressive strength, products of hydration, and toxicity characteristics. The results showed that AS exhibited a moderate pozzolanic activity, and the mortar AS(0) obtained with 5% AS and 10% CaSO4 of AS by weight presented a moisture contents below 50%-60% and a compressive strength of (51.32 +/- 2.9) kPa after 5-7 days of curing time, meeting the minimum requirement for sanitary landfill. The use of CaSO4 obviously improved the S/S performance, causing higher strength level. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry investigations revealed that a large amount of hydrates (viz., gismondine and CaCO3) were present in solidified sludge, leading to the depletion of evaporable water and the enhancement of the strength. In addition, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and horizontal vibration (HJ 557-2009) leaching test were conducted to evaluate their environmental compatibility. It was found that the solidified products conformed to the toxicity characteristic criteria in China and could be safely disposed of in a sanitary landfill.

  18. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  19. Combined fields dewatering of seaweed (Nereocystis luetkeana)

    SciTech Connect

    Lightfoot, D.G.; Raghavan, G.S.V.

    1994-05-01

    Increasing pressures on our agricultural systems necessitate the investigation of alternative food and feed sources. The ocean coasts of the world provide one potential alternative, as they provide a habitat for millions of tonnes of brown marine algae, or kelp. In this study, a combined fields (mechanical pressure and electro-osmosis) dewatering technique was investigated for dewatering kelp. Electro-osmosis was shown to significantly improve conventional press dewatering of kelp. Dewatering kelp was found to significantly reduce its ash contents and available carbohydrates, and increase its protein, fat, and uronic acid contents. Furthermore, energy costs for producing dried kelp meal were found to be significantly lower if dewatering precedes thermal drying. 35 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Advancement on Visualization Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Aeroa and As ronautics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 USA I !ii 1 I This AGARDograph was prepared at the request of the...the fields of science § and technology relating to aerospace for the following purposes: - Exchanging of scientific and technical information...Techniques for providing the pilot visualization have grown rapidly. Technology has developed fron mechanical gauges through electro-mechanical

  1. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  2. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.

  3. Advanced qualification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Winokur, P.S; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ``builds in`` the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ``process capability`` is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co{sup 60} gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe`s Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  4. Dewatering of industrial clay wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smelley, A.G.; Scheiner, B.J.; Zatko, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of research conducted to effect pollution a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of clay wastes, for reuse of water now lost with clays, and for reclamation of mined land was developed. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater materials containing clay wastes. In laboratory experiments, coal-clay waste, potash-clay brine slurry, phosphatic clay waste, uranium tailings, and talc tailings were successfully consolidated. Coal-clay waste was consolidated from 3.6 to 57%; potash-clay brine slurry was consolidated from 3.8 to 35%; phosphatic clay waste from 15.6 to 49%; uranium tailings from 15.4 to 67%; tailings from talc production from 9.7 to 53%; and an acidic TiO/sub 2/ slurr slurry from 1.68 to 30%.

  5. Techniques in Advanced Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    For ease of presentation, advanced grammar teaching techniques are briefly considered under the headings of structuralism (belief in the effectiveness of presenting grammar rules) and contextualism (belief in the maximum use by students of what they know in the target language). The structuralist's problem of establishing a syllabus is discussed…

  6. LHC Olympics: Advanced Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, Kyle; Larkoski, Andrew; Gray, Amanda; Ventura, Dan; Walsh, Jon; Schabinger, Rob

    2006-05-01

    The LHC Olympics is a series of workshop aimed at encouraging theorists and experimentalists to prepare for the soon-to-be-online Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland. One aspect of the LHC Olympics program consists of the study of simulated data sets which represent various possible new physics signals as they would be seen in LHC detectors. Through this exercise, LHC Olympians learn the phenomenology of possible new physics models and gain experience in analyzing LHC data. Additionally, the LHC Olympics encourages discussion between theorists and experimentalists, and through this collaboration new techniques could be developed. The University of Washington LHC Olympics group consists of several first-year graduate and senior undergraduate students, in both theoretical and experimental particle physics. Presented here is a discussion of some of the more advanced techniques used and the recent results of one such LHC Olympics study.

  7. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-12-31

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop the process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During the last year`s effort, it was reported that a combination of metal ion and surfactant provided a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

  8. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1992-08-01

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation techniques provides a low ash product, however, due to high surface area of particles the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combination of metal ion and surfactant found to be effective in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

  9. Energy demand in sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Chang, C Y

    2005-05-01

    This work investigates the energy required to dewater a suspension, i.e., activated sludge dewatered by centrifugation or consolidation. Total energy input to the suspension from the dewatering device, bond strength between adjacent water and solid surface, and intra-cake friction loss were evaluated for original and flocculated sludges. In centrifugal dewatering, most energy input during the initial stage was consumed by overcoming process irreversibility other than intra-cake friction, and, thereby, had a low energy efficiency. To increase centrifuge speed or to flocculate the sludge at optimal flocculant dosage would yield a high-energy input. In the consolidation test, most energy input at the initial stage was consumed in breaking down the bond strength until the moisture content reduced to less than the critical content. During subsequent dewatering stages, friction loss became the dominant source of energy loss. Dewatering sludge with high-energy efficiency is beneficial to optimally operate a dewatering process.

  10. Advanced techniques for microwave reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, B.; Luna, E. de la; Estrada, T.; Zhuravlev, V. |; Hartfuss, H.J.; Hirsch, M.; Geist, T.; Segovia, J.; Oramas, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    Microwave reflectometry has been applied during the last years as a plasma diagnostic of increasing interest, mainly due to its simplicity, no need for large access ports and low radiation damage of exposed components. Those characteristics make reflectometry an attractive diagnostic for the next generation devices. Systems used either for density profile or density fluctuations have also shown great development, from the original single channel heterodyne to the multichannel homodyne receivers. In the present work we discuss three different advanced reflectometer systems developed by CIEMAT members in collaboration with different institutions. The first one is the broadband heterodyne reflectometer installed on W7AS for density fluctuations measurements. The decoupling of the phase and amplitude of the reflected beam allows for quantitative analysis of the fluctuations. Recent results showing the behavior of the density turbulence during the L-H transition on W7AS are shown. The second system shows how the effect of the turbulence can be used for density profile measurements by reflectometry in situations where the complicated geometry of the waveguides cannot avoid many parasitic reflections. Experiments from the TJ-I tokamak will be shown. Finally, a reflectometer system based on the Amplitude Modulation (AM) technique for density profile measurements is discussed and experimental results from the TJ-I tokamak are shown. The AM system offers the advantage of being almost insensitive to the effect of fluctuations. It is able to take a direct measurement of the time delay of the microwave pulse which propagates to the reflecting layer and is reflected back. In order to achieve fast reconstruction for real time monitoring of the density profile application of Neural Networks algorithms will be presented the method can reduce the computing times by about three orders of magnitude. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Advances in Procedural Techniques - Antegrade

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, William; Spratt, James C.

    2014-01-01

    There have been many technological advances in antegrade CTO PCI, but perhaps most importantly has been the evolution of the “hybrid’ approach where ideally there exists a seamless interplay of antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection re-entry and retrograde approaches as dictated by procedural factors. Antegrade wire escalation with intimal tracking remains the preferred initial strategy in short CTOs without proximal cap ambiguity. More complex CTOs, however, usually require either a retrograde or an antegrade dissection re-entry approach, or both. Antegrade dissection re-entry is well suited to long occlusions where there is a healthy distal vessel and limited “interventional” collaterals. Early use of a dissection re-entry strategy will increase success rates, reduce complications, and minimise radiation exposure, contrast use as well as procedural times. Antegrade dissection can be achieved with a knuckle wire technique or the CrossBoss catheter whilst re-entry will be achieved in the most reproducible and reliable fashion by the Stingray balloon/wire. It should be avoided where there is potential for loss of large side branches. It remains to be seen whether use of newer dissection re-entry strategies will be associated with lower restenosis rates compared with the more uncontrolled subintimal tracking strategies such as STAR and whether stent insertion in the subintimal space is associated with higher rates of late stent malapposition and stent thrombosis. It is to be hoped that the algorithms, which have been developed to guide CTO operators, allow for a better transfer of knowledge and skills to increase uptake and acceptance of CTO PCI as a whole. PMID:24694104

  12. Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

  13. Advanced Spectroscopy Technique for Biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan

    This chapter presents an overview of the applications of optical spectroscopy in biomedicine. We focus on the optical design aspects of advanced biomedical spectroscopy systems, Raman spectroscopy system in particular. Detailed components and system integration are provided. As examples, two real-time in vivo Raman spectroscopy systems, one for skin cancer detection and the other for endoscopic lung cancer detection, and an in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy system for skin assessment are presented. The applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis of the skin, lung, colon, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, breast, and cervix are summarized.

  14. Stitching Techniques Advance Optics Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Because NASA depends on the fabrication and testing of large, high-quality aspheric (nonspherical) optics for applications like the James Webb Space Telescope, it sought an improved method for measuring large aspheres. Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Goddard Space Flight Center, QED Technologies, of Rochester, New York, upgraded and enhanced its stitching technology for aspheres. QED developed the SSI-A, which earned the company an R&D 100 award, and also developed a breakthrough machine tool called the aspheric stitching interferometer. The equipment is applied to advanced optics in telescopes, microscopes, cameras, medical scopes, binoculars, and photolithography."

  15. Advanced Geophysical Environmental Simulation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cloud property retrieval algorithms for processing of large multiple-satellite data sets; development and application of improved cloud -phase and... cloud optical property retrieval algorithms; investigation of techniques potentially applicable for retrieval of cloud spatial properties from very...14. SUBJECT TERMS cirrus cloud retrieval satellite meteorology polar-orbiting geostationary 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  16. Septoplasty: Basic and Advanced Techniques.

    PubMed

    Most, Sam P; Rudy, Shannon F

    2017-05-01

    Nasal septal deviation is a prevalent problem that can have significant quality of life ramifications. Septoplasty is commonly performed to provide qualitative and quantitative benefit to those with nasal obstruction owing to septal deviation. Although a standard, basic technique is often adequate for individuals with mild to moderate mid to posterior septal deviation, unique challenges arise with caudal septal deviation. Herein, multiple strategies that attempt to address anterior septal deviation are discussed. Anterior septal reconstruction has been shown to be a safe and effective means by which to address severe caudal septal deviation and long-term reduction in preoperative symptoms.

  17. Hybrid mesh generation using advancing reduction technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents an extension of the application of the advancing reduction technique to the hybrid mesh generation. The proposed algorithm is based on a pre-generated rectangle mesh (RM) with a certain orientation. The intersection points between the two sets of perpendicular mesh lines in RM an...

  18. Advanced techniques for future observations from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques for the study of global meteorology and the chemistry of the atmosphere are considered. Remote sensing from Spacelab/Shuttle and free-flying satellites will provide the platforms for instrumentation based on advanced technology. Several laser systems are being developed for the measurement of tropospheric winds and pressure, and trace species in the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition, a high-resolution passive infrared sensor shows promise for measuring temperature from sea level up through the stratosphere. Advanced optical and microwave instruments are being developed for wind measurements in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Microwave techniques are also useful for the study of meteorological parameters at the air-sea interface.

  19. Improved FGD dewatering process cuts solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moer, C.; Fernandez, J.; Carraro, B.

    2009-08-15

    In 2007, Duke Energy's W.H. Zimmer Station set out to advance the overall performance of its flue gas desulfurization (FGD) dewatering process. The plant implemented a variety of measures, including upgrading water-solids separation, improving polymer program effectiveness and reliability, optimizing treatment costs, reducing solid waste sent to the landfill, decreasing labor requirements, and maintaining septic-free conditions in clarifiers. The changes succeeded in greatly reducing solid waste generation and achieving total annual savings of over half a million dollars per year. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Separation technologies for sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Richard J

    2007-06-18

    Particles in sludge feeds interact strongly one with another to prevent settling and offer a significant resistance to filtration and compression. This leads to the need for dewatering forces to be compressive ones applied directly to the networked solid phase; sometimes shear forces can be an assist dewatering. Designs of filtration equipment most suitable for sludge dewatering have evolved to meet the intrinsic characteristics of sludges, the most important of which are their compressibility and fine particle sizes, which lead to cakes with extraordinarily high solids contents close to the filter medium. Hence, the membrane plate press, the belt filter and the decanter centrifuge have become most widely accepted machines for sludge dewatering. Filter presses tend to yield a drier solids discharge, but the level of dryness depends on the sludge properties. The same feed properties dictate the need for chemical pre-treatment to ensure the highest rates of dewatering and best clarity of filtrate, and correct choice of filter cloth is also crucial in these respects.

  1. Advanced Computational Techniques in Regional Wave Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-03

    the new GERESS data. The dissertation work emphasized the development and use of advanced computa- tional techniques for studying regional seismic...hand, the possibility of new data sources at regional distances permits using previously ignored signals. Unfortunately, these regional signals will...the Green’s function around this new reference point is containing the propagation effects, and V is the source Gnk(x,t;r,t) - (2) volume where fJk

  2. Improving thermal dewatering characteristics of mechanically dewatered sludge: response surface analysis of combined lime-heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Tunçal, Tolga

    2011-05-01

    In this study, disintegration of dewatered sludge (dry solids content [DS%] = 23 +/- 2) was studied to assess the possibility of enhancing the overall performance of a thermal dewatering processes. Powdered lime was used as an alkaline disintegrator. The combined effects of drying temperature, powdered lime dosage, and organic content on the thermal drying rate of dewatered sludge were investigated in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Effects of selected design parameters on the sludge drying rate were modeled using a response surface method. In addition, the possible interaction between lost on ignition and total organic carbon parameters also was investigated statistically. Specific resistance to filtration and free water contents of raw and disintegrated mixed sludge (DS% = 1.0 to 1.8) samples were compared statistically. The obtained results indicated that all of the selected design parameters have a significant effect on thermal dewatering characteristics, and the alkaline disintegration technique could remarkably improve thermal evaporation rate of dewatered sludge. These results are important because they could help to establish a sustainable sludge management model, which is critical in reducing environmental health risks.

  3. Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

  4. Advanced techniques in echocardiography in small animals.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valérie

    2010-07-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography has become a major imaging tool for the diagnosis and management of canine and feline cardiovascular diseases. During the last decade, more recent advances in ultrasound technology with the introduction of newer imaging modalities, such as tissue Doppler imaging, strain and strain rate imaging, and 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, have provided new parameters to assess myocardial performance, including regional myocardial velocities and deformation, ventricular twist, and mechanical synchrony. An outline of these 4 recent ultrasound techniques, their impact on the understanding of right and left ventricular function in small animals, and their application in research and clinical settings are given in this article.

  5. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1992-12-31

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product; however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of the advanced flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach utilized synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant addition to lower the moisture of clean coal using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combinations of metal ions and surfactants in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. Surface chemical study indicated a direct correlation between the point-of-zero charge (PZC) of metal ion/fine coal system and lowering of moisture in the filter cake. Adsorption of either metal ions or surfactants alone did not provide a significant reduction of moisture in the filter cake. However, a combination of the two provided a filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture. Filtration tests conducted using a laboratory vacuum drum filter indicated that the results obtained in batch filtration could be reproduced on a continuous filtration unit. FT-IR studies indicated that anionic surfactant and metal ions form complex species which adsorbs on the fine coal and results in improved moisture reduction during filtration. Recommendations are offered for testing this novel dewatering process on a pilot scale at a coal preparation plant in Illinois.

  6. Basic concepts of advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Elisabetta; Bizzi, Alberto; Di Salle, Francesco; De Stefano, Nicola; Filippi, Massimo

    2008-10-01

    An overview is given of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques sensitized to diffusion, flow, magnetization transfer effect, and local field inhomogeneities induced by physiological changes, that can be viewed, in the clinical practice, as advanced because of their challenging implementation and interpretation. These techniques are known as diffusion-weighted, perfusion, magnetization transfer, functional MRI and MR spectroscopy. An important issue is that they can provide quantitative estimates of structural and functional characteristics that are below the voxel resolution. This review does not deal with the basic concepts of the MR physics and the description of the available acquisition and postprocessing methods, but hopefully provides an adequate background to readers and hence facilitate the understanding of the following clinical contributions.

  7. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Markl, M; Schnell, S; Wu, C; Bollache, E; Jarvis, K; Barker, A J; Robinson, J D; Rigsby, C K

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented.

  8. The effect of digestion and dewatering on sudden increases and regrowth of indicator bacteria after dewatering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chih; Murthy, Sudhir N; Hendrickson, Donald; Araujo, Gordon; Higgins, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Several investigators have reported higher densities of indicator bacteria after dewatering of anaerobically digested biosolids. The increases appear to occur at two points in the biosolids process: the first, referred to as "sudden increase", occurs immediately after dewatering; the second, "regrowth", occurs during storage over longer periods. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of digestion and dewatering processes on sudden increase and regrowth of fecal coliform and E. coli. Samples were collected from five thermophilic and five mesophilic digestion processes, with either centrifuge or belt filter press dewatering. Sudden increase typically was observed in the thermophilic processes with centrifuge dewatering and was not observed in the mesophilic processes with either centrifuge or belt filter press dewatering. Regrowth was observed in both thermophilic and mesophilic processes with centrifuge dewatering but not belt filter press dewatering.

  9. Advanced techniques in current signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. F.; Castleberry, K. N.

    1992-02-01

    In general, both ac and dc motors can be characterized as weakly nonlinear systems, in which both linear and nonlinear effects occur simultaneously. Fortunately, the nonlinearities are generally well behaved and understood and can be handled via several standard mathematical techniques already well developed in the systems modeling area; examples are piecewise linear approximations and Volterra series representations. Field measurements of numerous motors and motor-driven systems confirm the rather complex nature of motor current spectra and illustrate both linear and nonlinear effects (including line harmonics and modulation components). Although previous current signature analysis (CSA) work at Oak Ridge and other sites has principally focused on the modulation mechanisms and detection methods (AM, PM, and FM), more recent studies have been conducted on linear spectral components (those appearing in the electric current at their actual frequencies and not as modulation sidebands). For example, large axial-flow compressors (approximately 3300 hp) in the US gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants exhibit running-speed (approximately 20 Hz) and high-frequency vibrational information (greater than 1 kHz) in their motor current spectra. Several signal-processing techniques developed to facilitate analysis of these components, including specialized filtering schemes, are presented. Finally, concepts for the designs of advanced digitally based CSA units are offered, which should serve to foster the development of much more computationally capable 'smart' CSA instrumentation in the next several years.

  10. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  11. Highly efficient secondary dewatering of dewatered sewage sludge using low boiling point solvents.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Chena, Chia-Lung; Xu, Zhirong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Secondary dewatering of dewatered sludge is imperative to make conventional drying and incineration of sludge more economically feasible. In this study, a secondary dewatering of dewatered sludge with selected solvents (i.e. acetone and ethanol) followed by vacuum filtration and nature drying was investigated to achieve in-depth dewatering. After the entire secondary dewatering process, the sludge was shown to be odourless and the organic matter content was greatly retained. Increased mean particle size of sludge after solvent contact improved solid-liquid separation. With an acetone/sludge ratio of 3:1 (mL:g) in solvent contact and subsequent nature drying at ambient temperature after 24 h, the moisture content of sludge can be reduced to a level less than 20%. It is found that the polysaccharides were mainly precipitated by acetone, whereas the release ratios of protein and DNA were increased significantly as the added acetone volumes were elevated. During nature drying, accumulated evaporation rates of the sludge after solvent contact were 5-6 times higher than original dewatered sludge. Furthermore, sludge after acetone contact had better nature drying performance than ethanol. The two-stage dewatering involves solvent contact dewatering and solvent enhanced evaporation dewatering. Through selecting an appropriate solvent/sludge ratio as well as economical solvents and minimizing the solvent loss in a closed-pilot system, this dewatering process can be competitive in industrial applications. Therefore, this solvent-aided secondary dewatering is an energy-saving technology for effective in-depth dewatering of dewatered sludge and subsequent sludge utilization.

  12. Bringing Advanced Computational Techniques to Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Julie C

    2012-11-17

    Please find attached our final technical report for the BACTER Institute award. BACTER was created as a graduate and postdoctoral training program for the advancement of computational biology applied to questions of relevance to bioenergy research.

  13. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process – A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Rizwan R.; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented. PMID:26904075

  14. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process - A Life Cycle Assessment Approach.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Rizwan R; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented.

  15. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, N.R.

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Electro-dewatering of wastewater sludge: An investigation of the relationship between filtrate flow rate and electric current.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jérémy; Conrardy, Jean-Baptiste; Mahmoud, Akrama; Vaxelaire, Jean

    2015-10-01

    Compared to conventional dewatering techniques, electrical assisted mechanical dewatering, also called electro-dewatering (EDW) is an alternative and an effective technology for the dewatering of sewage sludge with low energy consumption. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dewatering performance and to determine the influence of the process parameters (e.g. applied electric current, applied voltage, and the initial amount of dry solids) on the kinetics of EDW-process for activated urban sludge. Also significant efforts have been devoted herein to provide comprehensive information about the EDW mechanisms and to understand the relationship between these operating conditions with regards to develop a qualitative and quantitative understanding model of the electro-dewatering process and then produce a robust design methodology. The results showed a very strong correlation between the applied electric current and the filtrate flow rate and consequently the electro-dewatering kinetics. A higher applied electric current leads to faster EDW kinetics and a higher final dry solids content. In contrast, the results of this work showed a significant enhancement of the dewatering kinetics by decreasing the mass of the dry solids introduced into the cell (commonly known as the sludge loading).

  17. Prediction of the dewatering of selected inorganic sludges.

    PubMed

    Harbour, P J; Aziz, A A; Scales, P J; Dixon, D R

    2001-01-01

    There are a number of laboratory techniques traditionally used in the characterisation of sludges for the prediction of the efficient operation of dewatering processes such as centrifugation and filtration. In industry, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration measurements are common. Whilst useful in predicting trends, they do not assist in the design and optimisation of devices from first principles. Recent work in our laboratories has developed a technique for the fast measurement of the permeability and compressibility of sludge. This information, when coupled with first-principle models is useful for the prediction of the performance of solid-liquid separation devices. The work has shown that a single volume fraction dependent parameter, namely the solids diffusivity, calculated from permeability and compressibility, is able to fully characterise the dewaterability of sludge. This allows different sludges to be compared in an unequivocal fashion. Data will be presented for a range of sludges from different sources showing vastly different dewatering properties. The dewaterability of the different sludges is easily compared and the true role of flocculants in dewatering is highlighted.

  18. Dewatering General Permit (DGP) for Massachusetts & New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-03-31

    The Notice of Availability of the Final NPDES General Permit for Dewatering Activity Discharges in Massachusetts (MAG070000) and New Hampshire (NHG070000) was published in the Federal Register on October 7, 2008.

  19. Solution dewatering with concomitant ion removal

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Eric S.; Marshall, Douglas W.; Stone, Mark L.

    2003-08-05

    One of the biggest needs in the separations and waste handling and reduction area is a method for dewatering ion-containing solutions. Unexpectedly, it has been found that phosphazene polymers can discriminate between water and metal ions, allowing water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. This unexpected result, along with the inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers, yields a powerful tool for separating and dewatering metal-ion-containing solutions.

  20. Advanced crystallization techniques of 'solar grade' silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, M.; Calligarich, C.; Rava, P.; Sardi, L.; Alessandri, M.; Redaelli, F.; Pizzini, S.

    Microstructural, electrical and photo-voltaic characteristics of polycrystal line silicon solar cells fabricated with silicon ingots containing 5, 100 and 500 ppmw iron are reported and discussed. All silicon ingots were grown by the directional solidification technique in graphite or special quartz molds and doped intentionally with iron, in order to evaluate the potentiality of the D.S. technique when employed with solar silicon feedstocks. Results indicate that structural breakdown limits the amount of the ingot which is usable for solar cells fabrication, but also that efficiencies in excess of 10 percent are obtained using the 'good' region of the ingot.

  1. Advances in laparoscopic urologic surgery techniques

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muhsin, Haidar M.; Humphreys, Mitchell R.

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades witnessed the inception and exponential implementation of key technological advancements in laparoscopic urology. While some of these technologies thrived and became part of daily practice, others are still hindered by major challenges. This review was conducted through a comprehensive literature search in order to highlight some of the most promising technologies in laparoscopic visualization, augmented reality, and insufflation. Additionally, this review will provide an update regarding the current status of single-site and natural orifice surgery in urology. PMID:27134743

  2. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  3. Advanced analysis techniques for uranium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W. H.; Ensslin, Norbert; Carrillo, L. A.; Beard, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium has a negligible passive neutron emission rate making its assay practicable only with an active interrogation method. The active interrogation uses external neutron sources to induce fission events in the uranium in order to determine the mass. This technique requires careful calibration with standards that are representative of the items to be assayed. The samples to be measured are not always well represented by the available standards which often leads to large biases. A technique of active multiplicity counting is being developed to reduce some of these assay difficulties. Active multiplicity counting uses the measured doubles and triples count rates to determine the neutron multiplication (f4) and the product of the source-sample coupling ( C ) and the 235U mass (m). Since the 35U mass always appears in the multiplicity equations as the product of Cm, the coupling needs to be determined before the mass can be known. A relationship has been developed that relates the coupling to the neutron multiplication. The relationship is based on both an analytical derivation and also on empirical observations. To determine a scaling constant present in this relationship, known standards must be used. Evaluation of experimental data revealed an improvement over the traditional calibration curve analysis method of fitting the doubles count rate to the 235Um ass. Active multiplicity assay appears to relax the requirement that the calibration standards and unknown items have the same chemical form and geometry.

  4. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-15

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  5. Recent advances in DNA sequencing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rama Shankar

    2013-06-01

    Successful mapping of the draft human genome in 2001 and more recent mapping of the human microbiome genome in 2012 have relied heavily on the parallel processing of the second generation/Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) DNA machines at a cost of several millions dollars and long computer processing times. These have been mainly biochemical approaches. Here a system analysis approach is used to review these techniques by identifying the requirements, specifications, test methods, error estimates, repeatability, reliability and trends in the cost reduction. The first generation, NGS and the Third Generation Single Molecule Real Time (SMART) detection sequencing methods are reviewed. Based on the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) data, the achieved cost reduction of 1.5 times per yr. from Sep. 2001 to July 2007; 7 times per yr., from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2010; and 2.5 times per yr. from July 2010 to Jan 2012 are discussed.

  6. Diagnostics of nonlocal plasmas: advanced techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Strakhova, Anastasiya; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    This talk generalizes our recent results, obtained in different directions of plasma diagnostics. First-method of flat single-sided probe, based on expansion of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in series of Legendre polynomials. It will be demonstrated, that flat probe, oriented under different angles with respect to the discharge axis, allow to determine full EVDF in nonlocal plasmas. It is also shown, that cylindrical probe is unable to determine full EVDF. We propose the solution of this problem by combined using the kinetic Boltzmann equation and experimental probe data. Second-magnetic diagnostics. This method is implemented in knudsen diode with surface ionization of atoms (KDSI) and based on measurements of the magnetic characteristics of the KDSI in presence of transverse magnetic field. Using magnetic diagnostics we can investigate the wide range of plasma processes: from scattering cross-sections of electrons to plasma-surface interactions. Third-noncontact diagnostics method for direct measurements of EVDF in remote plasma objects by combination of the flat single-sided probe technique and magnetic polarization Hanley method.

  7. Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The iconic, orange external tank of the space shuttle launch system not only contains the fuel used by the shuttle s main engines during liftoff but also comprises the shuttle s backbone, supporting the space shuttle orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Given the tank s structural importance and the extreme forces (7.8 million pounds of thrust load) and temperatures it encounters during launch, the welds used to construct the tank must be highly reliable. Variable polarity plasma arc welding, developed for manufacturing the external tank and later employed for building the International Space Station, was until 1994 the best process for joining the aluminum alloys used during construction. That year, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers began experimenting with a relatively new welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW), developed in 1991 by The Welding Institute, of Cambridge, England. FSW differs from traditional fusion welding in that it is a solid-state welding technique, using frictional heat and motion to join structural components without actually melting any of the material. The weld is created by a shouldered pin tool that is plunged into the seam of the materials to be joined. The tool traverses the line while rotating at high speeds, generating friction that heats and softens but does not melt the metal. (The heat produced approaches about 80 percent of the metal s melting temperature.) The pin tool s rotation crushes and stirs the plasticized metal, extruding it along the seam as the tool moves forward. The material cools and consolidates, resulting in a weld with superior mechanical properties as compared to those weld properties of fusion welds. The innovative FSW technology promises a number of attractive benefits. Because the welded materials are not melted, many of the undesirables associated with fusion welding porosity, cracking, shrinkage, and distortion of the weld are minimized or avoided. The process is more energy efficient, safe

  8. Dewatering of contaminated river sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Ronald H.; Smith, Carl W.; Scheiner, Bernard J.

    1994-01-01

    Dewatering of slurries has been successfully accomplished by the proper use of polymers in flocculating the fine particulate matter suspended in mineral processing streams. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) entered into a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the applicability of mining flocculation technology to dredging activities associated with the removal of sediments from navigable waterways. The Corps has the responsibility for maintaining the navigable waterways in the United States. Current technology relies primarily on dredging operations which excavate the material from the bottom of waterways. The Corps is testing new dredging technology which may reduce resuspension of sediments by the dredging operation. Pilot plant dredging equipment was tested by the Corps which generated larger quantities of water when compared to conventional equipment, such as the clam shell. The transportation of this 'excess' water adds to the cost of sediment removal. The process developed by the USBM consists of feed material from the barge being pumped through a 4-in line by a centrifugal pump and exiting through a 4-in PVC delivery system. A 1,000-gal fiberglass tank was used to mix the polymer concentrate. The polymer was pumped through a 1-in line using a variable speed progressive cavity pump and introduced to the 4-in feed line prior to passing through a 6-in by 2-ft static mixer. The polymer/feed slurry travels to the clarifying tank where the flocculated material settled to the bottom and allowed 'clean' water to exit the overflow. A pilot scale flocculation unit was operated on-site at the Corps' 'Confined Disposal Facility' in Buffalo, NY.

  9. An innovative concept for dewatering hydro plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lux, F. III; Bakken, J.R. )

    1992-12-01

    A floating bulkhead that works much like an overhead garage door can be a versatile, reusable, and cost-effective tool for dewatering unit intakes or gated spillway bays at hydroelectric facilities. The floating bulkhead consists of a number of individual floating caissons that can be installed separately by stacking them one on top of another, or pinned together with hinges and installed as a unit. A caisson consists of one or more flotation compartments and a water-filled compartment to sink or float it. Each caisson is lowered into the reservoir from an accessible location, such as a boat launch, and towed into position by a boat. The floating bulkhead is especially suited to structures that have no provisions for dewatering or where the existing dewatering structures are no longer serviceable, or in situations where cranes are not available to install stoplogs.

  10. Advances in gamma titanium aluminides and their manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Kunal; Radhakrishnan, Ramachandran; Wereley, Norman M.

    2012-11-01

    Gamma titanium aluminides display attractive properties for high temperature applications. For over a decade in the 1990s, the attractive properties of titanium aluminides were outweighed by difficulties encountered in processing and machining at room temperature. But advances in manufacturing technologies, deeper understanding of titanium aluminides microstructure, deformation mechanisms, and advances in micro-alloying, has led to the production of gamma titanium aluminide sheets. An in-depth review of key advances in gamma titanium aluminides is presented, including microstructure, deformation mechanisms, and alloy development. Traditional manufacturing techniques such as ingot metallurgy and investment casting are reviewed and advances via powder metallurgy based manufacturing techniques are discussed. Finally, manufacturing challenges facing gamma titanium aluminides, as well as avenues to overcome them, are discussed.

  11. 75 FR 44015 - Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing... importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques and products containing... certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques or products containing same...

  12. Advanced liner-cooling techniques for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Component research for advanced small gas turbine engines is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this program, a basic reverse-flow combustor geometry was being maintained while different advanced liner wall cooling techniques were investigated. Performance and liner cooling effectiveness of the experimental combustor configuration featuring counter-flow film-cooled panels is presented and compared with two previously reported combustors featuring: splash film-cooled liner walls; and transpiration cooled liner walls (Lamilloy).

  13. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  14. Wafer hot spot identification through advanced photomask characterization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yohan; Green, Michael; McMurran, Jeff; Ham, Young; Lin, Howard; Lan, Andy; Yang, Richer; Lung, Mike

    2016-10-01

    As device manufacturers progress through advanced technology nodes, limitations in standard 1-dimensional (1D) mask Critical Dimension (CD) metrics are becoming apparent. Historically, 1D metrics such as Mean to Target (MTT) and CD Uniformity (CDU) have been adequate for end users to evaluate and predict the mask impact on the wafer process. However, the wafer lithographer's process margin is shrinking at advanced nodes to a point that the classical mask CD metrics are no longer adequate to gauge the mask contribution to wafer process error. For example, wafer CDU error at advanced nodes is impacted by mask factors such as 3-dimensional (3D) effects and mask pattern fidelity on subresolution assist features (SRAFs) used in Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) models of ever-increasing complexity. These items are not quantifiable with the 1D metrology techniques of today. Likewise, the mask maker needs advanced characterization methods in order to optimize the mask process to meet the wafer lithographer's needs. These advanced characterization metrics are what is needed to harmonize mask and wafer processes for enhanced wafer hot spot analysis. In this paper, we study advanced mask pattern characterization techniques and their correlation with modeled wafer performance.

  15. Bringing The Web Down to Size: Advanced Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Joe; Miley, Donna

    1997-01-01

    Examines advanced Internet search techniques, focusing on six search engines. Includes a chart comparison of nine search features: "include two words,""exclude one of two words,""exclude mature audience content,""two adjacent words,""exact match,""contains first and neither of two following…

  16. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  17. Genioglossus muscle advancement: A modification of the conventional technique.

    PubMed

    García Vega, José Ramón; de la Plata, María Mancha; Galindo, Néstor; Navarro, Miriam; Díez, Daniel; Láncara, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a pathophysiologic condition associated with fragmented sleep and arousals caused by nocturnal mechanical obstruction of the upper airway. This results in behavioural derangements, such as excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue, and pathophysiologic derangements that cause morbidities and mortality including hypertension, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden death. The genioglossus advancement is a proven technique for the treatment of mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome by relieving airway obstruction at the hypopharyngeal level. In this article, we report a modification of the conventional genioglossus advancement described by Riley and Powell. The modification we describe replaces the bone segment at the mandibular basal bone rather than at the mid area of the symphysis. This means a linear movement that allows a greater advancement and avoids the rotation of the genioglossus muscle. Through this article we will describe the advantages of the surgical technique such as greater effectiveness, stability, more pleasing aesthetic outcome and the reduction of potential complications.

  18. Advanced techniques in safeguarding a conditioning facility for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf, K.; Weh, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Although reprocessing continues to be the main factor in the waste management of nuclear reactors, the alternative of direct final disposal is currently being developed to the level of industrial applications, based on an agreement between the heads of the federal government and the federal states of Germany. Thus, the Konrad and Gorleben sites are being studied as potential final repositories as is the pilot conditioning facility (PKA) under construction. Discussions on the application of safeguards measures have led to the drafting of an approach that will cover the entire back end of the fuel cycle. The conditioning of fuel prior to direct final disposal represents one element in the overall approach. A modern facility equipped with advanced technology, PKA is a pilot plant with regard to conditioning techniques as well as to safeguards. Therefore, the PKA safeguards approach is expected to facilitate future industrial applications of the conditioning procedure. This cannot be satisfactorily implemented without advanced safeguards techniques. The level of development of the safeguards techniques varies. While advanced camera and seal systems are basically available, the other techniques and methods still require research and development. Feasibility studies and equipment development are geared to providing applicable safeguards techniques in time for commissioning of the PKA.

  19. Reactive Sandpacks for the Attenuation of Sr-90 in Groundwater for Dewatering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeen, S.

    2011-12-01

    aqueous gross beta data to the 1-D advection-dispersion equation, varied inversely with flow velocity, suggesting that the sorption of Sr-90 onto clinoptilolite is kinetically-controlled in this high velocity range. Radioactivities for the solid samples, retrieved from the columns after the operation, showed that sorption fronts were advancing in proportion to the flow velocity, consistent with the aqueous data. The results showed that the concept can be applied to actual dewatering projects if the sandpack is properly designed. Design parameters will include thickness of the sandpacks, pumping rate, duration of the dewatering project, and concentrations of Ca and Sr. A reactive transport model is being developed to adequately incorporate sorption kinetics and provide a quantitative basis for sandpacks design.

  20. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  1. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  2. Advanced thermal management techniques for space power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Angel Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Modern electronic systems used in space must be reliable and efficient with thermal management unaffected by outer space constraints. Current thermal management techniques are not sufficient for the increasing waste heat dissipation of novel electronic technologies. Many advanced thermal management techniques have been developed in recent years that have application in high power electronic systems. The benefits and limitations of emerging cooling technologies are discussed. These technologies include: liquid pumped devices, mechanically pumped two-phase cooling, capillary pumped evaporative cooling, and thermoelectric devices. Currently, liquid pumped devices offer the most promising alternative for electronics thermal control.

  3. Data Compression Techniques for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced space transportation systems, including vehicle state of health systems, will produce large amounts of data which must be stored on board the vehicle and or transmitted to the ground and stored. The cost of storage or transmission of the data could be reduced if the number of bits required to represent the data is reduced by the use of data compression techniques. Most of the work done in this study was rather generic and could apply to many data compression systems, but the first application area to be considered was launch vehicle state of health telemetry systems. Both lossless and lossy compression techniques were considered in this study.

  4. Advance techniques for monitoring human tolerance to positive Gz accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelligra, R.; Sandler, H.; Rositano, S.; Skrettingland, K.; Mancini, R.

    1973-01-01

    Tolerance to positive g accelerations was measured in ten normal male subjects using both standard and advanced techniques. In addition to routine electrocardiogram, heart rate, respiratory rate, and infrared television, monitoring techniques during acceleration exposure included measurement of peripheral vision loss, noninvasive temporal, brachial, and/or radial arterial blood flow, and automatic measurement of indirect systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 60-sec intervals. Although brachial and radial arterial flow measurements reflected significant cardiovascular changes during and after acceleration, they were inconsistent indices of the onset of grayout or blackout. Temporal arterial blood flow, however, showed a high correlation with subjective peripheral light loss.

  5. Three-dimensional hybrid grid generation using advancing front techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbrenner, John P.; Noack, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    A new 3-dimensional hybrid grid generation technique has been developed, based on ideas of advancing fronts for both structured and unstructured grids. In this approach, structured grids are first generate independently around individual components of the geometry. Fronts are initialized on these structure grids, and advanced outward so that new cells are extracted directly from the structured grids. Employing typical advancing front techniques, cells are rejected if they intersect the existing front or fail other criteria When no more viable structured cells exist further cells are advanced in an unstructured manner to close off the overall domain, resulting in a grid of 'hybrid' form. There are two primary advantages to the hybrid formulation. First, generating blocks with limited regard to topology eliminates the bottleneck encountered when a multiple block system is used to fully encapsulate a domain. Individual blocks may be generated free of external constraints, which will significantly reduce the generation time. Secondly, grid points near the body (presumably with high aspect ratio) will still maintain a structured (non-triangular or tetrahedral) character, thereby maximizing grid quality and solution accuracy near the surface.

  6. Strategies and advanced techniques for marine pollution studies

    SciTech Connect

    Giam, C.S.; Dou, H.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Here is a review of strategies and techniques for evaluating marine pollution by hazardous organic compounds. Geo-chemical considerations such as the relationship between the inputs, atmospheric and estuarine transport, and the outputs, sedimentation and degradation, guide the decision on appropriate approaches to pollution monitoring in the marine environment. The latest instrumental methods and standard protocols for analysis of organic compounds are presented, as well as advances in interpretation and correlation of data made possible by the accessibility of commercial data bases.

  7. Advanced endoscopic ultrasound management techniques for preneoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Bharmal, Sheila; Duman, Deniz Guney; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Turner, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions can be benign, premalignant or malignant. The recent increase in detection and tremendous clinical variability of pancreatic cysts has presented a significant therapeutic challenge to physicians. Mucinous cystic neoplasms are of particular interest given their known malignant potential. This review article provides a brief but comprehensive review of premalignant pancreatic cystic lesions with advanced endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) management approaches. A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, OVID and EMBASE databases. Preneoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions include mucinous cystadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The 2012 International Sendai Guidelines guide physicians in their management of pancreatic cystic lesions. Some of the advanced EUS management techniques include ethanol ablation, chemotherapeutic (paclitaxel) ablation, radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy. In future, EUS-guided injections of drug-eluting beads and neodymium:yttrium aluminum agent laser ablation is predicted to be an integral part of EUS-guided management techniques. In summary, International Sendai Consensus Guidelines should be used to make a decision regarding management of pancreatic cystic lesions. Advanced EUS techniques are proving extremely beneficial in management, especially in those patients who are at high surgical risk. PMID:27574295

  8. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster dewatering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    After the launch of the Space Shuttle, the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are jettisoned into the ocean where they float in a spar (vertical) mode. It is cost effective to recover the SRB's. A remote controlled submersible vehicle has been developed to aid in their recovery. The vehicle is launched from a support ship, maneuvered to the SRB, then taken to depth and guided into the rocket nozzle. It then dewaters the SRB, using compressed air from the ship, and seals the nozzle. When dewatered, the SRB floats in a log (horizontal) mode and can be towed to port for reuse. The design of the remote controlled vehicle and its propulsion system is presented.

  9. Electroacoustic dewatering of food and other suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.C.; Zelinski, M.S.; Criner, C.L.; Senapati, N.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Jirjis, B.; Beard, R.E.; Cummings, C.; Chauhan, S.P.

    1989-05-31

    The food processing industry is a large user of energy for evaporative drying due to limited effectiveness of conventional mechanical dewatering machines. Battelle's Electroacoustic Dewatering (EAD) process improves the performance of mechanical dewatering machines by superimposing electric and ultrasonic fields. A two phase development program to demonstrate the benefits of EAD was carried out in cooperation with the food processing industry, the National Food Processors Association (NFPA) and two equipment vendors. In Phase I, laboratory scale studies were carried out on a variety of food suspensions. The process was scaled up to small commercial scale in Phase II. The technical feasibility of EAD for a variety of food materials, without adversely affecting the food properties, was successfully demonstrated during this phase, which is the subject of this report. Two Process Research Units (PRUs) were designed and built through joint efforts between Battelle and two equipment vendors. A 0.5-meter wide belt press was tested on apple mash, corn fiber, and corn gluten at sites provided by two food processors. A high speed citrus juice finisher (a hybrid form of screw press and centrifuge) was tested on orange pulp. These tests were carried out jointly by Battelle, equipment vendors, NFPA, and food processors. The apple and citrus juice products were analyzed by food processors and NFPA. 26 figs., 30 tabs.

  10. Dredging and dewatering sediment containing hazardous and toxic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Dredging is a common method of remediating ponds containing contaminated wastes. However, dewatering of the dredged solids is usually not well integrated with the dredging phase. As a result, overall project efficiency can be poor. Specifically, since dredges deliver material in a widely varying slurry form and since dewatering presses require the delivered material to be uniform, union of the two systems often results in inconsistent operation of the overall process. In an effort to enhance overall dredging and dewatering process production rates as well as minimize the return of suspended solids in the decant water, a new process was developed to provide a consistent dredged sludge for delivery to the press. This paper discusses modifications made to a conventional dredging and dewatering process to improve production rates and dewatering capabilities. These modifications are applicable to any project where efficient solids dewatering is required and where returning decant water must be visually free of suspended solids. 4 figs.

  11. Advanced computer modeling techniques expand belt conveyor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Alspaugh, M.

    1998-07-01

    Increased mining production is continuing to challenge engineers and manufacturers to keep up. The pressure to produce larger and more versatile equipment is increasing. This paper will show some recent major projects in the belt conveyor industry that have pushed the limits of design and engineering technology. Also, it will discuss the systems engineering discipline and advanced computer modeling tools that have helped make these achievements possible. Several examples of technologically advanced designs will be reviewed. However, new technology can sometimes produce increased problems with equipment availability and reliability if not carefully developed. Computer modeling techniques that help one design larger equipment can also compound operational headaches if engineering processes and algorithms are not carefully analyzed every step of the way.

  12. Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

  13. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  14. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  15. Advanced IMCW Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel; lin, bing; nehrir, amin; harrison, fenton; obland, michael

    2015-04-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation.

  16. Aesthetic Lateral Canthoplasty Using Tarso-Conjunctival Advancement Technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Han; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-01-01

    Reduced horizontal length of the palpebral fissure is a distinctive characteristic of Asian eyelids, and aesthetic lateral canthal lengthening techniques have been performed for a refinement. The aim of this study is to describe a novel lateral canthoplasty using tarso-conjunctival advancement with a lid margin splitting procedure on the upper eyelids and to report the postoperative results. From December 2011 to June 2014, patients who underwent lateral canthoplasty using the tarso-conjunctival advancement procedure for aesthetic purposes were reviewed retrospectively. The predictor variables were grouped into demographic and operative categories. The primary outcome variables were the distances from the mid-pupillary line to the lateral canthus and the horizontal length of the palpebral aperture (distance from the medial to lateral canthus). Data analyses were performed using descriptive and univariate statistics. Patients who showed increment in objective measurements were considered significant. Aesthetic appearance was also evaluated based on pre- and postoperative clinical photographs. A total of 45 patients were enrolled in this study. Both the distance from the mid-pupil to the lateral canthus (ΔDpupil-lateral; 2.78 ± 0.54 mm, P <0.05) and the palpebral aperture horizontal length (ΔDmedial-lateral 2.93 ± 0.81 mm, P <0.05) increased significantly from pre- to postoperative state. All the patients demonstrated satisfactory results aesthetically during the follow-up. The tarso-conjunctival advancement technique for lateral canthoplasty produced satisfactory aesthetic results with an enlarged palpebral aperture. Future research is required to fully delineate the risk of possible complications, including injury to the eyelashes and meibomian glands.

  17. Strategies for Treating and Dewatering Contaminated Soils and Sediments Simultaneously - 13389

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin

    2013-07-01

    MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) was asked to perform a series of treatability studies by Global Technologies, Inc. (Global) and M{sup 2} Polymer Technologies, Inc. (M{sup 2} Polymer) using Global's metal treatment agent, Molecular Bonding System (MBS) and M{sup 2} Polymer's super-absorbent polymer, Waste Lock 770 (WL-770). The primary objective of the study was to determine if the two products could be used as a one-step treatment process to reduce the leachability of metals and de-water soils and/or sediments simultaneously. Three phases of work were performed during the treatability study. The first phase consisted of generating four bench-scale samples: two treated using only MBS and two treated using only WL- 770, each at variable concentrations. The second phase consisted of generating nine bench-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 in combination with three different addition techniques. The third phase consisted of generating four intermediate-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 simultaneously. The soils used in the treatability study were collected at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte, Montana. The collected soils were screened at 4 mesh (4.75 millimeters (mm)) to remove the coarse fraction of the soil and spiked with metallic contaminants of lead, cadmium, nickel, mercury, uranium, chromium, and zinc. (authors)

  18. Lake Michigan Bluff Dewatering and Stabilization Study - Allegan County, Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    ER D C TR -1 2 -1 1 National Erosion Control Development and Demonstration Program Lake Michigan Bluff Dewatering and Stabilization Study... Erosion Control Development and Demonstration Program ERDC TR-12-11 September 2012 Lake Michigan Bluff Dewatering and Stabilization Study...of gravity drained Mosel Bluff, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. Note heavily constructed revetment at toe to prevent foreshore erosion

  19. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles are difficult to dewater and create problems in coal transportation, as well as in storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine the ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale ram extruder. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

  20. The utilization of forward osmosis for coal tailings dewatering

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of dewatering coal tailings slurry by forward osmosis (FO) membrane process was investigated in this research. A prototype cell was designed and used for the dewatering tests. A cellulosic FO membrane (Hydration Technology Innovations, LLC, Albany, OR) was used fo...

  1. Groundwater Sustainability through a Novel Dewatering Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Holzbecher, E.; Ebneth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem balances. Over the past decades, groundwater is intensively extracted in order to keep construction or mining sites dry. For the latter purpose the pumped water is usually discharged into a nearby surface water body or injected into an aquifer distant from the abstraction sites. As a result, aquifers are depleted and the local eco-system is disrupted as a consequence of falling groundwater tables. Given ongoing pressure on aquifer from abstraction sites, it is vital to bring up adequate attention on groundwater conservation. We demonstrate a novel technique, Düsensauginfiltration (DSI, translated as 'nozzel-suction-infiltration'), which avoids water conveyance but still lowers the groundwater table locally. The method combines abstraction of groundwater at the upper part of the aquifer with injection in the same borehole, but at a greater depth. Hence no water is withdrawn from the system. The method is already used practically in Germany, Netherlands, and China, however, it is not yet fully scientifically understood and evaluated. Currently, two tests sites in Germany, for single and multi well respectively, are selected, at which the DSI technology is currently examined. The project is cooperated with a leading dewatering company (Hoelscher Wasserbau GmbH) and funded by Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). To provide the basic principle of the method, we present numerical models solving the differential equation, which is derived from Darcy's Law and mass conservation, describing groundwater flow. We set up stationary numerical models in 2D (vertical cross section for single well case) and 3D (multi well case and/or when ambient groundwater flow is considered) using COMSOL Multiphysics. Since our model region only involves the saturated part of the unconfined aquifer, the numerical model solves a free boundary problem using hydraulic pressure as unknown variable. Two physical modes are included

  2. Advanced Techniques for Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Bogdan; Haskal, Ziv J.

    2012-08-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have proven valuable for the prevention of primary or recurrent pulmonary embolism in selected patients with or at high risk for venous thromboembolic disease. Their use has become commonplace, and the numbers implanted increase annually. During the last 3 years, in the United States, the percentage of annually placed optional filters, i.e., filters than can remain as permanent filters or potentially be retrieved, has consistently exceeded that of permanent filters. In parallel, the complications of long- or short-term filtration have become increasingly evident to physicians, regulatory agencies, and the public. Most filter removals are uneventful, with a high degree of success. When routine filter-retrieval techniques prove unsuccessful, progressively more advanced tools and skill sets must be used to enhance filter-retrieval success. These techniques should be used with caution to avoid damage to the filter or cava during IVC retrieval. This review describes the complex techniques for filter retrieval, including use of additional snares, guidewires, angioplasty balloons, and mechanical and thermal approaches as well as illustrates their specific application.

  3. Advanced Synchrotron Techniques at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, G.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Chow, P.; Kono, Y.; Meng, Y.; Park, C.; Popov, D.; Rod, E.; Smith, J.; Xiao, Y.; Mao, H.

    2012-12-01

    High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) is dedicated to advancing cutting-edge, multidisciplinary, high-pressure science and technology using synchrotron radiation at Sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. At HPCAT an array of novel x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques has been integrated with high pressure and extreme temperature instrumentation for studies of structure and materials properties at extreme conditions.. HPCAT consists of four active independent beamlines performing a large range of various experiments at extreme conditions. 16BM-B beamline is dedicated to energy dispersive and white Laue X-ray diffraction. The majority of experiments are performed with a Paris-Edinburgh large volume press (to 7GPa and 2500K) and include amorphous and liquid structure measurement, white beam radiography, elastic sound wave velocity measurement of amorphous solid materials, with viscosity and density measurement of liquid being under development. 16BM-D is a monochromatic diffraction beamline for powder and single crystal diffraction at high pressure and high (resistive heating) / low (cryostats) temperature. The additional capabilities include high-resolution powder diffraction and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The insertion device beamline of HPCAT has two undulators in canted mode (operating independently) and LN cooled Si monochromators capable of providing a large range of energies. 16IDB is a microdiffraction beamline mainly focusing on high-pressure powder and single crystal diffraction in DAC at high temperatures (double-sided laser heating and resistive heating) and low temperature (various cryostats). The modern instrumentation allows high-quality diffraction at megabar pressures from light element, fast experiments with pulsed laser heating, fast dynamic experiments with Pilatus detector, and so on. 16ID-D beamline is dedicated to x-ray scattering and spectroscopy research

  4. Pressure dewatering: An extension of bioventing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, H.J.; Mountain, S.A.; Hullman, A.S.; Darnall, A.W.; Montney, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past several years, bioventing has become one of the most widely applied and cost-effective means of remediating vadose-zone soils impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons. In the course of bioventing, air is injected into the subsurface under pressure. This application of pressure locally depresses the water table (i.e., pressure dewatering). Pressure dewatering and subsequent gravity drainage have a number of positive impacts that extend the overall utility of the bioventing technology. Water-table depression exposes a greater portion of the subsurface to the injected air. This then not only increases the pore volume open for air distribution, thereby increasing the radius of influence and zone of remediation, but also opens the smear zone to airflow, which allows for increased biodegradation of this significant secondary source. In the course of operating full-scale bioventing systems, improvement in groundwater quality has been observed at higher rates than could be attributed to vadose zone remediation alone. Data generated sin the course of monitoring these systems have shown that a factor responsible for this improvement is water-table depression as a result of pressure application and a concomitant increase of biological activity in the smear zone.

  5. Biosynthesised magnetic iron nanoparticles for sludge dewatering via Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Ealias, Anu Mary; Jose, Jephin Varughese; Saravanakumar, M P

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic iron nanoparticles (MFeNp) were biosynthesised using the extract of Cinnamomum tamala (bay leaf) and examined for its efficacy on sludge dewatering. The characteristics of MFeNp were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) techniques. The presence of polyphenolic compounds were confirmed by FTIR and XPS analysis. The reduction in capillary suction time (CST) (71.36 to 16.5 s) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) (53.71 × 10(11) to 1.47 × 10(11) m/kg) values have indicated that the use of Fenton nanocatalyst enhanced the sludge dewaterability. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis has shown that the mass of bound water in the treated sludge was decreased significantly from 1.45 to 0.92 kg H2O/kg DS. The breakdown of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by the MFeNp leads to the significant reduction in proteins, polysaccharides, water content and heavy metals. The optimisation using response surface modelling (RSM) have shown that the maximum removal efficiency of water from the sludge was 85.9 % when the optimum pH (3) MFeNp dosage (50 mg/g DS) and H2O2 dosage (500 mg/g DS) were maintained. The experimental results and the statistical optimisation have suggested that MFeNp can be used as a potential nanocatalyst for the sludge dewaterability and hence it can be used for the agricultural purpose. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of sludge dewatering process.

  6. Advanced Fibre Bragg Grating and Microfibre Bragg Grating Fabrication Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kit Man

    Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have become a very important technology for communication systems and fibre optic sensing. Typically, FBGs are less than 10-mm long and are fabricated using fused silica uniform phase masks which become more expensive for longer length or non-uniform pitch. Generally, interference UV laser beams are employed to make long or complex FBGs, and this technique introduces critical precision and control issues. In this work, we demonstrate an advanced FBG fabrication system that enables the writing of long and complex gratings in optical fibres with virtually any apodisation profile, local phase and Bragg wavelength using a novel optical design in which the incident angles of two UV beams onto an optical fibre can be adjusted simultaneously by moving just one optical component, instead of two optics employed in earlier configurations, to vary the grating pitch. The key advantage of the grating fabrication system is that complex gratings can be fabricated by controlling the linear movements of two translation stages. In addition to the study of advanced grating fabrication technique, we also focus on the inscription of FBGs written in optical fibres with a cladding diameter of several ten's of microns. Fabrication of microfibres was investigated using a sophisticated tapering method. We also proposed a simple but practical technique to filter out the higher order modes reflected from the FBG written in microfibres via a linear taper region while the fundamental mode re-couples to the core. By using this technique, reflection from the microfibre Bragg grating (MFBG) can be effectively single mode, simplifying the demultiplexing and demodulation processes. MFBG exhibits high sensitivity to contact force and an MFBG-based force sensor was also constructed and tested to investigate their suitability for use as an invasive surgery device. Performance of the contact force sensor packaged in a conforming elastomer material compares favourably to one

  7. Advanced Cytologic Techniques for the Detection of Malignant Pancreatobiliary Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Luna, Laura E.; Kipp, Benjamin; Halling, Kevin C.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Kremers., Walter K.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Barr Fritcher, Emily G.; Levy, Michael J.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims Two advanced cytologic techniques for detecting aneuploidy, digital image analysis (DIA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have recently been developed to help identify malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of cytology, DIA, and FISH for the identification of malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. Methods Brush cytologic specimens from 233 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP for pancreatobiliary strictures were examined by all three techniques. Strictures were stratified as proximal (n=33) or distal (n=114) based on whether they occurred above or below the cystic duct, respectively. Strictures in patients with PSC (n=86) were analyzed separately. Results Despite the stratification, the performances of the tests were similar. Routine cytology has a low sensitivity (5–20%) but 100% specificity. Because of the high specificity for cytology, we assessed the performance of the other tests when routine cytology was negative. In this clinical context, FISH had an increased sensitivity (35–60%) when assessing for chromosomal gains (polysomy) while preserving the specificity of cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of DIA was intermediate as compared to routine cytology and FISH, but was additive to FISH values demonstrating only trisomy of chromosome 7 or chromosome 3. Conclusions These findings suggest that FISH and DIA increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatobiliary tract strictures over that obtained by conventional cytology while maintaining an acceptable specificity. PMID:17030177

  8. Recent Advances in Seismic Wavefront Tracking Techniques and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambridge, M.; Rawlinson, N.; Hauser, J.

    2007-12-01

    In observational seismology, wavefront tracking techniques are becoming increasingly popular as a means of predicting two point traveltimes and their associated paths. Possible applications include reflection migration, earthquake relocation and seismic tomography at a wide variety of scales. Compared with traditional ray based techniques such as shooting and bending, wavefront tracking has the advantage of locating traveltimes between the source and every point in the medium; in many cases, improved efficiency and robustness; and greater potential for tracking multiple arrivals. In this presentation, two wavefront tracking techniques will be considered: the so-called Fast Marching Method (FMM), and a wavefront construction (WFC) scheme. Over the last several years, FMM has become a mature technique in seismology, with a number of improvements to the underlying theory and the release of software tools that allow it to be used in a variety of applications. At its core, FMM is a grid based solver that implicitly tracks a propagating wavefront by seeking finite difference solutions to the eikonal equation along an evolving narrow band. Recent developments include the use of source grid refinement to improve accuracy, the introduction of a multi-stage scheme to allow reflections and refractions to be tracked in layered media, and extension to spherical coordinates. Implementation of these ideas has led to a number of different applications, including teleseismic tomography, wide-angle reflection and refraction tomography, earthquake relocation, and ambient noise imaging using surface waves. The WFC scheme represents the wavefront surface as a set of points in 6-D phase space; these points are advanced in time using local initial value ray tracing in order to form a sequence of wavefront surfaces that fill the model volume. Surface refinement and simplification techniques inspired by recent developments in computer graphics are used to maintain a fixed density of nodes

  9. Disposable sludge dewatering container and method

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Clifford M.

    1993-01-01

    A device and method for preparing sludge for disposal comprising a box with a thin layer of gravel on the bottom and a thin layer of sand on the gravel layer, an array of perforated piping deployed throughout the gravel layer, and a sump in the gravel layer below the perforated piping array. Standpipes connect the array and sump to an external ion exchanger/fine particulate filter and a pump. Sludge is deposited on the sand layer and dewatered using a pump connected to the piping array, topping up with more sludge as the aqueous component of the sludge is extracted. When the box is full and the free standing water content of the sludge is acceptable, the standpipes are cut and sealed and the lid secured to the box.

  10. Advances in Poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline) Nanofibers Preparation by Electrospinning Technique.

    PubMed

    Della Pina, C; Busacca, C; Frontera, P; Antonucci, P L; Scarpino, L A; Sironi, A; Falletta, E

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers are drawing a great deal of interest from academia and industry due to their multiple applications, especially in biomedical field. PANI nanofibers were successfully electrospun for the first time by MacDiarmid and co-workers at the beginning of the millennium and since then many efforts have been addressed to improve their quality. However, traditional PANI prepared from aniline monomer shows some drawbacks, such as presence of toxic (i.e., benzidine) and inorganic (salts and metals) co-products, that complicate polymer post-treatment, and low solubility in common organic solvents, making hard its processing by electrospinning technique. Some industrial sectors, such as medical and biomedical, need to employ materials free from toxic and polluting species. In this regard, the oxidative polymerization of N-(4-aminophenyl)aniline, aniline dimer, to produce poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline), P4ADA, a kind of PANI, represents an innovative alternative to the traditional synthesis because the obtained polymer results free from carcinogenic and/or polluting co-products, and, moreover, more soluble than traditional PANI. This latter feature can be exploited to obtain P4ADA nanofibers by electrospinning technique. In this paper we report the advances obtained in the P4ADA nanofibers electrospinnig. A comparison among polyethylene oxide (PEO), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), as the second polymer to facilitate the electrospinning process, is shown. In order to increase the conductivity of P4ADA nanofibers, two strategies were adopted and compared: selective insulating binder removal from electrospun nanofibers by a rinsing tratment, afterwards optimizing the minimum amount of binder necessary for the electrospinning process. Moreover, the effect of PEO/P4ADA weight ratio on the fibers morphology and conductivity was highlighted.

  11. A review of hemorheology: Measuring techniques and recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Patrícia C.; Pinho, Fernando T.; Alves, Manuel A.; Oliveira, Mónica S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Significant progress has been made over the years on the topic of hemorheology, not only in terms of the development of more accurate and sophisticated techniques, but also in terms of understanding the phenomena associated with blood components, their interactions and impact upon blood properties. The rheological properties of blood are strongly dependent on the interactions and mechanical properties of red blood cells, and a variation of these properties can bring further insight into the human health state and can be an important parameter in clinical diagnosis. In this article, we provide both a reference for hemorheological research and a resource regarding the fundamental concepts in hemorheology. This review is aimed at those starting in the field of hemodynamics, where blood rheology plays a significant role, but also at those in search of the most up-to-date findings (both qualitative and quantitative) in hemorheological measurements and novel techniques used in this context, including technical advances under more extreme conditions such as in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow or under extensional flow, which impose large deformations comparable to those found in the microcirculatory system and in diseased vessels. Given the impressive rate of increase in the available knowledge on blood flow, this review is also intended to identify areas where current knowledge is still incomplete, and which have the potential for new, exciting and useful research. We also discuss the most important parameters that can lead to an alteration of blood rheology, and which as a consequence can have a significant impact on the normal physiological behavior of blood.

  12. Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, John W.; Wies, Richard; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2008-11-25

    Time-synchronized measurements provide rich information for estimating a power-system's electromechanical modal properties via advanced signal processing. This information is becoming critical for the improved operational reliability of interconnected grids. A given mode's properties are described by its frequency, damping, and shape. Modal frequencies and damping are useful indicators of power-system stress, usually declining with increased load or reduced grid capacity. Mode shape provides critical information for operational control actions. This project investigated many advanced techniques for power system identification from measured data focusing on mode frequency and damping ratio estimation. Investigators from the three universities coordinated their effort with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Significant progress was made on developing appropriate techniques for system identification with confidence intervals and testing those techniques on field measured data and through simulation. Experimental data from the western area power system was provided by PNNL and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for both ambient conditions and for signal injection tests. Three large-scale tests were conducted for the western area in 2005 and 2006. Measured field PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) data was provided to the three universities. A 19-machine simulation model was enhanced for testing the system identification algorithms. Extensive simulations were run with this model to test the performance of the algorithms. University of Wyoming researchers participated in four primary activities: (1) Block and adaptive processing techniques for mode estimation from ambient signals and probing signals, (2) confidence interval estimation, (3) probing signal design and injection method analysis, and (4) performance assessment and validation from simulated and field measured data. Subspace based methods have been use to improve previous results from block processing

  13. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Advances in Science, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2009-01-01

    More than 25% of children survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrests, and 5% to 10% survive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. This review of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation addresses the epidemiology of pediatric cardiac arrests, mechanisms of coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the 4 phases of cardiac arrest resuscitation, appropriate interventions during each phase, special resuscitation circumstances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The key elements of pathophysiology that impact and match the timing, intensity, duration, and variability of the hypoxic-ischemic insult to evidence-based interventions are reviewed. Exciting discoveries in basic and applied-science laboratories are now relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (eg, ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Improving the quality of interventions is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving outcomes. Evolving training strategies include simulation training, just-in-time and just-in-place training, and crisis-team training. The difficult issue of when to discontinue resuscitative efforts is addressed. Outcomes from pediatric cardiac arrests are improving. Advances in resuscitation science and state-of-the-art implementation techniques provide the opportunity for further improvement in outcomes among children after cardiac arrest. PMID:18977991

  14. Recommended advanced techniques for waterborne pathogen detection in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Alhamlan, Fatimah S; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-02-19

    The effect of human activities on water resources has expanded dramatically during the past few decades, leading to the spread of waterborne microbial pathogens. The total global health impact of human infectious diseases associated with pathogenic microorganisms from land-based wastewater pollution was estimated to be approximately three million disability-adjusted life years (DALY), with an estimated economic loss of nearly 12 billion US dollars per year. Although clean water is essential for healthy living, it is not equally granted to all humans. Indeed, people who live in developing countries are challenged every day by an inadequate supply of clean water. Polluted water can lead to health crises that in turn spread waterborne pathogens. Taking measures to assess the water quality can prevent these potential risks. Thus, a pressing need has emerged in developing countries for comprehensive and accurate assessments of water quality. This review presents current and emerging advanced techniques for assessing water quality that can be adopted by authorities in developing countries.

  15. Dissecting cell adhesion architecture using advanced imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Penny E

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins or to other cells is essential for the control of embryonic development, tissue integrity, immune function and wound healing. Adhesions are tightly spatially regulated structures containing over one hundred different proteins that coordinate both dynamics and signaling events at these sites. Extensive biochemical and morphological analysis of adhesion types over the past three decades has greatly improved understanding of individual protein contributions to adhesion signaling and, in some cases, dynamics. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that these diverse macromolecular complexes contain a variety of protein sub-networks, as well as distinct sub-domains that likely play important roles in regulating adhesion behavior. Until recently, resolving these structures, which are often less than a micron in size, was hampered by the limitations of conventional light microscopy. However, recent advances in optical techniques and imaging methods have revealed exciting insight into the intricate control of adhesion structure and assembly. Here we provide an overview of the recent data arising from such studies of cell:matrix and cell:cell contact and an overview of the imaging strategies that have been applied to study the intricacies and hierarchy of proteins within adhesions. PMID:21785274

  16. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask ‘how are nanoshapes created?’, ‘how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?’, ‘how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?’. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed. PMID:25485133

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE: Emission measurement techniques for advanced powertrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Masayuki

    2000-10-01

    Recent developments in high-efficiency low-emission powertrains require the emission measurement technologies to be able to detect regulated and unregulated compounds with very high sensitivity and a fast response. For example, levels of a variety of nitrogen compounds and sulphur compounds should be analysed in real time in order to develop aftertreatment systems to decrease emission of NOx for the lean burning powertrains. Also, real-time information on the emission of particulate matter for the transient operation of diesel engines and direct injection gasoline engines is invaluable. The present paper reviews newly introduced instrumentation for such emission measurement that is demanded for the developments in advanced powertrain systems. They include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and fast response flame ionization detection. In addition, demands and applications of the fuel reformer developments for fuel cell electric vehicles are discussed. Besides the detection methodologies, sample handling techniques for the measurement of concentrations emitted from low emission vehicles for which the concentrations of the pollutants are significantly lower than the concentrations present in ambient air, are also described.

  18. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  19. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask 'how are nanoshapes created?', 'how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', 'how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed.

  20. ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION AND MODELING OF NONCONVENTIONAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz

    2004-08-20

    Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow in the wellbore

  1. Comparing alkaline and thermal disintegration characteristics for mechanically dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Tunçal, Tolga

    2011-10-01

    Thermal drying is one of the advanced technologies ultimately providing an alternative method of sludge disposal. In this study, the drying kinetics of mechanically dewatered sludge (MDS) after alkaline and thermal disintegration have been studied. In addition, the effect of total organic carbon (TOC) on specific resistance to filtration and sludge bound water content were also investigated on freshly collected sludge samples. The combined effect of pH and TOC on the thermal sludge drying rate for MDS was modelled using the two-factorial experimental design method. Statistical assessment of the obtained results proposed that sludge drying potential has increased exponentially for both increasing temperature and lime dosage. Execution of curve fitting algorithms also implied that drying profiles for raw and alkaline-disintegrated sludge were well fitted to the Henderson and Pabis model. The activation energy of MDS decreased from 28.716 to 11.390 kJ mol(-1) after disintegration. Consequently, the unit power requirement for thermal drying decreased remarkably from 706 to 281 W g(-1) H2O.

  2. Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M.

    1998-05-01

    The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

  3. Demonstration of FBRM as process analytical technology tool for dewatering processes via CST correlation.

    PubMed

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Alexander; Latulippe, David R

    2014-07-01

    The current challenges associated with the design and operation of net-energy positive wastewater treatment plants demand sophisticated approaches for the monitoring of polymer-induced flocculation. In anaerobic digestion (AD) processes, the dewaterability of the sludge is typically assessed from off-line lab-bench tests - the capillary suction time (CST) test is one of the most common. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) is a promising technique for real-time monitoring of critical performance attributes in large scale processes and is ideally suited for dewatering applications. The flocculation performance of twenty-four cationic polymers, that spanned a range of polymer size and charge properties, was measured using both the FBRM and CST tests. Analysis of the data revealed a decreasing monotonic trend; the samples that had the highest percent removal of particles less than 50 microns in size as determined by FBRM had the lowest CST values. A subset of the best performing polymers was used to evaluate the effects of dosage amount and digestate sources on dewatering performance. The results from this work show that FBRM is a powerful tool that can be used for optimization and on-line monitoring of dewatering processes.

  4. Monitoring and optimizing the co-composting of dewatered sludge: a mixture experimental design approach.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Evangelou, Alexandros; Voudrias, Evangelos

    2011-09-01

    The management of dewatered wastewater sludge is a major issue worldwide. Sludge disposal to landfills is not sustainable and thus alternative treatment techniques are being sought. The objective of this work was to determine optimal mixing ratios of dewatered sludge with other organic amendments in order to maximize the degradability of the mixtures during composting. This objective was achieved using mixture experimental design principles. An additional objective was to study the impact of the initial C/N ratio and moisture contents on the co-composting process of dewatered sludge. The composting process was monitored through measurements of O(2) uptake rates, CO(2) evolution, temperature profile and solids reduction. Eight (8) runs were performed in 100 L insulated air-tight bioreactors under a dynamic air flow regime. The initial mixtures were prepared using dewatered wastewater sludge, mixed paper wastes, food wastes, tree branches and sawdust at various initial C/N ratios and moisture contents. According to empirical modeling, mixtures of sludge and food waste mixtures at 1:1 ratio (ww, wet weight) maximize degradability. Structural amendments should be maintained below 30% to reach thermophilic temperatures. The initial C/N ratio and initial moisture content of the mixture were not found to influence the decomposition process. The bio C/bio N ratio started from around 10, for all runs, decreased during the middle of the process and increased to up to 20 at the end of the process. The solid carbon reduction of the mixtures without the branches ranged from 28% to 62%, whilst solid N reductions ranged from 30% to 63%. Respiratory quotients had a decreasing trend throughout the composting process.

  5. An investigation of operating variables in the fine coal dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T.

    1998-07-01

    Illinois basin coals contain minerals, including pyrite, which are finely disseminated in micron-size particles. To liberate these mineral matters from the coal matrix, an ultra-fine grinding operation is required, followed by a wet physical cleaning process, such as column flotation. However, the resulting product possesses large surface areas that conventional dewatering techniques cannot perform effectively, and this creates transportation, storage and handling problems at utility plants. To take full advantage of these cleaning technologies, a new dewatering and coal consolidation method must be developed at the downstream end of the deep coal-cleaning process. Following an initial study at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), briquetting was chosen to perform the dual purpose of dewatering and consolidating the fine coal. A bitumen-based emulsion, Orimulsion, proved to be an effective binder and dewatering agent in the briquetting process that assisted in the expulsion of water from the fine coal. This paper describes the investigation aimed at examining the relationships between several controllable operating variables. An experimental matrix was designed to examine a range of operating parameters based on earlier work conducted at the Department of Mining Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla. A total of 13 experiments were performed using Illinois No. 6 coal samples that had a size fraction of 16 mesh x 0 and a moisture content of 31%. Based on results obtained from previous experiments and because of the complexity of the briquetting process, only two variables, roll speed and the briquetting form pressure, were studied for their influence on moisture content, abrasion resistance and friability of briquettes. Concurring with results from previous work, the curing time of the briquettes formed had a significant impact on the moisture content and friability of the compacted fine coal product. Also, the statistical regression models generated from

  6. Investigation of joining techniques for advanced austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Kikuchi, Y.; Shi, C.; Gill, T.P.S.

    1991-05-01

    Modified Alloys 316 and 800H, designed for high temperature service, have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Assessment of the weldability of the advanced austenitic alloys has been conducted at the University of Tennessee. Four aspects of weldability of the advanced austenitic alloys were included in the investigation.

  7. Dewatering of fibre suspensions by pressure filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Duncan R.; Paterson, Daniel T.; Balmforth, Neil J.; Martinez, D. Mark

    2016-06-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of dewatering of fibre suspensions by uniaxial compression is presented. Solutions of a one-dimensional model are discussed and asymptotic limits of fast and slow compression are explored. Particular focus is given to relatively rapid compression and to the corresponding development of spatial variations in the solidity and velocity profiles of the suspension. The results of complementary laboratory experiments are presented for nylon or cellulose fibres suspended in viscous fluid. The constitutive relationships for each suspension were measured independently. Measurements of the load for different fixed compression speeds, together with some direct measurements of the velocity profiles using particle tracking velocimetry, are compared with model predictions. The comparison is reasonable for nylon, but poor for cellulose fibres. An extension to the model, which allows for a strain-rate-dependent component in the network stress, is proposed, and is found to give a dramatic improvement in the model predictions for cellulose fibre suspensions. The reason for this improvement is attributed to the microstructure of cellulose fibres, which, unlike nylon fibres, are themselves porous.

  8. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques for effective bioanalytical methods.

    PubMed

    Kole, Prashant Laxman; Venkatesh, Gantala; Kotecha, Jignesh; Sheshala, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent developments in bioanalysis sample preparation techniques and gives an update on basic principles, theory, applications and possibilities for automation, and a comparative discussion on the advantages and limitation of each technique. Conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), protein precipitation (PP) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques are now been considered as methods of the past. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of novel sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis. Developments in SPE techniques such as selective sorbents and in the overall approach to SPE, such as hybrid SPE and molecularly imprinted polymer SPE, have been addressed. Considerable literature has been published in the area of solid-phase micro-extraction and its different versions, e.g. stir bar sorptive extraction, and their application in the development of selective and sensitive bioanalytical methods. Techniques such as dispersive solid-phase extraction, disposable pipette extraction and micro-extraction by packed sorbent offer a variety of extraction phases and provide unique advantages to bioanalytical methods. On-line SPE utilizing column-switching techniques is rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical applications. PP sample preparation techniques such as PP filter plates/tubes offer many advantages like removal of phospholipids and proteins in plasma/serum. Newer approaches to conventional LLE techniques (salting-out LLE) are also covered in this review article.

  9. Advanced rehabilitation techniques for the multi-limb amputee.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Zach T; Loomis, Gregory A; Mitsch, Sarah; Murphy, Ian C; Griffin, Sarah C; Potter, Benjamin K; Pasquina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Advances in combat casualty care have contributed to unprecedented survival rates of battlefield injuries, challenging the field of rehabilitation to help injured service members achieve maximal functional recovery and independence. Nowhere is this better illustrated than in the care of the multiple-limb amputee. Specialized medical, surgical, and rehabilitative interventions are needed to optimize the care of this unique patient population. This article describes lessons learned at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Bethesda in providing advanced therapy and prosthetics for combat casualties, but provides guidelines for all providers involved in the care of individuals with amputation.

  10. Advanced froth flotation techniques for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    Advanced column flotation cells offer many potential advantages for the treatment of fine coal. The most important of these is the ability to achieve high separation efficiencies using only a single stage of processing. Unfortunately, industrial flotation columns often suffer from poor recovery, low throughput and high maintenance requirements as compared to mechanically-agitated conventional cells. These problems can usually be attributed to poorly-designed air sparging systems. This article examines the problems of air sparging in greater detail and offers useful guidelines for designing bubble generators for industrial flotation columns. The application of these principles in the design of a successful advanced fine coal flotation circuit is also presented.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At

  12. Electroosmotic dewatering of dredged sediments: bench-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Urbanek, Adam; Khodadoust, Amid P

    2006-01-01

    The Indiana Harbor (Indiana, USA) has not been dredged since 1972 due to lack of a suitable disposal site for dredged sediment. As a result of this, over a million cubic yards of highly contaminated sediment has accumulated in the harbor. Recently, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has selected a site for the confined disposal facility (CDF) and is in the process of designing it. Although dredging can be accomplished rapidly, the disposal in the CDF has to be done slowly to allow adequate time for consolidation to occur. The sediment possesses very high moisture content and very low hydraulic conductivity, which cause consolidation to occur slowly. Consolidation of the sediment is essential in order to achieve adequate shear strength of sediments and also to provide enough air space to accommodate the large amount of sediment that requires disposal. Currently, it has been estimated that if a one 3-foot (0.9-m) thick layer of sediment was disposed of at the CDF annually, it would take approximately 10 years to dispose of all the sediment that is to be dredged from the Indiana Harbor. This study investigated the feasibility of using an electroosmotic dewatering technology to accelerate dewatering and consolidation of sediment, thereby allowing more rapid disposal of sediment into the CDF. Electroosmotic dewatering essentially involves applying a small electric potential across the sediment layer, thereby inducing rapid flow as a result of physico-chemical and electrochemical processes. A series of bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on actual dredged sediment samples from the Indiana Harbor to investigate dewatering rates caused by gravity alone, dewatering rates caused by gravity and electric potential, and the effects of the addition of polymer flocculants on dewatering of the sediments. The results showed that electroosmotic dewatering under an applied electric potential of 1.0VDC/cm could increase the rate of dewatering and

  13. Analytic Syntax: A Technique for Advanced Level Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ruth

    1975-01-01

    The technique explained here can increase a foreign student's awareness of English grammatical and rhetorical structures. Structural paraphrase is a syntactic reformulation of difficult phrases with minimal vocabulary changes. The technique is illustrated and suggestions are given for class presentation. (CHK)

  14. Heat inactivation of enteric viruses in dewatered wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ward, R L; Ashley, C S

    1978-12-01

    The effect of moisture content on the rates of heat inactivation of enteric viruses in wastewater sludge was determined. The protective effect of raw sludge on poliovirus previously observed (R. L. Ward, C. S. Ashley, and R. H. Moseley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:339--346, 1976) was found to be greatly enhanced in sludge dewatered by evaporation. Other enteroviruses responded in a similar fashion. This effect did not appear to be due merely to the state of dryness of the sludge samples because in humus-deficient soil, a relatively inert material, the rate of poliovirus inactivation by heat was not significantly altered through dewatering. Instead, this effect appeared to have been caused by protective substances in the sludge, such as detergents, which are concentrated through dewatering. As reported previously (R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34:681-688, 1977; R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol 36:889--897, 1978) raw sludge is not protective of reovirus, but, instead, the ionic detergents in sludge cause the rate of heat inactivation of this virus to be accelerated. Dewatering of sludge, however, was found to partially reverse this virucidal effect. Evidence is presented indicating that this reversal is caused by an unidentified protective substance in sludge also concentrated through dewatering. Finally, it was shown that the effects of raw sludge on heat inactivation of poliovirus and reovirus are greatly reduced by composting, a result that correlated with the degradation of detergents.

  15. Dewatering of floated oily sludge by treatment with rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Han, Li; Meng, Qin

    2013-09-01

    Oily sludge dewatering is practically needed prior to sludge treatments. However, the conventional use of physical treatments with or without chemical conditionings presented poor feasibility in industrial applications due to either poor cost-efficiency or lacking environmental friendliness. In this paper, biosurfactant rhamnolipid was for the first time applied for dewatering of oily sludge. Rhamnolipid treatments under the concentration of 300-1000 mg/L, pH of 5-7 and temperature of 10-60 °C could directly separate 50-80% of water from the stable oily sludge. And both mono-rhamnolipid and di-rhamnolipid were identified to be of equivalent dewatering ability, which is closely related to their equivalent performance in breaking the emulsified oil droplets. Demulsification was found to be involved in settling water from oily sludge. Furthermore, the effectiveness of rhamnolipid was further demonstrated at pilot scale (1000 L) treatment of oily sludge. After pilot treatment, the settled water with residual oil of 10 mg/L and soluble COD of about 800 mg/L could be directly effluxed into the biotreatment system while the concentrated oil sludge with a reduced volume by 60-80% can be pumped into coking tower, achieving completely harmless treatment. It seems that rhamnolipid as dewatering agent was of great prospects in the industrial dewatering of oily sludge.

  16. Application of electro acoustics for dewatering pharmaceutical sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Golla, P.S.; Johnson, H.W. ) Senthilnathan, P.R. )

    1992-02-01

    Application of electro acoustic principles for dewatering has been developed by Battelle Institute. The Department of Energy, Battelle Institute, and Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley, have jointly developed an Electro Acoustic Dewatering press (EAD press). The EAD press applies a combination of mechanical pressure, electrical current and ultrasonics. This press is utilized after conventional dewatering devices and can remove up to 50% water from filtered sludge cake at a fraction of the cost incurred in existing thermal drying devices. The dominant mechanism of sludge dewatering by EAD press is electro-osmosis due to the application of a direct current field. Electro-osmosis is caused by an electrical double layer of oppositely charged ions formed at the solid liquid interface, which is characterized by zeta potential. The ultrasonic fields help electro-osmosis by consolidation of the filter cake and by release of inaccessible liquid. The EAD press has been tested successfully on a variety of materials including apple pomace, corn gluten, sewage sludge, and coal fines. A three week long full scale trial was conducted successfully at a pharmaceutical industry to determine the application of this technology for dewatering waste activated sludge.

  17. Liquidization of dewatered organic sludge and anaerobic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sawayama, Shigeki; Inoue, Seiichi; Ogi, Tomoko

    1996-12-31

    Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175 {degrees}C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 58% (w/w) supernatant and 42% precipitate. The amount of proteins in the liquidized sludge slightly decreased through the liquidization process, however, that of lipids increased. The supernatant separated from the sludge liquidized with dewatered sewage sludge was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant from dewatered sewage sludge at organic loading concentrations of 1.9-2.2 g VS/l during 9 days incubation was 440 ml/g-added VS and digestion ratio was 66% (w/w). Biogas yield in the case of dewatered sewage sludge was 257 ml/g-added VS and digestion ratio was 45%. Similar results were obtained in the case of the anaerobically digested with sewage sludge and dewatered sludge. Anaerobic digestion of the supernatants from the liquidized sludges resulted in high biogas productivity and high digestion ratio compared with these of the original sludges. Moreover, the precipitates contained lower moisture, therefore, they can be incinerated easier than the respective original sludges.

  18. Recent advances in microscopic techniques for visualizing leukocytes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rohit; Tikoo, Shweta; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Leukocytes are inherently motile and interactive cells. Recent advances in intravital microscopy approaches have enabled a new vista of their behavior within intact tissues in real time. This brief review summarizes the developments enabling the tracking of immune responses in vivo. PMID:27239292

  19. Bricklaying Curriculum: Advanced Bricklaying Techniques. Instructional Materials. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Raymond J.; Hendrix, Laborn J.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist bricklaying instructors in providing performance-based instruction in advanced bricklaying. Included in the first section of the guide are units on customized or architectural masonry units; glass block; sills, lintels, and copings; and control (expansion) joints. The next two units deal with cut,…

  20. Advanced NDE techniques for quantitative characterization of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center and their applications that have resulted in quantitative assessment of material properties based on thermal and ultrasonic measurements are reviewed. Specific applications include ultrasonic determination of bolt tension, ultrasonic and thermal characterization of bonded layered structures, characterization of composite materials, and disbonds in aircraft skins.

  1. Backscattered Electron Microscopy as an Advanced Technique in Petrography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsley, David Henry; Manley, Curtis Robert

    1989-01-01

    Three uses of this method with sandstone, desert varnish, and granite weathering are described. Background information on this technique is provided. Advantages of this type of microscopy are stressed. (CW)

  2. Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-12

    based ground penetrating radars for the detection of subsurface objects that are low in metal content and hard to detect. The derived techniques...penetrating radars for the detection of subsurface objects that are low in metal content and hard to detect. The derived techniques include the exploitation...5.00 4.00 3.00 9.00 T. Glenn, J. Wilson, D. Ho. A MULTIMODAL MATCHING PURSUITS DISSIMILARITY MEASURE APPLIED TO LANDMINE/CLUTTER DISCRIMINATION

  3. Electroextraction and electromembrane extraction: Advances in hyphenation to analytical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Oedit, Amar; Ramautar, Rawi; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Electroextraction (EE) and electromembrane extraction (EME) are sample preparation techniques that both require an electric field that is applied over a liquid‐liquid system, which enables the migration of charged analytes. Furthermore, both techniques are often used to pre‐concentrate analytes prior to analysis. In this review an overview is provided of the body of literature spanning April 2012–November 2015 concerning EE and EME, focused on hyphenation to analytical techniques. First, the theoretical aspects of concentration enhancement in EE and EME are discussed to explain extraction recovery and enrichment factor. Next, overviews are provided of the techniques based on their hyphenation to LC, GC, CE, and direct detection. These overviews cover the compounds and matrices, experimental aspects (i.e. donor volume, acceptor volume, extraction time, extraction voltage, and separation time) and the analytical aspects (i.e. limit of detection, enrichment factor, and extraction recovery). Techniques that were either hyphenated online to analytical techniques or show high potential with respect to online hyphenation are highlighted. Finally, the potential future directions of EE and EME are discussed. PMID:26864699

  4. Advanced millimeter-wave security portal imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-03-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance as a security tool to augment conventional metal detectors and baggage x-ray systems for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This acceptance indicates that the technology has matured; however, many potential improvements can yet be realized. The authors have developed a number of techniques over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, and high-frequency high-bandwidth techniques. All of these may improve the performance of new systems; however, some of these techniques will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. Reducing this cost may require the development of novel array designs. In particular, RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems. Highfrequency, high-bandwidth designs are difficult to achieve with conventional mm-wave electronic devices, and RF photonic devices may be a practical alternative. In this paper, the mm-wave imaging techniques developed at PNNL are reviewed and the potential for implementing RF photonic mm-wave array designs is explored.

  5. Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

    1999-03-31

    Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size and type on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured and modeled.

  6. Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

    1998-09-30

    Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured.

  7. Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine

    SciTech Connect

    Straskraba, V.; Kissinger, L.E.

    1984-12-01

    Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and dewatering measures were designed with the help of a numerical mathematical model. A combination of dewatering wells installed from the surface around the perimeter of the pit and horizontal drains in areas of high slope failure potential substantially improved the mining conditions and slope stability. This procedure consequently led to the successful ore recovery from the highly saturated sandstone strata. The development of drawdown during the dewatering of two separated aquifers in the overburden was close to that predicted by the model.

  8. Electrode kinetic and electro-kinetic effects in electroosmotic dewatering of clay suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Vijh, A.K.

    1997-05-01

    Lockhart`s remarks on the author`s previous interpretation of the electrochemical aspects of the electroosmotic dewatering (EOD) of clay suspensions are analyzed to provide some further clarification. Based on Lockhart`s excellent work, the authors put forward here novel electrochemical interpretations of some features of the following experimental observations: (1) Galvani dewatering; (2) the dewatering efficiency; and (3) high voltage needed for dewatering Al-kaolinite and aluminum electrode effect.

  9. Application of Active Learning Techniques to an Advanced Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, R. A.

    2004-05-01

    The New Faculty Workshop provided a wealth of techniques as well as an overriding philosophy for the teaching of undergraduate Physics and Astronomy courses. The focus of the workshop was active learning, summarized in ``Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching" by Slater & Adams: it's not what you do in class that matters, it's what the students do. Much of the specific focus of the New Faculty Workshop is on teaching the large, introductory Physics classes that many of the faculty present are sure to teach, both algebra-based and calculus-based. Many of these techniques apply directly and with little modification to introductory Astronomy courses. However, little direct attention is given to upper-division undergraduate, or even graduate, courses. In this presentation, I will share my experience in attempting to apply some of the techniques discussed at the New Faculty Workshop to an upper-division course in Galactic Astrophysics at Vanderbilt University during the Spring semester of 2004.

  10. The bumper technique for advancing a large profile microcatheter.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Christopher P; Chartrain, Alexander G; Schwegel, Claire; Oxley, Thomas J; Shoirah, Hazem; Mocco, J

    2017-03-09

    Operators commonly encounter difficulty maneuvering a microcatheter beyond the distal lip of wide neck aneurysms and aneurysms in challenging locations. Few techniques have been described to guide operators in these particular situations. In this case report of a 56-year-old woman with a 16 mm ophthalmic artery aneurysm, the microcatheter continually snagged the distal aneurysm lip, preventing delivery of a flow diverter into the distal parent vessel. In troubleshooting this obstacle, a second microguidewire was introduced alongside the microcatheter and was used to cover the distal lip of the aneurysm to prevent further snagging. The second guidewire successfully deflected the microcatheter into the distal vessel, a technique that we have aptly dubbed the 'bumper technique'.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Barker, Alan M; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Albright, Austin P; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  12. Transcranial Doppler: Techniques and advanced applications: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind K.; Bathala, Lokesh; Batra, Amit; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. PMID:27011639

  13. Brain development in preterm infants assessed using advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David

    2014-03-01

    Infants who are born preterm have a high incidence of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities, which may be associated with impaired brain development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, such as diffusion MRI (d-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), provide objective and reproducible measures of brain development. Indices derived from d-MRI can be used to provide quantitative measures of preterm brain injury. Although fMRI of the neonatal brain is currently a research tool, future studies combining d-MRI and fMRI have the potential to assess the structural and functional properties of the developing brain and its response to injury.

  14. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  15. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  16. Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

  17. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  18. Advances in High-Fidelity Multi-Physics Simulation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    fluid dynamics with other disciplines also yield a large and typically stiff equation set whose numerical solution mandates the development and...and Electromagnetics . . . . . 3 2.1 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Numerical Technique...discrete equivalent of the governing equations . Thus, the values of the solution vector are localized in a pointwise sense at each node of the mesh. This

  19. Single Molecule Techniques for Advanced in situ Hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Hollars, C W; Stubbs, L; Carlson, K; Lu, X; Wehri, E

    2003-02-03

    One of the most significant achievements of modern science is completion of the human genome sequence, completed in the year 2000. Despite this monumental accomplishment, researchers have only begun to understand the relationships between this three-billion-nucleotide genetic code and the regulation and control of gene and protein expression within each of the millions of different types of highly specialized cells. Several methodologies have been developed for the analysis of gene and protein expression in situ, yet despite these advancements, the pace of such analyses is extremely limited. Because information regarding the precise timing and location of gene expression is a crucial component in the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment of disease, there is an enormous incentive to develop technologies that accelerate the analytical process. Here we report on the use of plasmon resonant particles as advanced probes for in situ hybridization. These probes are used for the detection of low levels of gene-probe response and demonstrate a detection method that enables precise, simultaneous localization within a cell of the points of expression of multiple genes or proteins in a single sample.

  20. Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Buhong; Qiu, Zhihai; Huang, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the generation of highly reactive singlet oxygen through interactions of photosensitizer, light and molecular oxygen. PDT has become a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic modality for a wide variety of malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The main dosimetric parameters for predicting the PDT efficacy include the delivered light dose, the quantification and photobleaching of the administrated photosensitizer, the tissue oxygen concentration, the amount of singlet oxygen generation and the resulting biological responses. This review article presents the emerging optical techniques that in use or under development for monitoring dosimetric parameters during PDT treatment. Moreover, the main challenges in developing real-time and noninvasive optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in PDT will be described.

  1. Characterization of PTFE Using Advanced Thermal Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumm, J.; Lindemann, A.; Meyer, M.; Strasser, C.

    2010-10-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in numerous industrial applications. It is often referred to by its trademark name, Teflon. Thermal characterization of a PTFE material was carried out using various thermal analysis and thermophysical properties test techniques. The transformation energetics and specific heat were measured employing differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal expansion and the density changes were determined employing pushrod dilatometry. The viscoelastic properties (storage and loss modulus) were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash technique. Combining thermal diffusivity data with specific heat and density allows calculation of the thermal conductivity of the polymer. Measurements were carried out from - 125 °C up to 150 °C. Additionally, measurements of the mechanical properties were carried out down to - 170 °C. The specific heat tests were conducted into the fully molten regions up to 370 °C.

  2. Advance techniques for monitoring human tolerance to +Gz accelerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelligra, R.; Sandler, H.; Rositano, S.; Skrettingland, K.; Mancini, R.

    1972-01-01

    Standard techniques for monitoring the acceleration-stressed human subject have been augmented by measuring (1) temporal, brachial and/or radial arterial blood flow, and (2) indirect systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 60-sec intervals. Results show that the response of blood pressure to positive accelerations is complex and dependent on an interplay of hydrostatic forces, diminishing venous return, redistribution of blood, and other poorly defined compensatory reflexes.

  3. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; ...

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiationmore » effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.« less

  4. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiation effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.

  5. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  6. Recent advances in bioprinting techniques: approaches, applications and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Li, Jipeng; Chen, Mingjiao; Fan, Xianqun; Zhou, Huifang

    2016-09-20

    Bioprinting technology shows potential in tissue engineering for the fabrication of scaffolds, cells, tissues and organs reproducibly and with high accuracy. Bioprinting technologies are mainly divided into three categories, inkjet-based bioprinting, pressure-assisted bioprinting and laser-assisted bioprinting, based on their underlying printing principles. These various printing technologies have their advantages and limitations. Bioprinting utilizes biomaterials, cells or cell factors as a "bioink" to fabricate prospective tissue structures. Biomaterial parameters such as biocompatibility, cell viability and the cellular microenvironment strongly influence the printed product. Various printing technologies have been investigated, and great progress has been made in printing various types of tissue, including vasculature, heart, bone, cartilage, skin and liver. This review introduces basic principles and key aspects of some frequently used printing technologies. We focus on recent advances in three-dimensional printing applications, current challenges and future directions.

  7. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  8. Advanced Techniques for Constrained Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jeffrey R.; Balaraman, Gouthaman S.; Niesen, Michiel J. M.; Larsen, Adrien B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    Internal coordinate molecular dynamics (ICMD) methods provide a more natural description of a protein by using bond, angle and torsional coordinates instead of a Cartesian coordinate representation. Freezing high frequency bonds and angles in the ICMD model gives rise to constrained ICMD (CICMD) models. There are several theoretical aspects that need to be developed in order to make the CICMD method robust and widely usable. In this paper we have designed a new framework for 1) initializing velocities for non-independent CICMD coordinates, 2) efficient computation of center of mass velocity during CICMD simulations, 3) using advanced integrators such as Runge-Kutta, Lobatto and adaptive CVODE for CICMD simulations, and 4) cancelling out the “flying ice cube effect” that sometimes arises in Nosé-Hoover dynamics. The Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) method is an implementation of a CICMD method that we have developed to study protein dynamics. GNEIMO allows for a hierarchy of coarse-grained simulation models based on the ability to rigidly constrain any group of atoms. In this paper, we perform tests on the Lobatto and Runge-Kutta integrators to determine optimal simulation parameters. We also implement an adaptive coarse graining tool using the GNEIMO Python interface. This tool enables the secondary structure-guided “freezing and thawing” of degrees of freedom in the molecule on the fly during MD simulations, and is shown to fold four proteins to their native topologies. With these advancements we envision the use of the GNEIMO method in protein structure prediction, structure refinement, and in studying domain motion. PMID:23345138

  9. Advanced techniques for constrained internal coordinate molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jeffrey R; Balaraman, Gouthaman S; Niesen, Michiel J M; Larsen, Adrien B; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2013-04-30

    Internal coordinate molecular dynamics (ICMD) methods provide a more natural description of a protein by using bond, angle, and torsional coordinates instead of a Cartesian coordinate representation. Freezing high-frequency bonds and angles in the ICMD model gives rise to constrained ICMD (CICMD) models. There are several theoretical aspects that need to be developed to make the CICMD method robust and widely usable. In this article, we have designed a new framework for (1) initializing velocities for nonindependent CICMD coordinates, (2) efficient computation of center of mass velocity during CICMD simulations, (3) using advanced integrators such as Runge-Kutta, Lobatto, and adaptive CVODE for CICMD simulations, and (4) cancelling out the "flying ice cube effect" that sometimes arises in Nosé-Hoover dynamics. The Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) method is an implementation of a CICMD method that we have developed to study protein dynamics. GNEIMO allows for a hierarchy of coarse-grained simulation models based on the ability to rigidly constrain any group of atoms. In this article, we perform tests on the Lobatto and Runge-Kutta integrators to determine optimal simulation parameters. We also implement an adaptive coarse-graining tool using the GNEIMO Python interface. This tool enables the secondary structure-guided "freezing and thawing" of degrees of freedom in the molecule on the fly during molecular dynamics simulations and is shown to fold four proteins to their native topologies. With these advancements, we envision the use of the GNEIMO method in protein structure prediction, structure refinement, and in studying domain motion.

  10. Field evaluation of gas-lift and progressive-cavity pumps as effective dewatering methods for coalbed methane wells. Final report, April 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, S.L.; Hollingsworth, F.C.; Beavers, W.M.

    1986-03-01

    Field evaluations of gas-lift and progressive-cavity pumps were conducted to determine their effectiveness as dewatering techniques for coalbed-methane wells in the Warrior Coal Field. AMPCO installed a gas-lift system in AMPCO Well No. 6. Problems included poor performance of all gas-lift valve designs and higher instantaneous water production rates than anticipated due to heading and unloading. The test provided the conclusion that gas lift is an effective start-up dewatering tool for initial removal of large amounts of water and solids but that in use as a long-term dewatering tool, needs additional evaluation relative to capital cost, valve design, and extended performance.

  11. Advances in parameter estimation techniques applied to flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maben, Egbert; Zimmerman, David C.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, various parameter estimation techniques are investigated in the context of structural system identification utilizing distributed parameter models and 'measured' time-domain data. Distributed parameter models are formulated using the PDEMOD software developed by Taylor. Enhancements made to PDEMOD for this work include the following: (1) a Wittrick-Williams based root solving algorithm; (2) a time simulation capability; and (3) various parameter estimation algorithms. The parameter estimations schemes will be contrasted using the NASA Mini-Mast as the focus structure.

  12. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers. PMID:23674920

  13. Method of separating and de-watering fine particles

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    2016-12-13

    A process for cleaning and dewatering hydrophobic particulate materials is presented. The process is performed in two steps: 1) agglomeration of the hydrophobic particles in a first hydrophobic liquid/aqueous mixture; followed by 2) dispersion of the agglomerates in a second hydrophobic liquid to release the water trapped within the agglomerates along with the entrained hydrophilic particles.

  14. Vane shear strength of dewatered sludge from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Koenig, A; Bari, Q H

    2001-01-01

    The vane shear strength and total solids content of dewatered sludge from Hong Kong were determined in order to evaluate their geotechnical suitability for disposal in landfills. The results obtained indicate that (i) the total solids and vane shear strength of dewatered sludge from different treatment plants varied considerably depending on the type of sludge and dewatering method; and, (ii) percent total solids alone is not sufficient to guarantee geotechnical stability in terms of vane shear strength. The critical state model for soils provided a good fit for the characteristic relationship between vane shear strength and total solids, which can be used to estimate vane shear strength from total solids only. No relationship between volatile solids and vane shear strength was found. The results of the laboratory vane shear test correlated well with those obtained by a pocket shearmeter indicating the usefulness of this method for rapid determination of vane shear strength on site. Some factors that influence vane shear strength were briefly evaluated. Implications of the results for sludge management with special emphasis on dewatering and landfilling were discussed.

  15. 15. VIEW NORTHNORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW NORTH-NORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED AREAS AT BACK OF TUNNEL IS A HOUSING FOR CONDUCTING PERFORMANCE TESTING ON AIRCRAFT MODELS IN A VORTEX. - NASA Langley Research Center, Seaplane Towing Channel, 108 Andrews Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  16. Advanced terahertz techniques for quality control and counterfeit detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Anwar, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports our invented methods for detection of counterfeit electronic. These versatile techniques are also handy in quality control applications. Terahertz pulsed laser systems are capable of giving the material characteristics and thus make it possible to distinguish between the materials used in authentic components and their counterfeit clones. Components with material defects can also be distinguished in section in this manner. In this work different refractive indices and absorption coefficients were observed for counterfeit components compared to their authentic counterparts. Existence of unexpected ingredient materials was detected in counterfeit components by Fourier Transform analysis of the transmitted terahertz pulse. Thicknesses of different layers are obtainable by analyzing the reflected terahertz pulse. Existence of unexpected layers is also detectable in this manner. Recycled, sanded and blacktopped counterfeit electronic components were detected as a result of these analyses. Counterfeit ICs with die dislocations were detected by depicting the terahertz raster scanning data in a coordinate plane which gives terahertz images. In the same manner, raster scanning of the reflected pulse gives terahertz images of the surfaces of the components which were used to investigate contaminant materials and sanded points on the surfaces. The results of the later technique, reveals the recycled counterfeit components.

  17. Advanced techniques in reliability model representation and solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    The current tendency of flight control system designs is towards increased integration of applications and increased distribution of computational elements. The reliability analysis of such systems is difficult because subsystem interactions are increasingly interdependent. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have been working for several years to extend the capability of Markov modeling techniques to address these problems. This effort has been focused in the areas of increased model abstraction and increased computational capability. The reliability model generator (RMG) is a software tool that uses as input a graphical object-oriented block diagram of the system. RMG uses a failure-effects algorithm to produce the reliability model from the graphical description. The ASSURE software tool is a parallel processing program that uses the semi-Markov unreliability range evaluator (SURE) solution technique and the abstract semi-Markov specification interface to the SURE tool (ASSIST) modeling language. A failure modes-effects simulation is used by ASSURE. These tools were used to analyze a significant portion of a complex flight control system. The successful combination of the power of graphical representation, automated model generation, and parallel computation leads to the conclusion that distributed fault-tolerant system architectures can now be analyzed.

  18. Comparison of three advanced chromatographic techniques for cannabis identification.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, D; Albessard, F; Bigot, M C; Moulin, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of chromatography technology, with the increasing availability of easier-to-use mass spectrometers combined with gas chromatography (GC), the use of diode-array or programmable variable-wavelength ultraviolet absorption detectors in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the availability of scanners capable of reading thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates in the ultraviolet and visible regions, has made for easier, quicker and more positive identification of cannabis samples that standard analytical laboratories are occasionally required to undertake in the effort to combat drug addiction. At laboratories that do not possess the technique of GC combined with mass spectrometry, which provides an irrefutable identification, the following procedure involving HPLC or TLC techniques may be used: identification of the chromatographic peaks corresponding to each of the three main cannabis constituents-cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabinol (CBN)-by comparison with published data in conjunction with a specific absorption spectrum for each of those constituents obtained between 200 and 300 nm. The collection of the fractions corresponding to the three major cannabinoids at the HPLC system outlet and the cross-checking of their identity in the GC process with flame ionization detection can further corroborate the identification and minimize possible errors due to interference.

  19. XII Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Thomas; Carminati, Federico; Werlen, Monique

    November 2008 will be a few months after the official start of LHC when the highest quantum energy ever produced by mankind will be observed by the most complex piece of scientific equipment ever built. LHC will open a new era in physics research and push further the frontier of Knowledge This achievement has been made possible by new technological developments in many fields, but computing is certainly the technology that has made possible this whole enterprise. Accelerator and detector design, construction management, data acquisition, detectors monitoring, data analysis, event simulation and theoretical interpretation are all computing based HEP activities but also occurring many other research fields. Computing is everywhere and forms the common link between all involved scientists and engineers. The ACAT workshop series, created back in 1990 as AIHENP (Artificial Intelligence in High Energy and Nuclear Research) has been covering the tremendous evolution of computing in its most advanced topics, trying to setup bridges between computer science, experimental and theoretical physics. Conference web-site: http://acat2008.cern.ch/ Programme and presentations: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=34666

  20. Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Alex I. Smirnov; Mark J. Nilges; R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

    1998-03-31

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. We have achieved substantial progress on upgrading the high field (HF) EMR (W-band, 95 GHz) spectrometers that are especially advantageous for such studies. Particularly, we have built a new second W-band instrument (Mark II) in addition to our Mark I. Briefly, Mark II features: (i) an Oxford custom-built 7 T superconducting magnet which is scannable from 0 to 7 T at up to 0.5 T/min; (ii) water-cooled coaxial solenoid with up to ±550 G scan under digital (15 bits resolution) computer control; (iii) custom-engineered precision feed-back circuit, which is used to drive this solenoid, is based on an Ultrastab 860R sensor that has linearity better than 5 ppm and resolution of 0.05 ppm; (iv) an Oxford CF 1200 cryostat for variable temperature studies from 1.8 to 340 K. During this grant period we have completed several key upgrades of both Mark I and II, particularly microwave bridge, W-band probehead, and computer interfaces. We utilize these improved instruments for HF EMR studies of spin-spin interaction and existence of different paramagnetic species in carbonaceous solids.

  1. Bioactive glass thin films synthesized by advanced pulsed laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailescu, N.; Stan, George E.; Ristoscu, C.; Sopronyi, M.; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive materials play an increasingly important role in the biomaterials industry, and are extensively used in a range of applications, including biodegradable metallic implants. We report on Bioactive Glasses (BG) films deposition by pulsed laser techniques onto biodegradable substrates. The BG coatings were obtained using a KrF* excimer laser source (λ= 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns).Their thickness has been determined by Profilometry measurements, whilst their morphology has been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The obtained coatings fairly preserved the targets composition and structure, as revealed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction, and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analyses.

  2. Advanced Techniques in Musculoskeletal Oncology: Perfusion, Diffusion, and Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Pedro A Gondim; Beaumont, Marine; Gabriela, Hossu; Bailiang, Chen; Verhaeghe, Jean-luc; Sirveaux, François; Blum, Alain

    2015-12-01

    The imaging characterization of musculoskeletal tumors can be challenging, and a significant number of lesions remain indeterminate when conventional imaging protocols are used. In recent years, clinical availability of functional imaging methods has increased. Functional imaging has the potential to improve tumor detection, characterization, and follow-up. The most frequently used functional methods are perfusion imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and MR proton spectroscopy (MRS). Each of these techniques has specific protocol requirements and diagnostic pitfalls that need to be acknowledged to avoid misdiagnoses. Additionally, the application of functional methods in the MSK system has various technical issues that need to be addressed to ensure data quality and comparability. In this article, the application of contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging, DWI, and MRS for the evaluation of bone and soft tissue tumors is discussed, with emphasis on acquisition protocols, technical difficulties, and current clinical indications.

  3. Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.; Arefian, V. V.; Warren, H. A.; Vuigner, A. A.; Pohlman, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

  4. Advances in techniques for assessment of microalgal lipids.

    PubMed

    Challagulla, Vineela; Nayar, Sasi; Walsh, Kerry; Fabbro, Larelle

    2016-07-15

    Microalgae are a varied group of organisms with considerable commercial potential as sources of various biochemicals, storage molecules and metabolites such as lipids, sugars, amino acids, pigments and toxins. Algal lipids can be processed to bio-oils and biodiesel. The conventional method to estimate algal lipids is based on extraction using solvents and quantification by gravimetry or chromatography. Such methods are time consuming, use hazardous chemicals and are labor intensive. For rapid screening of prospective algae or for management decisions (e.g. decision on timing of harvest), a rapid, high throughput, reliable, accurate, cost effective and preferably nondestructive analytical technique is desirable. This manuscript reviews the application of fluorescent lipid soluble dyes (Nile Red and BODIPY 505/515), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the assessment of lipids in microalgae.

  5. Advanced Infusion Techniques with 3-D Printed Tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, David; Elliott, Amy; Post, Brian K.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2016-05-10

    The manufacturing of tooling for large, contoured surfaces for fiber-layup applications requires significant effort to understand the geometry and then to subtractively manufacture the tool. Traditional methods for the auto industry use clay that is hand sculpted. In the marine pleasure craft industry, the exterior of the model is formed from a foam lay-up that is either hand cut or machined to create smooth lines. Engineers and researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF) collaborated with Magnum Venus Products (MVP) in the development of a process for reproducing legacy whitewater adventure craft via digital scanning and large scale 3-D printed layup molds. The process entailed 3D scanning a legacy canoe form, converting that form to a CAD model, additively manufacturing (3-D Print) the mold tool, and subtractively finishing the mold s transfer surfaces. Future work will include applying a gelcoat to the mold transfer surface and infusing using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, or VARTM principles, to create a watertight vessel. The outlined steps were performed on a specific canoe geometry found by MVP s principal participant. The intent of utilizing this geometry is to develop an energy efficient and marketable process for replicating complex shapes, specifically focusing on this particular watercraft, and provide a finished product for demonstration to the composites industry. The culminating part produced through this agreement has been slated for public presentation and potential demonstration at the 2016 CAMX (Composites and Advanced Materials eXpo) exposition in Anaheim, CA. Phase I of this collaborative research and development agreement (MDF-15-68) was conducted under CRADA NFE-15-05575 and was initiated on May 7, 2015, with an introduction to the MVP product line, and concluded in March of 2016 with the printing of and processing of a canoe mold. The project partner Magnum Venous Products (MVP) is

  6. Recent advances in techniques for tsetse-fly control*

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, K. J. R.

    1967-01-01

    With the advent of modern persistent insecticides, it has become possible to utilize some of the knowledge that has accumulated on the ecology and bionomics of Glossina and to devise more effective techniques for the control and eventual extermination of these species. The present article, based on experience of the tsetse fly problem in Northern Nigeria, points out that the disadvantages of control techniques—heavy expenditure of money and manpower and undue damage to the biosystem—can now largely be overcome by basing the application of insecticides on knowledge of the habits of the particular species of Glossina in a particular environment. Two factors are essential to the success of a control project: the proper selection of sites for spraying (the concept of restricted application) and the degree of persistence of the insecticide used. Reinfestation from within or outside the project area must also be taken into account. These and other aspects are discussed in relation to experience gained from a successful extermination project carried out in the Sudan vegetation zone and from present control activities in the Northern Guinea vegetation zone. PMID:5301739

  7. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Demonstrated for Fabricating Developmental Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, Chip

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Engineering Development Division has been working in support of innovative gas turbine engine systems under development by Glenn's Combustion Branch. These one-of-a-kind components require operation under extreme conditions. High-temperature ceramics were chosen for fabrication was because of the hostile operating environment. During the designing process, it became apparent that traditional machining techniques would not be adequate to produce the small, intricate features for the conceptual design, which was to be produced by stacking over a dozen thin layers with many small features that would then be aligned and bonded together into a one-piece unit. Instead of using traditional machining, we produced computer models in Pro/ENGINEER (Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC), Needham, MA) to the specifications of the research engineer. The computer models were exported in stereolithography standard (STL) format and used to produce full-size rapid prototype polymer models. These semi-opaque plastic models were used for visualization and design verification. The computer models also were exported in International Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) format and sent to Glenn's Thermal/Fluids Design & Analysis Branch and Applied Structural Mechanics Branch for profiling heat transfer and mechanical strength analysis.

  9. Simulation of an advanced techniques of ion propulsion Rocket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of Deuterium,Argon gas and Hexagonal shape Magneto hydrodynamic(MHD) techniques because of the stimulation indirectly generated the power from ionization chamber,design of thrust range is 1.2 N with 40 KW of electric power and high efficiency.The proposed work is the study of MHD power generation through ionization level of Deuterium gas and combination of two gaseous ions(Deuterium gas ions + Argon gas ions) at acceleration stage.IPR consists of three parts 1.Hexagonal shape MHD based power generator through ionization chamber 2.ion accelerator 3.Exhaust of Nozzle.Initially the required energy around 1312 KJ/mol is carrying out the purpose of deuterium gas which is changed to ionization level.The ionized Deuterium gas comes out from RF ionization chamber to nozzle through MHD generator with enhanced velocity then after voltage is generated across the two pairs of electrode in MHD.it will produce thrust value with the help of mixing of Deuterium ion and Argon ion at acceleration position.The simulation of the IPR system has been carried out by MATLAB.By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results,if reaches that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with 40KW power for simulating the IPR system.

  10. Advances in low energy neutral atom imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Moore, K.R. ); Gruntman, M. . Space Sciences Center)

    1993-01-01

    Recently proposed low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging techniques use a collisional process to convert the low energy neutrals into ions before detection. At low energies, collisional processes limit the angular resolution and conversion efficiencies of these devices. However, if the intense ultraviolet light background can be suppressed, direct LENA detection is possible. We present results from a series of experiments designed to develop a novel filtering structure based on free-standing transmission gratings. If the grating period is sufficiently small, free standing transmission gratings can be employed to substantially polarize ultraviolet (UV) light in the wavelength range 300 [Angstrom] to 1500 [Angstrom]. If a second grating is placed behind the first grating with its axis of polarization oriented at a right angle to the first's, a substantial attenuation of UV radiation is achievable. ne neutrals will pass through the remaining open area of two gratings and be detected without UV background complications. We have obtained nominal 2000 [Angstrom] period (1000 [Angstrom] bars with 1000 [Angstrom] slits) free standing, gold transmission gratings and measured their UV and atomic transmission characteristics. The geometric factor of a LENA imager based on this technology is comparable to that of other proposed LENA imagers. In addition, this of imager does not distort the neutral trajectories, allowing for high angular resolution.

  11. Advanced signal processing technique for damage detection in steel tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Umar; Yadav, Susheel Kumar; Dao, Cac Minh; Dao, Kiet; Kundu, Tribikram

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, ultrasonic guided waves gained attention for reliable testing and characterization of metals and composites. Guided wave modes are excited and detected by PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) transducers either in transmission or reflection mode. In this study guided waves are excited and detected in the transmission mode and the phase change of the propagating wave modes are recorded. In most of the other studies reported in the literature, the change in the received signal strength (amplitude) is investigated with varying degrees of damage while in this study the change in phase is correlated with the extent of damage. Feature extraction techniques are used for extracting phase and time-frequency information. The main advantage of this approach is that the bonding condition between the transducer and the specimen does not affect the phase while it can affect the strength of recorded signal. Therefore, if the specimen is not damaged but the transducer-specimen bonding is deteriorated then the received signal strength is altered but the phase remains same and thus false positive predictions for damage can be avoided.

  12. Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. L.; Stebbins, J. P.; Smith, A. W.; Pullen, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method for the prediction of propellant-material compatibility for periods of time up to ten years is presented. Advanced sensitive measurement techniques used in the prediction method are described. These include: neutron activation analysis, radioactive tracer technique, and atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite tube furnace sampler. The results of laboratory tests performed to verify the prediction method are presented.

  13. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  14. Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2000-08-28

    This project targets the development of (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling non-conventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and well index (for use in simulation models), including the effects of wellbore flow; and (3) accurate approaches to account for heterogeneity in the near-well region.

  15. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  16. Impact of dewatering technologies on specific methanogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Batstone, Damien J; Lu, Yang; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    Dewatering methods for recuperative thickening and final dewatering can potentially impact methanogenic activity and microbial community. This influences both the feasibility of recuperative thickening to increase solids residence time within a digester, and the utilisation of dewatered digestate as inoculum for new digesters. Thickening technology can reduce methanogenic activity through either air contact (rotary drum, DAF, or belt filter press), or by lysing cells through shear (centrifuge). To assess this, two plants with recuperative thickening (rotary drum) in their anaerobic digester, and five without recuperative thickening, had specific methanogenic activity tested in all related streams, including dewatering feed, thickened return, final cake, and centrate. All plants had high speed centrifuges for final dewatering. The digester microbial community was also assessed through 16s pyrotag sequencing and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA). The specific methanogenic activity of all samples was in the expected range of 0.2-0.4 gCOD gVS(-1)d(-1). Plants with recuperative thickening did not have lower digester activity. Centrifuge based dewatering had a significant and variable impact on methanogenic activity in all samples, ranging between 20% and 90% decrease but averaging 54%. Rotary drum based recuperative thickening had a far smaller impact on activity, with a 0% per-pass drop in activity in one plant, and a 20% drop in another. However, the presence of recuperative thickening was a major predictor of overall microbial community (PC1, p = 0.0024). Microbial community PC3 (mainly driven by a shift in methanogens) was a strong predictor for sensitivity in activity to shear (p = 0.0005, p = 0.00001 without outlier). The one outlier was related to a plant producing the wettest cake (17% solids). This indicates that high solids is a potential driver of sensitivity to shear, but that a resilient microbial community can also bestow resilience

  17. A Novel Microcharacterization Technique in the Measurement of Strain and Orientation Gradient in Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmestai, H.; Harris, K.; Lourenco, L.

    1997-01-01

    Representation of morphology and evolution of the microstructure during processing and their relation to properties requires proper experimental techniques. Residual strains, lattice distortion, and texture (micro-texture) at the interface and the matrix of a layered structure or a functionally gradient material and their variation are among parameters important in materials characterization but hard to measure with present experimental techniques. Current techniques available to measure changes in interred material parameters (residual stress, micro-texture, microplasticity) produce results which are either qualitative or unreliable. This problem becomes even more complicated in the case of a temperature variation. These parameters affect many of the mechanical properties of advanced materials including stress-strain relation, ductility, creep, and fatigue. A review of some novel experimental techniques using recent advances in electron microscopy is presented here to measure internal stress, (micro)texture, interracial strength and (sub)grain formation and realignment. Two of these techniques are combined in the chamber of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope to measure strain and orientation gradients in advanced materials. These techniques which include Backscattered Kikuchi Diffractometry (BKD) and Microscopic Strain Field Analysis are used to characterize metallic and intermetallic matrix composites and superplastic materials. These techniques are compared with the more conventional x-ray diffraction and indentation techniques.

  18. Improvement of dewatering capacity of a petrochemical sludge.

    PubMed

    Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Kucukselek, Emrah

    2007-06-01

    Oily sludge produced from a petrochemical industry was used to investigate the improvement of its dewatering properties. The oil content (OC) and the dry solid content (DS) of the raw sludge were respectively, 15% and 3.6% by weight. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of the raw petrochemical industrial sludge were found to be 2000s and approximately 5.5x10(16)m/kg, respectively. Conventional chemical conditioners such as alum, lime, and polyelectrolyte, and less conventional ones like fly ash, gypsum, and bentonite were used in the sludge conditioning studies. Conventional chemical conditioners gave better results for the enhancement of the dewatering capacity of the sludge. The best result was obtained by using 0.9% cationic polyelectrolyte by weight, and a decrease of 99%-95% were achieved for CST and SRF, respectively, when this dosage of cationic polyelectrolyte was used.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel starch-based flocculant with high flocculation and dewatering properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-05-15

    Flocculation process is one of the most widely used techniques for water and wastewater treatment, and also for sludge dewatering. Synthesis of natural biopolymers or modification of natural biopolymers as environmentally friendly flocculants is highly desired in the field of environmental protection. In this work, a water soluble copolymer flocculant, STC-g-PDMC (starch-graft-poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride) was synthesized through grafting a monomer, (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC), onto starch initiated by potassium persulphate. Acetone and ethanol were used for copolymer precipitation and purification in the synthesis, which diminished the toxicity during the synthesis process. The graft copolymer was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The prepared STC-g-PDMC exhibited a highly effective flocculation capability for kaolin suspensions compared with starch and polyacrylamide as control. The charge neutralization effect played an important role in the flocculation process at low flocculant dosages. When it was used as dewatering agent for anaerobic sludge, the conditioned sludge could be easily filtered after the dosage reached 0.696% of the dry weight of sludge. Such a graft copolymer is a promising green agent for wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering applications.

  20. Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 2: Advanced techniques. The linear channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    A theory is presented for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the linear satellite channel. The underlying principle used is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum-likelihood decision rule. The application of the performance prediction tools, e.g., channel cutoff rate and bit error probability transfer function bounds to these modulation/demodulation techniques.

  1. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO sub x emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments designed to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere was discussed. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  2. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1996-08-15

    The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  3. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg∙L-1 flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 1010 m∙kg-1. Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions. PMID:26121132

  4. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg∙L(-1) flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 10(10) m∙kg(-1). Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions.

  5. Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 3: Advanced techniques. The nonlinear channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    A theory for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the nonlinear satellite channel is presented. The underlying principle used throughout is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum likelihood decision rule and aproximations to it. The bit error probability transfer function bounds developed in great detail in Part 4 is applied to these modulation/demodulation techniques. The effects of the various degrees of receiver mismatch are considered both theoretically and by numerous illustrative examples.

  6. Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

  7. Advances in neutron radiographic techniques and applications: a method for nondestructive testing.

    PubMed

    Berger, Harold

    2004-10-01

    A brief history of neutron radiography is presented to set the stage for a discussion of significant neutron radiographic developments and an assessment of future directions for neutron radiography. Specific advances are seen in the use of modern, high dynamic range imaging methods (image plates and flat panels) and for high contrast techniques such as phase contrast, and phase-sensitive imaging. Competition for neutron radiographic inspection may develop as these techniques offer application prospects for X-ray methods.

  8. Advanced techniques for high resolution spectroscopic observations of cosmic gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Pelling, M. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Pehl, R. H.; Hurley, K. C.; Vedrenne, G.; Sniel, M.; Durouchoux, P.

    1985-01-01

    An advanced gamma-ray spectrometer that is currently in development is described. It will obtain a sensitivity of 0.0001 ph/sq cm./sec in a 6 hour balloon observation and uses innovative techniques for background reduction and source imaging.

  9. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, John; Zhang, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We…

  10. Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

  11. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  12. Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The search for advanced measurement techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants was conducted in several parts. A comprehensive survey of the existing measurement and testing technology for determining material-propellant interactions was performed. Selections were made from those existing techniques which were determined could meet or be made to meet the requirements. Areas of refinement or changes were recommended for improvement of others. Investigations were also performed to determine the feasibility and advantages of developing and using new techniques to achieve significant improvements over existing ones. The most interesting demonstration was that of the new technique, the volatile metal chelate analysis. Rivaling the neutron activation analysis in terms of sensitivity and specificity, the volatile metal chelate technique was fully demonstrated.

  13. The effect of coal bed dewatering and partial oxidation on biogenic methane potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Harris, Steve H.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Orem, William H.; Clark, Arthur C.; Corum, Margo D.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal formation dewatering at a site in the Powder River Basin was associated with enhanced potential for secondary biogenic methane determined by using a bioassay. We hypothesized that dewatering can stimulate microbial activity and increase the bioavailability of coal. We analyzed one dewatered and two water-saturated coals to examine possible ways in which dewatering influences coal bed natural gas biogenesis by looking at differences with respect to the native coal microbial community, coal-methane organic intermediates, and residual coal oxidation potential. Microbial biomass did not increase in response to dewatering. Small Subunit rRNA sequences retrieved from all coals sampled represented members from genera known to be aerobic, anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic. A Bray Curtis similarity analysis indicated that the microbial communities in water-saturated coals were more similar to each other than to the dewatered coal, suggesting an effect of dewatering. There was a higher incidence of long chain and volatile fatty acid intermediates in incubations of the dewatered coal compared to the water-saturated coals, and this could either be due to differences in microbial enzymatic activities or to chemical oxidation of the coal associated with O2 exposure. Dilute H2O2 treatment of two fractions of structural coal (kerogen and bitumen + kerogen) was used as a proxy for chemical oxidation by O2. The dewatered coal had a low residual oxidation potential compared to the water-saturated coals. Oxidation with 5% H2O2 did increase the bioavailability of structural coal, and the increase in residual oxidation potential in the water saturated coals was approximately equivalent to the higher methanogenic potential measured in the dewatered coal. Evidence from this study supports the idea that coal bed dewatering could stimulate biogenic methanogenesis through partial oxidation of the structural organics in coal once anaerobic conditions are restored.

  14. Electro-kinetic dewatering of oily sludges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2005-10-17

    An oily sludge from a rendering facility was treated using electro-kinetic (EK) techniques employing two different experimental designs. The bench scale used vertical electrodes under different operational conditions, i.e. varied electrode spacing at 4, 6 and 8 cm with electric potential of 10, 20 and 30 V, respectively. The highest water removal efficiency (56.3%) at bench scale was achieved at a 4 cm spacing and 30 V. Comparison of the water removal efficiency (51.9%) achieved at the 20 V at 4 cm spacing showed that power consumption at 30 V was 1.5 times larger than that at 20 V, suggesting a further increase of electric potential is unnecessary. The solids content increased from an initial 5 to 11.5 and 14.1% for 20 and 30 V, respectively. The removal of oil and grease (O&G) was not significant at this experimental design. Another larger scale experiment using a pair of horizontal electrodes in a cylinder with 15 cm i.d. was conducted at 60 V at an initial spacing of 22 cm. More than 40.0% of water was removed and a very efficient oil separation from the sludge was achieved indicating the viability of electro-kinetic recovery of oil from industrial sludge.

  15. Recent advances in 3D computed tomography techniques for simulation and navigation in hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masafumi

    2014-04-01

    A few years ago it could take several hours to complete a 3D image using a 3D workstation. Thanks to advances in computer science, obtaining results of interest now requires only a few minutes. Many recent 3D workstations or multimedia computers are equipped with onboard 3D virtual patient modeling software, which enables patient-specific preoperative assessment and virtual planning, navigation, and tool positioning. Although medical 3D imaging can now be conducted using various modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and ultrasonography (US) among others, the highest quality images are obtained using CT data, and CT images are now the most commonly used source of data for 3D simulation and navigation image. If the 2D source image is bad, no amount of 3D image manipulation in software will provide a quality 3D image. In this exhibition, the recent advances in CT imaging technique and 3D visualization of the hepatobiliary and pancreatic abnormalities are featured, including scan and image reconstruction technique, contrast-enhanced techniques, new application of advanced CT scan techniques, and new virtual reality simulation and navigation imaging.

  16. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400–500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300–800 kg lime/t TS and 25–50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5–3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22–81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59–97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59–97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9–26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  17. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    PubMed

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising.

  18. Modeling of hyperbaric filtration and dewatering of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Sushil

    Generalized models have been developed for continuous hyperbaric filtration to evaluate cake formation, filter capacity/filter area, cake dewatering, air consumption and residual cake saturation/residual cake moisture. Emphasis has been placed on cake structure as being a major controlling factor in fine coal dewatering by filtration. The effects of cake structure, as defined by the distributions of pore size and shape, have been reviewed. A simple model relating cake structure to feed particle characteristics is presented and applied to a practical case of fine coal dewatering. A binary packing model has been proposed to explain the existence of compressibility in non-compressible cakes. This model proposes an inner open-structure in the main cake, with the inner layer being compressible. The variation in the inner cake porosity with applied pressure has been used to explain the change in specific cake resistance and filter capacity (solids cake throughput). Process simulations have been conducted for a single stage and a two stage process, wherein the original feed has been split into a coarse fraction and a fine fraction (and then each fraction processed separately). The process simulations for a two stage process show a lot of promise as this leads to a lowering of the required filter area and the residual cake moisture. The required filter area increases, while the residual cake moisture decreases as the cut size for the two stage process is increased. However, the advantages of a two stage process are adversely affected by an inefficient separation process, which leads to an increased filter area and a higher residual cake moisture and the two stage process approaches a single stage process.

  19. Hydrocycloning thickening: dewatering and densification of fine particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews integrated ore-dressing machines with particular reference to hydrocyclones and describes a new concept, the cyclo-thick apparatus, which combines features of the hydrocyclone and the thickener in a single machine. Field tests conducted with the cyclo-thick demonstrated that the unit is remarkably simple and clean in design, and can effectively separate, dewater, and densify fine particulates. This unit should be considered as a viable alternative when evaluating potential solutions to a given separation, thickening, or filtration problem. Various practical applications are proposed.

  20. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.; Ho, K.

    1996-12-31

    The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose transportation, storage and handling problems at cleaning and utility facilities. The objective of this research is to combine dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation that will solve the problems mentioned above. To build on the promising results obtained from the previous studies, a pilot scale commercial briquetting machine was used to evaluate this technique. The primary objective of the research in this reporting period is to determine the effectiveness of a single stage dewatering and briquetting technique using a commercial briquetting device. Two types of samples were prepared and the results of the -28 x 100 mesh samples are presented in this report. Modifications were made to the machine in an attempt to solve the back drainage problem. A total of six experiments were conducted and the results indicate that water resistance of coal briquettes increased as curing time increased. However, due to a deficiency of fine particles to bridge the gaps between the coarse particles, the wear resistance of the products declined. Also, at high roll speeds and compaction pressures, the coal briquettes produced tended to have higher moisture content and lower strength. On the other hand, at high feed rates, because of the screw extrusion effect, coal briquettes were produced with lower moisture content and higher strengths.

  2. Recent Advances in Techniques for Starch Esters and the Applications: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jing; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S.; Brennan, Margaret; Han, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Esterification is one of the most important methods to alter the structure of starch granules and improve its applications. Conventionally, starch esters are prepared by conventional or dual modification techniques, which have the disadvantages of being expensive, have regent overdoses, and are time-consuming. In addition, the degree of substitution (DS) is often considered as the primary factor in view of its contribution to estimate substituted groups of starch esters. In order to improve the detection accuracy and production efficiency, different detection techniques, including titration, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis/infrared spectroscopy (TGA/IR) and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC), have been developed for DS. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on the recent advances in DS analysis and starch esterification techniques. Additionally, the advantages, limitations, some perspectives on future trends of these techniques and the applications of their derivatives in the food industry are also presented. PMID:28231145

  3. Advances in the surface modification techniques of bone-related implants for last 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Chen, Cen; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Lee, In-Seop

    2014-01-01

    At the time of implanting bone-related implants into human body, a variety of biological responses to the material surface occur with respect to surface chemistry and physical state. The commonly used biomaterials (e.g. titanium and its alloy, Co–Cr alloy, stainless steel, polyetheretherketone, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and various calcium phosphates) have many drawbacks such as lack of biocompatibility and improper mechanical properties. As surface modification is very promising technology to overcome such problems, a variety of surface modification techniques have been being investigated. This review paper covers recent advances in surface modification techniques of bone-related materials including physicochemical coating, radiation grafting, plasma surface engineering, ion beam processing and surface patterning techniques. The contents are organized with different types of techniques to applicable materials, and typical examples are also described. PMID:26816626

  4. Recent Advances in Techniques for Starch Esters and the Applications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S; Brennan, Margaret; Han, Zhong

    2016-07-09

    Esterification is one of the most important methods to alter the structure of starch granules and improve its applications. Conventionally, starch esters are prepared by conventional or dual modification techniques, which have the disadvantages of being expensive, have regent overdoses, and are time-consuming. In addition, the degree of substitution (DS) is often considered as the primary factor in view of its contribution to estimate substituted groups of starch esters. In order to improve the detection accuracy and production efficiency, different detection techniques, including titration, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis/infrared spectroscopy (TGA/IR) and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC), have been developed for DS. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on the recent advances in DS analysis and starch esterification techniques. Additionally, the advantages, limitations, some perspectives on future trends of these techniques and the applications of their derivatives in the food industry are also presented.

  5. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  6. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... the Aleutian Trade § 28.255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a bilge pump and bilge piping capable of draining any watertight compartment, other...

  7. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... the Aleutian Trade § 28.255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a bilge pump and bilge piping capable of draining any watertight compartment, other...

  8. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... the Aleutian Trade § 28.255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a bilge pump and bilge piping capable of draining any watertight compartment, other...

  9. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... same rate as water is introduced. Pumps used as part of the processing of fish do not count for meeting this requirement. The dewatering system must be interlocked with the pump(s) supplying water to the... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems....

  10. Modeling and Control of Algae Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF ALGAE HARVESTING, DEWATERING AND DRYING (HDD) SYSTEMS by FENGMING LI Submitted in partial fulfillment of the...Modeling and Control of Algae Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ALTERNATIVE ENERGY .................................................................................................................. 3 1.3 ALGAE OIL

  11. Redd dewatering effects on hatching and larval survival of the robust redhorse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, J. M.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Heise, R. J.; Sessions, F. W.

    2013-01-01

    Riverine habitats have been altered and fragmented from hydroelectric dams and change spatially and temporally with hydropower flow releases. Hydropeaking flow regimes for electrical power production inundate areas that create temporary suitable habitat for fish that may be rapidly drained. Robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum, an imperiled, rare fish species, uses such temporary habitats to spawn, but when power generation ceases, these areas are dewatered until the next pulse of water is released. We experimentally simulated the effects of dewatering periods on the survival of robust redhorse eggs and larvae in the laboratory. Robust redhorse eggs were placed in gravel in eyeing-hatching jars (three jars per treatment) and subjected to one of four dewatering periods (6, 12, 24 and 48 h), followed by 12 h of inundation for each treatment, and a control treatment was never dewatered. Egg desiccation was observed in some eggs in the 24- and 48-h treatments after one dewatering period. For all treatments except the control, the subsequent dewatering period after eggs hatched was lethal. Larval emergence for the control treatment was observed on day 5 post-hatching and continued until the end of the experiment (day 21). Larval survival was significantly different between the control and all dewatering treatments for individuals in the gravel. These findings support the need for hydropower facilities to set minimum flows to maintain inundation of spawning areas for robust redhorse and other species to reduce dewatering mortality.

  12. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... the Aleutian Trade § 28.255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a bilge pump and bilge piping capable of draining any watertight compartment, other...

  13. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO/x/ emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments have been and continue to be sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NO/x/) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NO/x/ emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  14. Imaging of skull base pathologies: Role of advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ankit; Kesavadas, C; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, TR

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays a vital role in evaluation of skull base pathologies as this region is not directly accessible for clinical evaluation. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have played complementary roles in the diagnosis of the various neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the skull base. However, CT and conventional MRI may at times be insufficient to correctly pinpoint the accurate diagnosis. Advanced MRI techniques, though difficult to apply in the skull base region, in conjunction with CT and conventional MRI can however help in improving the diagnostic accuracy. This article aims to highlight the importance of advanced MRI techniques like diffusion-weighted imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, perfusion-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy in differentiation of various lesions involving the skull base. PMID:26427895

  15. Study of de-watering from the gelatinous precipitate formed during co-precipitation of Nd-YAG powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Sanjib; Sharma, Rachna; Pathak, S. K.; Gupta, S. M.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-02-01

    Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) ceramics have been synthesised using coprecipitation technique and high temperature vacuum sintering. Gelatinous like precipitates were obtained when precursors of Nd, Al and Yb-nitrate solutions are co-precipitated using ammonia co-precipitant. De-watering from the gelatinous like precipitates is a big challenge and it possesses difficulty in filtration. Evaporation of water by heating resulted in strong agglomerated powder. Different agents were used to ease the filtration process, which is correlated with the phase in the calcined powder.

  16. Study of de-watering from the gelatinous precipitate formed during co-precipitation of Nd-YAG powder

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Sanjib; Sharma, Rachna; Pathak, S. K.; Gupta, S. M.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-02-05

    Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) ceramics have been synthesised using coprecipitation technique and high temperature vacuum sintering. Gelatinous like precipitates were obtained when precursors of Nd, Al and Yb-nitrate solutions are co-precipitated using ammonia co-precipitant. De-watering from the gelatinous like precipitates is a big challenge and it possesses difficulty in filtration. Evaporation of water by heating resulted in strong agglomerated powder. Different agents were used to ease the filtration process, which is correlated with the phase in the calcined powder.

  17. New test techniques and analytical procedures for understanding the behavior of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Bober, L. J.; Neumann, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical procedures and experimental techniques were developed to improve the capability to design advanced high speed propellers. Some results from the propeller lifting line and lifting surface aerodynamic analysis codes are compared with propeller force data, probe data and laser velocimeter data. In general, the code comparisons with data indicate good qualitative agreement. A rotating propeller force balance demonstrated good accuracy and reduced test time by 50 percent. Results from three propeller flow visualization techniques are shown which illustrate some of the physical phenomena occurring on these propellers.

  18. Advanced digital modulation: Communication techniques and monolithic GaAs technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Oliver, J. D., Jr.; Kot, R. C.; Richards, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Communications theory and practice are merged with state-of-the-art technology in IC fabrication, especially monolithic GaAs technology, to examine the general feasibility of a number of advanced technology digital transmission systems. Satellite-channel models with (1) superior throughput, perhaps 2 Gbps; (2) attractive weight and cost; and (3) high RF power and spectrum efficiency are discussed. Transmission techniques possessing reasonably simple architectures capable of monolithic fabrication at high speeds were surveyed. This included a review of amplitude/phase shift keying (APSK) techniques and the continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) methods, of which MSK represents the simplest case.

  19. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  20. Combined preputial advancement and phallopexy as a revision technique for treating paraphimosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wasik, S M; Wallace, A M

    2014-11-01

    A 7-year-old neutered male Jack Russell terrier-cross was presented for signs of recurrent paraphimosis, despite previous surgical enlargement of the preputial ostium. Revision surgery was performed using a combination of preputial advancement and phallopexy, which resulted in complete and permanent coverage of the glans penis by the prepuce, and at 1 year postoperatively, no recurrence of paraphimosis had been observed. The combined techniques allow preservation of the normal penile anatomy, are relatively simple to perform and provide a cosmetic result. We recommend this combination for the treatment of paraphimosis in the dog, particularly when other techniques have failed.

  1. [Principles and advanced techniques for better internetpresentations in obstetrics and gynecology].

    PubMed

    Seufert, R; Molitor, N; Pollow, K; Woernle, F; Hawighorst-Knapstein, S

    2001-08-01

    Internet presentations are common tools for better medical communication and better scientific work. Meanwhile a great number of gynecological and obstetrical institutions present data via the world wide web within a wide range of quality and performance. Specific HTML editors offer quick and easy presentations, but only advanced internet techniques enable interesting multimedia presentations. N-tier applications are the future standard and we must integrate them in general informatical systems. New Concepts, actual tools and general problems will be discussed and new principles similar to actual E commerce techniques are able to solve our special medical demands.

  2. Noncompaction cardiomyopathy: The role of advanced multimodality imaging techniques in diagnosis and assessment.

    PubMed

    Chebrolu, Lakshmi H; Mehta, Anjlee M; Nanda, Navin C

    2017-02-01

    Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is a unique cardiomyopathy with a diverse array of genotypic and phenotypic manifestations. Its hallmark morphology consists of a bilayered myocardium with a compact epicardial layer and prominent trabeculations that comprise the noncompacted endocardial layer. The controversial diagnostic criteria for NCCM have been frequently discussed in the literature. This review touches on those diagnostic criteria, delves further into the evolving use of advanced imaging techniques within the major imaging modalities (echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging), and proposes an alternative algorithm incorporating these techniques for aiding with the diagnosis of NCCM.

  3. The investigation of advanced remote sensing techniques for the measurement of aerosol characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Becher, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques and inversion methods for the measurement of characteristics of aerosol and gaseous species in the atmosphere were investigated. Of particular interest were the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, such as their size distribution, number concentration, and complex refractive index, and the vertical distribution of these properties on a local as well as global scale. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of tropospheric aerosols were developed as well as satellite monitoring of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Computer programs were developed for solving multiple scattering and radiative transfer problems, as well as inversion/retrieval problems. A necessary aspect of these efforts was to develop models of aerosol properties.

  4. An example of requirements for Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system using structured techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclees, Robert E.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements are presented for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system generated using structured techniques. The requirements definition starts from initially performing a mission analysis to identify the high level control system requirements and functions necessary to satisfy the mission flight. The result of the study is an example set of control system requirements partially represented using a derivative of Yourdon's structured techniques. Also provided is a research focus for studying structured design methodologies and in particular design-for-validation philosophies.

  5. Study of advanced techniques for determining the long term performance of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The application of existing and new technology to the problem of determining the long-term performance capability of liquid rocket propulsion feed systems is discussed. The long term performance of metal to metal valve seats in a liquid propellant fuel system is stressed. The approaches taken in conducting the analysis are: (1) advancing the technology of characterizing components through the development of new or more sensitive techniques and (2) improving the understanding of the physical of degradation.

  6. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics by systematically investigating the effect of design and operating variables, to evaluate the reported dimensionless groups as scaling factors, and to establish a reliable scale-up methodology for the TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters based on hydrodynamic similarity via advanced measurement and computational techniques. An additional objective is to develop an on-line non-invasive measurement technique based on gamma ray densitometry (i.e. Nuclear Gauge Densitometry) that can be installed and used for coater process monitoring to ensure proper performance and operation and to facilitate the developed scale-up methodology. To achieve the objectives set for the project, the work will use optical probes and gamma ray computed tomography (CT) (for the measurements of solids/voidage holdup cross-sectional distribution and radial profiles along the bed height, spouted diameter, and fountain height) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) (for the measurements of the 3D solids flow field, velocity, turbulent parameters, circulation time, solids lagrangian trajectories, and many other of spouted bed related hydrodynamic parameters). In addition, gas dynamic measurement techniques and pressure transducers will be utilized to complement the obtained information. The measurements obtained by these techniques will be used as benchmark data to evaluate and validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models (two fluid model or discrete particle model) and their closures. The validated CFD models and closures will be used to facilitate the developed methodology for scale-up, design and hydrodynamic similarity. Successful execution of this work and the proposed tasks will advance the fundamental understanding of the coater flow field and quantify it for proper and safe design, scale-up, and performance. Such achievements will overcome the barriers to AGR applications and will help assure that the US maintains

  7. Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

  8. Potential of advanced MR imaging techniques in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Hotter, Anna; Esterhammer, Regina; Schocke, Michael F H; Seppi, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes remains challenging not only for neurologists but also for movement disorder specialists. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) with the visual assessment of T2- and T1-weighted imaging as well as different advanced MRI techniques offer objective measures, which may be a useful tool in the diagnostic work-up of Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs). In clinical practice, cMRI is a well-established method for the exclusion of symptomatic parkinsonism due to other pathologies. Over the past two decades, abnormalities in the basal ganglia and infratentorial structures have been shown especially in APDs not only by cMRI but also by different advanced MRI techniques, including methods to assess regional cerebral atrophy quantitatively such as magnetic resonance volumetry, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetization transfer imaging. This article aims to review recent research findings on the role of advanced MRI techniques in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders.

  9. Advanced in situ spectroscopic techniques and their applications in environmental biogeochemistry: introduction to the special section.

    PubMed

    Lombi, Enzo; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Scheckel, Kirk G

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the molecular-scale complexities and interplay of chemical and biological processes of contaminants at solid, liquid, and gas interfaces is a fundamental and crucial element to enhance our understanding of anthropogenic environmental impacts. The ability to describe the complexity of environmental biogeochemical reaction mechanisms relies on our analytical ability through the application and developmemnt of advanced spectroscopic techniques. Accompanying this introductory article are nine papers that either review advanced in situ spectroscopic methods or present original research utilizing these techniques. This collection of articles summarizes the challenges facing environmental biogeochemistry, highlights the recent advances and scientific gaps, and provides an outlook into future research that may benefit from the use of in situ spectroscopic approaches. The use of synchrotron-based techniques and other methods are discussed in detail, as is the importance to integrate multiple analytical approaches to confirm results of complementary procedures or to fill data gaps. We also argue that future direction in research will be driven, in addition to recent analytical developments, by emerging factors such as the need for risk assessment of new materials (i.e., nanotechnologies) and the realization that biogeochemical processes need to be investigated in situ under environmentally relevant conditions.

  10. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The

  11. Electro-dewatering of activated sludge: Electrical resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Conrardy, Jean-Baptiste; Vaxelaire, Jean; Olivier, Jérémy

    2016-09-01

    The significant risk of ohmic heating and the high electric energy consumption at terminal stages of the dewatering are two problems that hamper the development of the electro-dewatering (EDW) technology. In the future prospect of studying these two issues, it is important to provide and analyse quantitative data relative to the behavior of the electric resistance in EDW. It was the main goal of this study. It showed that the electric resistance of the complete system (cake + filter cloth) depended on the cake dryness. It increased sharply when the solids content exceeded around 45%.The solids loading also influenced the apparent resistance at the beginning of the process. The electric resistance of the filter cloth represented about 20% of the total resistance. It remained relatively constant over the process except at the terminal stage where it generally increased sharply. The use of conductive filter, such as metallic cloth, enabled to decrease the electric resistance and reduce the energy consumption of the process. The electric resistance decreased across the cake from the anode to the cathode. This behavior may be explained by several phenomena such as the ions migration and their interaction with the solid, the decrease of dry solids content from the anode to the cathode and the gas presence at the anode (due to electrolysis reaction).

  12. Application of forward osmosis on dewatering of high nutrient sludge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Yang, Hung-Yin; Hau, Nguyen Thi

    2013-03-01

    A novel approach was designed to simultaneously apply low energy sludge dewatering and nutrient removal for activated sludge using forward osmosis (FO). In this study, the municipal wastewater sludge was spiked with different nutrient concentrations to evaluate FO dewatering performance. The results showed that sludge concentration reached 21,511 and 28,500mg/L after 28h from initial sludge concentration of 3000 and 8000mg/L with flow rate of 150mL/min. Moreover, nutrient and organic compounds in sludge solution were also successfully removed (around 96% of NH4(+)-N, 98% of PO4(3-)-P and 99% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) due to steric effect of FO membrane and multi barrier layer of sludge forming on membrane surface. Furthermore, the analysis from Scanning Electron Microscopy & Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) images recorded that FO membrane was fouled by cake layer of sludge in the active layer and NaCl in the support layer.

  13. Advanced Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy Techniques for the Investigation of Peptide Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Neil R.

    The ubiquitous cross beta sheet peptide motif is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative diseases while at the same time offers remarkable potential for constructing isomorphic high-performance bionanomaterials. Despite an emerging understanding of the complex folding landscape of cross beta structures in determining disease etiology and final structure, we lack knowledge of the critical initial stages of nucleation and growth. In this dissertation, I advance our understanding of these key stages in the cross-beta nucleation and growth pathways using cutting-edge microscopy techniques. In addition, I present a new combined time-resolved fluorescence analysis technique with the potential to advance our current understanding of subtle molecular level interactions that play a pivotal role in peptide self-assembly. Using the central nucleating core of Alzheimer's Amyloid-beta protein, Abeta(16 22), as a model system, utilizing electron, time-resolved, and non-linear microscopy, I capture the initial and transient nucleation stages of peptide assembly into the cross beta motif. In addition, I have characterized the nucleation pathway, from monomer to paracrystalline nanotubes in terms of morphology and fluorescence lifetime, corroborating the predicted desolvation process that occurs prior to cross-beta nucleation. Concurrently, I have identified unique heterogeneous cross beta domains contained within individual nanotube structures, which have potential bionanomaterials applications. Finally, I describe a combined fluorescence theory and analysis technique that dramatically increases the sensitivity of current time-resolved techniques. Together these studies demonstrate the potential for advanced microscopy techniques in the identification and characterization of the cross-beta folding pathway, which will further our understanding of both amyloidogenesis and bionanomaterials.

  14. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  15. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate ('dynamic fatigue') testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rate in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  16. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  17. System engineering techniques for establishing balanced design and performance guidelines for the advanced telerobotic testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Matijevic, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Novel system engineering techniques have been developed and applied to establishing structured design and performance objectives for the Telerobotics Testbed that reduce technical risk while still allowing the testbed to demonstrate an advancement in state-of-the-art robotic technologies. To estblish the appropriate tradeoff structure and balance of technology performance against technical risk, an analytical data base was developed which drew on: (1) automation/robot-technology availability projections, (2) typical or potential application mission task sets, (3) performance simulations, (4) project schedule constraints, and (5) project funding constraints. Design tradeoffs and configuration/performance iterations were conducted by comparing feasible technology/task set configurations against schedule/budget constraints as well as original program target technology objectives. The final system configuration, task set, and technology set reflected a balanced advancement in state-of-the-art robotic technologies, while meeting programmatic objectives and schedule/cost constraints.

  18. Mini-dental implant insertion with the auto-advance technique for ongoing applications.

    PubMed

    Balkin, B E; Steflik, D E; Naval, F

    2001-01-01

    The clinical and histological results of two cases demonstrating retrieved Sendax mini-dental implants in two different patients is the focus of this report. The mini-dental implants were inserted using the auto-advance technique and loaded immediately. The implants were retrieved at 4 months following insertion and at 5 months following insertion and were prepared and reviewed histologically. Clinically, the implants had no mobility, with no apparent exudate or bleeding upon probing, prior to removal. At the time explant procedures were performed, the mini-dental implants had provided immediate support for prostheses during the integration of traditional root-form endosteal implants. Upon explantation, the mini-dental implants were in a state of health and functioning in their intended purpose. Histologically, the bone appeared to be integrated to the surface of the implant at the light microscope level, and the bone appeared to be relatively mature and healthy in the areas observed, more so than one would expect in this amount of time from insertion of mini-dental implants with immediate loading. A discussion of the purposes and technique used for insertion and removal of these mini-dental implants is discussed. This is the first human histological report on the auto-advance technique with immediate loading of mini-dental implants, demonstrating feasibility in ongoing applications.

  19. State-of-the-art characterization techniques for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-01

    To meet future needs for industries from personal devices to automobiles, state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium-ion batteries will require both improved durability and lowered costs. To enhance battery performance and lifetime, understanding electrode degradation mechanisms is of critical importance. Various advanced in situ and operando characterization tools developed during the past few years have proven indispensable for optimizing battery materials, understanding cell degradation mechanisms, and ultimately improving the overall battery performance. Here we review recent progress in the development and application of advanced characterization techniques such as in situ transmission electron microscopy for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Using three representative electrode systems—layered metal oxides, Li-rich layered oxides and Si-based or Sn-based alloys—we discuss how these tools help researchers understand the battery process and design better battery systems. We also summarize the application of the characterization techniques to lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries and highlight the importance of those techniques in the development of next-generation batteries.

  20. Advanced Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for Detection of Food-borne Pathogens; Current Applications and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Umesha, S; Manukumar, H M

    2016-01-08

    The elimination of disease-causing microbes from the food supply is a primary goal and this review deals with the overall techniques availavle for detection of food-borne pathogens. Now-a-days conventional methods are replaced by advanced methods like Biosensors, Nucleic Acid-based Tests (NAT) and different PCR based techniques used in molecular biology to identify specific pathogens. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Aspergillus spp. Fusarium spp. Penicillium spp., and pathogens are detected in contaminated food items which cause always diseases in human in any one or the other way. Identification of food-borne pathogens in a short period of time is still a challenge to the scientific field in general and food technology in particular. The low level of food contamination by major pathogens requires specific sensitive detection platforms and the present area of hot research looking forward to new nanomolecular techniques for nanomaterials, make them suitable for the development of assays with high sensitivity, response time and portability. With the sound of these we attemet to highlight a comprehensive overview about food-borne pathogen detection by rapid, sensitive, accurate and cost affordable in situ analytical methods from conventional methods to recent molecular approaches for advanced food and microbiology research.

  1. Improvement of dewatering characteristics by co-digestion of rice straw with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tingting; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, Ryoko; Tsuchiya-Nakakihara, Eri; Watanabe, Haruki; Suetsugu, Yasutaka; Yanai, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    A continuous mesophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and softened rice straw was conducted and the dewatering characteristics of digested sludge were evaluated by a dewatering experiment using a belt press. The digestion was operated with solid retention time (SRT) of 25 days, and the feeding ratio of sludge to rice straw was 1:0.5 (total solids base). After 129 days of stable operation, the properties of digested sludge were analysed; then five kinds of cationic coagulants were tested to select the optimal coagulants for dewatering, and two coagulants were selected and used in the dewatering experiment because of lower doses and lower moisture of sludge cakes. Sludge property analysis showed that by the addition of rice straw, the fibrous materials in the digested sludge increased remarkably and the normalized capillary suction time (CST) decreased significantly, indicating that the dewatering properties was improved. The results of dewatering experiment showed that by the addition of rice straw, specific filtration rate of digested sludge increased by 81.2% and 174.6%, respectively; water content of dewatered sludge cakes decreased by 8.2% and 13.4%, respectively. The dewaterability of digested sludge was suggested to be improved due to rice straw addition.

  2. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, M. D.; Ismail, S.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper.

  3. Extrusion based rapid prototyping technique: an advanced platform for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Enamul; Chuan, Y Leng; Pashby, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Advances in scaffold design and fabrication technology have brought the tissue engineering field stepping into a new era. Conventional techniques used to develop scaffolds inherit limitations, such as lack of control over the pore morphology and architecture as well as reproducibility. Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, a layer-by-layer additive approach offers a unique opportunity to build complex 3D architectures overcoming those limitations that could ultimately be tailored to cater for patient-specific applications. Using RP methods, researchers have been able to customize scaffolds to mimic the biomechanical properties (in terms of structural integrity, strength, and microenvironment) of the organ or tissue to be repaired/replaced quite closely. This article provides intensive description on various extrusion based scaffold fabrication techniques and review their potential utility for TE applications. The extrusion-based technique extrudes the molten polymer as a thin filament through a nozzle onto a platform layer-by-layer and thus building 3D scaffold. The technique allows full control over pore architecture and dimension in the x- and y- planes. However, the pore height in z-direction is predetermined by the extruding nozzle diameter rather than the technique itself. This review attempts to assess the current state and future prospects of this technology.

  4. Advanced techniques and technology for efficient data storage, access, and transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Miller, Warner

    1991-01-01

    Advanced techniques for efficiently representing most forms of data are being implemented in practical hardware and software form through the joint efforts of three NASA centers. These techniques adapt to local statistical variations to continually provide near optimum code efficiency when representing data without error. Demonstrated in several earlier space applications, these techniques are the basis of initial NASA data compression standards specifications. Since the techniques clearly apply to most NASA science data, NASA invested in the development of both hardware and software implementations for general use. This investment includes high-speed single-chip very large scale integration (VLSI) coding and decoding modules as well as machine-transferrable software routines. The hardware chips were tested in the laboratory at data rates as high as 700 Mbits/s. A coding module's definition includes a predictive preprocessing stage and a powerful adaptive coding stage. The function of the preprocessor is to optimally process incoming data into a standard form data source that the second stage can handle.The built-in preprocessor of the VLSI coder chips is ideal for high-speed sampled data applications such as imaging and high-quality audio, but additionally, the second stage adaptive coder can be used separately with any source that can be externally preprocessed into the 'standard form'. This generic functionality assures that the applicability of these techniques and their recent high-speed implementations should be equally broad outside of NASA.

  5. Techniques for measurement of the thermal expansion of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques available to measure small thermal displacements in flat laminates and structural tubular elements of advanced composite materials are described. Emphasis is placed on laser interferometry and the laser interferometric dilatometer system used at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. Thermal expansion data are presented for graphite-fiber reinforced 6061 and 2024 aluminum laminates and for graphite fiber reinforced AZ91 C and QH21 A magnesium laminates before and after processing to minimize or eliminate thermal strain hysteresis. Data are also presented on the effects of reinforcement volume content on thermal expansion of silicon-carbide whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum.

  6. Advanced techniques in IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2006-04-01

    Within the past five years, the Pest Management industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestations and locate other conditions that are within the purview of the industry. This paper will review the applications that can be utilized by the pest management professional and discuss the advanced techniques that may be required in conjunction with thermal imaging to locate insect and other pest infestations, moisture within structures, the verification of data and the special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  7. Measuring the microbiome: perspectives on advances in DNA-based techniques for exploring microbial life

    PubMed Central

    Bunge, John; Gilbert, Jack A.; Moore, Jason H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in ‘microbiome studies’: molecular, statistical and graphical techniques to explore and quantify how microbial organisms affect our environments and ourselves given recent increases in sequencing technology. Microbiome studies are moving beyond mere inventories of specific ecosystems to quantifications of community diversity and descriptions of their ecological function. We review the last 24 months of progress in this sort of research, and anticipate where the next 2 years will take us. We hope that bioinformaticians will find this a helpful springboard for new collaborations with microbiologists. PMID:22308073

  8. Reliable Welding of HSLA Steels by Square Wave Pulsing Using an Advanced Sensing (EDAP) Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-30

    situation is the result of welding on A710 steel . (A similar effect on welding on HY80 ?) The following is offered by Woods and Milner (Ref. 12): "The...AD-R69 762 RELIABLE MELDING OF HSLA STEELS BY SQUARE MAVE PULSING 1/2 USING AN ADV NCED.. (U) APPLIED FUSION TECHNOLOGIES INC FORT COLLINS CO C...6 p . 0 Report 0001 AZ AD-A 168 762 I "RELIABLE WELDING OF HSLA STEELS BY SQUARE WAVE PULSING USING AN ADVANCED SENSING (EDAP) TECHNIQUE- Preliminary

  9. Advancing IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Chen, S.; Obland, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) decadal survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, time shifted PN, sine wave modulated PN, and sine wave pulsed PN. Different PN code techniques are presented that are appropriate for different types of lidar hardware, including our current ASCENDS IM-CW concept space hardware. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties without sidelobes while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space.

  10. Predicting spread of invasive exotic plants into de-watered reservoirs following dam removal on the Elwha River, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Torgersen, Christian E.; Chenoweth, Joshua; Beirne, Katherine; Acker, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service is planning to start the restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem in Olympic National Park by removing two high head dams beginning in 2011. The potential for dispersal of exotic plants into dewatered reservoirs following dam removal, which would inhibit restoration of native vegetation, is of great concern. We focused on predicting long-distance dispersal of invasive exotic plants rather than diffusive spread because local sources of invasive species have been surveyed. We included the long-distance dispersal vectors: wind, water, birds, beavers, ungulates, and users of roads and trails. Using information about the current distribution of invasive species from two surveys, various geographic information system techniques and models, and statistical methods, we identified high-priority areas for Park staff to treat prior to dam removal, and areas of the dewatered reservoirs at risk after dam removal.

  11. Arthroscopically assisted Sauvé-Kapandji procedure: an advanced technique for distal radioulnar joint arthritis.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Riccardo; Khanchandani, Prakash; Da Rin, Ferdinando; Borelli, Pierpaolo P; Mathoulin, Christophe; Atzei, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Osteoarthritis of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) leads to chronic wrist pain, weakness of grip strength, and limitation of motion, all of which affect the quality of life of the patient. Over the years, several procedures have been used for the treatment of this condition; however, this condition still remains a therapeutic challenge for the hand surgeons. Many procedures such as Darrach procedure, Bower procedure, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure, and ulnar head replacement have been used. Despite many advances in wrist arthroscopy, arthroscopy has not been used for the treatment of arthritis of the DRUJ. We describe a novel technique of arthroscopically assisted Sauvé-Kapandji procedure for the arthritis of the DRUJ. The advantages of this technique are its less invasive nature, preservation of the extensor retinaculum, more anatomical position of the DRUJ, faster rehabilitation, and a better cosmesis.

  12. The search for neuroimaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease with advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Li, Tie-Qiang; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the recent literature on using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for finding neuroimaging biomarkers that are sensitive to the detection of risks for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since structural MRI techniques, such as brain structural volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), have been widely used for AD studies and extensively reviewed, we will only briefly touch on the topics of volumetry and morphometry. The focus of the current review is about the more recent developments in the search for AD neuroimaging biomarkers with functional MRI (fMRI), resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin-labeling (ASL), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).

  13. Benign Spine Lesions: Advances in Techniques for Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tomasian, A; Wallace, A N; Jennings, J W

    2017-02-09

    Minimally invasive percutaneous imaging-guided techniques have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of benign tumors of the spine. Techniques available include a variety of tumor ablation technologies, including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, alcohol ablation, and laser photocoagulation. Vertebral augmentation may be performed after ablation as part of the same procedure for fracture stabilization or prevention. Typically, the treatment goal in benign spine lesions is definitive cure. Painful benign spine lesions commonly encountered in daily practice include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, vertebral hemangioma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Paget disease, and subacute/chronic Schmorl node. This review discusses the most recent advancement and use of minimally invasive percutaneous therapeutic options for the management of benign spine lesions.

  14. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  15. Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

    2006-12-31

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

  16. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dirk, Brennan S.; Van Nynatten, Logan R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell–cell transmission and cell–free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle. PMID:27775563

  17. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dirk, Brennan S; Van Nynatten, Logan R; Dikeakos, Jimmy D

    2016-10-19

    Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell-cell transmission and cell-free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle.

  18. Applications of Advanced, Waveform Based AE Techniques for Testing Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been previously used to evaluate damage progression in laboratory tests of composite coupons. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite structures, the effects of wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. In this research, measurements were made of the attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels. As these materials have applications in a cryogenic environment, the effects of cryogenic insulation on the attenuation of plate mode AE signals were also documented.

  19. Biotechnology apprenticeship for secondary-level students: teaching advanced cell culture techniques for research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer R; Kotur, Mark S; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors.

  20. Advanced techniques for array processing. Final report, 1 Mar 89-30 Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, B.

    1991-05-30

    Array processing technology is expected to be a key element in communication systems designed for the crowded and hostile environment of the future battlefield. While advanced array processing techniques have been under development for some time, their practical use has been very limited. This project addressed some of the issues which need to be resolved for a successful transition of these promising techniques from theory into practice. The main problem which was studied was that of finding the directions of multiple co-channel transmitters from measurements collected by an antenna array. Two key issues related to high-resolution direction finding were addressed: effects of system calibration errors, and effects of correlation between the received signals due to multipath propagation. A number of useful theoretical performance analysis results were derived, and computationally efficient direction estimation algorithms were developed. These results include: self-calibration techniques for antenna arrays, sensitivity analysis for high-resolution direction finding, extensions of the root-MUSIC algorithm to arbitrary arrays and to arrays with polarization diversity, and new techniques for direction finding in the presence of multipath based on array interpolation. (Author)

  1. Advanced condition monitoring techniques and plant life extension studies at EBR-2

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C. ); Perry, W.H.; King, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Numerous advanced techniques have been evaluated and tested at EBR-2 as part of a plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Two techniques have been determined to be of considerable assistance in planning for the extended-life operation of EBR-2. The first, a computer-based pattern-recognition system (System State Analyzer or SSA) is used for surveillance of the primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps and plant heat balances. This surveillance has indicated that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals and can be used to provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed sensors. The second technique, also a computer-based pattern-recognition system (Sequential Probability Ratio Test or SPRT) is used to validate signals and to detect incipient failures in sensors and components or systems. It is being used on the failed fuel detection system and is experimentally used on the primary coolant pumps. Both techniques are described and experience with their operation presented.

  2. Advancement of an Infra-Red Technique for Whole-Field Concentration Measurements in Fluidized Beds

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Jose A.; de Nooijer, Niek C. A.; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For a better understanding and description of the mass transport phenomena in dense multiphase gas-solids systems such as fluidized bed reactors, detailed and quantitative experimental data on the concentration profiles is required, which demands advanced non-invasive concentration monitoring techniques with a high spatial and temporal resolution. A novel technique based on the selective detection of a gas component in a gas mixture using infra-red properties has been further developed. The first stage development was carried out using a very small sapphire reactor and CO2 as tracer gas. Although the measuring principle was demonstrated, the real application was hindered by the small reactor dimensions related to the high costs and difficult handling of large sapphire plates. In this study, a new system has been developed, that allows working at much larger scales and yet with higher resolution. In the new system, propane is used as tracer gas and quartz as reactor material. In this study, a thorough optimization and calibration of the technique is presented which is subsequently applied for whole-field measurements with high temporal resolution. The developed technique allows the use of a relatively inexpensive configuration for the measurement of detailed concentration fields and can be applied to a large variety of important chemical engineering topics. PMID:26927127

  3. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  4. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  5. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed. PMID:25610632

  6. Use of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Stephane; Renard, Felix; Achard, Sophie; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A; Palace, Jacqueline; Asgari, Nasrin; Klawiter, Eric C; Tenembaum, Silvia N; Banwell, Brenda; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Levy, Michael; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Chan, Koon Ho; Schippling, Sven; Paul, Friedemann; Kim, Ho Jin; de Seze, Jerome; Wuerfel, Jens T; Cabre, Philippe; Marignier, Romain; Tedder, Thomas; van Pelt, Danielle; Broadley, Simon; Chitnis, Tanuja; Wingerchuk, Dean; Pandit, Lekha; Leite, Maria Isabel; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Kleiter, Ingo; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Han, May; Hellwig, Kerstin; van Herle, Katja; John, Gareth; Hooper, D Craig; Nakashima, Ichiro; Sato, Douglas; Yeaman, Michael R; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Zamvil, Scott; Stüve, Olaf; Aktas, Orhan; Smith, Terry J; Jacob, Anu; O'Connor, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Brain parenchymal lesions are frequently observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, but the specific morphological and temporal patterns distinguishing them unequivocally from lesions caused by other disorders have not been identified. This literature review summarizes the literature on advanced quantitative imaging measures reported for patients with NMO spectrum disorder, including proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, quantitative MR volumetry, and ultrahigh-field strength MRI. It was undertaken to consider the advanced MRI techniques used for patients with NMO by different specialists in the field. Although quantitative measures such as proton MR spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging have not reproducibly revealed diffuse brain injury, preliminary data from diffusion-weighted imaging and brain tissue volumetry indicate greater white matter than gray matter degradation. These findings could be confirmed by ultrahigh-field MRI. The use of nonconventional MRI techniques may further our understanding of the pathogenic processes in NMO spectrum disorders and may help us identify the distinct radiographic features corresponding to specific phenotypic manifestations of this disease.

  7. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis.

    PubMed

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  8. Advanced MRI Techniques in the Evaluation of Complex Cystic Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Popli, Manju Bala; Gupta, Pranav; Arse, Devraj; Kumar, Pawan; Kaur, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this research work was to evaluate complex cystic breast lesions by advanced MRI techniques and correlating imaging with histologic findings. METHODS AND MATERIALS In a cross-sectional design from September 2013 to August 2015, 50 patients having sonographically detected complex cystic lesions of the breast were included in the study. Morphological characteristics were assessed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI along with diffusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy were used to further classify lesions into benign and malignant categories. All the findings were correlated with histopathology. RESULTS Of the 50 complex cystic lesions, 32 proved to be benign and 18 were malignant on histopathology. MRI features of heterogeneous enhancement on CE-MRI (13/18), Type III kinetic curve (13/18), reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (18/18), and tall choline peak (17/18) were strong predictors of malignancy. Thirteen of the 18 lesions showed a combination of Type III curve, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient value, and tall choline peak. CONCLUSIONS Advanced MRI techniques like dynamic imaging, diffusion-weighted sequences, and MR spectroscopy provide a high level of diagnostic confidence in the characterization of complex cystic breast lesion, thus allowing early diagnosis and significantly reducing patient morbidity and mortality. From our study, lesions showing heterogeneous contrast enhancement, Type III kinetic curve, diffusion restriction, and tall choline peak were significantly associated with malignant complex cystic lesions of the breast. PMID:27330299

  9. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in themore » soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.« less

  10. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  11. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America airborne investigation are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are being investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the mission science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of intervening optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the Earth's surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture to support the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) and ACT-America programs.

  12. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  13. System Design Techniques for Reducing the Power Requirements of Advanced life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory; Levri, Julie; Pawlowski, Chris; Crawford, Sekou; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The high power requirement associated with overall operation of regenerative life support systems is a critical Z:p technological challenge. Optimization of individual processors alone will not be sufficient to produce an optimized system. System studies must be used in order to improve the overall efficiency of life support systems. Current research efforts at NASA Ames Research Center are aimed at developing approaches for reducing system power and energy usage in advanced life support systems. System energy integration and energy reuse techniques are being applied to advanced life support, in addition to advanced control methods for efficient distribution of power and thermal resources. An overview of current results of this work will be presented. The development of integrated system designs that reuse waste heat from sources such as crop lighting and solid waste processing systems will reduce overall power and cooling requirements. Using an energy integration technique known as Pinch analysis, system heat exchange designs are being developed that match hot and cold streams according to specific design principles. For various designs, the potential savings for power, heating and cooling are being identified and quantified. The use of state-of-the-art control methods for distribution of resources, such as system cooling water or electrical power, will also reduce overall power and cooling requirements. Control algorithms are being developed which dynamically adjust the use of system resources by the various subsystems and components in order to achieve an overall goal, such as smoothing of power usage and/or heat rejection profiles, while maintaining adequate reserves of food, water, oxygen, and other consumables, and preventing excessive build-up of waste materials. Reductions in the peak loading of the power and thermal systems will lead to lower overall requirements. Computer simulation models are being used to test various control system designs.

  14. Use of advanced neuroimaging techniques in the evaluation of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ashwal, Stephen; Holshouser, Barbara A; Tong, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging techniques are now used to expand our knowledge of traumatic brain injury, and increasingly, they are being applied to children. This review will examine four of these methods as they apply to children who present acutely after injury. (1) Susceptibility weighted imaging is a 3-dimensional high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging technique that is more sensitive than conventional imaging in detecting hemorrhagic lesions that are often associated with diffuse axonal injury. (2) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquires metabolite information reflecting neuronal integrity and function from multiple brain regions and provides sensitive, noninvasive assessment of neurochemical alterations that offers early prognostic information regarding the outcome. (3) Diffusion weighted imaging is based on differences in diffusion of water molecules within the brain and has been shown to be very sensitive in the early detection of ischemic injury. It is now being used to study the direct effects of traumatic injury as well as those due to secondary ischemia. (4) Diffusion tensor imaging is a form of diffusion weighted imaging and allows better evaluation of white matter fiber tracts by taking advantage of the intrinsic directionality (anisotropy) of water diffusion in human brain. It has been shown to be useful in identifying white matter abnormalities after diffuse axonal injury when conventional imaging appears normal. An important aspect of these advanced methods is that they demonstrate that 'normal-appearing' brain in many instances is not normal, i.e. there is evidence of significant undetected injury that may underlie a child's clinical status. Availability and integration of these advanced imaging methods will lead to better treatment and change the standard of care for use of neuroimaging to evaluate children with traumatic brain injury.

  15. Comparison of metal lability in air-dried and fresh dewatered drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the labilities of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in air-dried (for 60 days) and fresh dewatered WTRs were compared using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), fractionation, in vitro digestion and a plant enrichment test. The results showed that the air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs had different properties, e.g., organic matter composition and available nutrients. The air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs were non-haf zardous according to the TCLP assessment method used in the United States; however, the metals in the two types of WTRs had different lability. Compared with the metals in the fresh dewatered WTRs, those in the air-dried WTRs tended to be in more stable fractions and also exhibited lower bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, air-drying can decrease the metal lability and thereby reduce the potential metal pollution risk of WTRs.

  16. Simultaneous dewatering and reconstitution in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Gray, M.L.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Finseth, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has developed a dewatering and reconstitution process in which bitumen emulsion is added to a fine clean coal slurry ahead of the dewatering device. The process simultaneously improves dewatering efficiency and reduces dustiness of the fine coal product during subsequent handling. This paper describes the test results from dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal in a 500 lb. per hour continuous bench scale high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Test results will be evaluated in terms of type and dosage of emulsion, product moisture and strength, and product handling and dust reduction efficiency. A preliminary cost analysis will also be included.

  17. Integrated treatment of municipal sewage sludge by deep dewatering and anaerobic fermentation for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Wentian; Wei, Huangzhao; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-02-01

    The increasing sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants poses a threat to the environment. Based on the traditional processes, sludge dewatered by usual methods was further dewatered by hydraulic compression and the filtrate released was treated by anaerobic fermentation. The difficulties in sludge dewatering were associated with the existence of sludge flocs or colloidal materials. A suitable CaO dosage of 125 mg/g dry sludge (DS) could further decrease the moisture content of sludge from 82.4 to 50.9 %. The filtrate from the dewatering procedure was a potential substrate for biohydrogen production. Adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the anaerobic system improved the biohydrogen yield by 20 %, and the COD removal rate was lifted by 10 % as well. Meanwhile, the sludge morphology and microbial community were altered. The novel method could greatly reduce the sludge volume and successfully treated filtrate along with the conversion of organics into biohydrogen.

  18. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  19. PREFACE: 16th International workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in physics research (ACAT2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, L.; Lokajicek, M.; Tumova, N.

    2015-05-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 16th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2014), this year the motto was ''bridging disciplines''. The conference took place on September 1-5, 2014, at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic. The 16th edition of ACAT explored the boundaries of computing system architectures, data analysis algorithmics, automatic calculations, and theoretical calculation technologies. It provided a forum for confronting and exchanging ideas among these fields, where new approaches in computing technologies for scientific research were explored and promoted. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 140 participants from all over the world. The workshop's 16 invited speakers presented key topics on advanced computing and analysis techniques in physics. During the workshop, 60 talks and 40 posters were presented in three tracks: Computing Technology for Physics Research, Data Analysis - Algorithms and Tools, and Computations in Theoretical Physics: Techniques and Methods. The round table enabled discussions on expanding software, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration in the respective areas. ACAT 2014 was generously sponsored by Western Digital, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hewlett Packard, DataDirect Networks, M Computers, Bright Computing, Huawei and PDV-Systemhaus. Special appreciations go to the track liaisons Lorenzo Moneta, Axel Naumann and Grigory Rubtsov for their work on the scientific program and the publication preparation. ACAT's IACC would also like to express its gratitude to all referees for their work on making sure the contributions are published in the proceedings. Our thanks extend to the conference liaisons Andrei Kataev and Jerome Lauret who worked with the local contacts and made this conference possible as well as to the program

  20. Combined method for simultaneously dewatering and reconstituting finely divided carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1990-01-01

    A finely-divided carbonaceous material is dewatered and reconstituted in a combined process by adding a binding agent directly into slurry of finely divided material and dewatering the material to form a cake or consolidated piece which can be hardened by drying at ambient or elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the binder often in the form of a crusting agent is sprayed onto the surface of a moist cake prior to curing.

  1. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, G. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1-20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ˜0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

  2. New advanced surface modification technique: titanium oxide ceramic surface implants: long-term clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Gyorgy; Kovacs, Lajos; Barabas, Jozsef; Nemeth, Zsolt; Maironna, Carlo

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background to advanced surface modification technologies and to present a new technique, involving the formation of a titanium oxide ceramic coating, with relatively long-term results of its clinical utilization. Three general techniques are used to modify surfaces: the addition or removal of material and the change of material already present. Surface properties can also be changed without the addition or removal of material, through the laser or electron beam thermal treatment. The new technique outlined in this paper relates to the production of a corrosion-resistant 2000-2500 A thick, ceramic oxide layer with a coherent crystalline structure on the surface of titanium implants. The layer is grown electrochemically from the bulk of the metal and is modified by heat treatment. Such oxide ceramic-coated implants have a number of advantageous properties relative to implants covered with various other coatings: a higher external hardness, a greater force of adherence between the titanium and the oxide ceramic coating, a virtually perfect insulation between the organism and the metal (no possibility of metal allergy), etc. The coated implants were subjected to various physical, chemical, electronmicroscopic, etc. tests for a qualitative characterization. Finally, these implants (plates, screws for maxillofacial osteosynthesis and dental root implants) were applied in surgical practice for a period of 10 years. Tests and the experience acquired demonstrated the good properties of the titanium oxide ceramic-coated implants.

  3. Utilization of advanced calibration techniques in stochastic rock fall analysis of quarry slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preh, Alexander; Ahmadabadi, Morteza; Kolenprat, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    In order to study rock fall dynamics, a research project was conducted by the Vienna University of Technology and the Austrian Central Labour Inspectorate (Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection). A part of this project included 277 full-scale drop tests at three different quarries in Austria and recording key parameters of the rock fall trajectories. The tests involved a total of 277 boulders ranging from 0.18 to 1.8 m in diameter and from 0.009 to 8.1 Mg in mass. The geology of these sites included strong rock belonging to igneous, metamorphic and volcanic types. In this paper the results of the tests are used for calibration and validation a new stochastic computer model. It is demonstrated that the error of the model (i.e. the difference between observed and simulated results) has a lognormal distribution. Selecting two parameters, advanced calibration techniques including Markov Chain Monte Carlo Technique, Maximum Likelihood and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are utilized to minimize the error. Validation of the model based on the cross validation technique reveals that in general, reasonable stochastic approximations of the rock fall trajectories are obtained in all dimensions, including runout, bounce heights and velocities. The approximations are compared to the measured data in terms of median, 95% and maximum values. The results of the comparisons indicate that approximate first-order predictions, using a single set of input parameters, are possible and can be used to aid practical hazard and risk assessment.

  4. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V. Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1–20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ∼0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

  5. Visualizing epigenetics: current advances and advantages in HDAC PET imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Schroeder, F A; Hooker, J M

    2014-04-04

    Abnormal gene regulation as a consequence of flawed epigenetic mechanisms may be central to the initiation and persistence of many human diseases. However, the association of epigenetic dysfunction with disease and the development of therapeutic agents for treatment are slow. Developing new methodologies used to visualize chromatin-modifying enzymes and their function in the human brain would be valuable for the diagnosis of brain disorders and drug discovery. We provide an overview of current invasive and noninvasive techniques for measuring expression and functions of chromatin-modifying enzymes in the brain, emphasizing tools applicable to histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes as a leading example. The majority of current techniques are invasive and difficult to translate to what is happening within a human brain in vivo. However, recent progress in molecular imaging provides new, noninvasive ways to visualize epigenetics in the human brain. Neuroimaging tool development presents a unique set of challenges in order to identify and validate CNS radiotracers for HDACs and other histone-modifying enzymes. We summarize advances in the effort to image HDACs and HDAC inhibitory effects in the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) and highlight generalizable techniques that can be adapted to investigate other specific components of epigenetic machinery. Translational tools like neuroimaging by PET and magnetic resonance imaging provide the best way to link our current understanding of epigenetic changes with in vivo function in normal and diseased brains. These tools will be a critical addition to ex vivo methods to evaluate - and intervene - in CNS dysfunction.

  6. Visualizing epigenetics: current advances and advantages in HDAC PET imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changning; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal gene regulation as a consequence of flawed epigenetic mechanisms may be central to the initiation and persistence of many human diseases. However, the association of epigenetic dysfunction with disease and the development of therapeutic agents for treatment are slow. Developing new methodologies used to visualize chromatin modifying enzymes and their function in the human brain would be valuable for diagnosis of brain disorders and drug discovery. We provide an overview of current invasive and noninvasive techniques for measuring expression and functions of chromatin modifying enzymes in the brain, emphasizing tools applicable to histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes as a leading example. The majority of current techniques are invasive and difficult to translate to what is happening within a human brain in vivo. However, recent progress in molecular imaging provides new, noninvasive ways to visualize epigenetics in human brain. Neuroimaging tool development presents a unique set of challenges in order to identify and validate CNS radiotracers for HDACs and other histone modifying enzymes. We summarize advances in the effort to image HDACs and HDAC inhibitory effects in the brain using PET and highlight generalizable techniques that can be adapted to investigate other specific components of epigenetic machinery. Translational tools like neuroimaging by PET and MRI provide the best way to link our current understanding of epigenetic changes with in vivo function in normal and diseased brain. These tools will be a critical addition to ex vivo methods to evaluate - and intervene - in CNS dysfunction. PMID:24051365

  7. Optical techniques for signal distribution and control in advanced radar and communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1985-03-01

    It is concluded that optical techniques offer some advantages for signal distribution and control in advanced radar and communication systems. They are clearly ideal for transporting microwave signals over considerable distances, as in remote positioning of radar receivers, provided high dynamic range is not required and an enclosed transmission path is essential. They are an elegant means of distributing low level r.f. or i.f. signals around an active phased array where these signals are of relatively constant amplitude (as in mixer local oscillator applications). However, there is currently a rather restrictive limit on the size of distribution network possible. Optical techniques are obviously suitable for distributing digital control signals to phased array modules and confer considerable immunity to interference. They are less suitable for high dynamic range signals, such as the received radar returns, either at r.f. or when downcovered to i.f. Future developments in coherent optics or in fast optical A/D technology could, however, influence this conclusion. Currently, the optimum applications for optical techniques appear to be i.f. beamformers for multibeam communication satellite systems and in calibration/monitoring systems for phased arrays.

  8. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out using Orimulsion as the dewatering reagent. A ram extruder that can be operated continuously is used to fabricate dewatered pellets. The influence of compaction pressure, curing time, binder concentration (2% to 5%), particle size, and compacting time on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water resistance and wear vulnerability.

  9. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out in conjunction with a selected hydrophobic binder as the dewatering reagent and an uniaxial hydraulic press. The influence of compaction pressure and binder concentration (2 to 5%) on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water and wear resistance. A laboratory scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting extruder that can be operated continuously for coal pellets fabrication, has been designed and built, and will be available for testing in the next quarter.

  10. Effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving with an advanced traveler information system.

    PubMed

    Dingus, T A; Hulse, M C; Mollenhauer, M A; Fleischman, R N; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N

    1997-06-01

    This paper explores the effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving, navigation performance, and safety for drivers who used TravTek, an Advanced Traveler Information System. The first two studies investigated various route guidance configurations on the road in a specially equipped instrumented vehicle with an experimenter present. The third was a naturalistic quasi-experimental field study that collected data unobtrusively from more than 1200 TravTek rental car drivers with no in-vehicle experimenter. The results suggest that with increased experience, drivers become familiar with the system and develop strategies for substantially more efficient and safer use. The results also showed that drivers over age 65 had difficulty driving and navigating concurrently. They compensated by driving slowly and more cautiously. Despite this increased caution, older drivers made more safety-related errors than did younger drivers. The results also showed that older drivers benefited substantially from a well-designed ATIS driver interface.

  11. Advances in the transient dc photocurrent technique for excited state dipole moment measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, S.N.; Braun, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    Recent advances in the transient dc photocurrent technique for measuring excited state dipole moments, developed in our group, are discussed. A variety of approaches with detailed analyses of their advantages and disadvantages including cell design, circuit construction tricks, the data acquisition procedure, calibration, and the theoretical treatment of different conditions, are presented. Sensitivity, time resolution limitations, and newly developed features, such as the signal{close_quote}s dependence on light polarization as well as charge separation at interfaces are outlined. Dipole moments of a few molecules (diphenylcyclopropenone, bianthryl, dimethylaminonitrostilbene, Coumarin 153, and fluoroprobe) suitable for calibration purpose are reported{emdash}some of them for the first time. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a review on the pathogenesis, prevalence, and advance molecular identification techniques.

    PubMed

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, V. parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. V. parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the V. parahaemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

  13. Visualisation of Ecohydrological Processes and Relationships for Teaching Using Advanced Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, H.; Wang, H.; Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Yang, Y.; Deng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Ecohydrology is an emerging discipline with a rapid research growth. This calls for enhancing ecohydrology education in both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In other hydrology disciplines, hydrological processes are commonly observed in environments (e.g. streamflow, infiltration) or easily demonstrated in labs (e.g. Darcy's column). It is relatively difficult to demonstrate ecohydrological concepts and processes (e.g. soil-vegetation water relationship) in teaching. In this presentation, we report examples of using some advanced techniques to illustrate ecohydrological concepts, relationships, and processes, with measurements based on a native vegetation catchment in South Australia. They include LIDAR images showing the relationship between topography-control hdyroclimatic conditions and vegetation distribution, electrical resistivity tomography derived images showing stem structures, continuous stem water potential monitoring showing diurnal variations of plant water status, root zone moisture depletion during dry spells, and responses to precipitation inputs, and incorporating sapflow measurements to demonstrate environmental stress on plant stomatal behaviours.

  14. Multielemental speciation analysis by advanced hyphenated technique - HPLC/ICP-MS: A review.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowska, Monika; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Speciation analysis has become an invaluable tool in human health risk assessment, environmental monitoring or food quality control. Another step is to develop reliable multielemental speciation methodologies, to reduce costs, waste and time needed for the analysis. Separation and detection of species of several elements in a single analytical run can be accomplished by high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS). Our review assembles articles concerning multielemental speciation determination of: As, Se, Cr, Sb, I, Br, Pb, Hg, V, Mo, Te, Tl, Cd and W in environmental, biological, food and clinical samples analyzed with HPLC/ICP-MS. It addresses the procedures in terms of following issues: sample collection and pretreatment, selection of optimal conditions for elements species separation by HPLC and determination using ICP-MS as well as metrological approach. The presented work is the first review article concerning multielemental speciation analysis by advanced hyphenated technique HPLC/ICP-MS.

  15. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a review on the pathogenesis, prevalence, and advance molecular identification techniques

    PubMed Central

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, V. parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. V. parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the V. parahaemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques. PMID:25566219

  16. Efficient Boolean and multi-input flow techniques for advanced mask data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Daniel; Moore, Bill; Valadez, John

    2012-11-01

    Mask data preparation (MDP) typically involves multiple flows, sometimes consisting of many steps to ensure that the data is properly written on the mask. This may include multiple inputs, transformations (scaling, orientation, etc.), and processing (layer extraction, sizing, Boolean operations, data filtering). Many MDP techniques currently in practice require multiple passes through the input data and/or multiple file I/O steps to achieve these goals. This paper details an approach which efficiently process the data, resulting in minimal I/O and greatly improved turnaround times (TAT). This approach takes advanced processing algorithms and adapts them to produce efficient and reliable data flow. In tandem with this processing flow, an internal jobdeck mapping approach, transparent to the user, allows an essentially unlimited number of pattern inputs to be handled in a single pass, resulting in increased flexibility and ease of use. Transformations and processing operations are critical to MDP. Transformations such as scaling, reverse tone and orientation, along with processing including sizing, Boolean operations and data filtering are key parts of this. These techniques are often employed in sequence and/or in parallel in a complex functional chain. While transformations typically are done "up front" when the data is input, processing is less straightforward, involving multiple reads and writes to handle the more intricate functionality and also the collection of input patterns which may be required to produce the data that comprises a single mask. The approach detailed in this paper consists of two complementary techniques: efficient MDP flow and jobdeck mapping. Efficient MDP flow is achieved by pipelining the output of each step to the input of the subsequent step. Rather than writing the output of a particular processing step to file and then reading it in to the following step, the pipelining or chaining of the steps results in an efficient flow with

  17. PREFACE: 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Liliana; Britton, David; Glover, Nigel; Heinrich, Gudrun; Lauret, Jérôme; Naumann, Axel; Speer, Thomas; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    ACAT2011 This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011) which took place on 5-7 September 2011 at Brunel University, UK. The workshop series, which began in 1990 in Lyon, France, brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields in order to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. It is a forum for the exchange of ideas among the fields, exploring and promoting cutting-edge computing, data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques in fundamental physics research. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 100 participants from all over the world. 14 invited speakers presented key topics on computing ecosystems, cloud computing, multivariate data analysis, symbolic and automatic theoretical calculations as well as computing and data analysis challenges in astrophysics, bioinformatics and musicology. Over 80 other talks and posters presented state-of-the art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. Panel and round table discussions on data management and multivariate data analysis uncovered new ideas and collaboration opportunities in the respective areas. This edition of ACAT was generously sponsored by the Science and Technology Facility Council (STFC), the Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP) at Durham University, Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA and Dell. We would like to thank all the participants of the workshop for the high level of their scientific contributions and for the enthusiastic participation in all its activities which were, ultimately, the key factors in the

  18. Assessing dewatering performance of drinking water treatment sludges.

    PubMed

    Verrelli, David I; Dixon, David R; Scales, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    A comparison of the dewaterability of a range of water treatment plant sludges has been completed through computation of dewatering performance indicators for a diaphragm filter press. Real parameter data, obtained from the characterisation of alum and ferric sludges, generated under precisely controlled conditions, was used for input to a phenomenological model. Comparisons of dewaterability based on throughput curves largely agree with previous analysis of the underlying parameter data. The difference in approach provides a quantification of benefit. Greater throughputs and output concentrations are predicted at the lowest coagulant doses and at pH approximately 6. Typical industrial cloth resistances consistently reduce throughput by a factor of 3-7, but the assessment of relative benefit is shown to be insensitive to this parameter. Quantitative agreement of the predictions with observed performance can be attained. Finally, the twin effects of solids loading and dewaterability are assessed together, showing that each has a significant influence on the required filter surface area. This quantification shows that high coagulant doses adversely affect both of these aspects, leading to filter area requirements larger than might otherwise be expected.

  19. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.

    PubMed

    Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

    2014-04-01

    The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2μm) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more.

  20. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous manipulation, surveillance and

  1. Nanostructural defects evidenced in failing silicon-based NMOS capacitors by advanced failure analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, Emilie; Llido, Roxane; Putero, Magali; Fares, Lahouari; Muller, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    An experimental methodology compliant with industrial constraints was deployed to uncover the origin of soft breakdown events in large planar silicon-based NMOS capacitors. Complementary advanced failure analysis techniques were advantageously employed to localize, isolate and observe structural defects at nanoscale. After an accurate localization of the failing area by optical beam-induced resistance change (OBIRCH), focused ion beam (FIB) technique enabled preparing thin specimens adequate for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Characterization of the gate oxide microstructure was performed by highresolution TEM imaging and energy-filtered spectroscopy. A dedicated experimental protocol relying on iterative FIB thinning and TEM observation enabled improving the quality of electron imaging of defects at atom scale. In that way, the gate oxide integrity was evaluated and an electrical stress-induced silicon epitaxy was detected concomitantly to soft breakdown events appearing during constant voltage stress. The growth of silicon hillocks enables consuming a part of the breakdown energy and may prevent the soft breakdown event to evolve towards a hard breakdown that is catastrophic for device functionality.

  2. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study.

  3. Advanced Modeling Techniques to Study Anthropogenic Influences on Atmospheric Chemical Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Rohit

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a collaborative effort between research groups at MCNC and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The overall objective of this research is to improve the level of understanding of the processes that determine the budgets of chemically and radiatively active compounds in the atmosphere through development and application of advanced methods for calculating the chemical change in atmospheric models. The research performed during the second year of this project focused on four major aspects: (1) The continued development and refinement of multiscale modeling techniques to address the issue of the disparate scales of the physico-chemical processes that govern the fate of atmospheric pollutants; (2) Development and application of analysis methods utilizing process and mass balance techniques to increase the interpretive powers of atmospheric models and to aid in complementary analysis of model predictions and observations; (3) Development of meteorological and emission inputs for initial application of the chemistry/transport model over the north Atlantic region; and, (4) The continued development and implementation of a totally new adaptive chemistry representation that changes the details of what is represented as the underlying conditions change.

  4. Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.

    2000-03-31

    This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system.

  5. Advancing the frontiers in nanocatalysis, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion by innovations of surface techniques.

    PubMed

    Somorjai, Gabor A; Frei, Heinz; Park, Jeong Y

    2009-11-25

    The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ("green chemistry") and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

  6. Advanced system identification techniques for wind turbine structures with special emphasis on modal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialasiewicz, J. T.

    1995-06-01

    The goal is to develop advanced system identification techniques that can be used to accurately measure the frequency response functions of a wind-turbine structure immersed in wind noise. To allow for accurate identification, the authors have developed a special test signal called the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS). The Matlab program that generates this signal allows the user to interactively tailor its parameters for the frequency range of interest based on the response of the wind turbine under test. By controlling NREL's Mobile Hydraulic Shaker System, which is attached to the wind turbine structure, the PRBS signal produces the wide-band excitation necessary to perform system identification in the presence of wind noise. The techniques presented here will enable researchers to obtain modal parameters from an operating wind turbine, including frequencies, damping coefficients, and mode shapes. More importantly, the algorithms they have developed and tested (so far using input-output data from a simulated structure) permit state-space representation of the system under test, particularly the modal state space representation. This is the only system description that reveals the internal behavior of the system, such as the interaction between the physical parameters, and which, in contrast to transfer functions, is valid for non-zero initial conditions.

  7. Investigation to advance prediction techniques of the low-speed aerodynamics of V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.; Strash, D.; Nathman, J.; Dvorak, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program, VSAERO, has been applied to a number of V/STOL configurations with a view to advancing prediction techniques for the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics. The program couples a low-order panel method with surface streamline calculation and integral boundary layer procedures. The panel method--which uses piecewise constant source and doublet panels-includes an iterative procedure for wake shape and models boundary layer displacement effect using the source transpiration technique. Certain improvements to a basic vortex tube jet model were installed in the code prior to evaluation. Very promising results were obtained for surface pressures near a jet issuing at 90 deg from a flat plate. A solid core model was used in the initial part of the jet with a simple entrainment model. Preliminary representation of the downstream separation zone significantly improve the correlation. The program accurately predicted the pressure distribution inside the inlet on the Grumman 698-411 design at a range of flight conditions. Furthermore, coupled viscous/potential flow calculations gave very close correlation with experimentally determined operational boundaries dictated by the onset of separation inside the inlet. Experimentally observed degradation of these operational boundaries between nacelle-alone tests and tests on the full configuration were also indicated by the calculation. Application of the program to the General Dynamics STOL fighter design were equally encouraging. Very close agreement was observed between experiment and calculation for the effects of power on pressure distribution, lift and lift curve slope.

  8. Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, G.A.; Frei, H.; Park, J.Y.

    2009-07-23

    The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ('green chemistry') and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

  9. EPS in Environmental Microbial Biofilms as Examined by Advanced Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, T. R.; Lawrence, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    Biofilm communities are highly structured associations of cellular and polymeric components which are involved in biogenic and geogenic environmental processes. Furthermore, biofilms are also important in medical (infection), industrial (biofouling) and technological (biofilm engineering) processes. The interfacial microbial communities in a specific habitat are highly dynamic and change according to the environmental parameters affecting not only the cellular but also the polymeric constituents of the system. Through their EPS biofilms interact with dissolved, colloidal and particulate compounds from the bulk water phase. For a long time the focus in biofilm research was on the cellular constituents in biofilms and the polymer matrix in biofilms has been rather neglected. The polymer matrix is produced not only by different bacteria and archaea but also by eukaryotic micro-organisms such as algae and fungi. The mostly unidentified mixture of EPS compounds is responsible for many biofilm properties and is involved in biofilm functionality. The chemistry of the EPS matrix represents a mixture of polymers including polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, neutral polymers, charged polymers, amphiphilic polymers and refractory microbial polymers. The analysis of the EPS may be done destructively by means of extraction and subsequent chemical analysis or in situ by means of specific probes in combination with advanced imaging. In the last 15 years laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has been established as an indispensable technique for studying microbial communities. LSM with 1-photon and 2-photon excitation in combination with fluorescence techniques allows 3-dimensional investigation of fully hydrated, living biofilm systems. This approach is able to reveal data on biofilm structural features as well as biofilm processes and interactions. The fluorescent probes available allow the quantitative assessment of cellular as well as polymer distribution. For this purpose

  10. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  11. Recent Advances in Stable Isotope Techniques for N2O Source Partitioning in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggs, E.; Mair, L.; Mahmood, S.

    2007-12-01

    The use of 13C, 15N and 18O enables us to overcome uncertainties associated with soil C and N processes and to assess the links between species diversity and ecosystem function. Recent advances in stable isotope techniques enable determination of process rates, and are fundamental for examining interactions between C and N cycles. Here we will introduce the 15N-, 18O- and 13C-enrichment techniques we have developed to distinguish between different N2O-producing processes in situ in soils, presenting selected results, and will critically assess their potential, alone and in combination with molecular techniques, to help address key research questions for soil biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. We have developed 15N- 18O-enrichment techniques to distinguish between, and to quantify, N2O production during ammonia oxidation, nitrifier denitrification and denitrification. This provides a great advantage over natural abundance approaches as it enables quantification of N2O from each microbial source, which can be coupled with quantification of N2 production, and used to examine interactions between different processes and cycles. These approaches have also provided new insights into the N cycle and how it interacts with the C cycle. For example, we now know that ammonia oxidising bacteria significantly contribute to N2O emissions from soils, both via the traditionally accepted ammonia oxidation pathway, and also via denitrification (nitrifier denitrification) which can proceed even under aerobic conditions. We are also linking emissions from each source to diversity and activity of relevant microbial functional groups, for example through the development and application of a specific nirK primer for the nitrite reductase in ammonia oxidising bacteria. Recently, isotopomers have been proposed as an alternative for source partitioning N2O at natural abundance levels, and offers the potential to investigate N2O production from nitrate ammonification, and overcomes the

  12. Impact of sewage sludge conditioning and dewatering on the fate of nonylphenol in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Kouloumbos, V N; Schäffer, A; Corvini, P F-X

    2008-08-01

    The fate of (14)C-labelled p353-nonylphenol (NP) in soils amended with differently treated sludges originating from the same precursor sludge was assessed. The effects of commonly applied conditioning and dewatering techniques were investigated. Nonylphenol was degraded considerably faster in soils amended with liquid sludge, while a significant portion of it remained intact and extractable by organic solvents when sludge had been centrifuged before soil amendment. Mineralization was reduced or even inhibited when freeze-thaw or lime conditioning was applied, respectively. Flocculation by an acrylamide-based cationic polymer led to the formation of a nitro-addition product of nonylphenol in soil, as well to decreased mineralization rates after prolonged incubation times. Possible mechanisms underlying the observations are suggested and discussed.

  13. Plant selection for dewatering and reclamation of tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.J.; Naeth, M.A.; Biggar, K.W.; Chanasyk, D.S.; Sego, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    A two-phase greenhouse experiment was conducted to identify the most suitable species for dewatering and reclamation of Composite Tailings (CT) from Alberta oil sands operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Copper Mine Tailings (CMT) from the Kennecott site in Utah. A total of 15 and 9 plant species were selected for testing in CT and CMT, respectively. In Phase 1, distilled water was added weekly to simulate local precipitation. The initial solids content were 80% and 76% and the electrical conductivities were 1.1 dS/m and 3.2 dS/m for CT and CMT, respectively. All plants survived after a ten-week period. In Phase 2 only process water was added weekly to provide a worst case scenario of no precipitation and water recharge due only to process water being released from within the tailings. The initial solids contents were 65% and 76% for CT and CMT, respectively. Surface (0--3 in.) salinity increased dramatically due to the application of process water only; at the end of Phase 2 it had reached toxic levels of approximately 18.9 dS/m and 35.0 dS/m in CT and CMT, respectively. Many plants showed signs of stress due to the high salinity level. The plants which performed the best under both phases in Composite Tailings were creeping foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), Altai wildrye (Elymus angustus), and red top (Agrostis stolonifera); and in Copper Mine Tailings were Altai wildrye, smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) and creeping foxtail.

  14. Impact of environmental dewatering of Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs on benthic invertebrates and macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-09-01

    An investigation into the effects of dewatering on the benthic fauna in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs was undertaken. Benthos in both the soft bottom regions of the reservoirs as well as those inhabiting the rock rip-rap along the shoreline were studied. These organisms provide an important food resource for both migrating salmonids and resident fish species; thus, impacts of contemplated dewatering schemes require evaluation. The results of these studies indicate that there were no significant, long-term impacts to the soft bottom benthos as a result of dewatering in Little Goose Reservoir. In fact, higher numbers of some taxa indicate that there may have been a washout of these organisms from Lower Granite Reservoir with subsequent deposition in the upper reaches of Little Goose Reservoir. This should be accompanied by a coincident decrease in these organisms in Lower Granite Reservoir. However, we did not have pre-dewatering samples from Lower Granite Reservoir with which we could compare post-filling samples to determine if the dewatering resulted in lower benthic populations.

  15. Flotation: A promising microalgae harvesting and dewatering technology for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Chang, Jingyu; Xiao, Zongyuan; Shao, Wenyao; Zeng, Xianhai; Ng, I-Son; Lu, Yinghua

    2016-03-01

    Microalgal biomass as renewable energy source is believed to be of great potential for reliable and sustainable biofuels production. However, microalgal biomass production is pinned by harvesting and dewatering stage thus hindering the developing and growing microalgae biotechnology industries. Flotation technology applied in mineral industry could be potentially applied in microalgae harvesting and dewatering, however substantial knowledge on different flotation units is essential. This paper presents an overview on different flotation units as promising cost-effective technologies for microalgae harvesting thus bestowing for further research in development and commercialization of microalgae based biofuels. Dispersed air flotation was found to be less energy consuming. Moreover, Jameson cell flotation and dispersed ozone flotation are believed to be energy efficient microalgae flotation approaches. Microalgae harvesting and dewatering by flotation is still at embryonic stage, therefore extended studies with the focus on life cycle assessment, sustainability of the flotation unit, optimization of the operating parameters using different algal species is imperative. Though there are a number of challenges in microalgae harvesting and dewatering, with well designed and developed cultivation, harvesting/dewatering, extraction and conversion technologies, progressively, microalgae technology will be of great potential for biological carbon sequestration, biofuels and biochemicals production.

  16. Thermal conductivity characteristics of dewatered sewage sludge by thermal hydrolysis reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyoung Woon; Park, Keum Joo; Han, Seong Kuk; Jung, Hee Suk

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the thermal conductivity of sewage sludge related to reaction temperature for the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. We continuously quantified the thermal conductivity of dewatered sludge related to the reaction temperature. As the reaction temperature increased, the dewatered sludge is thermally liquefied under high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. Therefore, the bound water in the sludge cells comes out as free water, which changes the dewatered sludge from a solid phase to slurry in a liquid phase. As a result, the thermal conductivity of the sludge was more than 2.64 times lower than that of the water at 20. However, above 200, it became 0.704 W/m* degrees C, which is about 4% higher than that of water. As a result, the change in physical properties due to thermal hydrolysis appears to be an important factor for heat transfer efficiency. Implications: The thermal conductivity of dewatered sludge is an important factor the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. The dewatered sludge is thermally liquefied under high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. The liquid phase slurry has a higher thermal conductivity than pure water.

  17. Craniospinal Irradiation Techniques: A Dosimetric Comparison of Proton Beams With Standard and Advanced Photon Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Jinsung; Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Dae Woong; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Se Byeong; Kim, Joo Young; Park, Hyeon-Jin; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Sang Hoon

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques for craniospinal irradiation in cancer in children. Methods and Materials: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), tomotherapy (TOMO), and proton beam treatment (PBT) in the scattering mode was planned for each of 10 patients at our institution. Dosimetric benefits and organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risks were based on comparisons of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and on the application of organ equivalent doses (OEDs), respectively. Results: When we analyzed the organ-at-risk volumes that received 30%, 60%, and 90% of the prescribed dose (PD), we found that PBT was superior to TOMO and 3D-CRT. On average, the doses delivered by PBT to the esophagus, stomach, liver, lung, pancreas, and kidney were 19.4 Gy, 0.6 Gy, 0.3 Gy, 2.5 Gy, 0.2 Gy, and 2.2 Gy for the PD of 36 Gy, respectively, which were significantly lower than the doses delivered by TOMO (22.9 Gy, 4.5 Gy, 6.1 Gy, 4.0 Gy, 13.3 Gy, and 4.9 Gy, respectively) and 3D-CRT (34.6 Gy, 3.6 Gy, 8.0 Gy, 4.6 Gy, 22.9 Gy, and 4.3 Gy, respectively). Although the average doses delivered by PBT to the chest and abdomen were significantly lower than those of 3D-CRT or TOMO, these differences were reduced in the head-and-neck region. OED calculations showed that the risk of secondary cancers in organs such as the stomach, lungs, thyroid, and pancreas was much higher when 3D-CRT or TOMO was used than when PBT was used. Conclusions: Compared with photon techniques, PBT showed improvements in most dosimetric parameters for CSI patients, with lower OEDs to organs at risk.

  18. Application of Energy Integration Techniques to the Design of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory

    2000-01-01

    Exchanging heat between hot and cold streams within an advanced life support system can save energy. This savings will reduce the equivalent system mass (ESM) of the system. Different system configurations are examined under steady-state conditions for various percentages of food growth and waste treatment. The scenarios investigated represent possible design options for a Mars reference mission. Reference mission definitions are drawn from the ALSS Modeling and Analysis Reference Missions Document, which includes definitions for space station evolution, Mars landers, and a Mars base. For each scenario, streams requiring heating or cooling are identified and characterized by mass flow, supply and target temperatures and heat capacities. The Pinch Technique is applied to identify good matches for energy exchange between the hot and cold streams and to calculate the minimum external heating and cooling requirements for the system. For each pair of hot and cold streams that are matched, there will be a reduction in the amount of external heating and cooling required, and the original heating and cooling equipment will be replaced with a heat exchanger. The net cost savings can be either positive or negative for each stream pairing, and the priority for implementing each pairing can be ranked according to its potential cost savings. Using the Pinch technique, a complete system heat exchange network is developed and heat exchangers are sized to allow for calculation of ESM. The energy-integrated design typically has a lower total ESM than the original design with no energy integration. A comparison of ESM savings in each of the scenarios is made to direct future Pinch Analysis efforts.

  19. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  20. Advanced techniques and painless procedures for nonlinear contact analysis and forming simulation via implicit FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Shoubing

    2013-05-01

    Nonlinear contact analysis including forming simulation via finite element methods has a crucial and practical application in many engineering fields. However, because of high nonlinearity, nonlinear contact analysis still remains as an extremely challenging obstacle for many industrial applications. The implicit finite element scheme is generally more accurate than the explicit finite element scheme, but it has a known challenge of convergence because of complex geometries, large relative motion and rapid contact state change. It might be thought as a very painful process to diagnose the convergence issue of nonlinear contact. Most complicated contact models have a great many contact surfaces, and it is hard work to well define the contact pairs using the common contact definition methods, which either result in hundreds of contact pairs or are time-consuming. This paper presents the advanced techniques of nonlinear contact analysis and forming simulation via the implicit finite element scheme and the penalty method. The calculation of the default automatic contact stiffness is addressed. Furthermore, this paper presents the idea of selection groups to help easily and efficiently define contact pairs for complicated contact analysis, and the corresponding implementation and usage are discussed. Lastly, typical nonlinear contact models and forming models with nonlinear material models are shown in the paper to demonstrate the key presented method and technologies.

  1. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization Using Ground-based Coronagraphs

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Peter R.; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gładysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012. PMID:26347393

  2. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization Using Ground-based Coronagraphs.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Peter R; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gładysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry

    2012-07-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

  3. Simultaneous evaluation of prepulse inhibition with EMG and EEG using advanced artifact removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Francisco J; Noya, Claudemiro V; Zimiani, Maria I; Avila, Milton A; Shuhama, Rosana; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Menezes, Paulo R; Martin, Rodrigo S; Salum, Cristiane

    2016-08-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) consists of a reduction of the acoustic startle reflex (SR) magnitude (measured with EMG) when a startling stimulus is preceded by a non-startling one. This behavior has been extensively investigated in studies related to schizophrenia, since sensory-motor deficit plays a central role in its pathophysiology. However, the same auditory stimuli that trigger the SR also provoke intense auditory evoked responses (AEP), which can be measured with EEG. Comparing these two types of responses, acquired simultaneously, is a great opportunity to investigate the dependence and interdependence of their neural pathways. Nonetheless, so far very few studies have dared to perform such simultaneous recordings, because SR produces strong eye blinks and muscle contraction artifacts that contaminate EEG electrodes placed on the scalp. In this study we investigated the possibility of simultaneously obtaining both the acoustic SR (using EMG) and the AEP (using EEG) measures, through the use of advanced artifact removal techniques, to better characterize PPI in healthy humans.

  4. Analysis of deformation patterns through advanced DINSAR techniques in Istanbul megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balik Sanli, F.; Calò, F.; Abdikan, S.; Pepe, A.; Gorum, T.

    2014-09-01

    As result of the Turkey's economic growth and heavy migration processes from rural areas, Istanbul has experienced a high urbanization rate, with severe impacts on the environment in terms of natural resources pressure, land-cover changes and uncontrolled sprawl. As a consequence, the city became extremely vulnerable to natural and man-made hazards, inducing ground deformation phenomena that threaten buildings and infrastructures and often cause significant socio-economic losses. Therefore, the detection and monitoring of such deformation patterns is of primary importance for hazard and risk assessment as well as for the design and implementation of effective mitigation strategies. Aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of deformations affecting the Istanbul metropolitan area, by exploiting advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. In particular, we apply the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach to a dataset of 43 TerraSAR-X images acquired, between November 2010 and June 2012, along descending orbits with an 11-day revisit time and a 3 m × 3 m spatial resolution. The SBAS processing allowed us to remotely detect and monitor subsidence patterns over all the urban area as well as to provide detailed information at the scale of the single building. Such SBAS measurements, effectively integrated with ground-based monitoring data and thematic maps, allows to explore the relationship between the detected deformation phenomena and urbanization, contributing to improve the urban planning and management.

  5. Nanocasting technique to prepare lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic electroactive polyimide as advanced anticorrosive coatings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kung-Chin; Lu, Hsin-I; Peng, Chih-Wei; Lai, Mei-Chun; Hsu, Sheng-Chieh; Hsu, Min-Hsiang; Tsai, Yuan-Kai; Chang, Chi-Hao; Hung, Wei-I; Wei, Yen; Yeh, Jui-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Nanocasting technique was used to obtain a biomimetic superhydrophobic electroactive polyimide (SEPI) surface structure from a natural Xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf. An electroactive polyimide (EPI) was first synthesized through thermal imidization. An impression of the superhydrophobic Xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf was then nanocasted onto the surface of the EPI so that the resulting EPI was superhydrophobic and would prevent corrosion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was then used as a negative template to transfer the impression of the superhydrophobic surface of the biomimetic EPI onto a cold-rolled steel (CRS) electrode. The superhydrophobic electroactive material could be used as advanced coatings that protect metals against corrosion. The morphology of the surface of the as-synthesized SEPI coating was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface showed numerous micromastoids, each decorated with many nanowrinkles. The water contact angle (CA) for the SEPI coating was 155°, which was significantly larger than that for the EPI coating (i.e., CA = 87°). The significant increase in the contact angle indicated that the biomimetic morphology effectively repelled water. Potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements indicated that the SEPI coating offered better protection against corrosion than the EPI coating did.

  6. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-Based Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Frazin, Richard; Barrett, Harrison; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gladysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Remi

    2012-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We provide a formal comparison of techniques through a blind data challenge and evaluate performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

  7. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-based Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Frazin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012

  8. On advanced estimation techniques for exoplanet detection and characterization using ground-based coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gładysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry

    2012-07-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

  9. Recent Advance in Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Environmental Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The techniques and measurement methods developed in the Environmental Survey and Monitoring of Chemicals by Japan’s Ministry of the Environment, as well as a large amount of knowledge archived in the survey, have led to the advancement of environmental analysis. Recently, technologies such as non-target liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with micro bore column have further developed the field. Here, the general strategy of a method developed for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of environmental chemicals with a brief description is presented. Also, a non-target analysis for the identification of environmental pollutants using a provisional fragment database and “MsMsFilter,” an elemental composition elucidation tool, is presented. This analytical method is shown to be highly effective in the identification of a model chemical, the pesticide Bendiocarb. Our improved micro-liquid chromatography injection system showed substantially enhanced sensitivity to perfluoroalkyl substances, with peak areas 32–71 times larger than those observed in conventional LC/MS. PMID:26819891

  10. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marchuk, Kyle

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  11. Improved electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) belt press for food products. Phase 3, Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Battelle`s electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process improves the performance of mechanical dewatering processes for several food products (such as corn fiber) by superimposing electric and ultrasonic fields. EAD has the potential to save 0.027 to 0.035 quad/yr energy by 1995 in the food processing industry, which consumed 0.15 to 0.18 quad in 1986. This report covers Phase III for demonstrating the EAD prototype on corn wet milling products (corn fiber and gluten); only Task 1 (prototype preparation and planning) was completed. EAD performance was examined in the laboratory; availability of a test site was examined. The single-roll, postdewatering EAD belt press prototype can accept material predewatered by a screw press, centrifuge, or any other mechanical dewatering device. The two-belt system, utilizing a copper-polymer cathode belt, performed as well as the three-belt system used in Phase II.

  12. APPLICATION OF ADVANCED IN VITRO TECHNIQUES TO MEASURE, UNDERSTAND AND PREDICT THE KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a research program in metabolism that involves numerous collaborators across EPA as well as other federal and academic labs. A primary goal is to develop and apply advanced in vitro techniques to measure, understand and predict the kinetics and mechanisms of xen...

  13. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  14. Compression dewatering of municipal activated sludge: effects of salt and pH.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Mickael; Vaxelaire, Jean; Olivier, Jérémy; Dieudé-Fauvel, Emilie; Baudez, Jean-Christophe

    2012-09-15

    Even after mechanical dewatering, activated sludge contains a large amount of water. Due to its composition and biological nature this material is usually highly compressible and known to be difficult to dewater. In the present work, two treatments (salt addition and pH modification) are proposed to highlight some aspects which could explain the poor dewaterability of activated sludge. Dewatering tests are carried out in a pressure-driven device in order to well examine both, filtration and compression stages. Physico-chemical parameters, such as surface charge, hydrophobicity, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content and filtrate turbidity are measured on the tested sludge, for a better analysis of dewatering results. The dewatering ability of the sludge is widely linked to the cohesion of the flocculated matrix and the presence of fine particles. Both treatments alter the flocculated matrix and release fine particles. The release of fine particles tends to clog both, the filter cake and the filter medium. Consequently, the filtration rate decreases due to higher resistances to the flow. On another hand, the polymeric matrix breakdown enables to release some water trapped within the floc to the bulk liquid phase and thus facilitates its removal, which tends to decrease the moisture content of the filter-cake. It also impacts the compression dewatering step. The more destroyed structures lead to less elastic cakes and thus a slower primary consolidation stage. At the opposite, the mobility of the broken aggregates within the filter-cake does not seem to be improved by size reduction (the kinetics of the secondary consolidation stage are not significantly modified).

  15. Landslide detection and long-term monitoring in urban area by means of advanced interferometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Liguori, Vincenzo; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    This work aims at illustrating the potential of advanced interferometric techniques for detection and long-term monitoring of landslide ground deformations at local scale. Space-born InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been successfully exploited in recent years to measure ground deformations associated to processes with slow kinematics, such as landslides, tectonic motions, subsidence or volcanic activity, thanks to both the standard single-interferogram approach (centimeter accuracy) and advanced time-series analyses of long temporal radar satellite data stacks (millimeter accuracy), such as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) techniques. In order to get a complete overview and an in-depth knowledge of an investigated landslide, InSAR satellite measures can support conventional in situ data. This methodology allows studying the spatial pattern and the temporal evolution of ground deformations, improving the spatial coverage and overcoming issues related to installation of ground-based instrumentation and data acquisition in unstable areas. Here we describe the application of the above-mentioned methodology on the test area of Agrigento, Sicily (Italy), affected by hydrogeological risk. The town is located in Southern Sicily, at edge of the Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt, on the Plio-Pleistocene and Miocene sediments of the Gela Nappe. Ground instabilities affect the urban area and involve the infrastructures of its NW side, such as the Cathedral, the Seminary and many private buildings. An integration between InSAR analyses and conventional field investigations (e.g. structural damages and fractures surveys) was therefore carried out, to support Regional Civil Protection authorities for emergency management and risk mitigation. The results of InSAR analysis highlighted a general stability of the whole urban area between 1992 and 2007. However, very high deformation rates (up to 10-12 mm/y) were identified in 1992-2000 in the W slope of the

  16. MicroRNA changes in advanced radiotherapy techniques and its effect to secondary cancers.

    PubMed

    Sert, Fatma

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of RNA, produced copies of endogenous hairpin-shaped, are 21-25 nucleotide length, small, and single chain. Recent studies have revealed that hundreds of miRNAs are found in the human genome and are responsible for diverse cellular processes including the control of developmental timing, cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. miRNAs can activate the initiation of apoptosis, cessation of the cell cycle and aging in case of DNA damage by stimulating the tumor suppressor target gene p53 directly and indirectly. DNA damage is composed by multiple stress factors including ionizing radiation, reactive oxygen species, UV exposure and drugs like doxorubicin and camptothecin. Radiation is used widely in health, academic area, and industry for producing electricity. As a result of using radiation widely in different fields, environmental radiation exposure is increasing as well. Whereas high dose radiation exposure causes DNA damage and gives rise to ionization to molecules of living cells by accelerating malignant tumor formation. Fields receiving high dose radiation are evaluated in terms of adverse effects, therapeutic efficacy and secondary malignancies in radiotherapy applications. Dose distributions are re-created when it is required. On the other hand, fields received low dose and the doses that the patient is exposure in simulation and/or portal imaging are often overlooked. The changes in miRNA levels arising in low dose radiation field and its effect to neoplastic process in cell will be pathfinder in terms of secondary cancers or second primary cancers. It is shown that there are differences between the level changes of miRNA in low dose fields which are overlooked in daily practical applications because of not resulting with acute or chronic side effect and the level changes of miRNA in high dose fields. With the help of verifying so-called differences in low dose fields which are seen in advanced radiation techniques

  17. Analysis of Volatile Compounds by Advanced Analytical Techniques and Multivariate Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Lubes, Giuseppe; Goodarzi, Mohammad

    2017-03-17

    Smelling is one of the five senses, which plays an important role in our everyday lives. Volatile compounds are, for example, characteristics of food where some of them can be perceivable by humans because of their aroma. They have a great influence on the decision making of consumers when they choose to use a product or not. In the case where a product has an offensive and strong aroma, many consumers might not appreciate it. On the contrary, soft and fresh natural aromas definitely increase the acceptance of a given product. These properties can drastically influence the economy; thus, it has been of great importance to manufacturers that the aroma of their food product is characterized by analytical means to provide a basis for further optimization processes. A lot of research has been devoted to this domain in order to link the quality of, e.g., a food to its aroma. By knowing the aromatic profile of a food, one can understand the nature of a given product leading to developing new products, which are more acceptable by consumers. There are two ways to analyze volatiles: one is to use human senses and/or sensory instruments, and the other is based on advanced analytical techniques. This work focuses on the latter. Although requirements are simple, low-cost technology is an attractive research target in this domain; most of the data are generated with very high-resolution analytical instruments. Such data gathered based on different analytical instruments normally have broad, overlapping sensitivity profiles and require substantial data analysis. In this review, we have addressed not only the question of the application of chemometrics for aroma analysis but also of the use of different analytical instruments in this field, highlighting the research needed for future focus.

  18. Advanced Multivariate Inversion Techniques for High Resolution 3D Geophysical Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceira, M.; Zhang, H.; Rowe, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    We focus on the development and application of advanced multivariate inversion techniques to generate a realistic, comprehensive, and high-resolution 3D model of the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle that satisfies several independent geophysical datasets. Building on previous efforts of joint invesion using surface wave dispersion measurements, gravity data, and receiver functions, we have added a fourth dataset, seismic body wave P and S travel times, to the simultaneous joint inversion method. We present a 3D seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle of northwest China resulting from the simultaneous, joint inversion of these four data types. Surface wave dispersion measurements are primarily sensitive to seismic shear-wave velocities, but at shallow depths it is difficult to obtain high-resolution velocities and to constrain the structure due to the depth-averaging of the more easily-modeled, longer-period surface waves. Gravity inversions have the greatest resolving power at shallow depths, and they provide constraints on rock density variations. Moreover, while surface wave dispersion measurements are primarily sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages, body wave receiver functions are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel-times. Addition of the fourth dataset, consisting of seismic travel-time data, helps to constrain the shear wave velocities both vertically and horizontally in the model cells crossed by the ray paths. Incorporation of both P and S body wave travel times allows us to invert for both P and S velocity structure, capitalizing on empirical relationships between both wave types’ seismic velocities with rock densities, thus eliminating the need for ad hoc assumptions regarding the Poisson ratios. Our new tomography algorithm is a modification of the Maceira and Ammon joint inversion code, in combination with the Zhang and Thurber TomoDD (double-difference tomography) program.

  19. Development of A Continuous Process for Displacement Dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Dave Beck

    2006-10-30

    The subject of this contract was to investigate the viability of a new process for dewatering paper called displacement pressing. The term “displacement pressing” was coined in the 1980s by researchers to describe a paper dewatering process where air is blown through a sheet of paper while it is being pressed. It was shown at that time that the combination of air and low pressing force could dramatically increase both sheet bulk and sheet solids which in theory would translate into huge savings in energy and fiber consumption. But there was a catch. Although the research results were dramatic, no one could figure out a commercially viable process to carry out displacement pressing. All research work had been done with batch processes, and there was no obvious way to convert these processes into a continuous process. By the end of the early1990’s no one was researching in this area because no continuous process existed. Recently we proposed a new method to carry out displacement pressing. Our process uses special pressing fabrics and a special 4 roll press that we call a “Beck Cluster Press” or BCP. The BCP provides a pressurized atmosphere that acts on a moving web of paper and fabrics. The special fabrics designed for this process use this atmosphere to press the sheet and at the same time, these special fabrics force air through the sheet to carry out displacement pressing. 1 Because of the complexity and cost of building the first functioning BCP, a simple simulator was built to confirm and study the process. Although results from this simulator were extremely favorable, financial times were hard in the paper industry. We are grateful for the DOE contract that allowed us to continue research that showed the tremendous benefits of displacement pressing. Specifically, accomplishments from the DOE contract are as follows: 1. A narrow (5” wide sheet) lab Beck Cluster Press (BCP) was started up, and made operational. This press accepts hand sheets and

  20. Advanced Sensing and Control Techniques to Facilitate Semi-Autonomous Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, Robert J.

    1999-06-01

    This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology.

  1. An advanced technique for speciation of organic nitrogen in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samy, S.; Robinson, J.; Hays, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    threshold as water-soluble free AA, with an average concentration of 22 ± 9 ng m-3 (N=13). Following microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis, the total AA concentration in the forest environment increased significantly (70 ± 35 ng m-3) and additional compounds (methionine, isoleucine) were detected above the reporting threshold. The ability to quantify AA in aerosol samples without derivatization reduces time consuming preparation procedures while providing the advancement of selective mass determination that eliminates potential interferences associated with traditional fluorescence detection. This step forward in precise mass determination with the use of internal standardization, improves the confidence of compound identification. With the increasing focus on WSOC (including ON) characterization in the atmospheric science community, native detection by LC-MS (Q-TOF) will play a central role in determining the most direct approach to quantify an increasing fraction of the co-extracted polar organic compounds. Method application for further characterization of atmospheric ON will be discussed. Reference: Samy, S., Robinson, J., and M.D. Hays. "An Advanced LC-MS (Q-TOF) Technique for the Detection of Amino Acids in Atmospheric Aerosols", Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-5238-2

  2. Techniques Optimized for Reducing Instabilities in Advanced Nickel-Base Superalloys for Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Locci, Ivan E.; Garg, anita; Ritzert, Frank J.

    2002-01-01

    is a three-phase constituent composed of TCP and stringers of gamma phase in a matrix of gamma prime. An incoherent grain boundary separates the SRZ from the gammagamma prime microstructure of the superalloy. The SRZ is believed to form as a result of local chemistry changes in the superalloy due to the application of the diffusion aluminide bondcoat. Locally high surface stresses also appear to promote the formation of the SRZ. Thus, techniques that change the local alloy chemistry or reduce surface stresses have been examined for their effectiveness in reducing SRZ. These SRZ-reduction steps are performed on the test specimen or the turbine blade before the bondcoat is applied. Stressrelief heat treatments developed at NASA Glenn have been demonstrated to reduce significantly the amount of SRZ that develops during subsequent high-temperature exposures. Stress-relief heat treatments reduce surface stresses by recrystallizing a thin surface layer of the superalloy. However, in alloys with very high propensities to form SRZ, stress relief heat treatments alone do not eliminate SRZ entirely. Thus, techniques that modify the local chemistry under the bondcoat have been emphasized and optimized successfully at Glenn. One such technique is carburization, which changes the local chemistry by forming submicron carbides near the surface of the superalloy. Detailed characterizations have demonstrated that the depth and uniform distribution of these carbides are enhanced when a stress relief treatment and an appropriate surface preparation are employed in advance of the carburization treatment. Even in alloys that have the propensity to develop a continuous SRZ layer beneath the diffusion zone, the SRZ has been completely eliminated or reduced to low, manageable levels when this combination of techniques is utilized. Now that the techniques to mitigate SRZ have been established at Glenn, TCP phase formation is being emphasized in ongoing work under the UEET Program. The

  3. Investigation of Advanced Dose Verification Techniques for External Beam Radiation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asuni, Ganiyu Adeniyi

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) have been introduced in radiation therapy to achieve highly conformal dose distributions around the tumour while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. These techniques have increased the need for comprehensive quality assurance tests, to verify that customized patient treatment plans are accurately delivered during treatment. in vivo dose verification, performed during treatment delivery, confirms that the actual dose delivered is the same as the prescribed dose, helping to reduce treatment delivery errors. in vivo measurements may be accomplished using entrance or exit detectors. The objective of this project is to investigate a novel entrance detector designed for in vivo dose verification. This thesis is separated into three main investigations, focusing on a prototype entrance transmission detector (TRD) developed by IBA Dosimetry, Germany. First contaminant electrons generated by the TRD in a 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. This study demonstrates that modification of the contaminant electron model in the treatment planning system is required for accurate patient dose calculation in buildup regions when using the device. Second, the ability of the TRD to accurately measure dose from IMRT and VMAT was investigated by characterising the spatial resolution of the device. This was accomplished by measuring the point spread function with further validation provided by MC simulation. Comparisons of measured and calculated doses show that the spatial resolution of the TRD allows for measurement of clinical IMRT fields within acceptable tolerance. Finally, a new general research tool was developed to perform MC simulations for VMAT and IMRT treatments, simultaneously tracking dose deposition in both the patient CT geometry and an arbitrary planar detector system, generalized to handle either entrance or exit orientations. It was

  4. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  5. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.815 Bilge pumps, bilge... fixed, self priming, powered, bilge pump, having a minimum capacity rating of 50 gallons per...

  6. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.815 Bilge pumps, bilge... fixed, self priming, powered, bilge pump, having a minimum capacity rating of 50 gallons per...

  7. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.815 Bilge pumps, bilge... fixed, self priming, powered, bilge pump, having a minimum capacity rating of 50 gallons per...

  8. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.815 Bilge pumps, bilge... fixed, self priming, powered, bilge pump, having a minimum capacity rating of 50 gallons per...

  9. Evaluation of thickening and dewatering characteristics of SRC-I wastewater treatment sludges. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky, will generate several different sludges as a result of providing extensive wastewater treatment. Because construction of this plant has been postponed indefinitely, there has been an opportunity to generate additional data pertinent to waste treatment. Accordingly, this report presents the results of a study on the thickening and dewatering characteristics of several of the wastewater treatment sludges. The study included: evaluation of chemical conditioning agents; aerobic digestion of biological sludges; gravity thickening; and the relative effectiveness of dewatering by centrifuge, vacuum filter, belt filter, and pressure filter. Sludges were tested individually and in combination. The results indicated that the biological sludge could be best dewatered by pressure filtration. The chemical sludges should be combined prior to dewatering, which should be provided by a belt filter. The tar acid sludge will be kept separate, due to its low pH, and ultimate disposal will be by incineration. The tar acid sludge was more concentrated than had been expected. As a result, thickening, rather than centrifuging, is the recommended treatment for this sludge. All sludges were tested for leachate toxicity by the extraction procedure method. The results were negative, indicating the sludges are non-hazardous in heavy metal concentrations, according to RCRA classification. The test results have identified design changes for the proposed wastewater treatment facilities.

  10. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process.

  11. Centrifugal dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal by the GranuFlow Process

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Utz, B.R.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    A continuous pilot-scale test of the GranuFlow Process was conducted using a screen-bowl centrifuge for the dewatering and reconstitution of column flotation concentrate at a coal preparation plant in Virginia. In this test, a slipstream of the fine-clean-coal slurry from the column flotation concentrate was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering. The treated products from the screen-bowl centrifuge appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the average moisture contents of the dewatered coal were 35.7, 35.5, 32.6, 29.9, and 26.5 wt% with Orimulsion additions of 0, 0.7, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 wt%, respectively. The handleability and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product were also vastly improved. A preliminary cost estimate of using Orimulsion in the GranuFlow Process is also included. Because of the simplicity of the process and the low cost of the bitumen emulsion, the commercialization potential of the GranuFlow Process is significant.

  12. Impact of Joule Heating and pH on Biosolids Electro-Dewatering.

    PubMed

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Beton, Raphaël; Hill, Reghan J; Frigon, Dominic

    2015-05-05

    Electro-dewatering (ED) is a novel technology to reduce the overall costs of residual biosolids processing, transport, and disposal. In this study, we investigated Joule heating and pH as parameters controlling the dewaterability limit, dewatering rate, and energy efficiency. Temperature-controlled electrodes revealed that Joule heating enhances water removal by increasing evaporation and electro-osmotic flow. High temperatures increased the dewatering rate, but had little impact on the dewaterability limit and energy efficiency. Analysis of horizontal layers after 15-min ED suggests electro-osmotic flow reversal, as evidenced by a shifting of the point of minimum moisture content from the anode toward the cathode. This flow reversal was also confirmed by the pH at the anode being below the isoelectric point, as ascertained by pH titration. The important role of pH on ED was further studied by adding acid/base solutions to biosolids prior to ED. An acidic pH reduced the biosolids charge while simultaneously increasing the dewatering efficiency. Thus, process optimization depends on trade-offs between speed and efficiency, according to physicochemical properties of the biosolids microstructure.

  13. Geotextile filtration performance for lagoon sludges and liquid animal manures dewatering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintenance and control of liquid levels in anaerobic lagoons and storage ponds require liquid-solid separation as a pretreatment and periodic removal of accumulated sludges. Until local options become available, sludges can be contained, dewatered, and stored using geotextile filtration. We used a ...

  14. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.815 Bilge pumps, bilge... fixed, self priming, powered, bilge pump, having a minimum capacity rating of 50 gallons per...

  15. Hydrologic considerations in dewatering and refilling Lake Carlton : Orange and Lake Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Warren; Hughes, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Lake Carlton straddles the line between Lake and Orange Counties in central Florida. The 382-acre lake is highly eutrophic and subject to virtually perpetual algal blooms. The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has proposed to restore the lake to a less eutrophic state by dewatering the lake long enough to allow the muck on its bottom to dry and compact. Lake Carlton would be permanently sealed off from Lake Carlton. On the assumption that the seasonal rainfall would be normal, and that the dewatering phase would begin on March 1, the predicted time required to dewater the lake at a pumping rate of 50,000 gpm (gallons per minute) is 21 days. The average rate of pumping required to maintain the lake in a dewatered condition is computed to be 2,400 gpm. If pumping is ended May 31, the predicted altitude to which the lake would recover by October 31 as a result of net natural input is 56.2 feet above sea level. Raising the lake level to 63 feet above sea level by October 31 would require that the net natural input be supplemented at an average rate of about 4,860 gpm between May 31 and October 31. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Parameter investigation for decentralised dewatering and solar thermic drying of sludge.

    PubMed

    Wett, B; Demattio, M; Becker, W

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is an experimental and model assisted investigation of the capabilities of a dewatering system for sewage sludge for decentralised sites. Laboratory and field tests are performed with different initial conditions and the influences of filter medium, initial height, initial total suspended solids, temperature and relative humidity are discussed. The experimental work shows the feasibility of geotextile media for dewatering high water content sewage sludge and that the textile structure is of secondary importance. The specific filter resistance of the sludge cake is found to be the most significant factor in dewatering applications. The mathematical description of the dewatering process is based on the superposition of two models, the Conventional Filtration Theory for the filtration phase and the BT-model for the drying phase. Feasibility and limits of the theoretical approach are evaluated by means of a comparison between measurements and simulated data of cyclic reloading tests. It is found that a better filtration efficiency is achieved at higher TSS and at lower initial height of the slurry layer. Due to the viscosity decrease, a higher temperature enhances not only evaporation, but also filtration rate.

  17. Use of geotextile tubes with chemical amendments to dewater dairy lagoon solids.

    PubMed

    Worley, J W; Bass, T M; Vendrell, P F

    2008-07-01

    Three geo-textile filtration tubes were used to dewater lagoon solids from a first stage dairy lagoon using chemical amendments (aluminum sulfate and a polymer) to enhance the separation process. This experiment had previously been done without chemical amendment. The chemical amendments speeded the dewatering process so that filling could be accomplished sooner, and also increased the removal rate of nutrients, especially phosphorus into the solid phase. Chemically amended slurry was pumped from the lagoon into the tube with the filtered liquid seeping from the tube and returning to the lagoon. Each tube was filled five to six times at 2-5-day intervals, and then allowed to dewater for 2 weeks before sampling the solid fraction in the tube. Separation efficiency improved from 79% to 99% for phosphorous and from 92% to 100% for organic nitrogen with chemical amendment. Time required for dewatering was significantly reduced by chemical amendment. Cost for the tube was approximately $10/m(3) of recovered solids with no chemical amendment and cost including the chemicals was approximately $14/m(3) of recovered solids.

  18. Precision Dual-Aquifer Dewatering at a Low Level Radiological Cleanup in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, A. S.; Langman, J. W. Jr.; Zahl, H. A.; Miller, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    Cleanup of low-level radioactive wastes at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey during the period October, 2000 through November, 2001 required the design, installation and operation of a dual-aquifer dewatering system to support excavation of contaminated soils. Waste disposal pits from a former rare-earth processing facility at the WISS had been in contact with the water table aquifer, resulting in moderate levels of radionuclides being present in the upper aquifer groundwater. An uncontaminated artesian aquifer underlies the water table aquifer, and is a localized drinking water supply source. The lower aquifer, confined by a silty clay unit, is flowing artesian and exhibits potentiometric heads of up to 4.5 meters above grade. This high potentiometric head presented a strong possibility that unloading due to excavation would result in a ''blowout'', particularly in areas where the confining unit was < 1 meter thick. Excavation of contaminated materials w as required down to the surface of the confining unit, potentially resulting in an artesian aquifer head of greater than 8 meters above the excavation surface. Consequently, it was determined that a dual-aquifer dewatering system would be required to permit excavation of contaminated material, with the water table aquifer dewatered to facilitate excavation, and the deep aquifer depressurized to prevent a ''blowout''. An additional concern was the potential for vertical migration of contamination present in the water table aquifer that could result from a vertical gradient reversal caused by excessive pumping in the confined system. With these considerations in mind, a conceptual dewatering plan was developed with three major goals: (1) dewater the water table aquifer to control radionuclide migration and allow excavation to proceed; (2) depressurize the lower, artesian aquifer to reduce the potential for a ''blowout''; and (3) develop a precise dewatering level control mechanism to insure a

  19. New Advanced Fabrication Technique for Millimeter-Wave Planar Components based on Fluororesin Substrates using Graft Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Naoki; Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Sakata, Eiji

    2008-06-01

    As the importance of advanced millimeter-wave diagnostics increases, a reliable and accurate fabrication technique for high-performance devices and relevant components is essential. We describe a new improved fabrication technique for millimeter-wave planar components, such as antennas using low-loss fluororesin substrates. A fragile adhesion between the copper foil and fluororesin substrate and the accuracy of the device pattern using conventional fabrication techniques have been prime suspects in the failure of the devices. In order to solve these problems, surface treatment of fluororesin films and a fabrication method using electro-fine-forming (EF2) are proposed. The peel adhesion strength between the metal and fluororesin films and the value of the dielectric constant of the fluororesin films before and after grafting are reported. A prototype antenna using conventional fluororesin substrates and grafted-poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films produced using the EF2 fabrication technique are also introduced.

  20. The investigation of advanced remote sensing, radiative transfer and inversion techniques for the measurement of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Adarsh; Wang, Pi-Huan

    1985-01-01

    The research program is documented for developing space and ground-based remote sensing techniques performed during the period from December 15, 1977 to March 15, 1985. The program involved the application of sophisticated radiative transfer codes and inversion methods to various advanced remote sensing concepts for determining atmospheric constituents, particularly aerosols. It covers detailed discussions of the solar aureole technique for monitoring columnar aerosol size distribution, and the multispectral limb scattered radiance and limb attenuated radiance (solar occultation) techniques, as well as the upwelling scattered solar radiance method for determining the aerosol and gaseous characteristics. In addition, analytical models of aerosol size distribution and simulation studies of the limb solar aureole radiance technique and the variability of ozone at high altitudes during satellite sunrise/sunset events are also described in detail.

  1. The impulse resistance welding: A new technique for joining advanced thermoplastic composite parts

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, M.; Ziegmann, G.

    1996-12-31

    Welding is a joining technique suitable for thermoplastic composites. This paper presents the development of a new, fast joining technique, which is based on the common resistance welding process. Heat is introduced by using electrical power pulses into the heating area and therefore this technique was called the Impulse Resistance Welding (IRW). The new technique will be described and discussed and the application of this technique by joining ribs to the skin of an aerodynamic spoiler part is demonstrated. The potential of an automation of the Impulse resistance welding process will be shown. Carbon fibre /PEEK (APC-2/AS4) has been selected as the material both for the skin and the rib.

  2. [Advancement of colloidal gold chromatographic technique in screening of ochratoxin A].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-lu; Wang, Yu-ting; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Zhao, Ming; Ou-Yang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, existing in a variety of foodstuffs and Chinese medicines. OTA is difficult to be detected in practice because of the characteristics such as trace amounts, toxicity, existing in complex matrices. In the numerous detection technologies, colloidal gold chromatographic techniques are highly sensitive, specific, cost-effective and user-friendly, and are being used increasingly for OTA screening. Recently, with the development of aptamer technology and its application in chromatographic technique, a newly colloidal gold aptamer chromatographic technique has been developed. This review elaborates the structures and principles of both traditional and newly colloidal gold chromatographic techniques, focuses on newly colloidal gold aptamer chromatographic technique, summarizes and compares their use in rapid detection of OTA. Finally, in order to provide a reference for better research of related work, the development trends of this novel technique are prospected.

  3. Adaptations of advanced safety and reliability techniques to petroleum and other industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The underlying philosophy of the general approach to failure reduction and control is presented. Safety and reliability management techniques developed in the industries which have participated in the U.S. space and defense programs are described along with adaptations to nonaerospace activities. The examples given illustrate the scope of applicability of these techniques. It is indicated that any activity treated as a 'system' is a potential user of aerospace safety and reliability management techniques.

  4. Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for external cooling of an advanced reactor vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun

    Nucleate boiling is a well-recognized means for passively removing high heat loads (up to ˜106 W/m2) generated by a molten reactor core under severe accident conditions while maintaining relatively low reactor vessel temperature (<800 °C). With the upgrade and development of advanced power reactors, however, enhancing the nucleate boiling rate and its upper limit, Critical Heat Flux (CHF), becomes the key to the success of external passive cooling of reactor vessel undergoing core disrupture accidents. In the present study, two boiling heat transfer enhancement methods have been proposed, experimentally investigated and theoretically modelled. The first method involves the use of a suitable surface coating to enhance downward-facing boiling rate and CHF limit so as to substantially increase the possibility of reactor vessel surviving high thermal load attack. The second method involves the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design to facilitate the process of steam venting through the annular channel formed between the reactor vessel and the insulation structure, which in turn would further enhance both the boiling rate and CHF limit. Among the various available surface coating techniques, metallic micro-porous layer surface coating has been identified as an appropriate coating material for use in External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) based on the overall consideration of enhanced performance, durability, the ease of manufacturing and application. Since no previous research work had explored the feasibility of applying such a metallic micro-porous layer surface coating on a large, downward facing and curved surface such as the bottom head of a reactor vessel, a series of characterization tests and experiments were performed in the present study to determine a suitable coating material composition and application method. Using the optimized metallic micro-porous surface coatings, quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were conducted in the Sub

  5. Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling. PMID:24434036

  6. Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P; Benfey, Philip N

    2014-05-01

    A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling.

  7. Advances in CIS devices fabricated by a non-vacuum technique

    SciTech Connect

    Leidholm, C.R.; Norsworthy, G.A.; Roe, R.; Halani, A.; Basol, B.M.; Kapur, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A novel, non-vacuum technique based on nano-particle deposition has been developed for the formation of CIS-type solar cell absorbers. Solar cells with {gt}12{percent} efficiency were previously demonstrated using this technique. Improvements in module integration processes have recently yielded 8{percent} minimodules of 75 cm{sup 2} area. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Advanced techniques for the measurement of multiple recombination parameters in solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Wolf, M.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of bulk recombination measurement techniques was presented. Classical methods were reviewed along with their limiting assumptions and simplifications. A modulated light measurement system was built and showed the large effects of junction capacitance. Techniques for extension of classical methods for measurement of multiparameter multiregression measurements were identified and analyzed.

  9. Advance Appropriations: A Needless and Confusing Education Budget Technique. Federal Education Budget Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This report argues that advance appropriations serve no functional purpose for schools, but they create a loss of transparency, comparability, and simplicity in federal education budgeting. It allocates spending before future budgets have been established. The approach was originally used to skirt spending limits and budget procedures in place…

  10. The Advance Organizer: A Review of Research Using Glass's Technique of Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiten, John; And Others

    Using Glass's meta-analysis, of which "effect size" is the fundamental measure, 135 research studies on Ausubel's advance organizer theory were reviewed to determine its effect on learning and retention. Variables, such as grade level, subject area, organizer presentation mode, and ability level were also examined. In most of these…

  11. Advanced karst hydrological and contaminant monitoring techniques for real-time and high resolution applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In telogenetic and soil-mantled karst aquifers, the movement of autogenic recharge through the epikarstic zone and into the regional aquifer can be a complex process and have implications for flooding, groundwater contamination, and other difficult to capture processes. Recent advances in instrument...

  12. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  13. Time-frequency and advanced frequency estimation techniques for the investigation of bat echolocation calls.

    PubMed

    Kopsinis, Yannis; Aboutanios, Elias; Waters, Dean A; McLaughlin, Steve

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, techniques for time-frequency analysis and investigation of bat echolocation calls are studied. Particularly, enhanced resolution techniques are developed and/or used in this specific context for the first time. When compared to traditional time-frequency representation methods, the proposed techniques are more capable of showing previously unseen features in the structure of bat echolocation calls. It should be emphasized that although the study is focused on bat echolocation recordings, the results are more general and applicable to many other types of signal.

  14. An overview on in situ micronization technique – An emerging novel concept in advanced drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, K.R.; Prasanna Raju, Y.; Harini Chowdary, V.; Sushma, M.; Vijay Kumar, N.

    2013-01-01

    The use of drug powders containing micronized drug particles has been increasing in several pharmaceutical dosage forms to overcome the dissolution and bioavailability problems. Most of the newly developed drugs are poorly water soluble which limits dissolution rate and bioavailability. The dissolution rate can be enhanced by micronization of the drug particles. The properties of the micronized drug substance such as particle size, size distribution, shape, surface properties, and agglomeration behaviour and powder flow are affected by the type of micronization technique used. Mechanical communition, spray drying and supercritical fluid (SCF) technology are the most commonly employed techniques for production of micronized drug particles but the characteristics of the resulting drug product cannot be controlled using these techniques. Hence, a newer technique called in situ micronization is developed in order to overcome the limitations associated with the other techniques. This review summarizes the existing knowledge on in situ micronization techniques. The properties of the resulting drug substance obtained by in situ micronization were also compared. PMID:25161371

  15. Assessment of recent advances in measurement techniques for atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellweger, Christoph; Emmenegger, Lukas; Firdaus, Mohd; Hatakka, Juha; Heimann, Martin; Kozlova, Elena; Spain, T. Gerard; Steinbacher, Martin; van der Schoot, Marcel V.; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    Until recently, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements were made almost exclusively using nondispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) techniques, respectively. Recently, commercially available instruments based on spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have become more widely available and affordable. This resulted in a widespread use of these techniques at many measurement stations. This paper is focused on the comparison between a CRDS "travelling instrument" that has been used during performance audits within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with instruments incorporating other, more traditional techniques for measuring CO2 and CH4 (NDIR and GC/FID). We demonstrate that CRDS instruments and likely other spectroscopic techniques are suitable for WMO/GAW stations and allow a smooth continuation of historic CO2 and CH4 time series. Moreover, the analysis of the audit results indicates that the spectroscopic techniques have a number of advantages over the traditional methods which will lead to the improved accuracy of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements.

  16. Advances in atmospheric light scattering theory and remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videen, Gorden; Sun, Wenbo; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-01

    This issue focuses especially on characterizing particles in the Earth-atmosphere system. The significant role of aerosol particles in this system was recognized in the mid-1970s [1]. Since that time, our appreciation for the role they play has only increased. It has been and continues to be one of the greatest unknown factors in the Earth-atmosphere system as evidenced by the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments [2]. With increased computational capabilities, in terms of both advanced algorithms and in brute-force computational power, more researchers have the tools available to address different aspects of the role of aerosols in the atmosphere. In this issue, we focus on recent advances in this topical area, especially the role of light scattering and remote sensing. This issue follows on the heels of four previous topical issues on this subject matter that have graced the pages of this journal [3-6].

  17. External Magnetic Field Reduction Techniques for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Geng, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Linear alternators coupled to high efficiency Stirling engines are strong candidates for thermal-to-electric power conversion in space. However, the magnetic field emissions, both AC and DC, of these permanent magnet excited alternators can interfere with sensitive instrumentation onboard a spacecraft. Effective methods to mitigate the AC and DC electromagnetic interference (EMI) from solenoidal type linear alternators (like that used in the Advanced Stirling Convertor) have been developed for potential use in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator. The methods developed avoid the complexity and extra mass inherent in data extraction from multiple sensors or the use of shielding. This paper discusses these methods, and also provides experimental data obtained during breadboard testing of both AC and DC external magnetic field devices.

  18. Use of acid preconditioning for enhanced dewatering of wastewater treatment sludges from the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Elliott, Allan

    2007-02-01

    In municipal and industrial practices, wastewater treatment sludges are generally conditioned with organic polymers before dewatering. The dewatering polymers are expensive and contribute significantly to the overall sludge management cost. This paper discusses a preconditioning strategy that holds great promise for enhancing dewatering properties of wastewater treatment sludges, while reducing the cost. In this approach, the waste activated sludge (WAS) is briefly preconditioned with an acid before flocculating with an organic polymer. Experimental results showed that acid preconditioning significantly enhanced dewatering. Separately acidifying WAS and subsequently combining it with primary sludge produced higher presscake solids than acidifying the combined sludge to the same final pH. Acidification exhibited the added benefit of reducing Escherichia coli counts in sludge, thus improving its biological character. This may provide flexibility in choosing a beneficial use application.

  19. Application of the severity parameter for predicting viscosity during hydrothermal processing of dewatered sewage sludge for a commercial PFBC plant.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Takashi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Minowa, Tomoaki

    2010-03-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge (approximately 80% water, but with low fluidity) was liquidized by hydrothermal treatment in order to make coal-water paste (CWP) for use in a pressurized-fluidized-bed-combustion (PFBC) power plant. Prediction of the viscosity of the dewatered sewage sludge during batch reactor hydrothermal liquefaction is important in order to avoid inputting excess energy. A single parameter, the severity parameter, has been used to predict viscosity during the hydrothermal process. The relationship between the viscosity of the slurry made from dewatered sewage sludge and the severity value was investigated. Viscosity reduction was associated with an increase in the severity value and was dependent on reaction temperature and time. It was concluded that predicting the viscosity of dewatered sewage sludge during the hydrothermal process by means of the severity parameter is possible. This method is expected to provide a useful guideline for choosing reaction conditions based on prediction of the viscosity of the sludge slurry during the hydrothermal process.

  20. Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a prototype knowledge-based geographic information system. The overall purpose of this project is to investigate and demonstrate the use of advanced methods in order to greatly improve the capabilities of geographic information system technology in the handling of large, multi-source collections of spatial data in an efficient manner, and to make these collections of data more accessible and usable for the Earth scientist.

  1. Advanced Endovascular Approaches in the Management of Challenging Proximal Aortic Neck Anatomy: Traditional Endografts and the Snorkel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Quatromoni, Jon G.; Orlova, Ksenia; Foley, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in endovascular technology, and access to this technology, have significantly changed the field of vascular surgery. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), in which endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has replaced the traditional open surgical approach in patients with suitable anatomy. However, approximately one-third of patients presenting with AAAs are deemed ineligible for standard EVAR because of anatomic constraints, the majority of which involve the proximal aneurysmal neck. To overcome these challenges, a bevy of endovascular approaches have been developed to either enhance stent graft fixation at the proximal neck or extend the proximal landing zone to allow adequate apposition to the aortic wall and thus aneurysm exclusion. This article is composed of two sections that together address new endovascular approaches for treating aortic aneurysms with difficult proximal neck anatomy. The first section will explore advancements in the traditional EVAR approach for hostile neck anatomy that maximize the use of the native proximal landing zone; the second section will discuss a technique that was developed to extend the native proximal landing zone and maintain perfusion to vital aortic branches using common, off-the-shelf components: the snorkel technique. While the techniques presented differ in terms of approach, the available clinical data, albeit limited, support the notion that they may both have roles in the treatment algorithm for patients with challenging proximal neck anatomy. PMID:26327748

  2. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  3. Advanced NMR-based techniques for pore structure analysis of coal. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Hua, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    During the 3 year term of the project, new methods have been developed for characterizing the pore structure of porous materials such as coals, carbons, and amorphous silica gels. In general, these techniques revolve around; (1) combining multiple techniques such as small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and adsorption of contrast-matched adsorbates or {sup 129}Xe NMR and thermoporometry (the change in freezing point with pore size), (2) combining adsorption isotherms over several pressure ranges to obtain a more complete description of pore filling, or (3) applying NMR ({sup 129}Xe, {sup 14}N{sub 2}, {sup 15}N{sub 2}) techniques with well-defined porous solids with pores in the large micropore size range (>1 nm).

  4. Visualization of delamination in composite materials utilizing advanced X-ray imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrik, D.; Jakubek, J.; Jandejsek, I.; Krejci, F.; Kumpova, I.; Zemlicka, J.

    2015-04-01

    This work is focused on the development of instrumental radiographic methods for detection of delaminations in layered carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites used in the aerospace industry. The main limitation of current visualisation techniques is a very limited possibility to image so-called closed delaminations in which delaminated layers are in contact practically with no physical gap. In this contribution we report the development of innovative methods for closed delamination detection using an X-ray phase contrast technique for which the distance between delamination surfaces is not relevant. The approach is based on the energetic sensitivity of phase-enhanced radiography. Based on the applied methodology, we can distinguish both closed and open delamination. Further we have demonstrated the possibility to visualise open delaminations characterised by a physical gap between delaminated layers. This delamination type was successfully identified and visualized utilizing a high resolution and computed tomography table-top technique based on proper beam-hardening effect correction.

  5. Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

  6. Advanced Analytical Techniques for the Measurement of Nanomaterials in Food and Agricultural Samples: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nanotechnology offers substantial prospects for the development of state-of-the-art products and applications for agriculture, water treatment, and food industry. Profuse use of nanoproducts will bring potential benefits to farmers, the food industry, and consumers, equally. However, after end-user applications, these products and residues will find their way into the environment. Therefore, discharged nanomaterials (NMs) need to be identified and quantified to determine their ecotoxicity and the levels of exposure. Detection and characterization of NMs and their residues in the environment, particularly in food and agricultural products, have been limited, as no single technique or method is suitable to identify and quantify NMs. In this review, we have discussed the available literature concerning detection, characterization, and measurement techniques for NMs in food and agricultural matrices, which include chromatography, flow field fractionation, electron microscopy, light scattering, and autofluorescence techniques, among others. PMID:23483065

  7. Fault Detection of Gearbox from Inverter Signals Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pislaru, C.; Lane, M.; Ball, A. D.; Gu, F.

    2012-05-01

    The gear faults are time-localized transient events so time-frequency analysis techniques (such as the Short-Time Fourier Transform, Wavelet Transform, motor current signature analysis) are widely used to deal with non-stationary and nonlinear signals. Newly developed signal processing techniques (such as empirical mode decomposition and Teager Kaiser Energy Operator) enabled the recognition of the vibration modes that coexist in the system, and to have a better understanding of the nature of the fault information contained in the vibration signal. However these methods require a lot of computational power so this paper presents a novel approach of gearbox fault detection using the inverter signals to monitor the load, rather than the motor current. The proposed technique could be used for continuous monitoring as well as on-line damage detection systems for gearbox maintenance.

  8. Advanced atomic force microscopy techniques for characterizing the properties of cellulosic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Ryan Bradley

    The measurement of nanomechanical properties is of great interest to science and industry. Key to progress in this area is the development of new techniques and analysis methods to identify, measure, and quantify these properties. In this dissertation, new data analysis methods and experimental techniques for measuring nanomechanical properties with the atomic force microscope (AFM) are considered. These techniques are then applied to the study of cellulose nanoparticles, an abundant, plant derived nanomaterial. Quantifying uncertainty is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nano-engineered materials and products. However, rigorous uncertainty quantification is rarely applied for material property measurements with the AFM. A framework is presented to ascribe uncertainty to local nanomechanical properties of any nanoparticle or surface measured with the AFM by taking into account the main uncertainty sources inherent in such measurements. This method is demonstrated by quantifying uncertainty in force displacement AFM based measurements of the transverse elastic modulus of tunicate cellulose nanocrystals. Next, a more comprehensive study of different types of cellulose nanoparticles is undertaken with contact resonance (CR) AFM. CR-AFM is a dynamic AFM technique that exploits the resonance frequency of the AFM cantilever while it is permanent contact with the sample surface to predict nanomechanical properties. This technique offers improved measurement sensitivity over static AFM methods for some material systems. The effects of cellulose source material and processing technique on the properties of cellulose nanoparticles are compared. Finally, dynamic AFM cantilever vibration shapes are studied. Many AFM modes exploit the dynamic response of a cantilever in permanent contact with a sample to extract local material properties. A common challenge to these modes is that they assume a certain shape of cantilever vibration, which is not accessible in

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and secondary sludge dewatering performance of a novel combined silicon-aluminum-iron-starch flocculant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qintie; Peng, Huanlong; Zhong, Songxiong; Xiang, Jiangxin

    2015-03-21

    Flocculation is one of the most widely used cost-effective pretreatment method for sludge dewatering, and a novel environmentally friendly and efficient flocculant is highly desired in the sludge dewatering field. In this study, a novel combined silicon-aluminum-ferric-starch was synthesized by grafting silicon, aluminum, and iron onto a starch backbone. The synthesized starch flocculant was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The dewatering performance of secondary sludge was evaluated according to the capillary suction time, settling volume percentage, and specific resistance to filtration. The results indicated that the copolymer exhibited: (1) a good dewatering efficiency over a wide pH range of 3.0-11.0, (2) superior sludge dewatering performance compared to those of polyaluminum chloride (PACl), polyacrylamide (PAM), ferric chloride, and (3) a discontinuous surface with many channels or voids that helps to mobilize the impermeable thin layer of secondary sludge during filter pressing. Such a novel copolymer is a promising green flocculant for secondary sludge dewatering applications.

  10. Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering, and reconstitution

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

  11. Review of Design Approaches Applicable to Dewatering Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Pits

    SciTech Connect

    Gutknecht, P. J.; Gates, T. E.

    1982-03-01

    This report is a review of design approaches in the literature that may be applicable to uranium mill tailings drainage. Tailings dewatering is required in the deep mined-out pits used for wet tailings disposal. Agricultural drainage theory is reviewed because it is seen as the most applicable technology. It is concluded that the standard drain-pipe envelope design criteria should be easily adapted. The differences in dewatering objectives and physical characteristics between agricultural and tailings drainage systems prevent direct technology transfer with respect to drain spacing calculations. Recommendations for further research are based on the drainage features unique to uranium mill tailings. It is recommended that transient solutions be applied to describe liquid movement through saturated and partially saturated tailings. Modeling should be used to evaluate the benefits of drainage design approaches after careful consideration of potential construction problems.

  12. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P. ); Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R. ); Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S. ); Kehoe, D. )

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  13. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P.; Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R.; Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S.; Kehoe, D.

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  14. Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering and reconstitution

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.

    1993-11-09

    A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

  15. Advanced statistics: applying statistical process control techniques to emergency medicine: a primer for providers.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Charles D; Griffen, David L

    2003-08-01

    Emergency medicine faces unique challenges in the effort to improve efficiency and effectiveness. Increased patient volumes, decreased emergency department (ED) supply, and an increased emphasis on the ED as a diagnostic center have contributed to poor customer satisfaction and process failures such as diversion/bypass. Statistical process control (SPC) techniques developed in industry offer an empirically based means to understand our work processes and manage by fact. Emphasizing that meaningful quality improvement can occur only when it is exercised by "front-line" providers, this primer presents robust yet accessible SPC concepts and techniques for use in today's ED.

  16. Image enhancement and advanced information extraction techniques for ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Nalepka, R. F.; Sarno, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was demonstrated and concluded that: (1) the atmosphere has significant effects on ERTS MSS data which can seriously degrade recognition performance; (2) the application of selected signature extension techniques serve to reduce the deleterious effects of both the atmosphere and changing ground conditions on recognition performance; and (3) a proportion estimation algorithm for overcoming problems in acreage estimation accuracy resulting from the coarse spatial resolution of the ERTS MSS, was able to significantly improve acreage estimation accuracy over that achievable by conventional techniques, especially for high contrast targets such as lakes and ponds.

  17. Advances in Surgical Reconstructive Techniques in the Management of Penile, Urethral, and Scrotal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bickell, Michael; Beilan, Jonathan; Wallen, Jared; Wiegand, Lucas; Carrion, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    This article reviews the most up-to-date surgical treatment options for the reconstructive management of patients with penile, urethral, and scrotal cancer. Each organ system is examined individually. Techniques and discussion for penile cancer reconstruction include Mohs surgery, glans resurfacing, partial and total glansectomy, and phalloplasty. Included in the penile cancer reconstruction section is the use of penile prosthesis in phalloplasty patients after penectomy, tissue engineering in phallic regeneration, and penile transplantation. Reconstruction following treatment of primary urethral carcinoma and current techniques for scrotal cancer reconstruction using split-thickness skin grafts and flaps are described.

  18. Optical diagnostics of gas-dynamic flows using advanced laser measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    Using laser-induced fluorescence to probe nitrogen flows seeded with small amounts of nitric oxide, simultaneous measurements of all three thermodynamic scalar quantities temperature, density, and pressure, were demonstrated in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer. Instrumental uncertainty is 1% for temperature and 2% for density and pressure, making the techniques suitable for measurements of turbulent fluctuations. This technology is currently being transferred to an experimental program designed to use these optical techniques in conjunction with traditional methods to make measurements in turbulent flowfields that were not possible before. A detailed descritpion of the research progress and pertinent results are presented.

  19. Advanced techniques for detection and identification of microbial agents of gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sherry A; Zhang, Hongwei; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Gastroenteritis persists as a worldwide problem, responsible for approximately 2 million deaths annually. Traditional diagnostic methods used in the clinical microbiology laboratory include a myriad of tests, such as culture, microscopy, and immunodiagnostics, which can be labor intensive and suffer from long turnaround times and, in some cases, poor sensitivity. [corrected]. This article reviews recent advances in genomic and proteomic technologies that have been applied to the detection and identification of gastrointestinal pathogens. These methods simplify and speed up the detection of pathogenic microorganisms, and their implementation in the clinical microbiology laboratory has potential to revolutionize the diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  20. Principles and techniques in the design of ADMS+. [advanced data-base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Kang, Hyunchul

    1986-01-01

    'ADMS+/-' is an advanced data base management system whose architecture integrates the ADSM+ mainframe data base system with a large number of work station data base systems, designated ADMS-; no communications exist between these work stations. The use of this system radically decreases the response time of locally processed queries, since the work station runs in a single-user mode, and no dynamic security checking is required for the downloaded portion of the data base. The deferred update strategy used reduces overhead due to update synchronization in message traffic.

  1. Advanced computer techniques for inverse modeling of electric current in cardiac tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Romero, L.A.; Diegert, C.F.

    1996-08-01

    For many years, ECG`s and vector cardiograms have been the tools of choice for non-invasive diagnosis of cardiac conduction problems, such as found in reentrant tachycardia or Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Through skillful analysis of these skin-surface measurements of cardiac generated electric currents, a physician can deduce the general location of heart conduction irregularities. Using a combination of high-fidelity geometry modeling, advanced mathematical algorithms and massively parallel computing, Sandia`s approach would provide much more accurate information and thus allow the physician to pinpoint the source of an arrhythmia or abnormal conduction pathway.

  2. Precision bone and muscle loss measurements by advanced, multiple projection DEXA (AMPDXA) techniques for spaceflight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, H. K. Jr; Beck, T. J.; Feldmesser, H. S.; Magee, T. C.; Spisz, T. S.; Pisacane, V. L.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced, multiple projection, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanner system is under development. The AMPDXA is designed to make precision bone and muscle loss measurements necessary to determine the deleterious effects of microgravity on astronauts as well as develop countermeasures to stem their bone and muscle loss. To date, a full size test system has been developed to verify principles and the results of computer simulations. Results indicate that accurate predictions of bone mechanical properties can be determined from as few as three projections, while more projections are needed for a complete, three-dimensional reconstruction. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent Advances in Nanobiotechnology and High-Throughput Molecular Techniques for Systems Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung-Sam; Ahn, Eun Hyun; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based tools are beginning to emerge as promising platforms for quantitative high-throughput analysis of live cells and tissues. Despite unprecedented progress made over the last decade, a challenge still lies in integrating emerging nanotechnology-based tools into macroscopic biomedical apparatuses for practical purposes in biomedical sciences. In this review, we discuss the recent advances and limitations in the analysis and control of mechanical, biochemical, fluidic, and optical interactions in the interface areas of nanotechnology-based materials and living cells in both in vitro and in vivo settings. PMID:24258011

  4. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  5. Joint IAMAS/IAHS Symposium J1 on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.; Aoki, T.; Halpern D.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Charlock, T.; Joseph, J.; Labitzke, K.; Raschke, E.; Smith, W.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). Global observing systems are receiving increased attention in connection with such problems as monitoring global climate change. The symposium included papers on observational requirements; measurement methodologies; descriptions of available datasets; results of analysis of observational data; plans for future observing systems, including the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); and the programs and plans of the space agencies.

  6. Management of a coronally advanced lingual flap in regenerative osseous surgery: a case series introducing a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Ronda, Marco; Stacchi, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    One of the crucial factors in the success of guided bone regeneration procedures is the correct management of the soft tissues. This allows for stable primary wound closure without tension, which can result in premature exposure of the augmentation area, jeopardizing the final outcome. The use of vertical and periosteal incisions to passivate buccal and lingual flaps in the posterior mandible is often limited by anatomical factors. This paper reports on a series of 69 consecutive cases introducing a novel surgical technique to release and advance the lingual flap coronally in a safe and predictable manner.

  7. An advanced test technique to quantify thermomechanical fatigue damage accumulation in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanical test technique was developed to assist in quantifying the accumulation of damage in composite materials during thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) cycling. This was accomplished by incorporating definitive elastic mechanical property measurements into an ongoing load-controlled TMF test without disturbing the test specimen or significantly altering the test conditions. The technique allows two fundamental composite properties consisting of the isothermal elastic static moduli and the macroscopic coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to be measured and collected as functions of the TMF cycles. The specific implementation was incorporated into the commonly employed idealized in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycles. However, the techniques discussed could be easily implemented into any form of load-controlled TMF mission cycle. By quantifying the degradations of these properties, tremendous insights are gained concerning the progression of macroscopic composite damage and often times the progression of damage within a given constituent. This information should also be useful for the characterization and essential for the verification of analytical damage modeling methodologies. Several examples utilizing this test technique are given for three different fiber lay-ups of titanium metal matrix composites.

  8. Using Essential Oils to Teach Advanced-Level Organic Chemistry Separation Techniques and Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bott, Tina M.; Wan, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty grasping the importance of when and how basic distillation techniques, column chromatography, TLC, and basic spectroscopy (IR and NMR) can be used to identify unknown compounds within a mixture. This two-part experiment uses mixtures of pleasant-smelling, readily available terpenoid compounds as unknowns to…

  9. Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Durlofsky, Louis J.; Aziz, Khalid

    2001-08-23

    Research results for the second year of this project on the development of improved modeling techniques for non-conventional (e.g., horizontal, deviated or multilateral) wells were presented. The overall program entails the development of enhanced well modeling and general simulation capabilities. A general formulation for black-oil and compositional reservoir simulation was presented.

  10. Advanced SuperDARN meteor wind observations based on raw time series analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, M.; Yukimatu, A. S.; Holdsworth, D. A.; Lester, M.

    2009-04-01

    The meteor observation technique based on SuperDARN raw time series analysis has been upgraded. This technique extracts meteor information as biproducts and does not degrade the quality of normal SuperDARN operations. In the upgrade the radar operating system (RADOPS) has been modified so that it can oversample every 15 km during the normal operations, which have a range resolution of 45 km. As an alternative method for better range determination a frequency domain interferometry (FDI) capability was also coded in RADOPS, where the operating radio frequency can be changed every pulse sequence. Test observations were conducted using the CUTLASS Iceland East and Finland radars, where oversampling and FDI operation (two frequencies separated by 3 kHz) were simultaneously carried out. Meteor ranges obtained in both ranging techniques agreed very well. The ranges were then combined with the interferometer data to estimate meteor echo reflection heights. Although there were still some ambiguities in the arrival angles of echoes because of the rather long antenna spacing of the interferometers, the heights and arrival angles of most of meteor echoes were more accurately determined than previously. Wind velocities were successfully estimated over the height range of 84 to 110 km. The FDI technique developed here can be further applied to the common SuperDARN operation, and study of fine horizontal structures of F region plasma irregularities is expected in the future.

  11. Advance development of a technique for characterizing the thermomechanical properties of thermally stable polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillham, J. K.; Stadnicki, S. J.; Hazony, Y.

    1974-01-01

    The torsional braid experiment has been interfaced with a centralized hierarchical computing system for data acquisition and data processing. Such a system, when matched by the appropriate upgrading of the monitoring techniques, provides high resolution thermomechanical spectra of rigidity and damping, and their derivatives with respect to temperature.

  12. Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2006-09-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

  13. Advanced Techniques for Deploying Reliable and Efficient Access Control: Application to E-healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jaïdi, Faouzi; Labbene-Ayachi, Faten; Bouhoula, Adel

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, e-healthcare is a main advancement and upcoming technology in healthcare industry that contributes to setting up automated and efficient healthcare infrastructures. Unfortunately, several security aspects remain as main challenges towards secure and privacy-preserving e-healthcare systems. From the access control perspective, e-healthcare systems face several issues due to the necessity of defining (at the same time) rigorous and flexible access control solutions. This delicate and irregular balance between flexibility and robustness has an immediate impact on the compliance of the deployed access control policy. To address this issue, the paper defines a general framework to organize thinking about verifying, validating and monitoring the compliance of access control policies in the context of e-healthcare databases. We study the problem of the conformity of low level policies within relational databases and we particularly focus on the case of a medical-records management database defined in the context of a Medical Information System. We propose an advanced solution for deploying reliable and efficient access control policies. Our solution extends the traditional lifecycle of an access control policy and allows mainly managing the compliance of the policy. We refer to an example to illustrate the relevance of our proposal.

  14. Advanced model-based FDIR techniques for aerospace systems: Today challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolghadri, Ali

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses some trends and recent advances in model-based Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) for aerospace systems. The FDIR challenges range from pre-design and design stages for upcoming and new programs, to improvement of the performance of in-service flying systems. For space missions, optimization of flight conditions and safe operation is intrinsically related to GNC (Guidance, Navigation & Control) system of the spacecraft and includes sensors and actuators monitoring. Many future space missions will require autonomous proximity operations including fault diagnosis and the subsequent control and guidance recovery actions. For upcoming and future aircraft, one of the main issues is how early and robust diagnosis of some small and subtle faults could contribute to the overall optimization of aircraft design. This issue would be an important factor for anticipating the more and more stringent requirements which would come in force for future environmentally-friendlier programs. The paper underlines the reasons for a widening gap between the advanced scientific FDIR methods being developed by the academic community and technological solutions demanded by the aerospace industry.

  15. Ecotoxicological assessment of dewatered drinking water treatment residue for environmental recycling.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Wendling, Laura A; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-11-18

    The beneficial recycle of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) in environmental remediation has been demonstrated in many reports. However, the lack of information concerning the potential toxicity of dewatered DWTR hinders its widespread use. The present study examined the ecotoxicity of dewatered aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) DWTR leachates to a green alga, Chlorella vulgaris. Data from the variations of cell density and chlorophyll a content suggested that algal growth in DWTR leachates was inhibited. The algal cellular oxidation stress was initially induced but completely eliminated within 72 h by antioxidant enzymes. The expression of three photosynthesis-related algae genes (psaB, psbC, and rbcL) also temporarily decreased (within 72 h). Moreover, the algal cells showed intact cytomembranes after exposure to DWTR leachates. Further investigation confirmed that inhibition of algal growth was due to DWTR-induced phosphorus (P) deficiency in growth medium, rather than potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and Al) contained in DWTR. Interestingly, the leachates could potentially promote algal growth via increasing the supply of new components (e.g. calcium, kalium, magnesium, and ammonia nitrogen) from DWTR. In summary, based on the algae toxicity test, the dewatered Fe/Al DWTR was nontoxic and its environment recycling does not represent an ecotoxicological risk to algae.

  16. Bioflocculant from pre-treated sludge and its applications in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Ma, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Potentials of alkaline-thermal (ALT) pre-treated sludge as a bioflocculant were studied in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment. When incubated with this ALT pre-treated sludge, dry solids (DS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of typical wastewater activated sludge reached 22.5% and 3.4×10(12)m/kg, respectively, which were much better than that obtained with conventional chemical flocculants. Sludge dewatering was further improved when both the bioflocculant and conventional polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used simultaneously. Charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging were proposed as the reasons for the enhanced performance in the case of the combined use. With swine wastewater, the bioflocculant could remove COD, ammonium and turbidity by 45.2%, 41.8% and 74.6% when incubated with 20mg/L at pH 8.0. This study suggested that the ALT pre-treated sludge has a great potential as an alternative bioflocculant to conventional flocculants in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment.

  17. Investigation of the role of flocculation conditions in recuperative thickening on dewatering performance and biogas production.

    PubMed

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Zhang, Victor; Rollings-Scattergood, Sasha; Latulippe, David R

    2017-01-04

    There is considerable interest in recuperative thickening (RT), the recycling of partially digested solids in an anaerobic digester outlet stream back into the incoming feed, as a 'high-performance' process to increase biogas production, increase system capacity, and improve biosolids stabilization. While polymer flocculation is commonly used in full-scale RT operations, no studies have investigated the effect of flocculation conditions on RT process performance. Our goal was to investigate the effect of polymer type and dosage conditions on dewatering performance and biogas production in a lab-scale RT system. The type of polymer flocculant significantly affected dewatering performance. For example, the 440 LH polymer (low molecular weight (MW) polyacrylamide) demonstrated lower capillary suction time (CST) and filtrate total suspended solids (TSS) values than the C-6267 polymer (high MW polyacrylamide). An examination of the dewatering performance of RT digesters with different polymers found a strong correlation between CST and filtrate TSS. The type of polymer flocculant had no significant effect on biogas productivity or composition; the methane content was greater than 60% in good agreement with typical results. The optimization of the polymer flocculation conditions is a critical task for which the lab-scale RT system used in this work is ideally suited.

  18. [Relationship of evaluation indexes of sludge dewatering performance under different conditioning programs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Shi, Ya-Fei; Li, Ye; He, Shu

    2011-11-01

    Performances of different sludge conditioners are difficult to evaluate due to the use of various evaluation indexes. Taking several traditional sludge conditioners, e.g. PAM, FeCl3 and inorganic composite conditioners as examples and five evaluation indexes include specific resistance to filtration (SRF), capillary suction time (CST), sludge settling performance, water content of sludge cake and dewatering efficiency, were investigated respectively in order to study the correlation among those indexes. The results indicate a significant positive linear correlation between SRF and CST (R2 values are 0.96 and 0.93, respectively) after adding different types of conditioners or different amount of conditioners. While they can precisely reflect plate and frame filter press efficiency, but they fail to predict the effects of centrifugal dewatering. Sludge settling performance presents the similar tendencies with SRF and CST. Since there is only limited correlation rather than strict correspondence between water content of sludge cake and dewatering efficiency. Thus, both factors should be considered synthetically in optimizing dosage performances.

  19. Energy recovery from thermal treatment of dewatered sludge in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingfeng; Dussan, Karla; Monaghan, Rory F D; Zhan, Xinmin

    Sewage sludge is a by-product generated from municipal wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This study examines the conversion of sludge via energy recovery from gasification/combustion for thermal treatment of dewatered sludge. The present analysis is based on a chemical equilibrium model of thermal conversion of previously dewatered sludge with moisture content of 60-80%. Prior to combustion/gasification, sludge is dried to a moisture content of 25-55% by two processes: (1) heat recovered from syngas/flue gas cooling and (2) heat recovered from syngas combustion. The electricity recovered from the combined heat and power process can be reused in syngas cleaning and in the WWT plant. Gas temperature, total heat and electricity recoverable are evaluated using the model. Results show that generation of electricity from dewatered sludge with low moisture content (≤ 70%) is feasible within a self-sufficient sludge treatment process. Optimal conditions for gasification correspond to an equivalence ratio of 2.3 and dried sludge moisture content of 25%. Net electricity generated from syngas combustion can account for 0.071 kWh/m(3) of wastewater treated, which is up to 25.4-28.4% of the WWT plant's total energy consumption.

  20. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites.

  1. Prediction of full-scale dewatering results of sewage sludges by the physical water distribution.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

    2001-01-01

    The dewaterability of sewage sludge can be described by the total solids concentration of the sludge cake and the polymer-demand for conditioning. The total solids concentration of the sludge cake depends on the physical water distribution. The various types of water in sewage sludge are mainly distinguished by the type and the intensity of their physical bonding to the solids. In a sewage sludge suspension four different types of water can be distinguished. These are the free water, which is not bound to the particles, the interstitial water, which is bound by capillary forces between the sludge flocs, the surface water, which is bound by adhesive forces and intracellular water. Only the share of free water can be separated during mechanical dewatering. It can be shown, that by thermo-gravimeteric measurement of the free water content, an exact prediction of full-scale dewatering results is possible. By separation of all free water during centrifugation the maximum dewatering result is reached. Polymer conditioning increases the velocity of the sludge water release, but the free water content is not influenced by this process. Furthermore it is not possible, to replace the measuring of the water distribution by other individual parameters such as ignition loss.

  2. Efficient Calculation of Dewatered and Entrapped Areas Using Hydrodynamic Modeling and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2009-12-01

    River waters downstream of a hydroelectric project are often subject to rapidly changing discharge. Abrupt decreases in discharge can quickly dewater and expose some areas and isolate other areas from the main river channel, potentially stranding or entrapping fish, which often results in mortality. A methodology is described to estimate the areas dewatered or entrapped by a specific reduction in upstream discharge. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to simulate steady flows. Using flow simulation results from the model and a geographic information system (GIS), estimates of dewatered and entrapped areas were made for a wide discharge range. The methodology was applied to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in central Washington State. Results showed that a 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction affected the most area at discharges less than 3400 m$^3$/s. At flows above 3400 m$^3$/s, the affected area by a 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction (about 25 ha) was relatively constant. A 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction at lower flows affected about twice as much area. The methodology and resulting area estimates were, at the time of writing, being used to identify discharge regimes, and associated water surface elevations, that might be expected to minimize adverse impacts on juvenile fall chinook salmon (\\emph{Oncorhynchus tshawytscha}) that rear in the shallow near-shore areas in the Hanford Reach.

  3. Bioelectricity generation and dewatered sludge degradation in microbial capacitive desalination cell.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanyu; Zhao, Qingliang; Na, Xiaolin; Zheng, Zhen; Jiang, Junqiu; Wei, Liangliang; Zhang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new approach for the synergy in bioelectricity generation, desalination and organic waste treatment without additional power input. However, current MDC systems cause salt accumulation in anodic wastewater and sludge. A microbial capacitive desalination cell (MCDC) with dewatered sludge as anodic substrate was developed to address the salt migration problem and improve the sludge recycling value by special designed-membrane assemblies, which consisted of cation exchange membranes (CEMs), layers of activated carbon cloth (ACC), and nickel foam. Experimental results indicated that the maximum power output of 2.06 W/m(3) with open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.942 V was produced in 42 days. When initial NaCl concentration was 2 g/L, the desalinization rate was about 15.5 mg/(L·h) in the first 24 h, indicating that the MCDC reactor was suitable to desalinize the low concentration salt solution rapidly. The conductivity of the anodic substrate decreased during the 42-day operation; the CEM/ACC/Ni assemblies could effectively restrict the salt accumulation in MCDC anode and promote dewatered sludge effective use by optimizing the dewatered sludge properties, such as organic matter, C/N, pH value, and electric conductivity (EC).

  4. Model analysis of effects on water levels at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by construction dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marie, James R.

    1976-01-01

    The computer models were developed to investigate possible hydrologic effects within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by planned dewatering at the adjacent Bailly Nuclear Generator construction site. The model analysis indicated that the planned dewatering would cause a drawdown of about 4 ft under the westernmost pond of the Lakeshore and that this drawdown would cause the pond to go almost dry--less than 0.5 ft of water remaining in about 1 percent of the pond--under average conditions during the 18-month dewatering period. When water levels are below average, as during late July and early August 1974, the pond would go dry in about 5.5 months. However, the pond may not have to go completely dry to damage the ecosystem. If the National Park Service 's independent study determines the minimum pond level at which ecosystem damage would be minimized, the models developed in this study could be used to predict the hydrologic conditions necessary to maintain that level. 

  5. Development of a real-time aeroperformance analysis technique for the X-29A advanced technology demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Hicks, J. W.; Alexander, R. I.

    1988-01-01

    The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator has shown the practicality and advantages of the capability to compute and display, in real time, aeroperformance flight results. This capability includes the calculation of the in-flight measured drag polar, lift curve, and aircraft specific excess power. From these elements many other types of aeroperformance measurements can be computed and analyzed. The technique can be used to give an immediate postmaneuver assessment of data quality and maneuver technique, thus increasing the productivity of a flight program. A key element of this new method was the concurrent development of a real-time in-flight net thrust algorithm, based on the simplified gross thrust method. This net thrust algorithm allows for the direct calculation of total aircraft drag.

  6. Analysis of leading edge and trailing edge cover glass samples before and after treatment with advanced satellite contamination removal techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotaling, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    Two samples from Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0003-4 were analyzed for molecular and particulate contamination prior to and following treatment with advanced satellite contamination removal techniques (CO2 gas/solid jet spray and oxygen ion beam). The pre- and post-cleaning measurements and analyses are presented. The jet spray removed particulates in seconds. The low energy reactive oxygen ion beam removed 5,000 A of photo polymerized organic hydrocarbon contamination in less than 1 hour. Spectroscopic analytical techniques were applied to the analysis of cleaning efficiency including: Fourier transform infrared, Auger, x ray photoemissions, energy dispersive x ray, and ultraviolet/visible. The results of this work suggest that the contamination studied here was due to spacecraft self-contamination enhanced by atomic oxygen plasma dynamics and solar UV radiation. These results also suggest the efficacy for the jet spray and ion beam contamination control technologies for spacecraft optical surfaces.

  7. Development of a real-time aeroperformance analysis technique for the X-29A advanced technology demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Hicks, J. W.; Alexander, R. I.

    1988-01-01

    The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator has shown the practicality and advantages of the capability to compute and display, in real time, aeroperformance flight results. This capability includes the calculation of the in flight measured drag polar, lift curve, and aircraft specific excess power. From these elements, many other types of aeroperformance measurements can be computed and analyzed. The technique can be used to give an immediate postmaneuver assessment of data quality and maneuver technique, thus increasing the productivity of a flight program. A key element of this new method was the concurrent development of a real-time in flight net thrust algorithm, based on the simplified gross thrust method. This net thrust algorithm allows for the direct calculation of total aircraft drag.

  8. Advanced Materials and Fabrication Techniques for the Orion Attitude Control Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Holmes, Richard; O'Dell, John; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy

    2013-01-01

    Rhenium, with its high melting temperature, excellent elevated temperature properties, and lack of a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), is ideally suited for the hot gas components of the ACM (Attitude Control Motor), and other high-temperature applications. However, the high cost of rhenium makes fabricating these components using conventional fabrication techniques prohibitive. Therefore, near-net-shape forming techniques were investigated for producing cost-effective rhenium and rhenium alloy components for the ACM and other propulsion applications. During this investigation, electrochemical forming (EL-Form ) techniques were evaluated for producing the hot gas components. The investigation focused on demonstrating that EL-Form processing techniques could be used to produce the ACM flow distributor. Once the EL-Form processing techniques were established, a representative rhenium flow distributor was fabricated, and samples were harvested for material properties testing at both room and elevated temperatures. As a lower cost and lighter weight alternative to an all-rhenium component, rhenium- coated graphite and carbon-carbon were also evaluated. The rhenium-coated components were thermal-cycle tested to verify that they could withstand the expected thermal loads during service. High-temperature electroforming is based on electrochemical deposition of compact layers of metals onto a mandrel of the desired shape. Mandrels used for electro-deposition of near-net shaped parts are generally fabricated from high-density graphite. The graphite mandrel is easily machined and does not react with the molten electrolyte. For near-net shape components, the inner surface of the electroformed part replicates the polished graphite mandrel. During processing, the mandrel itself becomes the cathode, and scrap or refined refractory metal is the anode. Refractory metal atoms from the anode material are ionized in the molten electrolytic solution, and are deposited

  9. Development of nanomaterial-enabled advanced oxidation techniques for treatment of organic micropollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulton, Rebekah Lynn

    Increasing demand for limited fresh water resources necessitates that alternative water sources be developed. Nonpotable reuse of treated wastewater represents one such alternative. However, the ubiquitous presence of organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents limits use of this resource. Numerous investigations have examined PPCP fate during wastewater treatment, focusing on their removal during conventional and advanced treatment processes. Analysis of influent and effluent data from published studies reveals that at best 1-log10 concentration unit of PPCP removal can generally be achieved with conventional treatment. In contrast, plants employing advanced treatment methods, particularly ozonation and/or membranes, remove most PPCPs often to levels below analytical detection limits. However, membrane treatment is cost prohibitive for many facilities, and ozone treatment can be very selective. Ozone-recalcitrant compounds require the use of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), which utilize highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (*OH) to target resistant pollutants. Due to cost and energy use concerns associated with current AOPs, alternatives such as catalytic ozonation are under investigation. Catalytic ozonation uses substrates such as activated carbon to promote *OH formation during ozonation. Here, we show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) represent another viable substrate, promoting *OH formation during ozonation to levels exceeding activated carbon and equivalent to conventional ozone-based AOPs. Via a series of batch reactions, we observ a strong correlation between *OH formation and MWCNT surface oxygen concentrations. Results suggest that deprotonated carboxyl groups on the CNT surface are integral to their reactivity toward ozone and corresponding *OH formation. From a practical standpoint, we show that industrial grade MWCNTs exhibit similar *OH production as their research

  10. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  11. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques and methods of sulfonamides detection - A review.

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Kochuk, Elena V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Zolotov, Yury A

    2014-11-19

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have been the most widely used antimicrobial drugs for more than 70 years, and their residues in foodstuffs and environmental samples pose serious health hazards. For this reason, sensitive and specific methods for the quantification of these compounds in numerous matrices have been developed. This review intends to provide an updated overview of the recent trends over the past five years in sample preparation techniques and methods for detecting SAs. Examples of the sample preparation techniques, including liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and QuEChERS, are given. Different methods of detecting the SAs present in food and feed and in environmental, pharmaceutical and biological samples are discussed.

  12. Head up and head mounted display performance improvements through advanced techniques in the manipulation of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisely, Paul L.

    2009-05-01

    Since their introduction a number of years ago, head up and helmet mounted displays have undergone continuous and intensive development in aerospace applications. To date, the designs have been performed using geometric optic design techniques and have progressed to the point where very little further improvement in their characteristics is possible. This paper describes a display realised by the use of new optical design techniques based on wave-guiding principles that have enabled substantial further significant improvements to be made. These improvements are not only in respect of size, weight and volume for a given optical performance, but also in the optical characteristics that currently limit the usability of such displays in many applications. Displays that have been realised and tested through these methods are described and their performance in laboratory and flight trials discussed, together with considerations for further progress in their development.

  13. Temperature and pressure measurement techniques for an advanced turbine test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, F. G.; Cochran, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    A high pressure, high-temperature turbine test facility constructed for use in turbine cooling research is described. Several recently developed temperature and pressure measuring techniques are used in this facility. The measurement techniques, their status, previous applications and some results are discussed. Noncontact surface temperature measurements are made by optical methods. Radiation pyrometry principles combined with photoelectric scanning are used for rotating components and infrared photography for stationary components. Contact (direct) temperature and pressure measurements on rotating components are expected to be handled with an 80 channel rotary data package which mounts on and rotates with the turbine shaft at speeds up to 17,500 rpm. The data channels are time-division multiplexed and converted to digital words in the data package. A rotary transformer couples power and digital data to and from the shaft.

  14. Carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia B with more advanced techniques.

    PubMed

    Caprino, D; Acquila, M; Mori, P G

    1993-12-01

    We used the PCR to amplify three polymorphic regions of Factor IX gene on 35 Italian families: DdeI intron 1, Mn1I exon f, and the polymorphism HhaI located 8 kb at the 3' end of FIX gene. We analyzed the Mn1I and HhaI markers on DGGE and DdeI polymorphism on agarose gel. We reached an informativity of 78% and we found one mutation at codon 145 (exon f) during the screening for Mn1I polymorphism. Furthermore, we performed 16 prenatal diagnoses on chorionic villus samples; five were female and 11 male. Four were uninformative three healthy and one affected male fetus were recognized by PCR techniques, two healthy and one affected fetus by Southern analysis. In three pregnant women examined for the first time during pregnancy, the PCR technique allowed us to perform a rapid diagnosis of noncarrier status, avoiding the fetal sampling procedures.

  15. Advanced techniques for free-space optical quantum cryptography over water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alexander D.; Christensen, Bradley; Kwiat, Paul G.

    2016-03-01

    Free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) over water (e.g., ship to ship) may be limited by ship motion and atmospheric effects, such as mode distortion and beam wander due to turbulence. We report on a technique which reduces noise by excluding spatial modes which are less likely to contain QKD signal photons and experimentally demonstrate an improvement in QKD key generation rates in various noise and turbulence regimes.

  16. Exploring the theoretical basis of nursing using advanced techniques of concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Morse, J M

    1995-03-01

    In this article, the traditional methods of concept development are critiqued, and alternative methods that use qualitative methods of inquiry are presented. Variations of concept development techniques appropriate to the maturity of the concept being explored are then described, including methods for concept delineation, concept comparison, concept clarification, concept correction, and concept identification. To illustrate the application of concept development methods to nursing theory, a research program to delineate the construct of comfort is described.

  17. An Evaluation of an Advanced System Analysis Technique for Modeling a DoD Training Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    on software engineering at the Massa- chusetts Institute of Technology . SotTech has applied the technique. to a wide range of planning, analysis, and...of various Commander’s Conferences and Technology Symposiums sponsored by TIADOC in 1975 and 1976. While this overview may now be slightly dated, it...this group. 1. The Army’s instructional strategies were not as cost- efficient as some more modern instructional technologies . 2. School personnel

  18. Advanced three-dimensional electron microscopy techniques in the quest for better structural and functional materials

    PubMed Central

    Schryvers, D; Cao, S; Tirry, W; Idrissi, H; Van Aert, S

    2013-01-01

    After a short review of electron tomography techniques for materials science, this overview will cover some recent results on different shape memory and nanostructured metallic systems obtained by various three-dimensional (3D) electron imaging techniques. In binary Ni–Ti, the 3D morphology and distribution of Ni4Ti3 precipitates are investigated by using FIB/SEM slice-and-view yielding 3D data stacks. Different quantification techniques will be presented including the principal ellipsoid for a given precipitate, shape classification following a Zingg scheme, particle distribution function, distance transform and water penetration. The latter is a novel approach to quantifying the expected matrix transformation in between the precipitates. The different samples investigated include a single crystal annealed with and without compression yielding layered and autocatalytic precipitation, respectively, and a polycrystal revealing different densities and sizes of the precipitates resulting in a multistage transformation process. Electron tomography was used to understand the interaction between focused ion beam-induced Frank loops and long dislocation structures in nanobeams of Al exhibiting special mechanical behaviour measured by on-chip deposition. Atomic resolution electron tomography is demonstrated on Ag nanoparticles in an Al matrix. PMID:27877554

  19. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  20. VCM-OFDM technique for advanced space communications system with high spectral efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jionghui; Zhou, Qing; Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Chen

    2016-11-01

    The development of precise scientific payloads brings higher demand on the efficiency of space communications system to transmit the increasing volume of scientific data. Aiming to this issue, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is chosen for its inherent capability of high-rate data transmission. Further, considering the dynamic link condition due to satellite orbital motion, we propose a new technique which combines Variable Coding Modulation (VCM) with OFDM to enhance the communication link spectral efficiency with required transmission reliability. With VCM-OFDM technique, the channel coding and modulation mode can be variable with time according to the link conditions, in order to fit the link budget curve and maintain a relatively fixed link margin. Hence, link resource waste can be reduced and throughput can be remarkably improved. Considering that OFDM-based systems are sensitive to Doppler shifts/spread, the coding and modulation mode (CODMOD) selection should be optimized subject to this scenario. This paper introduces the architecture of near-earth space data transmission system based on VCM-OFDM technique. The Doppler influence is analyzed through simulation and the CODMOD selection algorithm is discussed. The results prove the high performance on spectral efficiency enhancement of VCM-OFDM by comparison with several existing alternative methods.

  1. Analysis of liquid penetration in paper structures by advanced imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Beth Ann

    Ink penetration in paper is influenced by the structure of the interfiber and intrafiber void spaces and the surface characteristics of the fibers. This dissertation describes new techniques to determine the influence of the fiber surfaces and the cell wall internal structure on ink spreading and penetration. The location and penetration of ink is demonstrated by optical, scanning electron, confocal laser scanning, and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy methods. Ink penetration, as determined by each of these methods, is compared. The hemicelluloses of the fiber's internal void surfaces can be determined by immunochemical labeling in conjunction with TEM imaging. It is demonstrated through the use of primary monoclonal antibodies with specificity for hemicelluloses with a secondary colloidal gold marker. This technique provides a way to visualize the location of hemicelluloses inside the cell wall and on the surfaces of nanopores. Combining paper structure with fluid spreading and wicking models can identify the influence of fiber surfaces and the cell wall on drop absorption. Ink spreading coefficients for such modeling are determined through a series of designed experiments (DoE) and comparisons to a theoretical sessile drop. Application: Microscopic techniques used to determine biological and physical locations in plants on a fibrous level also can be used to study ink diffusion, water uptake, and other characteristics of fibrous material. Key Words: Immunolableing of hemicelluloses, DoE, drop spread modeling, ink diffusion.

  2. Methods for Quantification of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Environmental Media: Current Techniques and Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Collender, Philip A; Kirby, Amy E; Addiss, David G; Freeman, Matthew C; Remais, Justin V

    2015-12-01

    Limiting the environmental transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), which infect 1.5 billion people worldwide, will require sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective methods to detect and quantify STHs in the environment. We review the state-of-the-art of STH quantification in soil, biosolids, water, produce, and vegetation with regard to four major methodological issues: environmental sampling; recovery of STHs from environmental matrices; quantification of recovered STHs; and viability assessment of STH ova. We conclude that methods for sampling and recovering STHs require substantial advances to provide reliable measurements for STH control. Recent innovations in the use of automated image identification and developments in molecular genetic assays offer considerable promise for improving quantification and viability assessment.

  3. Application of Advanced Process Control techniques to a pusher type reheating furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoli, S. M.; Pepe, C.; Barboni, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an Advanced Process Control system aimed at controlling and optimizing a pusher type reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is proposed. The designed controller replaced the previous control system, based on PID controllers manually conducted by process operators. A two-layer Model Predictive Control architecture has been adopted that, exploiting a chemical, physical and economic modelling of the process, overcomes the limitations of plant operators’ mental model and knowledge. In addition, an ad hoc decoupling strategy has been implemented, allowing the selection of the manipulated variables to be used for the control of each single process variable. Finally, in order to improve the system flexibility and resilience, the controller has been equipped with a supervision module. A profitable trade-off between conflicting specifications, e.g. safety, quality and production constraints, energy saving and pollution impact, has been guaranteed. Simulation tests and real plant results demonstrated the soundness and the reliability of the proposed system.

  4. Advanced Fluid--Structure Interaction Techniques in Application to Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobenko, Artem

    During the last several decades engineers and scientists put significant effort into developing reliable and efficient wind turbines. As a wind power production demands grow, the wind energy research and development need to be enhanced with high-precision methods and tools. These include time-dependent, full-scale, complex-geometry advanced computational simulations at large-scale. Those, computational analysis of wind turbines, including fluid-structure interaction simulations (FSI) at full scale is important for accurate and reliable modeling, as well as blade failure prediction and design optimization. In current dissertation the FSI framework is applied to most challenging class of problems, such as large scale horizontal axis wind turbines and vertical axis wind turbines. The governing equations for aerodynamics and structural mechanics together with coupled formulation are explained in details. The simulations are performed for different wind turbine designs, operational conditions and validated against field-test and wind tunnel experimental data.

  5. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  6. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the preterm brain: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Tao, Joshua D; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    Brain development and brain injury in preterm infants are areas of active research. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a non-invasive tool applicable to both animal models and human infants, provides a wealth of information on this process by bridging the gap between histology (available from animal studies) and developmental outcome (available from clinical studies). Moreover, MRI also offers information regarding diagnosis and prognosis in the clinical setting. Recent advances in MR methods - diffusion tensor imaging, volumetric segmentation, surface based analysis, functional MRI, and quantitative metrics - further increase the sophistication of information available regarding both brain structure and function. In this review, we discuss the basics of these newer methods as well as their application to the study of premature infants.

  7. Advanced space power requirements and techniques. Task 1: Mission projections and requirements. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop projections of the NASA, DoD, and civil space power requirements for the 1980-1995 time period; (2) identify specific areas of application and space power subsystem type needs for each prospective user; (3) document the supporting and historical base, including relevant cost related measures of performance; and (4) quantify the benefits of specific technology projection advancements. The initial scope of the study included: (1) construction of likely models for NASA, DoD, and civil space systems; (2) generation of a number of future scenarios; (3) extraction of time phased technology requirements based on the scenarios; and (4) cost/benefit analyses of some of the technologies identified.

  8. Methods for quantification of soil-transmitted helminths in environmental media: current techniques and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Collender, Philip A.; Kirby, Amy E.; Addiss, David G.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Remais, Justin V.

    2015-01-01

    Limiting the environmental transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH), which infect 1.5 billion people worldwide, will require sensitive, reliable, and cost effective methods to detect and quantify STH in the environment. We review the state of the art of STH quantification in soil, biosolids, water, produce, and vegetation with respect to four major methodological issues: environmental sampling; recovery of STH from environmental matrices; quantification of recovered STH; and viability assessment of STH ova. We conclude that methods for sampling and recovering STH require substantial advances to provide reliable measurements for STH control. Recent innovations in the use of automated image identification and developments in molecular genetic assays offer considerable promise for improving quantification and viability assessment. PMID:26440788

  9. Advanced sensing and control techniques to facilitate semi-autonomous decommissioning. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Geist, R.M.; Dawson, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    'This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology. This report summarizes work after approximately 1.5 years of a 3-year project. The autonomous, non-contact creation of a virtual environment from an existing, real environment (virtualization) is an integral part of the workcell functionality. This requires that the virtual world be geometrically correct. To this end, the authors have encountered severe sensitivity in quadric estimation. As a result, alternative procedures for geometric rendering, iterative correction approaches, new calibration methods and associated hardware, and calibration quality examination software have been developed. Following geometric rendering, the authors have focused on improving the color and texture recognition components of the system. In particular, the authors have moved beyond first-order illumination modeling to include higher order diffuse effects. This allows us to combine the surface geometric information, obtained from the laser projection and surface recognition components of the system, with a stereo camera image. Low-level controllers for Puma 560 robotic arms were designed and implemented using QNX. The resulting QNX/PC based low-level robot control system is called QRobot. A high-level trajectory generator and application programming interface (API) as well as a new, flexible robot control API was required. Force/torque sensors and interface hardware have been identified and ordered. A simple 3-D OpenGL-based graphical Puma 560 robot simulator was developed and interfaced with ARCL and RCCL to assist in the development of robot motion programs.'

  10. Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F.; Poore III, Willis P.; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2014-07-30

    An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.

  11. Comparative evaluation of microbial and chemical leaching processes for heavy metal removal from dewatered metal plating sludge.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Belgin; Sari, Bulent

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to evaluate the application of bioleaching technique involving Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans to recover heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr) in dewatered metal plating sludge (with no sulfide or sulfate compounds). The effect of some conditional parameters (i.e. pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), sulfate production) and operational parameters (i.e. pulp density of the sludge and agitation time) were investigated in a 3l completely mixed batch (CMB) reactor. The metal recovery yields in bioleaching were also compared with chemical leaching of the sludge waste using commercial inorganic acids (sulfuric acids and ferric chloride). The leaching of heavy metals increased with decreasing of pH and increasing of ORP and sulfate production during the bioleaching experiment. Optimum pulp density for bioleaching was observed at 2% (w/v), and leaching efficiency decreased with increasing pulp density in bioleaching experiments. Maximum metal solubilization (97% of Zn, 96% of Cu, 93% of Ni, 84% of Pb, 67% of Cd and 34% of Cr) was achieved at pH 2, solids contents of 2% (w/v), and a reaction temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C during the bioleaching process. The maximum removal efficiencies of 72% and 79% Zn, 70% and 75% Cu, 69% and 73% Ni, 57% and 70% Pb, 55% and 65% Cd, and 11% and 22% Cr were also attained with the chemical leaching using sulfuric acids and ferric chloride, respectively, at pH 2, solids contents of 2% (w/v), and a reaction temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C during the acid leaching processes. The rates of metal leaching for bioleaching and chemical leaching are well described by a kinetic equation related to time. Although bioleaching generally requires a longer period of operation compared to chemical leaching, it achieves higher removal efficiency for heavy metals. The efficiency of leaching processes can be arranged in descending order as follows: bioleaching>ferric chloride leaching>sulfuric acid

  12. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) for monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill patients: a simple, fast and inexpensive automated technique.

    PubMed

    Selmeci, László; Seres, Leila; Antal, Magda; Lukács, Júlia; Regöly-Mérei, Andrea; Acsády, György

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in many human pathological processes. Although there are numerous methods available for the assessment of oxidative stress, most of them are still not easily applicable in a routine clinical laboratory due to the complex methodology and/or lack of automation. In research into human oxidative stress, the simplification and automation of techniques represent a key issue from a laboratory point of view at present. In 1996 a novel oxidative stress biomarker, referred to as advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), was detected in the plasma of chronic uremic patients. Here we describe in detail an automated version of the originally published microplate-based technique that we adapted for a Cobas Mira Plus clinical chemistry analyzer. AOPP reference values were measured in plasma samples from 266 apparently healthy volunteers (university students; 81 male and 185 female subjects) with a mean age of 21.3 years (range 18-33). Over a period of 18 months we determined AOPP concentrations in more than 300 patients in our department. Our experiences appear to demonstrate that this technique is especially suitable for monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill patients (sepsis, reperfusion injury, heart failure) even at daily intervals, since AOPP exhibited rapid responses in both directions. We believe that the well-established relationship between AOPP response and induced damage makes this simple, fast and inexpensive automated technique applicable in daily routine laboratory practice for assessing and monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill or other patients.

  13. Two-Person Technique of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia with an Advanced Endoscopist and a Thoracic Surgeon: Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jegadeesan, Ramprasad; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Lopez, Rocio; Murthy, Sudish C.; Raja, Siva

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. We initiated peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) utilizing a two-person technique with combination of an advanced endoscopist and a thoracic surgeon with complementary skills. Our aim was to determine the feasibility and outcomes in initial 20 patients. Methods. In this observational study, main outcomes measured were therapeutic success in relieving symptoms (Eckardt score < 3), decrease in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressures, improvement in emptying on timed barium esophagogram (TBE), and complications. Results. POEM was successful in all 20 patients with a mean operative time of 140.1 + 32.9 minutes. Eckardt symptom scores decreased significantly at two-month follow-up (6.4 + 2.9 versus 0.25 + 0.45, p < 0.001). Both basal and residual LES pressures decreased significantly (28.2 + 14.1 mmHg versus 12.8 + 6.3 and 22.4 + 11.3 versus 6.3 + 3.4 mmHg, p = 0.025 and <0.001, resp.). Barium column height at 5 minutes on TBE reduced from 6.8 + 4.9 cm to 2.3 + 2.9 cm (p = 0.05). Two patients (10%) had mucosal perforations and one had delayed bleeding (5%). Conclusions. Two-person technique of POEM with combination of an advanced endoscopist and a thoracic surgeon is highly successful with low risk of complications. PMID:27630977

  14. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  15. Advanced definition study for the determination of atmospheric ozone using the satellite eclipse technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, R.; Preski, R. J.; Kierstead, F. H., Jr.; Doll, F. C.; Wight, D. T.; Romick, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate the potential for remote ground-based measurement of upper atmospheric ozone by determining the absorption ratio of selected narrow bands of sunlight as reflected by satellites while passing into eclipse, using the NASA Mobile Satellite Photometric Observatory (MOSPO). Equipment modifications to provide optimum performance were analyzed and recommendations were made for improvements to the system to accomplish this. These included new sensor tubes, pulse counting detection circuitry, filters, beam splitters and associated optical revision, along with an automatic tracking capability plus corresponding operational techniques which should extend the overall measurement capability to include use of satellites down to 5th magnitude.

  16. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  17. Advanced Technologies for the Improvement of Spray Application Techniques in Spanish Viticulture: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Emilio; Arnó, Jaume; Llorens, Jordi; Sanz, Ricardo; Llop, Jordi; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.; Gallart, Montserrat; Escolà, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Spraying techniques have been undergoing continuous evolution in recent decades. This paper presents part of the research work carried out in Spain in the field of sensors for characterizing vineyard canopies and monitoring spray drift in order to improve vineyard spraying and make it more sustainable. Some methods and geostatistical procedures for mapping vineyard parameters are proposed, and the development of a variable rate sprayer is described. All these technologies are interesting in terms of adjusting the amount of pesticides applied to the target canopy. PMID:24451462

  18. Development of techniques for advanced optical contamination measurement with internal reflection spectroscopy, phase 1, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring volatile contaminants in a large space simulation chamber using techniques of internal reflection spectroscopy was demonstrated analytically and experimentally. The infrared spectral region was selected as the operational spectral range in order to provide unique identification of the contaminants along with sufficient sensitivity to detect trace contaminant concentrations. It was determined theoretically that a monolayer of the contaminants could be detected and identified using optimized experimental procedures. This ability was verified experimentally. Procedures were developed to correct the attenuated total reflectance spectra for thick sample distortion. However, by using two different element designs the need for such correction can be avoided.

  19. Advanced Fabrication Techniques for Precisely Controlled Micro and Nano Scale Environments for Complex Tissue Regeneration and Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Benjamin

    As modern medicine advances, it is still very challenging to cure joint defects due to their poor inherent regenerative capacity, complex stratified architecture, and disparate biomechanical properties. The current clinical standard for catastrophic or late stage joint degradation is a total joint implant, where the damaged joint is completely excised and replaced with a metallic or artificial joint. However, these procedures still only lasts for 10-15 years, and there are hosts of recovery complications which can occur. Thus, these studies have sought to employ advanced biomaterials and scaffold fabricated techniques to effectively regrow joint tissue, instead of merely replacing it with artificial materials. We can hypothesize here that the inclusion of biomimetic and bioactive nanomaterials with highly functional electrospun and 3D printed scaffold can improve physical characteristics (mechanical strength, surface interactions and nanotexture) enhance cellular growth and direct stem cell differentiation for bone, cartilage and vascular growth as well as cancer metastasis modeling. Nanomaterial inclusion and controlled 3D printed features effectively increased nano surface roughness, Young's Modulus and provided effective flow paths for simulated arterial blood. All of the approaches explored proved highly effective for increasing cell growth, as a result of increasing micro-complexity and nanomaterial incorporation. Additionally, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation, cell migration, cell to cell interaction and vascular formation were enhanced. Finally, growth-factor(gf)-loaded polymer nanospheres greatly improved vascular cell behavior, and provided a highly bioactive scaffold for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) co-culture and bone formation. In conclusion, electrospinning and 3D printing when combined effectively with biomimetic and bioactive nanomaterials (i.e. carbon nanomaterials, collagen, nHA, polymer

  20. Overview: full scale experience of the SHARON process for treatment of rejection water of digested sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, R; Mulder, J W; Uijterlinde, C A; Loosdrecht, M C

    2001-01-01

    A SHARON system has been constructed at the Utrecht WWTP and at the Rotterdam Dokhaven WWTP. In the SHARON process rejection water from dewatering of digested sludge is treated for N-removal. It concerns a high active process operating without sludge retention. Due to differences in growth rate nitrite oxidisers can be washed out of the system while ammonia oxidisers are maintained, resulting in N-removal over nitrite. The SHARON process was selected in competition with several other techniques. The feed of a SHARON system is concentrated, with ammonia concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 g N/l. The results show that conversion rates of 90% are well possible with N-removal mainly via the nitrite route. The process was shown to be stable. Due to the high ammonium influent concentrations pH control is of great importance, preventing process inhibitions. The acidifying effect of nitrification can be compensated completely by CO2 stripping during aeration and by denitrification. Heat production by biological conversions is significant, due to the high inlet concentrations, and contributes to the optimal operating temperature of 30-40 degrees C.

  1. Full-scale application of the SHARON process for treatment of rejection water of digested sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Mulder, J W; van Loosdrecht, M C; Hellinga, C; van Kempen, R

    2001-01-01

    At the Rotterdam Dokhaven WWTP the first full-scale application of the SHARON process has been constructed. In the SHARON process, rejection water from dewatering of digested sludge is treated for N-removal. It concerns a highly active process operating without sludge retention. The single tank reactor is intermittently aerated. Due to differences in growth rate nitrite oxidisers are washed out of the system while ammonia oxidisers can be maintained, resulting in N-removal over nitrite. The SHARON process has been selected after comparison with several other techniques. The feed of the SHARON tank is concentrated, with ammonia concentrations over 1 g N/l. The first results show that conversion rates of 90% are quite possible with N-removal mainly via the nitrite route. The process was shown to be stable. Due to the high inlet concentrations pH control is of great importance, preventing process inhibitions. The acidifying effect of nitrification can be compensated completely by CO2 stripping during aeration and by denitrification. Heat production by biological conversions appeared to be significant, due to the high inlet concentrations, and contributes to the optimal operating temperature of 30-40 degrees C.

  2. Performance and Advanced Data Placement Techniques with Ceph's Distributed Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.

    2016-10-01

    The STAR online computing environment is a demanding concentrated multipurpose compute system with the objective to obtain maximum throughput with process concurrency. Motivation for extending the STAR online compute farm from a simple job processing tool for data taking, into a multipurpose resource equipped with a large storage system would lead any dedicated resources to become an extremely efficient and an attractive multi-purpose facility. To achieve this goal, our compute farm is using the Ceph distributed storage system which has proven to be an agile solution due to its effective POSIX interface and excelling its object storage with IO concurrency. With this we have taken our cluster one step further in terms of IO performance by investigating and leveraging new technologies and key features of Ceph. With the acquisition of a 10Gb backbone network we have ensured to eliminate the network as a limitation. With further acquisition of large fast drives (1TB SSDs) we will show how one can customize the data placement options Ceph has to offer such as primary affinity, mounting OSD journals on SSDs, and Cache Tiering along with non-Ceph related local disk caching techniques. We will discuss the latest performance results along with the expected results by using each technique. We hope this paper will serve the community's interest for the Ceph distributed storage solution.

  3. Nanosatellites in LEO and beyond: Advanced Radiation protection techniques for COTS-based spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selčan, David; Kirbiš, Gregor; Kramberger, Iztok

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an approach for implementing radiation protection FDIR (Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery) techniques designed especially for nanosatellites, capable of ensuring reliable operation in harsh orbits using COTS (Commercial off the Shelf) components. The radiation environment, as encountered by nanosatellites utilizing Flash-based FPGAs in orbits higher than Low Earth Orbit, is analyzed, primarily focusing on SEE (Single Event Effects). In order to assure reliable operation, the FDIR policy is split into two levels: the Low Level FDIR which ensures that no permanent damage occurs to the satellite's electronics, which then allows the use of a High Level FDIR tasked with maintaining high availability. A hierarchical approach, consisting of three types of current limiters in combination with watchdog timers and fault tolerant logic implemented inside a flash-based FPGA is proposed for the Low Level FDIR. The impacts of various radiation-induced faults are analyzed with respect to how the FDIR techniques mitigate them. The proposed current limiters and watchdog timers have been implemented and evaluated for suitability of use with the hierarchical FDIR policy. In order to decrease the impacts on the size and weight footprints, the current limiters were implemented as stacked 3D modules.

  4. Advanced numerical techniques for accurate unsteady simulations of a wingtip vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shakeel

    A numerical technique is developed to simulate the vortices associated with stationary and flapping wings. The Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are used over an unstructured grid. The present work assesses the locations of the origins of vortex generation, models those locations and develops a systematic mesh refinement strategy to simulate vortices more accurately using the URANS model. The vortex center plays a key role in the analysis of the simulation data. A novel approach to locating a vortex center is also developed referred to as the Max-Max criterion. Experimental validation of the simulated vortex from a stationary NACA0012 wing is achieved. The tangential velocity along the core of the vortex falls within five percent of the experimental data in the case of the stationary NACA0012 simulation. The wing surface pressure coefficient also matches with the experimental data. The refinement techniques are then focused on unsteady simulations of pitching and dual-mode wing flapping. Tip vortex strength, location, and wing surface pressure are analyzed. Links to vortex behavior and wing motion are inferred. Key words: vortex, tangential velocity, Cp, vortical flow, unsteady vortices, URANS, Max-Max, Vortex center

  5. Advanced techniques for energy-efficient industrial-scale continuous chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    DeCarli, J.P. II ); Carta, G. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Byers, C.H. )

    1989-11-01

    Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. the technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications. 43 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Advanced techniques for neoclassical tearing mode control in DIII-Da)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, F. A. G.; Austin, M. E.; La Haye, R. J.; Lohr, J.; Prater, R.; Strait, E. J.; Welander, A. S.

    2009-10-01

    Two techniques were developed at DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 64 (2002)] to tackle ITER-specific aspects of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) control, namely, (1) the relatively small size of the rotating islands, smaller than the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) deposition region, and (2) the increased tendency of the islands, compared to present devices, to lock to the wall or to the residual error field, in a position not necessarily accessible to ECCD. Modulated ECCD is known to suppress small islands more efficiently, when "broad," than continuous ECCD. At DIII-D, a NTM of poloidal/toroidal mode numbers m /n=3/2 was completely stabilized by a new technique where oblique electron cyclotron emission acted at the same time as an indicator of good alignment between ECCD and the island, and as a waveform generator, for modulation in synch and in phase with the island O-point. In another experiment, after locking in an unfavorable position, a 2/1 island was steered by externally generated magnetic perturbations, brought in the view of the gyrotrons and partly stabilized by ECCD in the island O-point. Magnetic perturbations were also used to sustain and control the mode rotation, which has the potential for an easier ECCD modulation.

  7. Probing ternary solvent effect in high Voc polymer solar cells using advanced AFM techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Chao; Soleman, Mikhael; Lorenzo, Josie; ...

    2016-01-25

    This work describes a simple method to develop a high Voc low band gap PSCs. In addition, two new atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoscale characterization techniques to study the surface morphology and physical properties of the structured active layer are introduced. With the help of ternary solvent processing of the active layer and C60 buffer layer, a bulk heterojunction PSC with Voc more than 0.9 V and conversion efficiency 7.5% is developed. In order to understand the fundamental properties of the materials ruling the performance of the PSCs tested, AFM-based nanoscale characterization techniques including Pulsed-Force-Mode AFM (PFM-AFM) and Mode-Synthesizing AFMmore » (MSAFM) are introduced. Interestingly, MSAFM exhibits high sensitivity for direct visualization of the donor–acceptor phases in the active layer of the PSCs. Lastly, conductive-AFM (cAFM) studies reveal local variations in conductivity in the donor and acceptor phases as well as a significant increase in photocurrent in the PTB7:ICBA sample obtained with the ternary solvent processing.« less

  8. Advanced radiation techniques for inspection of diesel engine combustion chamber materials components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-09

    Heavy duty truck engines must meet stringent life cycle cost and regulatory requirements. Meeting these requirements has resulted in convergence on 4-stroke 6-in-line, turbocharged, and after-cooled engines with direct-injection combustion systems. These engines provide much higher efficiencies (42%, fuel consumption 200 g/kW-hr) than automotive engines (31%, fuel consumption 270 g/kW-hr), but at higher initial cost. Significant near-term diesel engine improvements are necessary and are spurred by continuing competitive, Middle - East oil problems and Congressional legislation. As a result of these trends and pressures, Caterpillar has been actively pursuing a low-fuel consumption engine research program with emphasis on product quality through process control and product inspection. The goal of this project is to combine the nondestructive evaluation and computational resources and expertise available at LLNL with the diesel engine and manufacturing expertise of the Caterpillar Corporation to develop in-process monitoring and inspection techniques for diesel engine combustion chamber components and materials. Early development of these techniques will assure the optimization of the manufacturing process by design/inspection interface. The transition from the development stage to the manufacturing stage requires a both a thorough understanding of the processes and a way of verifying conformance to process standards. NDE is one of the essential tools in accomplishing both elements and in this project will be integrated with Caterpillar`s technological and manufacturing expertise to accomplish the project goals.

  9. A hybrid numerical technique for predicting the aerodynamic and acoustic fields of advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homicz, G. F.; Moselle, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A hybrid numerical procedure is presented for the prediction of the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of advanced turboprops. A hybrid scheme is proposed which in principle leads to a consistent simultaneous prediction of both fields. In the inner flow a finite difference method, the Approximate-Factorization Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme, is used to solve the nonlinear Euler equations. In the outer flow the linearized acoustic equations are solved via a Boundary-Integral Equation (BIE) method. The two solutions are iteratively matched across a fictitious interface in the flow so as to maintain continuity. At convergence the resulting aerodynamic load prediction will automatically satisfy the appropriate free-field boundary conditions at the edge of the finite difference grid, while the acoustic predictions will reflect the back-reaction of the radiated field on the magnitude of the loading source terms, as well as refractive effects in the inner flow. The equations and logic needed to match the two solutions are developed and the computer program implementing the procedure is described. Unfortunately, no converged solutions were obtained, due to unexpectedly large running times. The reasons for this are discussed and several means to alleviate the situation are suggested.

  10. Pluripotent stem cell derivation and differentiation toward cardiac muscle: novel techniques and advances in patent literature.

    PubMed

    Quattrocelli, Mattia; Thorrez, Lieven; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2013-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cells hold unprecedented potential for regenerative medicine, disease modeling and drug screening. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), standard model for pluripotency studies, have been recently flanked by induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs are obtained from somatic cells via epigenetic and transcriptional reprogramming, overcoming ESC-related ethical issues and enabling the possibility of donor-matching pluripotent cell lines. Since the European Court of Justice banned patents involving embryo disaggregation to generate human ESCs, iPSCs can now fuel the willingness of European companies to invest in treatments based on stem cells. Moreover, iPSCs share many unique features of ESCs, such as unlimited self-renewal potential and broad differentiation capability, even though iPSCs seem more susceptible to genomic instability and display epigenetic biases as compared to ESCs. Both ESCs and iPSCs have been intensely investigated for cardiomyocyte production and cardiac muscle regeneration, both in human and animal models. In vitro and in vivo studies are continuously expanding and refining this field via genetic manipulation and cell conditioning, trying to achieve standard and reproducible products, eligible for clinical and biopharmaceutical scopes. This review focuses on the recently growing body of patents, concerning technical advances in production, expansion and cardiac differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs.

  11. The Synergy Between Total Scattering and Advanced Simulation Techniques: Quantifying Geopolymer Gel Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    White, Claire; Bloomer, Breaunnah E.; Provis, John L.; Henson, Neil J.; Page, Katharine L.

    2012-05-16

    With the ever increasing demands for technologically advanced structural materials, together with emerging environmental consciousness due to climate change, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to proven mechanical engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted (approximately 80% less CO2 emitted compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of the molecular changes responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerization process. Here, in-situ total scattering measurements in the form of X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction of metakaolin/slag alkali-activated geopolymer binders, including the effects of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerization reaction. Restricting quantification of the kinetics to the initial ten hours of reaction does not enable elucidation of the true extent of the reaction, but using X-ray PDF data obtained after 128 days of reaction enables more accurate determination of the initial extent of reaction. The synergies between the in-situ X-ray PDF data and simulations conducted by multiscale density functional theory-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo analysis are outlined, particularly with regard to the potential for the X-ray data to provide a time scale for kinetic analysis of the extent of reaction obtained from the multiscale simulation methodology.

  12. An educational training simulator for advanced perfusion techniques using a high-fidelity virtual patient model.

    PubMed

    Tokaji, Megumi; Ninomiya, Shinji; Kurosaki, Tatsuya; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Sueda, Taijiro

    2012-12-01

    The operation of cardiopulmonary bypass procedure requires an advanced skill in both physiological and mechanical knowledge. We developed a virtual patient simulator system using a numerical cardiovascular regulation model to manage perfusion crisis. This article evaluates the ability of the new simulator to prevent perfusion crisis. It combined short-term baroreflex regulation of venous capacity, vascular resistance, heart rate, time-varying elastance of the heart, and plasma-refilling with a simple lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system. The combination of parameters related to baroreflex regulation was calculated using clinical hemodynamic data. We examined the effect of differences in autonomous-nerve control parameter settings on changes in blood volume and hemodynamic parameters and determined the influence of the model on operation of the control arterial line flow and blood volume during the initiation and weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Typical blood pressure (BP) changes (hypertension, stable, and hypotension) were reproducible using a combination of four control parameters that can be estimated from changes in patient physiology, BP, and blood volume. This simulation model is a useful educational tool to learn the recognition and management skills of extracorporeal circulation. Identification method for control parameter can be applied for diagnosis of heart failure.

  13. Advanced Image Acquisition and Analytical Techniques for Studies of Living Cells and Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Franek, Michal; Suchánková, Jana; Sehnalová, Petra; Krejčí, Jana; Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Večeřa, Josef; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Bártová, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Studies on fixed samples or genome-wide analyses of nuclear processes are useful for generating snapshots of a cell population at a particular time point. However, these experimental approaches do not provide information at the single-cell level. Genome-wide studies cannot assess variability between individual cells that are cultured in vitro or originate from different pathological stages. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence are fundamental experimental approaches in clinical laboratories and are also widely used in basic research. However, the fixation procedure may generate artifacts and prevents monitoring of the dynamics of nuclear processes. Therefore, live-cell imaging is critical for studying the kinetics of basic nuclear events, such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and DNA repair. This review is focused on the advanced microscopy analyses of the cells, with a particular focus on live cells. We note some methodological innovations and new options for microscope systems that can also be used to study tissue sections. Cornerstone methods for the biophysical research of living cells, such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, are also discussed, as are studies on the effects of radiation at the individual cellular level.

  14. Advanced imaging techniques in the therapeutic response of transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Lin; Xu, Hao; Peng, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) can significantly improve the survival rate of patients with HCC and is the first treatment choice for patients who are not suitable for surgical resections. The evaluation of the response to TACE treatment affects not only the assessment of the therapy efficacy but also the development of the next step in the treatment plan. The use of imaging to examine changes in tumor volume to assess the response of solid tumors to treatment has been controversial. In recent years, the emergence of new imaging technology has made it possible to observe the response of tumors to treatment prior to any morphological changes. In this article, the advances in studies reporting the use of computed tomography perfusion imaging, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intravoxel incoherent motion, diffusion kurtosis imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent MRI, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and PET/MRI to assess the TACE treatment response are reviewed. PMID:27239110

  15. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, N. L.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

  16. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal also creates problems during its transportation, storage and handling at utility plants. The current research is seeking to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation, using hydrophobic binders as coal dewatering and binding reagents with the help of a compaction device. From previous tests, it has been found that coal pellets with a moisture content of less than 15% and good wear and water resistance can be successfully fabricated at pressures of less than 6,000 psi using a lab scale ram extruder. The primary objective of the research described in this quarter has been to extend the lab scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting process into a pilot scale operation, based on the test data obtained from earlier research. A standard roller briquetting machine was used to dewater fine coal-binder mixtures during the briquetting process. The operating parameters, including moisture content of feed, feed rate, and roller speed, were evaluated on the basis of the performance of the briquettes. Briquettes fabricated at rates of up to 108 pellets per minute exhibited satisfactory water and wear resistance, i.e., less than 7.5% cured moisture and less than 8.3% weight loss after 6 min. of tumbling. Also, coal-binder samples with moisture contents of 40 percent have been successfully dewatered and briquetted. Briquetting of fine coal was possible under current feeding conditions, however, a better feeding system must be designed to further improve the quality of dewatered coal briquettes.

  17. Application and development of advanced Lorentz microscopy techniques for the study of magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacham, Robert J.

    This PhD project presents an investigation into the development of magnetic imaging methods in the TEM and their application in imaging narrow domain walls in multilayer magnetic structures. Lorentz microscopy techniques are limited in quantitative magnetic imaging as this generally requires using scanning imaging modes which limits the capability of imaging dynamic processes. The first imaging method developed in this study is a phase gradient technique with the aim of producing quantitative magnetic contrast proportional to the magnetic induction of the sample whilst maintaining a live imaging mode. This method uses a specifically engineered, semi-electron-transparent graded wedge aperture to controllably perturb intensity in the back focal plane. The results of this study found that this method could produce magnetic contrast proportional to the sample induction, however the required gradient of the wedge aperture made this contrast close to the noise level with large associated errors. In the second part of this study we investigated the development of a technique aimed at gaining sub-microsecond temporal resolution within TEMs based on streak imaging. We are using ramped pulsed magnetic fields, applied across nanowire samples to both induce magnetic behaviour and detect the electron beam across the detector with respect to time. We are coupling this with a novel pixelated detector on the TEM in the form of a Medipix/Timepix chip capable of microsecond exposure times without adding noise. Running this detector in integral mode and allowing for practical limitations such as experiment time and aperture stability, the resultant streak images were taken in Fresnel, Foucault and low angle diffraction imaging modes. We found that while this method is theoretically viable, the limiting factor was the contrast of the magnetic signal in the streak and therefore the total image counts. Domain walls (DWs) in synthetic antiferromagnetically (SAF) coupled films patterned

  18. Combustion synthesis of advanced materials. [using in-situ infiltration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. J.; Feng, H. J.; Perkins, N.; Readey, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composites using an in-situ liquid infiltration technique is described. The effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e. solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g. thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized products is also described. Alternatively, conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment is also discussed, in which advantages can be gained from the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport. In each case, the effect of the presence or absence of gravity (density) driven fluid flow and vapor transport is discussed as is the potential for producing new and perhaps unique materials by conducting these SHS reactions under microgravity conditions.

  19. Development of a corrosion detection experiment to evaluate conventional and advanced NDI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) was established by the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) at Sandia National Laboratories in August of 1991. The goal of the AANC is to provide independent validation of technologies intended to enhance the structural inspection of aging commuter and transport aircraft. The deliverables from the AANC`s validation activities are assessments of the reliability of existing and emerging inspection technologies as well as analyses of the cost benefits to be derived from their implementation. This paper describes the methodology developed by the AANC to assess the performance of NDI techniques. In particular, an experiment being developed to evaluate corrosion detection devices will be presented. The experiment uses engineered test specimens, as well as complete aircraft test beds to provide metrics for NDI validation.

  20. Miscibility studies of Polyethylene Glycol with Polystyrene in Toluene by Various Physical and Advanced Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanaban, R.; Venkatramanan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a chemical that has an extensive variety of applications in the world of medicine. It is used as a base to manufacture certain medicines, assist in drug delivery, and is also used as an agent in some medical procedures. It is an osmotic laxative. Polyethylene glycol works by retaining water in the stool, resulting in softer stools and more frequent bowel movements. Polyethylene glycol does not affect glucose and electrolytes in the body. PEG refers to a hydrocarbon molecule that can have a variable size, and different sizes can have different physical properties, giving this compound a great deal of flexibility in its application. In the present study, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) (Molar mass: 1500) is blended with Polystyrene (PS) (Molar mass: 35000) in Toluene. The miscibility nature of the poly blend is analyzed by Ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and refractive index techniques at 303K. The compatibility nature of the blend is confirmed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies.