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Sample records for advanced diagnostic imaging

  1. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Advances in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haoran; Song, Tianqiang

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the growing knowledge on biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), as well as continuous improvement in imaging techniques and experienced interpretation of imaging features of the nodules in cirrhotic liver, the detection and characterization of HCC has improved in the past decade. A number of practice guidelines for imaging diagnosis have been developed to reduce interpretation variability and standardize management of HCC, and they are constantly updated with advances in imaging techniques and evidence based data from clinical series. In this article, we strive to review the imaging techniques and the characteristic features of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhotic liver, with emphasis on the diagnostic value of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and utilization of hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agents. We also briefly describe the concept of liver imaging reporting and data systems and discuss the consensus and controversy of major practice guidelines. PMID:26632539

  3. Diagnostic imaging advances in murine models of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Markus; Lenz, Philipp; Mücke, Marcus M; Gohar, Faekah; Willeke, Peter; Domagk, Dirk; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic-remittent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract still evoking challenging clinical diagnostic and therapeutic situations. Murine models of experimental colitis are a vital component of research into human IBD concerning questions of its complex pathogenesis or the evaluation of potential new drugs. To monitor the course of colitis, to the present day, classical parameters like histological tissue alterations or analysis of mucosal cytokine/chemokine expression often require euthanasia of animals. Recent advances mean revolutionary non-invasive imaging techniques for in vivo murine colitis diagnostics are increasingly available. These novel and emerging imaging techniques not only allow direct visualization of intestinal inflammation, but also enable molecular imaging and targeting of specific alterations of the inflamed murine mucosa. For the first time, in vivo imaging techniques allow for longitudinal examinations and evaluation of intra-individual therapeutic response. This review discusses the latest developments in the different fields of ultrasound, molecularly targeted contrast agent ultrasound, fluorescence endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy as well as tomographic imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and fluorescence-mediated tomography, discussing their individual limitations and potential future diagnostic applications in the management of human patients with IBD. PMID:26811642

  4. Technology in radiology: advances in diagnostic imaging & therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Stern, S M

    1993-01-01

    Nearly 100 years from its birth, radiology continues to grow as though still in adolescence. Although some radiologic technologies have matured more than others, new applications and techniques appear regularly in the literature. Radiology has evolved from purely diagnostic devices to interventional technologies. New contrast agents in MRI, X ray and ultrasound enable physicians to make diagnoses and plan therapies with greater precision than ever before. Techniques are less and less invasive. Advances in computer technology have given supercomputer-like power to high-end nuclear medicine and MRI systems. Imaging systems in most modalities are now designed with upgrades in mind instead of "planned obsolescence." Companies routinely upgrade software and other facets of their products, sometimes at no additional charge to existing customers. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will face increasing demands to justify what they do according to patient outcomes and management criteria. Did images make the diagnosis or confirm it? Did the images determine optimal treatment strategies or confirm which strategies might be appropriate? Third-party payers, especially the government, will view radiology in those terms. The diagnostic imaging and therapy systems of today require increasingly sophisticated technical support for maintenance and repair. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will have to determine the most economic and effective ways to guarantee equipment up-time. Borrowing from the automotive industry, some radiology manufacturers have devised transtelephonic software systems to facilitate remote troubleshooting. To ensure their fiscal viability, hospitals continue to acquire new imaging and therapy technologies for competitive and access-to-services reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10129808

  5. Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology Advancements for Plasma Diagnostics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu

    To realize fusion plant, the very first step is to understand the fundamental physics of materials under fusion conditions, i.e. to understand fusion plasmas. Our research group, Plasma Diagnostics Group, focuses on developing advanced tools for physicists to extract as much information as possible from fusion plasmas at millions degrees. The Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics is a very useful tool invented in this group to study fusion plasma electron temperature and it fluctuations. This dissertation presents millimeter wave imaging technology advances recently developed in this group to improve the ECEI system. New technologies made it more powerful to image and visualize magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) activities and micro-turbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis start from development of miniaturized elliptical substrate lens array. This novel substrate lens array replaces the previous generation substrate lens, hyper-hemispherical substrate lens, in terms of geometry. From the optical performance perspective, this substitution not only significantly simplifies the optical system with improved optical coupling, but also enhances the RF/LO coupling efficiency. By the benefit of the mini lens focusing properties, a wideband dual-dipole antenna array is carefully designed and developed. The new antenna array is optimized simultaneously for receiving both RF and LO, with sharp radiation patterns, low side-lobe levels, and less crosstalk between adjacent antennas. In addition, a high frequency antenna is also developed, which extends the frequency limit from 145 GHz to 220 GHz. This type of antenna will be used on high field operation tokamaks with toroidal fields in excess of 3 Tesla. Another important technology advance is so-called extended bandwidth double down-conversion electronics. This new electronics extends the instantaneous IF coverage from 2 to 9.2 GHz to 2 to 16.4 GHz. From the plasma point of view, it means that the

  6. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  7. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  8. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and ... and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  9. Advancing Patient-centered Outcomes in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; McCabe, Aileen M; Meisel, Zachary M; LeBlanc, Annie; Schaffer, Jason T; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Vaughan, William; Merck, Lisa H; Applegate, Kimberly E; Hollander, Judd E; Grudzen, Corita R; Mills, Angela M; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hess, Erik P

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is integral to the evaluation of many emergency department (ED) patients. However, relatively little effort has been devoted to patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) in emergency diagnostic imaging. This article provides background on this topic and the conclusions of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference PCOR work group regarding "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The goal was to determine a prioritized research agenda to establish which outcomes related to emergency diagnostic imaging are most important to patients, caregivers, and other key stakeholders and which methods will most optimally engage patients in the decision to undergo imaging. Case vignettes are used to emphasize these concepts as they relate to a patient's decision to seek care at an ED and the care received there. The authors discuss applicable research methods and approaches such as shared decision-making that could facilitate better integration of patient-centered outcomes and patient-reported outcomes into decisions regarding emergency diagnostic imaging. Finally, based on a modified Delphi process involving members of the PCOR work group, prioritized research questions are proposed to advance the science of patient-centered outcomes in ED diagnostic imaging. PMID:26574729

  10. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  11. X-ray Diffraction and Multi-Frame Phase Contrast Imaging Diagnostics for IMPULSE at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Adam; Carlson, Carl; Young, Jason; Curtis, Alden; Jensen, Brian; Ramos, Kyle; Yeager, John; Montgomery, David; Fezza, Kamel

    2013-07-08

    The diagnostic needs of any dynamic loading platform present unique technical challenges that must be addressed in order to accurately measure in situ material properties in an extreme environment. The IMPULSE platform (IMPact system for Ultrafast Synchrotron Experiments) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is no exception and, in fact, may be more challenging, as the imaging diagnostics must be synchronized to both the experiment and the 60 ps wide x-ray bunches produced at APS. The technical challenges of time-resolved x-ray diffraction imaging and high-resolution multi-frame phase contrast imaging (PCI) are described in this paper. Example data from recent IMPULSE experiments are shown to illustrate the advances and evolution of these diagnostics with a focus on comparing the performance of two intensified CCD cameras and their suitability for multi-frame PCI. The continued development of these diagnostics is fundamentally important to IMPULSE and many other loading platforms and will benefit future facilities such as the Dynamic Compression Sector at APS and MaRIE at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  12. Advances in molecular imaging: targeted optical contrast agents for cancer diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hellebust, Anne; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades, our understanding of the molecular changes associated with cancer development and progression has advanced greatly. This has led to new cancer therapeutics targeted against specific molecular pathways; such therapies show great promise to reduce mortality, in part by enabling physicians to tailor therapy for patients based on a molecular profile of their tumor. Unfortunately, the tools for definitive cancer diagnosis – light microscopic examination of biopsied tissue stained with nonspecific dyes – remain focused on the analysis of tissue ex vivo. There is an important need for new clinical tools to support the molecular diagnosis of cancer. Optical molecular imaging is emerging as a technique to help meet this need. Targeted, optically active contrast agents can specifically label extra-and intracellular biomarkers of cancer. Optical images can be acquired in real time with high spatial resolution to image-specific molecular targets, while still providing morphologic context. This article reviews recent advances in optical molecular imaging, highlighting the advances in technology required to improve early cancer detection, guide selection of targeted therapy and rapidly evaluate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22385200

  13. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  14. Advanced Imaging and Diagnostic Methods in the Assessment of Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Joly, Joanna M; Bittner, Vera

    2016-09-01

    Although differences diminish with age, outcomes are overall worse for women compared to men who present with suspected acute coronary syndrome. The reasons for this discrepancy are multifactorial, including sex-related differences in atherosclerosis biology and fluid dynamics, as well as a premature conclusion by providers that chest pain must be noncardiac in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. In this review of existing literature, we explore the diverse differential diagnosis in this unique set of patients. Especially in women with persistent symptoms, absence of occlusive disease should prompt consideration for subangiographic plaque disruption, epicardial or microvascular endothelial dysfunction, transient neurohormonal imbalance predisposing to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or spontaneous coronary artery dissection, underlying systemic inflammatory conditions, thromboembolic disease, myocarditis, and sequelae of congenital heart disease. As always, a thorough history and attentive physical exam will help guide further work-up, which in many cases may warrant noninvasive imaging, such as contrast-enhanced echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography, with their respective means of measuring myocardial perfusion and myocardial tissue pathology. Lastly, intracoronary imaging such as intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography and invasive diagnostic methods such as coronary reactivity testing continue to add to our understanding that what appear to be atypical presentations of ischemic heart disease in women may in fact be typical presentations of pathologic cousin entities that remain incompletely defined. PMID:27443380

  15. Manual of diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, G.; Baker, S.; Davis, L.

    1988-01-01

    This book is on ordering and understanding the results of radiologic studies. Main sections are (I) Diagnostic Radiology serves as a basic introduction; (II) Diagnostic Modalities dedicates a chapter to each imaging modality in a clinical context, with a brief technical description and patient preparation guidelines; and (III) Organ System Imaging contains a chapter on each major organ system, covering the abilities and limitations of each modality to image a specific organ system and the significance of anatomic, physiologic, and general pathologic information.

  16. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  17. High dynamic range pixel architecture for advanced diagnostic medical x-ray imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Izadi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Karim S.

    2006-05-15

    The most widely used architecture in large-area amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers is a passive pixel sensor (PPS), which consists of a detector and a readout switch. While the PPS has the advantage of being compact and amenable toward high-resolution imaging, small PPS output signals are swamped by external column charge amplifier and data line thermal noise, which reduce the minimum readable sensor input signal. In contrast to PPS circuits, on-pixel amplifiers in a-Si technology reduce readout noise to levels that can meet even the stringent requirements for low noise digital x-ray fluoroscopy (<1000 noise electrons). However, larger voltages at the pixel input cause the output of the amplified pixel to become nonlinear thus reducing the dynamic range. We reported a hybrid amplified pixel architecture based on a combination of PPS and amplified pixel designs that, in addition to low noise performance, also resulted in large-signal linearity and consequently higher dynamic range [K. S. Karim et al., Proc. SPIE 5368, 657 (2004)]. The additional benefit in large-signal linearity, however, came at the cost of an additional pixel transistor. We present an amplified pixel design that achieves the goals of low noise performance and large-signal linearity without the need for an additional pixel transistor. Theoretical calculations and simulation results for noise indicate the applicability of the amplified a-Si pixel architecture for high dynamic range, medical x-ray imaging applications that require switching between low exposure, real-time fluoroscopy and high-exposure radiography.

  18. Diagnostic paediatric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.M.; Lingam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a case study teaching manual presenting radiographs and examples of other imaging modalities from 100 paediatric patients. The material comes from the radiological teaching collection at the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond Street in London and was compiled over a ten year period. With each case a short clinical history is given and a series of questions posed, similar to those encountered in postgraduate medical examinations. Sample answers with comments and more illustrations are presented on the following page. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion in the range and sophistication of diagnostic imaging modalities which are available to clinicians. Since it is impossible to achieve comprehensive coverage in a book of this size, the authors have selected examples of cases which illustrate the range of imaging modalities currently available and which may be encountered in both clinical practice and in examinations.

  19. Advanced diagnostics for reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Baganoff, D.; Bowman, C. T.; Byer, R. L.; Cantwell, B. J.

    1983-11-01

    Progress is reported for the third year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas are: (1) fiber optic absorption/fluorescence probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visable and infrared laser sources; (2) wavelength modulation spectroscopy, using rapid-scanning ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources, for measurements of species, temperature and absorption lineshapes, (3) quantitative flow visualization, including temporally and spatially resolved species measurements in a plane, using laser-induced fluorescence; (4) multiple-point velocity visualization; (5) plasma diagnostics, utilizing planar laser-induced fluorescence and wavelength modulation techniques; (6) diagnostic techniques for thermionic converter plasmas; (7) application of advanced diagnostic techniques for studies of turbulent reacting flows; (8) development of measurement techniques and a novel facility for investigations of droplet evaporation in turbulent flows; (9) holographic display techniques for 3-D visualization of flowfield data; (10) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) for temperature and velocity measurements in a supersonic jet; and (11) computed absorption tomography system for species measurements in a plane.

  20. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future. PMID:23888745

  1. Advanced diagnostics for plasma chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, C.H.

    1994-03-01

    Since July 15, 1992, the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University has been engaged in a four-year research program on Advanced Diagnostics for Plasma Chemistry. The goal of this program is to develop state-of-the-art laser-based diagnostics of molecular species in harsh chemical environments, particularly those encountered in plasma synthesis of new materials. Emphasis has been placed on exploiting a new nonlinear spectroscopy, degenerate four wave mixing, as well as linear laser induced fluorescence to accomplish these goals. The present submittal is a proposal for the continuation funding for the third year of this program, from July 15, 1994, until July 14, 1995. Section 2 summarizes the research accomplished during the first eighteen months of the program. Section 3 discusses the plans for continuing research activities. Publications and presentations to date resulting from this program are listed in Section 4. The proposed budget for the third year is given in Section 5.

  2. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, R.M.; Coulam, C.M.; Allen, J.H.; Fleischer, A.; Lee, G.S.; Kirchner, S.G.; James A.E. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Evaluation of pediatric emergencies by diagnostic imaging technics can involve both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Nuclear medicine, conventional radiography, ultrasound, computerized axial tomography, and xeroradiography are the major nonangiographic diagnostic technics available for patient evaluation. We will emphasize the use of computerized axial tomography, nuclear medicine, xeroradiography, and ultrasound in the evaluation of emergencies in the pediatric age group. Since the radiologist is the primary consultant with regard to diagnostic imaging, his knowledge of these modulities can greatly influence patient care and clinical results.

  3. Diagnostic imaging of osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, L.L.; Gold, R.H.; Chandnani, V.P. )

    1991-09-01

    The diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up evaluation of osteosarcoma rely heavily on a variety of imaging techniques. Plain roentgenography, radionuclide bone scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play important roles in defining local tumor extent, detecting metastatic disease, and monitoring for recurrent tumor. Invasive studies such as angiography are now rarely necessary. In the future, newer imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography, can be expected to become important tools for evaluation of these tumors. 23 references.

  4. Diagnostic imaging of infertility

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, A.C.; Wentz, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This text presents a review of all the imaging modalities available in the diagnosis of infertility. This book integrates the perspectives of experts in ob/gyn, radiology, reproductive endocrinology, and urology. It's a one-of-a-kind ''how to'' guide to hysterosalpinography and infertility evaluation, providing complete clinical information on the techniques, pitfalls, problems encountered and differential diagnosis. Detailed descriptions accompany numerous high-quality illustrations to help correlate findings and give meaning to the radiographic and ultrasound images.

  5. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  6. Image Processing Diagnostics: Emphysema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Currently the computerized tomography (CT) scan can detect emphysema sooner than traditional x-rays, but other tests are required to measure more accurately the amount of affected lung. CT scan images show clearly if a patient has emphysema, but is unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it appears merely as subtle, barely distinct, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to create a software plug-in to interface with existing open source medical imaging software, to automate the process of accurately diagnosing and determining emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing a number of statistical calculations using data taken from CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. These analyses include an examination of the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness, a commonly used statistical parameter. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than currently utilized methods which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in air passages of the lung.

  7. Advanced MRI increases the diagnostic accuracy of recurrent glioblastoma: Single institution thresholds and validation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Kazda, Tomas; Bulik, Martin; Pospisil, Petr; Lakomy, Radek; Smrcka, Martin; Slampa, Pavel; Jancalek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    The accurate identification of glioblastoma progression remains an unmet clinical need. The aim of this prospective single-institutional study is to determine and validate thresholds for the main metabolite concentrations obtained by MR spectroscopy (MRS) and the values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to enable distinguishing tumor recurrence from pseudoprogression. Thirty-nine patients after the standard treatment of a glioblastoma underwent advanced imaging by MRS and ADC at the time of suspected recurrence - median time to progression was 6.7 months. The highest significant sensitivity and specificity to call the glioblastoma recurrence was observed for the total choline (tCho) to total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) concentration ratio with the threshold ≥ 1.3 (sensitivity 100.0% and specificity 94.7%). The ADCmean value higher than 1313 × 10(- 6) mm(2)/s was associated with the pseudoprogression (sensitivity 98.3%, specificity 100.0%). The combination of MRS focused on the tCho/tNAA concentration ratio and the ADCmean value represents imaging methods applicable to early non-invasive differentiation between a glioblastoma recurrence and a pseudoprogression. However, the institutional definition and validation of thresholds for differential diagnostics is needed for the elimination of setup errors before implementation of these multimodal imaging techniques into clinical practice, as well as into clinical trials. PMID:27298760

  8. Advanced radiographic imaging techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, J. B.; Brown, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of the nature and operational constraints of conventional X-radiographic and neutron imaging methods, providing a foundation for a discussion of advanced radiographic imaging systems. Two types of solid-state image amplifiers designed to image X rays are described. Operational theory, panel construction, and performance characteristics are discussed. A closed-circuit television system for imaging neutrons is then described and the system design, operational theory, and performance characteristics are outlined. Emphasis is placed on a description of the advantages of these imaging systems over conventional methods.

  9. [Advance in imaging spectropolarimeter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-quan; Xiangli, Bin; Huang, Min; Hu, Liang; Zhou, Jin-song; Jing, Juan-juan

    2011-07-01

    Imaging spectropolarimeter (ISP) is a type of novel photoelectric sensor which integrated the functions of imaging, spectrometry and polarimetry. In the present paper, the concept of the ISP is introduced, and the advances in ISP at home and abroad in recent years is reviewed. The principles of ISPs based on novel devices, such as acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), are illustrated. In addition, the principles of ISPs developed by adding polarized components to the dispersing-type imaging spectrometer, spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer, and computer tomography imaging spectrometer are introduced. Moreover, the trends of ISP are discussed too. PMID:21942063

  10. Companion Diagnostics and Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Ameya D; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Baum, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Companion diagnostics (CDx) is a positive attempt in the direction of improving the drug development process, especially in the field of oncology, with the advent of newer targeted therapies. It helps the oncologist in deciding the choice of treatment for the individual patient. The role of CDx assays has attracted the attention of regulators, and especially the US Food and Drug Administration developed regulatory strategies for CDx and the drug-diagnostic codevelopment project. For an increasing number of cancer patients, the treatment selection will depend on the result generated by a CDx assay, and consequently this type of assay has become critical for the care and safety of the patients. In addition to the assay-based approach, molecular imaging with its ability to image at the genetic and receptor level has made foray into the field of drug development and personalized medicine. We shall review these aspects of CDx, with special focus on molecular imaging and the upcoming concept of Theranostics. PMID:26049701

  11. Synergistic advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizzi, Frederic L.

    2003-04-01

    Significant advances are more fully exploiting ultrasound's potential for noninvasive diagnosis and treatment. Therapeutic systems employ intense focused beams to thermally kill cancer cells in, e.g., prostate; to stop bleeding; and to treat specific diseases (e.g., glaucoma). Diagnostic ultrasound techniques can quantitatively image an increasingly broad spectrum of physical tissue attributes. An exciting aspect of this progress is the emerging synergy between these modalities. Advanced diagnostic techniques may contribute at several stages in therapy. For example, treatment planning for small ocular tumors uses 50-MHz, 3-D ultrasonic images with 0.05-mm resolution. Thermal simulations employ these images to evaluate desired and undesired effects using exposure stategies with specially designed treatment beams. Therapy beam positioning can use diagnostic elastography to sense tissue motion induced by radiation pressure from high-intensity treatment beams. Therapy monitoring can sense lesion formation using elastography motion sensing (to detect the increased stiffness in lesions); harmonic imaging (to sense altered nonlinear properties); and spectrum analysis images (depicting changes in the sizes, concentration, and configuration of sub-resolution structures.) Experience from these applications will greatly expand the knowledge of acoustic phenomena in living tissues and should lead to further advances in medical ultrasound.

  12. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-08-30

    Characterization of stratigraphic sequences (T-R cycles or sequences) included outcrop studies, well log analysis and seismic reflection interpretation. These studies were performed by researchers at the University of Alabama, Wichita State University and McGill University. The outcrop, well log and seismic characterization studies were used to develop a depositional sequence model, a T-R cycle (sequence) model, and a sequence stratigraphy predictive model. The sequence stratigraphy predictive model developed in this study is based primarily on the modified T-R cycle (sequence) model. The T-R cycle (sequence) model using transgressive and regressive systems tracts and aggrading, backstepping, and infilling intervals or sections was found to be the most appropriate sequence stratigraphy model for the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico to improve petroleum stratigraphic trap and specific reservoir facies imaging, detection and delineation. The known petroleum reservoirs of the Mississippi Interior and North Louisiana Salt Basins were classified using T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The transgressive backstepping reservoirs have been the most productive of oil, and the transgressive backstepping and regressive infilling reservoirs have been the most productive of gas. Exploration strategies were formulated using the sequence stratigraphy predictive model and the classification of the known petroleum reservoirs utilizing T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The well log signatures and seismic reflector patterns were determined to be distinctive for the aggrading, backstepping and infilling sections of the T-R cycle (sequence) and as such, well log and seismic data are useful for recognizing and defining potential reservoir facies. The use of the sequence stratigraphy predictive model, in combination with the knowledge of how the distinctive characteristics of the T-R system tracts and their subdivisions are expressed in well log patterns

  13. Advanced Geosynchronous Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    For improved understanding of chaotic processes and the diurnal cycle, an advanced GOES imager must also have the multi-spectral spectral bands used by low earth orbit (LEO) imagers, with on-orbit calibration for all bands. A synergy between GEO and LEO radiometry would enable earth system scientists to fuse the remote sensing data from all the spaceborne platforms. These additional radiometric capabilities are designed to observe important physical processes that vary rapidly and unpredicably: smoke, fires, precipitation, ozone, volcanic ash, cloud phase and height, and surface temperature. We believe the technology now exists to develop an imaging system that can meet future weather reporting and earth system science needs. To meet this need, we propose a design for a comprehensive geosynchronous atmospheric imager. This imager is envisioned to fly on a GOES-N class spacecraft, within the volume, weight and power constraints of a platform similar to GOES-N while delivering 100 times more data and radiometric quality than the GOES-N imager. The higher data rate probably requires its own ground station, which could serve as a systems prototype for NOAA's next generation of operational satellites. For operational compatibility, our proposed advanced GOES imaging system contains the GOES-R requirements as a subset, and the GOES-N imager capabilities (and the sounder's imaging channels) as a further subset.

  14. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation (brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry. PMID:25349663

  15. [Over diagnostic imaging in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Carpeggiani, Clara

    2014-03-01

    Medical imaging is one of the major cause of rising health care costs. Diagnostic imaging has increased more rapidly than any other component of medical care. About 5 billion imaging tests are performed worldwide each year. According to recent estimates, at least one-third of all examinations are partially or totally inappropriate. Two out of 3 imaging tests employ ionizing radiations with radiology or nuclear medicine. The medical use of radiation is the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Medical X-rays and γ-rays are a proven human carcinogen. The attributable long-term extra-risk of cancer due to diagnostic testing is around 10% in industrialized countries. Cardiologists prescribe and/or directly perform >50% of all imaging examinations, accounting for about two-thirds of the total effective dose given to patients. The dose of common cardiological examinations may be significant: 500 chest X-rays= a stress scintigraphy with sestamibi, 750 chest X-rays= a Multislice Computed Tomography, 1,000 chest X-rays= a coronary angiography and stenting. Unfortunately, few doctors are aware of the level of radiation their patients are exposed to during radiological tests and more intensive use of ionizing testing was not associated with greater awareness. Also as a consequence of unawareness, the rate of inappropriate examinations is unacceptably high in cardiology, even for procedures with high radiation load. Higher exposure doses correspond to higher long-term risks; there are no safe doses, and all doses add up in determining the cumulative risks over a lifetime. Doctors should make every effort so that «each patient should get the right imaging exam, at the right time, with the right radiation dose», as suggested by US Food and Drug Administration in the 2010 initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. This is best obtained through a systematic implementation of the "3 A's strategy" proposed by the International Atomic Energy

  16. MR Neurography: Diagnostic Imaging in the PNS.

    PubMed

    Kollmer, J; Bendszus, M; Pham, M

    2015-10-01

    The diagnostic work-up of peripheral neuropathies is often challenging and is mainly based on a combination of clinical and electrophysiological examinations. One of the most important difficulties is the accurate determination of the lesion site (lesion localization), lesion extension, and spatial lesion dispersion, which all represent essential diagnostic information crucial for finding the correct diagnosis and hence an adequate therapeutic approach. A typical pitfall in the conventional diagnostic reasoning is the differentiation between a distal, complete cross-sectional nerve lesion and a more proximally located, fascicular nerve lesion. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has been proven to be capable of improving the diagnostic accuracy by providing direct, noninvasive visualization of nerve injury with high structural resolution even reaching the anatomical level of single nerve fascicles (fascicular imaging) and at the same time with large anatomical coverage. It is also feasible to detect structural nerve damage earlier and with higher sensitivity than gold-standard nerve conduction studies. The purpose of this study is to review the literature for current developments and advances in MRN for the precise spatial detection of nerve lesions in focal and non-focal disorders of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:26070607

  17. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  18. Recent Advances in Beam Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorito, R. B.

    2002-12-01

    We describe recent advances in diagnostics of the transverse phase space of charged particle beams. The emphasis of this paper is on the utilization of beam-based optical radiation for the precise measurement of the spatial distribution, divergence and emittance of relativistic charged particle beams. The properties and uses of incoherent as well as coherent optical transition, diffraction and synchrotron radiation for beam diagnosis are discussed.

  19. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  20. Diagnostic Imaging of Dental Disease in Pet Rabbits and Rodents.

    PubMed

    Capello, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques are of paramount importance for dentistry and oral disorders of rabbits, rodents, and other exotic companion mammals. Aside from standard radiography, stomatoscopy is a complementary tool allowing a thorough and detailed inspection of the oral cavity. Computed tomography (CT) generates multiple 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional reconstructions providing superior diagnostic accuracy also useful for prognosis and treatment of advanced dental disease and its related complications. MRI is a diagnostic imaging technique additional to CT used primarily to enhance soft tissues, including complex odontogenic abscesses. PMID:27497205

  1. Optical Diagnostic Imaging Of Surface Topography And Body Deformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windischbauer, Gerhard

    1989-04-01

    Modern diagnostic imaging techniques are providing three-dimensional images by the combination of analog sensing devices, powerful digital processors and graphic displays. Computer based optical imaging systems are used for detection and tracking of body deformities in Orthopaedics. To establish a morphometric data-base means for comparing and averaging similar shapes have to be prepared. Assuming fast technological advancements use at present and prospective applications are given.

  2. Imaging of the diabetic foot diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Loredo, Rebecca; Rahal, Andres; Garcia, Glenn; Metter, Darlene

    2010-10-01

    Multiple diagnostic imaging modalities are available and beneficial for the evaluation of the diabetic foot. There is not yet "one best test" for sorting out the diagnostic dilemmas commonly encountered. The differentiation of cellulitis alone from underlying osteomyelitis and the early detection of abscesses remain important diagnostic goals. Equally important, differentiation of osteomyelitis and neuroarthropathy remains a difficult job. This is often compounded by postoperative diabetic foot states status after reconstruction. Diagnostic evaluation often involves multiple studies that are complementary and that include conventional radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography. PMID:20966452

  3. 5.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Diagnostic Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, J. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '5.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Diagnostic Ultrasound' of the Chapter '5 Medical Radiological Protection' with the contents:

  4. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal injury has occurred in a blunt trauma victim. In many cases, the decision about when to ... One procedure used to determine whether blunt trauma victims require surgery is diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL). DPL ...

  5. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  6. Advances in three-dimensional diagnostic radiology

    PubMed Central

    TER HAAR ROMENY, BART M.; ZUIDERVELD, KAREL J.; VAN WAES, PAUL F. G. M.; VAN WALSUM, THEO; VAN DER WEIJDEN, REMKO; WEICKERT, JOACHIM; STOKKING, RIK; WINK, ONNO; KALITZIN, STILIYAN; MAINTZ, TWAN; ZONNEVELD, FRANS; VIERGEVER, MAX A.

    1998-01-01

    The maturity of current 3D rendering software in combination with recent developments in computer vision techniques enable an exciting range of applications for the visualisation, measurement and interactive manipulation of volumetric data, relevant both for diagnostic imaging and for anatomy. This paper reviews recent work in this area from the Image Sciences Institute at Utrecht University. The processes that yield a useful visual presentation are sequential. After acquisition and before any visualisation, an essential step is to prepare the data properly: this field is known as ‘image processing’ or ‘computer vision’ in analogy with the processing in human vision. Examples will be discussed of modern image enhancement and denoising techniques, and the complex process of automatically finding the objects or regions of interest, i.e. segmentation. One of the newer and promising methodologies for image analysis is based on a mathematical analysis of the human (cortical) visual processing: multiscale image analysis. After preprocessing the 3D rendering can be acquired by simulating the ‘ray casting’ in the computer. New possibilities are presented, such as the integrated visualisation in one image of (accurately registered) datasets of the same patient acquired in different modality scanners. Other examples include colour coding of functional data such as SPECT brain perfusion or functional magnetic resonance (MR) data and even metric data such as skull thickness on the rendered 3D anatomy from MR or computed tomography (CT). Optimal use and perception of 3D visualisation in radiology requires fast display and truly interactive manipulation facilities. Modern and increasingly cheaper workstations (<$10000) allow this to be a reality. It is now possible to manipulate 3D images of 2563 at 15 frames per second interactively, placing virtual reality within reach. The possibilities of modern workstations become increasingly more sophisticated and versatile

  7. Advanced Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Lu; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Domier, C. W.; Ito, N.; Kogi, Y.; Liang, Y.; Mase, A.; Park, H.; Sakata, E.; Tsai, W.; Xia, Z. G.; Zhang, P.

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources.

  8. Optimizing Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Angela M.; Raja, Ali S.; Marin, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    While emergency diagnostic imaging use has increased significantly, there is a lack of evidence for corresponding improvements in patient outcomes. Optimizing emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging has the potential to improve the quality, safety, and outcomes of ED patients, but to date, there have not been any coordinated efforts to further our evidence-based knowledge in this area. The objective of this article is to discuss six aspects of diagnostic imaging in order to provide background information on the underlying framework for the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, “Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization.” The consensus conference aims to generate a high priority research agenda for emergency diagnostic imaging that will inform the design of future investigations. The six components herein will serve as the group topics for the conference: 1) patient-centered outcomes research; 2) clinical decision rules; 3) training, education, and competency; 4) knowledge translation and barriers to image optimization; 5) use of administrative data; and 6) comparative effectiveness research: alternatives to traditional CT use. PMID:25731864

  9. Advanced imaging and visualization in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gilja, Odd Helge; Hatlebakk, Jan G; Ødegaard, Svein; Berstad, Arnold; Viola, Ivan; Giertsen, Christopher; Hausken, Trygve; Gregersen, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Advanced medical imaging and visualization has a strong impact on research and clinical decision making in gastroenterology. The aim of this paper is to show how imaging and visualization can disclose structural and functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Imaging methods such as ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopy, endosonography, and elastography will be outlined and visualization with Virtual Reality and haptic methods. Ultrasonography is a versatile method that can be used to evaluate antral contractility, gastric emptying, transpyloric flow, gastric configuration, intragastric distribution of meals, gastric accommodation and strain measurement of the gastric wall. Advanced methods for endoscopic ultrasound, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, and tissue Doppler (Strain Rate Imaging) provide detailed information of the GI tract. Food hypersensitivity reactions including gastrointestinal reactions due to food allergy can be visualized by ultrasonography and MRI. Development of multi-parametric and multi-modal imaging may increase diagnostic benefits and facilitate fusion of diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in the future. PMID:17457973

  10. Plasma Diagnostics Development for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Timothy; Kittrell, Carter; Chan, Anthony; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    2000-10-01

    The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) engine is a next-generation rocket engine under development at the Johnson Space Center's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory. With an exhaust velocity up to 50 times that of chemical rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine, the VASIMR concept promises fast, efficient interplanetary flight. Rice University has participated in VASIMR research since 1996 and at present is developing two new diagnostic probes: a retarding potential analyzer to measure the velocity of ions in the rocket's exhaust, and a moveable optical probe to examine the spectrum of the rocket's helicon plasma source. In support of the probe development, a test facility is under construction at Rice, consisting of a small electric rocket engine firing into a 2-m vacuum chamber. This engine, the MPD (magnetoplasmadynamic) thruster, dates from the 1960's and provides a well-characterized source plasma for testing of the probes under development. We present details of the ion energy analyzer and the facility under construction at Rice.

  11. Advances in molecular diagnostics for Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Desmond M

    2011-07-01

    The two most important molecular diagnostic techniques for bovine tuberculosis are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because of its rapid determination of infection, and DNA strain typing because of its ability to answer important epidemiological questions. PCR tests for Mycobacterium bovis have been improved through recent advances in PCR technology, but still lack the sensitivity of good culture methods, and in some situations are susceptible to giving both false negative and false positive results. Therefore, PCR does not usually replace the need for culture, but is used to provide fast preliminary results. DNA typing of M. bovis isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) was developed 25 years ago in New Zealand, and remains an important tool in the New Zealand control scheme, where the typing results are combined with other information to determine large and expensive possum poisoning operations. A range of other DNA typing systems developed for M. bovis in the 1990 s have assisted epidemiological investigations in some countries but are now less commonly used. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing and spoligotyping, either alone or together, have now become the preferred approaches as they are robust and amenable to electronic analysis and comparison. Spoligotyping gives only moderate discrimination but can be easily applied to large numbers of isolates, and VNTR typing provides better discrimination than all other methods except for REA. While the current typing techniques are sufficient for most epidemiological purposes, more discriminating methods are likely to become available in the near future. PMID:21420257

  12. Clinics in diagnostic imaging. 145.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Jerome Irai Ezhil; Low, Albert S C; Tan, Damien M Y; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2013-04-01

    A 63-year-old man presented with painless jaundice, loss of appetite and significant weight loss. Cross-sectional imaging showed a diffusely enlarged pancreas, with no significant fat stranding and a hypodense rim on computed tomography, which appeared hypointense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. There was a narrowed pancreatic duct and features of common bile duct narrowing in the region of the pancreatic head. However, there was no obvious mass seen in the pancreatic head region. These features were classical of autoimmune pancreatitis with diffuse involvement of the gland. Laboratory investigation showed abnormal liver function and the classical sign of raised immunoglobulin G class 4 antibodies. The patient showed dramatic response to high-dose steroids, with resolution of both the laboratory and imaging abnormalities within one month. We discuss the classical imaging features of Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis, an uncommon condition that needs to be differentiated from pancreatic malignancy. PMID:23624453

  13. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision. PMID:25991188

  14. Hierarchical Segmentation Enhances Diagnostic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Bartron Medical Imaging LLC (BMI), of New Haven, Connecticut, gained a nonexclusive license from Goddard Space Flight Center to use the RHSEG software in medical imaging. To manage image data, BMI then licensed two pattern-matching software programs from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that were used in image analysis and three data-mining and edge-detection programs from Kennedy Space Center. More recently, BMI made NASA history by being the first company to partner with the Space Agency through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to develop a 3-D version of RHSEG. With U.S. Food and Drug Administration clearance, BMI will sell its Med-Seg imaging system with the 2-D version of the RHSEG software to analyze medical imagery from CAT and PET scans, MRI, ultrasound, digitized X-rays, digitized mammographies, dental X-rays, soft tissue analyses, moving object analyses, and soft-tissue slides such as Pap smears for the diagnoses and management of diseases. Extending the software's capabilities to three dimensions will eventually enable production of pixel-level views of a tumor or lesion, early identification of plaque build-up in arteries, and identification of density levels of microcalcification in mammographies.

  15. [Imaging signs in chest diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Krombach, G A

    2016-08-01

    Signs in chest imaging are defined as typical findings which can be easily recognized on x‑ray photographs or computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. They are caused by different typical pathophysiological processes. Due to the association of a certain pathophysiological cause with a given sign, knowledge and use of these signs can allow the possible differential diagnoses to be narrowed down. If other imaging findings and clinical data are additionally taken into account, the diagnosis can be made with a high degree of confidence in many cases. PMID:27369549

  16. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (167)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tien Jin; Aljefri, Ahmad Mohammad; Elliott, Marc Bruce; Nicolaou, Savvas

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman who had previously undergone an anatomic left total shoulder arthroplasty presented with increasing left shoulder pain and significant reduction in motion of the left shoulder joint. No evidence of prosthetic loosening or periprosthetic fracture was detected on the radiographs or fluoroscopic arthrogram images. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) images revealed evidence of loosening of the glenoid component and secondary rotator cuff failure. This case illustrates how a combination of detailed clinical history, careful physical examination and DECT arthrogram evaluation may be used to identify complications of an anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:27075207

  17. [Advances in musculoskeletal MR imaging].

    PubMed

    Ho, Michael; Andreisek, Gustav

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal imaging is a rapidly developing field offering several new techniques. MR neurography provides an additive value with complementary and precise information about peripheral nerves. Hereby, MR neurography not only enables the radiologist to differentiate between a mononeuropathic or a polyneuropathic process, but also helps to find nerve compression syndromes by visualizing the nerve surrounding structures as well. An additional administration of contrast agent enables detection of tumors and inflammation of peripheral nerves. Whole body MRI opens new possibilities for detection and follow-up in oncological disorders, systemic diseases, in pediatric diagnostics and in preventive medicine. Guidelines are useful for an evidence-based application of this technique. MRI is generally considered to be the gold standard in diagnostic imaging of the spine. Continuous technical developments have led to a better image quality. New guidelines for standardized image interpretation and reporting have been published and should be used to avoid loss of information from high resolution imaging to effective treatment. PMID:26331202

  18. Diagnostic cardiology: Noninvasive imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Come, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 23 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The chest x-ray and cardiac series; Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels; Digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of cardiovascular disease; Magnetic resonance: technique and cardiac applications; Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation; and Nuclear imaging: the assessment of cardiac performance.

  19. Neuroblastoma: diagnostic imaging and staging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Brasch, R.C.; deLorimier, A.A.; Albin, A.R.; London, D.A.; Gooding, C.A.

    1983-07-01

    Results of computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy, excretory urography, and other imaging tests used to diagnose and stage 38 cases of neuroblastoma prior to treatment were reviewed. Findings of these examinations were correlated with clinical data, laboratory data, results of biopsy, and surgical findings. CT was the most sensitive single test (100%) for the detection and delineation of the primary tumor. Calcifications that suggested the histologic diagnosis of neuroblastoma were present in 79% of the cases. Rim calcifications, the most specific pattern for neuroblastoma, were identified in 29% of all cases. CT alone accurately staged 82% of cases; when complemented by bone marrow biopsy, staging accuracy was 97%. CT alone was more accurate than any combination of imaging tests that excluded CT. An algorithm using CT is presented for the diagnosis and staging of neuroblastoma at reduced cost and with increased efficiency.

  20. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (165)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wan Ying; Cheong, Hsueh Wen; Tan, Tien Jin

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal rupture is a life-threatening complication of balloon tamponade for bleeding oesophageal varices. We herein describe the clinical course and imaging findings in a 33-year-old Indian man who had a Sengstaken-Blakemore (SB) tube inserted for uncontrolled haematemesis, which was unfortunately complicated by malposition of the gastric balloon with resultant oesophageal rupture. The inflated SB tube gastric balloon was visualised within the right hemithorax on chest radiography after the SB tube insertion. Further evaluation of the thorax on computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of oesophageal rupture associated with right-sided haemopneumothorax. It is crucial for both the referring clinician and reporting radiologist to recognise early the imaging features of an incorrectly positioned SB tube gastric balloon, so as to ensure prompt intervention and a reduction in patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:26891671

  1. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (166)

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lin Wah; Chinchure, Dinesh; Lim, Tze Chwan

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with choreoathetoid movements affecting the upper and lower left limbs. Computed tomography of the brain did not show any intracranial abnormalities. However, subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed an increased T1 signal in the right basal ganglia, raising the suspicion of nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus. Management consisted of adjusting her insulin dose to achieve good glycaemic control. The patient subsequently recovered and was discharged after eight days. There are many causes of basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity, including hyperglycaemia in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. This case emphasises the importance of MR imaging in the early diagnosis of hyperglycaemia as a cause of chorea-hemiballismus, to enable early treatment and a better clinical outcome. PMID:26996977

  2. Diagnostic, treatment, and surgical imaging in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nagae, Lidia Mayumi; Lall, Neil; Dahmoush, Hisham; Nyberg, Eric; Mirsky, David; Drees, Cornelia; Honce, Justin M

    2016-01-01

    Dedicated epilepsy centers are growing in hospitals throughout the USA and abroad, with a continuously increasing role of imaging in multidisciplinary meetings. Imaging is paramount in diagnosis, treatment, and surgical decision-making in lesional and nonlesional epileptic disease. Besides being up-to-date with technical developments in imaging that may make an impact in patient care, familiarity with clinical and surgical aspects of epilepsy is fundamental to better understanding of patient management. The present article intends to revisit diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical imaging in epilepsy. Finally, with the increase in frequency of epilepsy management-related procedures and their hardware, MRI safety issues are discussed. PMID:27317207

  3. Advancing biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Imaging reveals complex structures and dynamic interactive processes, located deep inside the body, that are otherwise difficult to decipher. Numerous imaging modalities harness every last inch of the energy spectrum. Clinical modalities include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and light-based methods [endoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT)]. Research modalities include various light microscopy techniques (confocal, multiphoton, total internal reflection, superresolution fluorescence microscopy), electron microscopy, mass spectrometry imaging, fluorescence tomography, bioluminescence, variations of OCT, and optoacoustic imaging, among a few others. Although clinical imaging and research microscopy are often isolated from one another, we argue that their combination and integration is not only informative but also essential to discovering new biology and interpreting clinical datasets in which signals invariably originate from hundreds to thousands of cells per voxel. PMID:26598657

  4. Latest advances in advanced diagnostic and therapeutic pulmonary procedures.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Gerard A; Feller-Kopman, David; Chen, Alexander; Wahidi, Momen; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Ernst, Armin

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, patients with a myriad of pulmonary conditions have been diagnosed and treated with new technologies developed for the pulmonary community. Advanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures once performed in an operating theater under general anesthesia are now routinely performed in a bronchoscopy suite under moderate sedation with clinically meaningful improvements in outcome. With the miniaturization of scopes and instruments, improvements in optics, and creative engineers, a host of new devices has become available for clinical testing and use. A growing community of pulmonologists is doing comparative effectiveness trials that test new technologies against the current standard of care. While more research is needed, it seems reasonable to provide an overview of pulmonary procedures that are in various stages of development, testing, and practice at this time. Five areas are covered: navigational bronchoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound, endoscopic lung volume reduction, bronchial thermoplasty, and pleural procedure. Appropriate training for clinicians who wish to provide these services will become an area of intense scrutiny as new skills will need to be acquired to ensure patient safety and a good clinical result. PMID:23208336

  5. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs. PMID:26217455

  6. Advanced image memory architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercillo, Richard; McNeill, Kevin M.

    1994-05-01

    A workstation for radiographic images, known as the Arizona Viewing Console (AVC), was developed at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in the Department of Radiology. This workstation has been in use as a research tool to aid us in investigating how a radiologist interacts with a workstation, to determine which image processing features are required to aid the radiologist, to develop user interfaces and to support psychophysical and clinical studies. Results from these studies have show a need to increase the current image memory's available storage in order to accommodate high resolution images. The current triple-ported image memory can be allocated to store any number of images up to a combined total of 4 million pixels. Over the past couple of years, higher resolution images have become easier to generate with the advent of laser digitizers and computed radiology systems. As part of our research, a larger 32 million pixel image memory for AVC has been designed to replace the existing image memory.

  7. Recent advances in the imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    You, Myung-Won; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, So Jung; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The role of imaging is crucial for the surveillance, diagnosis, staging and treatment monitoring of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Over the past few years, considerable technical advances were made in imaging of HCCs. New imaging technology, however, has introduced new challenges in our clinical practice. In this article, the current status of clinical imaging techniques for HCC is addressed. The diagnostic performance of imaging techniques in the context of recent clinical guidelines is also presented. PMID:25834808

  8. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (168).

    PubMed

    Lai, Yusheng Keefe; Mahmood, Rameysh Danovani

    2016-05-01

    A 16-year-old Chinese male patient presented with constipation lasting five days, colicky abdominal pain, lethargy, weakness and body aches. He was able to pass flatus. Abdominal radiography showed a distended stomach causing inferior displacement of the transverse colon. Computed tomography revealed a dilated oesophagus, stomach and duodenum up to its third portion, with a short aortomesenteric distance and narrow angle. There was also consolidation in the lungs bilaterally. Based on the constellation of clinical and imaging findings, a diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome complicated by aspiration pneumonia was made. The patient was subsequently started on intravenous hydration, nasogastric tube aspiration and antibiotics. Following stabilisation of his acute condition, a nasojejunal feeding tube was inserted and a feeding plan was implemented to promote weight gain. The clinical presentation, differentials, diagnosis and treatment of superior mesenteric artery syndrome are discussed. PMID:27212130

  9. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (168)

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yusheng Keefe; Mahmood, Rameysh Danovani

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old Chinese male patient presented with constipation lasting five days, colicky abdominal pain, lethargy, weakness and body aches. He was able to pass flatus. Abdominal radiography showed a distended stomach causing inferior displacement of the transverse colon. Computed tomography revealed a dilated oesophagus, stomach and duodenum up to its third portion, with a short aortomesenteric distance and narrow angle. There was also consolidation in the lungs bilaterally. Based on the constellation of clinical and imaging findings, a diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome complicated by aspiration pneumonia was made. The patient was subsequently started on intravenous hydration, nasogastric tube aspiration and antibiotics. Following stabilisation of his acute condition, a nasojejunal feeding tube was inserted and a feeding plan was implemented to promote weight gain. The clinical presentation, differentials, diagnosis and treatment of superior mesenteric artery syndrome are discussed. PMID:27212130

  10. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  11. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-06-18

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area.

  12. Turfgrass diagnostics and new, advanced technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies for sustainable, integrated disease management start with reliable pathogen identification. Conventional identification methods such as disease symptomology, host association, morphology and biochemical tests are still key diagnostic indicators for many phytopathogens; however, nucleic ac...

  13. Advanced Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop and implement technologies that address advanced combustion diagnostics and rapid Btu measurements of fuels. These are the fundamental weaknesses associated with the combustion processes of a furnace.

  14. Microwave imaging diagnostics for plasma fluctuation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) and Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) combined systems are being investigated by the UC Davis Plasma Diagnostic Group (PDG), in collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) researchers, Drs. E. Mazzucato, H.K. Park and T. Munsat, as well as researchers from the FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen,the Netherlands. The goal is to develop the plasma diagnostic systems based on the imaging technology developed in the UC Davis PDG group, for the study of plasma micro-turbulence, which is extremely important for the understanding of anomalous transport behavior of magnetically confined plasmas such as in tokamaks. This dissertation work provides the design of the optical systems, the design of the electronics, the testing of the antenna array and the data analysis of TEXTOR ECEI/MIR combined systems.

  15. Medical physics: some recollections in diagnostic X-ray imaging and therapeutic radiology.

    PubMed

    Gray, J E; Orton, C G

    2000-12-01

    Medical physics has changed dramatically since 1895. There was a period of slow evolutionary change during the first 70 years after Roentgen's discovery of x rays. With the advent of the computer, however, both diagnostic and therapeutic radiology have undergone rapid growth and changes. Technologic advances such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostic imaging and three-dimensional treatment planning systems, stereotactic radiosurgery, and intensity modulated radiation therapy in radiation oncology have resulted in substantial changes in medical physics. These advances have improved diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy while expanding the need for better educated and experienced medical physics staff. PMID:11110920

  16. [Bone metastases: new trends in diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    Herneth, A M; Dominkus, M; Kurtaran, A; Lang, Susanna; Rand, T; Kainberger, F

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal metastases are common in patients with cancers of the breast, lung, kidneys, prostate, and thyroid gland. Two main aspects have to be considered in diagnostic imaging. Screening in patients with known primary tumor. Triphasic Sczintigraphy is the imaging modality of choice for this purpose, however, whole-body-magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a potential alternative. Evaluation of suspicious skeletal lesions, which is currently dominated by magnetic resonance imaging. New perspectives for preoperative staging as well as for reconstruction- and implant-surgery are made available by multidetector-row-computed tomography. Non-invasive techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging, positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography are now available, which seem to have potential for reliable tissue characterization. This feature is critical for monitoring treatment response in oncology. PMID:12621852

  17. Radiation Protection of the Child from Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years due to the technological advances in imaging techniques, which have undoubtedly improved diagnostic accuracy and resulted in improved patient care, the utilization of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging has significantly increased. Computed tomography is the major contributor to the radiation burden, but fluoroscopy continues to be a mainstay in paediatric radiology. The rise in the use of ionizing radiation is of particular concern with regard to the paediatric population, as they are up to 10 times more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults, due to their increased tissue radiosensitivity, increased cumulative lifetime radiation dose and longer lifetime in which to manifest the effects. This article will review the estimated radiation risk to the child from diagnostic imaging and summarise the various methods through which both the paediatrician and radiologist can practice the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, which underpins the safe practice of radiology. Emphasis is on the justification for an examination, i.e. weighing of benefits versus radiation risk, on the appropriate utilization of other, non-ionizing imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and on optimisation of a clinically indicated examination. It is essential that the paediatrician and radiologist work together in this decision making process for the mutual benefit of the patient. The appropriate practical application of ALARA in the workplace is crucial to the radiation safety of our paediatric patients. PMID:26219738

  18. Perspectives on Advances in Tuberculosis Diagnostics, Drugs, and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schito, Marco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Fletcher, Helen A; McNerney, Ruth; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Bates, Matthew; Kibiki, Gibson; Kapata, Nathan; Corrah, Tumena; Bomanji, Jamshed; Vilaplana, Cris; Johnson, Daniel; Mwaba, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-10-15

    Despite concerted efforts over the past 2 decades at developing new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines with expanding pipelines, tuberculosis remains a global emergency. Several novel diagnostic technologies show promise of better point-of-care rapid tests for tuberculosis including nucleic acid-based amplification tests, imaging, and breath analysis of volatile organic compounds. Advances in new and repurposed drugs for use in multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis have focused on development of several new drug regimens and their evaluation in clinical trials and now influence World Health Organization guidelines. Since the failure of the MVA85A vaccine 2 years ago, there have been no new tuberculosis vaccine candidates entering clinical testing. The current status quo of the lengthy treatment duration and poor treatment outcomes associated with MDR/XDR tuberculosis and with comorbidity of tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus and noncommunicable diseases is unacceptable. New innovations and political and funder commitment for early rapid diagnosis, shortening duration of therapy, improving treatment outcomes, and prevention are urgently required. PMID:26409271

  19. Diagnostics of nonlocal plasmas: advanced techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Strakhova, Anastasiya; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    This talk generalizes our recent results, obtained in different directions of plasma diagnostics. First-method of flat single-sided probe, based on expansion of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in series of Legendre polynomials. It will be demonstrated, that flat probe, oriented under different angles with respect to the discharge axis, allow to determine full EVDF in nonlocal plasmas. It is also shown, that cylindrical probe is unable to determine full EVDF. We propose the solution of this problem by combined using the kinetic Boltzmann equation and experimental probe data. Second-magnetic diagnostics. This method is implemented in knudsen diode with surface ionization of atoms (KDSI) and based on measurements of the magnetic characteristics of the KDSI in presence of transverse magnetic field. Using magnetic diagnostics we can investigate the wide range of plasma processes: from scattering cross-sections of electrons to plasma-surface interactions. Third-noncontact diagnostics method for direct measurements of EVDF in remote plasma objects by combination of the flat single-sided probe technique and magnetic polarization Hanley method.

  20. Diagnostic performance on briefly presented mammographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugglestone, Mark D.; Gale, Alastair G.; Cowley, Helen C.; Wilson, A. R. M.

    1995-04-01

    Previously an outline model of the radiological diagnostic process has been proposed which posits the importance of the initial glance at a medical image in helping to establish an appropriate diagnosis. As part of a long tern study of knowledge elicitation in mammography we examine the amount of information available to breast screening radiologists within the initial 'glance' at a mammogram. These data are compared to those from examining the same images normally. Overall, performance in a brief presentation was poorer than in normal viewing, as expected, but was also worse than found in comparable brief presentation studies using the chest radiograph. These results are discussed with regard to the inferences which can be made about the nature of mammographic knowledge which is utilized in the diagnostic process and how it is organized within the framework of a conceptual model.

  1. Advanced laser systems for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosner, Marc; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Gross, Daniel; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the ongoing development of laser systems for advanced photoacoustic imaging (PAI). We discuss the characteristics of these laser systems and their particular benefits for soft tissue imaging and next-generation breast cancer diagnostics. We provide an overview of laser performance and compare this with other laser systems that have been used for early-stage development of PAI. These advanced systems feature higher pulse energy output at clinically relevant repetition rates, as well as a novel wavelength-cycling output pulse format. Wavelength cycling provides pulse sequences for which the output repeatedly alternates between two wavelengths that provide differential imaging. This capability improves co-registration of captured differential images. We present imaging results of phantoms obtained with a commercial ultrasound detector system and a wavelength-cycling laser source providing ~500 mJ/pulse at 755 and 797 nm, operating at 25 Hz. The results include photoacoustic images and corresponding pulse-echo data from a tissue mimicking phantom containing inclusions, simulating tumors in the breast. We discuss the application of these systems to the contrast-enhanced detection of various tissue types and tumors.

  2. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  3. Diagnostic imaging of lower urinary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Silke

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging is routinely performed in small animals with lower urinary tract disease. Survey radiographs allow identification of radiopaque calculi, gas within the urinary tract, and lymph node or bone metastases. Cystography and urethrography remain useful in the evaluation of bladder or urethral rupture, abnormal communication with other organs, and lesions of the pelvic or penile urethra. Ultrasonography is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of most disorders. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in evaluating the ureterovesical junction and intrapelvic lesions, monitoring the size of lesions, and evaluating lymph nodes and osseous structures for metastases. PMID:25813401

  4. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Temperature Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. A.; Caldwell, D.; Deluca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Sette, A. L.

    2004-05-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) will be one of the instruments on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). It will image the solar transition region and corona in multiple EUV and UV wavelengths simultaneously, using four aligned telescopes. Hence, AIA will be capable of high-cadence, spatially resolved temperature discrimination of solar plasmas. We discuss the design of AIA, with focus on its ability for temperature diagnostics. We consider different methods for reconstruction of differential emission measures, since this will be one of the more important data products. This work is supported under contract SP02D4301R to the Lockheed Martin Corp.

  5. Advanced research in instrumentation and diagnostics technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Raptis, A.C.

    1992-09-01

    this research project will develop an ultrasonic flow imaging system based on tomographic technique. Initially, we will demonstrate both the reflection and diffraction tomographic applied to flow imaging. Then, the direct inversion problem will be examined. In this paper, we present the initial assessment of the feasibility and the evaluation of practical wedge designs. Major tasks of the project include (1) a feasibility study, (2) evaluation of sensing geometry and wedge design, (3) development of image reconstruction algorithm, and (4) flow tests of the imaging system. At present, we have completed the feasibility study and are in the process of evaluating wedge design.

  6. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  7. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  8. Diagnostic imaging of the diabetic foot. What the clinician expects to know from the radiologist....

    PubMed

    Canadè, Adolfo; Savino, Giancarlo; Porcelli, Alessandra; Troia, Antonio; Cina, Alessandro; Pedicelli, Alessandro; Campioni, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    A case of diabetic foot in a patient with advanced diabetes is presented. The correct diagnostic approach was analyzed based on the reasoned combination of available diagnostic imaging procedures (color-Doppler US, CT-angiography, MR-angiography and digital subtraction angiography) and on the clinician's instances. Angiographic findings contraindicated intravascular treatment. Femorotibial surgical bypass was performed. PMID:15152547

  9. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  10. Diagnostic imaging techniques in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Toriumi, D.M.; Mafee, M.F.

    1988-02-01

    With the refinement of fine-needle aspiration, the specific applications of thyroid imaging techniques need to be reevaluated for efficiency and cost containment. No thyroid imaging test should be routinely obtained. Radionuclide scanning is most beneficial in evaluating the functional status of thyroid nodules when fine-needle aspiration is inadequate, the findings are benign, or when there is no discrete nodule that is palpated in an enlarged gland. When fine-needle aspiration is unavailable or unreliable, radionuclide scanning becomes a first-line diagnostic tool. Ultrasonography should be used primarily for identifying a solid component of a cystic nodule, determining the size of nodules on thyroxine suppression that are not easily palpable, or for performing guided fine-needle aspiration. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging both have a definite role in the evaluation of thyroid tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior to computerized tomography for the evaluation of metastatic, retrotracheal, or mediastinal involvement of large thyroid tumors or goiters. Careful selection of the diagnostic techniques will ensure more accurate diagnosis and reduce unnecessary patient costs in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  11. Infrared imaging diagnostics for INTF ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Pandey, R.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Bhuyan, M.; Bansal, G.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2015-04-01

    In India, testing facility named INTF [1] (Indian test facility) is being built in Institute for Plasma Research to characterize ITER-Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB). INTF is expected to deliver 60A negative hydrogen ion beam current of energy 100keV. The beam will be operated with 5Hz modulation having 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle. To characterize the beam parameters several diagnostics are at different stages of design and development. One of them will be a beam dump, made of carbon fiber composite (CFC) plates placed perpendicular to the beam direction at a distance lm approximately. The beam dump needs to handle ˜ 6MW of beam power with peak power density ˜ 38.5MW/m2. The diagnostic is based on thermal (infra-red - IR) imaging of the footprint of the 1280 beamlets falling on the beam dump using four IR cameras from the rear side of the dump. The beam dump will be able to measure beam uniformity, beamlet divergence. It may give information on relative variation of negative ion stripping losses for different beam pulses. The design of this CFC based beam dump needs to address several physics and engineering issues, including some specific inputs from manufacturers. The manuscript will describe an overview of the diagnostic system and its design methodology highlighting those issues and the present status of its development.

  12. Genetics, diagnostics and therapeutic advances in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Rinella, Mary E.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, NAFLD was confirmed as the fastest growing aetiology for hepatocellular cancer in the USA. However, 2014 also saw progress in our understanding of the heritability and pathogenesis of NAFLD, and an important clinical trial targeting the farnesoid X receptor pathway has illustrated advances in developing a pharmacological therapy. PMID:25560844

  13. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric renal inflammatory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Schroeder, B.A.; Starshak, R.J.

    1986-08-15

    Some form of imaging procedure should be used to document the presence of infection of the upper urinary tract in troublesome cases in children. During the past several years, sonography, nuclear radiology, and computed tomography (CT) have had a significant influence on renal imaging. The purpose of this article is to reevaluate the noninvasive imaging procedures that can be used to diagnose pediatric renal inflammatory disease and to assess the relative value of each modality in the various types of renal infection. The authors will not discuss the radiologic evaluation of the child who has had a previous renal infection, in whom cortical scarring or reflux nephropathy is a possibility; these are different clinical problems and require different diagnostic evaluation.

  14. Development of medical imaging technologies is the best way to advance clinical diagnostic accuracy and there is no such thing as VOMIT.

    PubMed

    McCoubrie, P; Reid, J H

    2012-01-01

    We recently published a commentary on the impact of blood biomarkers in clinical decision-making. In this issue we shift to a similar contemporary debate surrounding over-reliance on imaging technologies to make diagnoses, often without a clinical rationale other than to rule out pathology. This strategy is not without harm to patients as illustrated by both of our experienced contributors. The place and responsibility for missed or irrelevant diagnoses following imaging will often rest on little more than inept clinical targeting, although as McCoubrie points out, the skilled radiologist may have some role in tempering everything from overzealous interpretation to simple error. Given that many techniques are based on (albeit falling) X-ray exposure and involve vastly expensive (and routinely redundant) technologies operating almost continuously, the role of skilled radiological input is more essential than ever for reducing VOMIT. Can we control inadequate imaging request strategies? PMID:23240121

  15. Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

  16. Diagnostic imaging of the acutely injured patient

    SciTech Connect

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of pathophysiologic concepts of trauma and reviews the effectiveness of the available imaging modalities in acute trauma of various organ system. Topics covered are chest injuries; abdominal trauma; fractures of long bones; the foot and ankle; the knee; hand and wrist; the elbow; the shoulder; the pelvis hips; the spine; the skull and facial trauma and the clinical assessment of multiple injuries patients. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic techniques of radiography is discussed. Normal anatomy and bone fractures along with soft-tissue injuries are described.

  17. Cost finding in the diagnostic imaging service.

    PubMed

    Mobilia, G

    1998-01-01

    The experience with control and reporting system at the "Policlinico A. Gemelli" based on the integrated use of cost and service information drawn from all applications of Hospital Information System, are described. Cost accounting for services based on about 500 operating units and monthly reporting system, inclusive of all management information communicated to all managers, is analyzed. The system design, based on the specific features of Diagnostic Imaging Service especially for internal handling, staff of operating rooms and of emergency service, is described. PMID:9689857

  18. Pulsed holography for combustion diagnostics. [image reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, N.; Dewilde, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    Image reconstruction and data extraction techniques were considered with respect to their application to combustion diagnostics. A system was designed and constructed that possesses sufficient stability and resolution to make quantitative data extraction possible. Example data were manually processed using the system to demonstrate its feasibility for the purpose intended. The system was interfaced with the PDP-11-04 computer for maximum design capability. It was concluded that the use of specialized digital hardware controlled by a relatively small computer provides the best combination of accuracy, speed, and versatility for this particular problem area.

  19. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  20. Recent imaging advances in neurology.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Lorenzo; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2015-09-01

    Over the recent years, the application of neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has considerably advanced the understanding of complex neurological disorders. PET is a powerful molecular imaging tool, which investigates the distribution and binding of radiochemicals attached to biologically relevant molecules; as such, this technique is able to give information on biochemistry and metabolism of the brain in health and disease. MRI uses high intensity magnetic fields and radiofrequency pulses to provide structural and functional information on tissues and organs in intact or diseased individuals, including the evaluation of white matter integrity, grey matter thickness and brain perfusion. The aim of this article is to review the most recent advances in neuroimaging research in common neurological disorders such as movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis, and to evaluate their contribution in the diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:25808503

  1. Managing waiting times in diagnostic medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sabina; Vainieri, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to analyse the variation in the delivery of diagnostic imaging services in order to suggest possible solutions for the reduction of waiting times, increase the quality of services and reduce financial costs. Design This study provides a logic model to manage waiting times in a regional context. Waiting times measured per day were compared on the basis of the variability in the use rates of CT and MRI examinations in Tuscany for the population, as well as on the basis of the capacity offered with respect to the number of radiologists available. The analysis was performed at the local health authority level to support the decision-making process of local managers. Setting Diagnostic imaging services, in particular the CT and MRI examinations. The study involved all the 12 local health authorities that provide services for 3.7 million inhabitants of the Italian Tuscany Region. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants: the study uses regional administrative data on outpatients and survey data on inpatient diagnostic examinations in order to measure productivity. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study uses the volumes per 1000 inhabitants, the days of waiting times and the number of examinations per radiologist. Variability was measured using the traditional SD measures. Results A significant variation in areas considered homogeneous in terms of age, gender or mortality may indicate that the use of radiological services is not optimal and underuse or overuse occurs and that there is room for improvement in the service organisation. Conclusions Considering that there is a high level of variability among district use rates and waiting times, this study provides managers with a specific tool to find the cause of the problem, identify a possible solution, assess the financial impact and initiate the eventual reduction of waste. PMID:23242480

  2. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  3. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Misuri, Alessio

    2002-06-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  4. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus.

    PubMed

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  5. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  6. A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-06-01

    Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

  7. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mirea, Oana; Duchenne, Jurgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications. PMID:27158476

  8. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O’Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes. PMID:26392755

  9. Advanced Diagnostics for Developing High-Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.-J.; Yakimenko, V.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  10. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH-BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  11. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: current diagnostic criteria and advances in MRI diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Magill, Stephen T; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Weinstein, Philip R; Chin, Cynthia T; Jacques, Line

    2015-09-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is caused by compression of the brachial plexus as it traverses from the thoracic outlet to the axilla. Diagnosing nTOS can be difficult because of overlap with other complex pain and entrapment syndromes. An nTOS diagnosis is made based on patient history, physical exam, electrodiagnostic studies, and, more recently, interpretation of MR neurograms with tractography. Advances in high-resolution MRI and tractography can confirm an nTOS diagnosis and identify the location of nerve compression, allowing tailored surgical decompression. In this report, the authors review the current diagnostic criteria, present an update on advances in MRI, and provide case examples demonstrating how MR neurography (MRN) can aid in diagnosing nTOS. The authors conclude that improved high-resolution MRN and tractography are valuable tools for identifying the source of nerve compression in patients with nTOS and can augment current diagnostic modalities for this syndrome. PMID:26323825

  12. Development of a diagnostic polymersome system for potential imaging delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chia; Chen, Yung-Chu; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    In order to enhance visualization of soft tissues, a dual-imaging diagnostic polymersome system featured with highly hydrated multilamellar wall structure capable of simultaneously embedding a hydrophobic near-infrared fluorophore, Cy5.5, and a paramagnetic probe, gadolinium (Gd(III)) cations was developed. The polymersomes were obtained from the self-assembly of lipid-containing copolymer, poly(acrylic acid-co-distearin acrylate), in aqueous solution. The Cy5.5 and Gd(III) species were loaded into polymersomes via hydrophobic association (loading efficiency of Cy5.5 ca 74%) and electrostatic complexation (Gd(III) 83%), respectively. The Cy5.5/Gd(III)-loaded polymersomes (CGLPs) have shown excellent payload confinement, reduced dilution effect on assembly dissociation and decreased protein/salt-induced colloidal aggregation. Owing to the highly hydrated structure of vesicular membrane, the superior contrast enhancement of CGLPs in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was obtained as a result of prolonged rotational correlation time of Gd(III) cations and fast water exchange from Gd(III) to bulk solution. The CGLPs exhibit a 15-fold higher longitudinal relaxivity value (ca 60 mM(-1) s(-1)) than that (4 mM(-1) s(-1)) of the commercial contrast agent, Magnevist, in phosphate buffered saline. The in vivo characterization demonstrates that CGLPs exhibit a signal-to-noise ratio in T1-weighted MR image contrast similar to that of Magnevist, yet with a Gd dose 5-fold lower. An excellent contrast in NIR imaging at tumor site was attained following the intravenous injection of GGLPs into Tramp-C1 tumor-bearing mice (C57BL/6). Along with their non-toxicity at the dose used, these results demonstrate the great potential of the CGLPs as an advanced diagnostic nanodevice. PMID:25731095

  13. Thermoacoustic imaging and spectroscopy for enhanced cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Daniel Ryan

    nanoparticle was discriminated in vivo with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 25 dB. This technique has great potential for improved early cancer detection and individualized cancer treatment through advanced pharmacokinetic monitoring of therapeutic agents. Finally, the fourth chapter presents significant improvements made to enhance breast cancer detection with thermoacoustic (TA) imaging. In a breast cancer simulating phantom, the initial demonstration of TA spectroscopy (TAS) is used to detect and discriminate relative water / fat composition based solely on the sample's intrinsic spectral absorption. The slope of the TA signal was highly correlated with that of the absorption coefficient (R 2 = 0.98, p < 0.01), indicating TAS can distinguish materials based on their dielectric properties. Furthermore, the use of carbon nanotubes as a potential TA contrast agent is explored. These nanoparticles significantly enhance the magnitude of the TA signal (8 dB larger than water), and also demonstrate unique absorption spectra. Finally, short microwave pulses (Δt ≥ 10 ns) are achieved through novel microwave hardware, and used to generate high-frequency TA signals. In conclusion, this section presents advancements made to the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution of TA imaging. Overall, this dissertation presents enhancements made to the diagnostic capabilities of PA and TA imaging for improved detection and characterization of cancer.

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: advances in disease pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ameen, M

    2010-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common tropical dermatoses worldwide and is of major public health importance. It is caused by numerous Leishmania protozoa species, which are responsible for its clinical diversity. With changes in vector (sandfly) habitat and increased travel among human populations, its incidence is rising, and in nonendemic countries, including the UK, it is increasingly diagnosed in migrants, returned travellers, and military personnel. Diagnostic tests have not always been sufficiently sensitive, and despite a wide range of treatments, poor therapeutic responses and adverse effects are common. In the past decade, there have been notable advances in molecular diagnostics, in the understanding of host immune responses to infection, and in new therapeutic interventions and vaccine development. PMID:20831602

  15. TH-A-BRF-11: Image Intensity Non-Uniformities Between MRI Simulation and Diagnostic MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, E

    2014-06-15

    significant IINU differences compared to diagnostic MR images. The MNI N3 algorithm reduced MR simulation IINU to levels observed in diagnostic MR images. Funding provided by Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin.

  16. Advances in brain imaging: a new ethical challenge.

    PubMed

    Alfano, B; Brunetti, A

    1997-01-01

    Technical advances in the past 25 years permitted substantial advances in the neuroimaging field, expanding the diagnostic and research potentials and significantly reducing the use of old invasive imaging techniques for research purposes. The safer procedures now available allow acquisition of reference data, morphological assessment and functional characterisation from healthy volunteers. However, enrollment of volunteers is still a sensitive ethical issue. Ethical problems related to informed consent, for both research and diagnostic procedures, in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders represent an additional crucial issue. Furthermore, with both functional and structural neuroimaging studies, there is a theoretical risk of violation of individual privacy. Research in the neuroimaging field should tend to increase the amount of information obtained through appropriate post-processing procedures, including multimodality image fusion, and to limit stress and discomfort. PMID:9616958

  17. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Chen, D L; Shen, B; Granetz, R S; Sun, Y; Qian, J P; Wang, Y; Xiao, B J

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well. PMID:26520954

  18. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P. Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.; Granetz, R. S.

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  19. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Patterson, D.; Wang, X.

    1995-07-01

    Principal diagnostics systems have been installed and nearly all have been commissioned on the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility. Data have been obtained on beam position, beam profile, current, beam loss rate, and synchrotron radiation monitors on both injector rings and most recently the main 7-GeV storage ring. Results for the 150- to 450-MeV electron beams in the accumulator ring, up to 7 GeV in the injector synchrotron, and 4.5 to 7 GeV in the SR will be presented.

  20. Advanced Imaging for Biopsy Guidance in Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Ramakrishna, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate glioma sampling is required for diagnosis and establishing eligibility for relevant clinical trials. MR-based perfusion and spectroscopy sequences supplement conventional MR in noninvasively predicting the areas of highest tumor grade for biopsy. We report the case of a patient with gliomatosis cerebri and multifocal patchy enhancement in whom the combination of advanced and conventional imaging attributes successfully guided a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:27014538

  1. Recent Advances in Molecular, Multimodal and Theranostic Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Fabian; Fokong, Stanley; Bzyl, Jessica; Lederle, Wiltrud; Palmowski, Moritz; Lammers, Twan

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is an exquisite tool for the non-invasive and real-time diagnosis of many different diseases. In this context, US contrast agents can improve lesion delineation, characterization and therapy response evaluation. US contrast agents are usually micrometer-sized gas bubbles, stabilized with soft or hard shells. By conjugating antibodies to the microbubble (MB) surface, and by incorporating diagnostic agents, drugs or nucleic acids into or onto the MB shell, molecular, multimodal and theranostic MB can be generated. We here summarize recent advances in molecular, multimodal and theranostic US imaging, and introduce concepts how such advanced MB can be generated, applied and imaged. Examples are given for their use to image and treat oncological, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Furthermore, we discuss for which therapeutic entities incorporation into (or conjugation to) MB is meaningful, and how US-mediated MB destruction can increase their extravasation, penetration, internalization and efficacy. PMID:24316070

  2. Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Wapner, Ronald J; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The past few years have seen extraordinary advances in prenatal genetic practice led by 2 major technological advances; next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma to noninvasively identify fetal chromosome abnormalities, and microarray analysis of chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid samples, resulting in increased cytogenetic resolution. Noninvasive prenatal screening of cell-free DNA has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 superior to all previous screening approaches with slightly lower performance for other common aneuploidies. These tests have rapidly captured an increasing market share, with substantial reductions in the number of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis performed suggesting that physicians and patients regard such screening approaches as an equivalent replacement for diagnostic testing. Simultaneously, many clinical programs have noted significant decreases in patient counseling. In 2012 the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded a blinded comparison of karyotype with the emerging technology of array comparative genomic hybridization showing that in patients with a normal karyotype, 2.5% had a clinically relevant microdeletion or duplication identified. In pregnancies with an ultrasound-detected structural anomaly, 6% had an incremental finding, and of those with a normal scan, 1.6% had a copy number variant. For patients of any age with a normal ultrasound and karyotype, the chance of a pathogenic copy number variant is greater than 1%, similar to the age-related risk of aneuploidy in the fetus of a 38 year old. This risk is 4-fold higher than the risk of trisomy 21 in a woman younger than 30 years and 5- to 10-fold higher than the present accepted risk of a diagnostic procedure. Based on this, we contend that every patient, regardless of her age, be educated about these risks and offered the opportunity to have a diagnostic procedure with

  3. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  4. Acoustic Waves in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Sarvazyan, Armen P.; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term “ultrasonography,” or its abbreviated version “sonography” meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Since the 1990s numerous acoustic imaging modalities started to emerge based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. It was demonstrated that imaging with these waves can provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We will discuss physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities, and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications will be presented. We will discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications. PMID:23643056

  5. Prediction of liver cirrhosis, using diagnostic imaging tools

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Suk Keu; Lee, Chang Hee; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is important. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. However, its invasiveness and sampling bias limit the applicability of the method. Basic imaging for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis has developed over the last few decades, enabling early detection of morphological changes of the liver by ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are also accurate diagnostic methods for advanced liver cirrhosis, for which early diagnosis is difficult. There are a number of ways to compensate for this difficulty, including texture analysis to more closely identify the homogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, elastography to measure the stiffness and elasticity of the liver, and perfusion studies to determine the blood flow volume, transit time, and velocity. Amongst these methods, elastography using US and MRI was found to be slightly easier, faster, and able to provide an accurate diagnosis. Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis using MRI or US elastography is therefore a realistic alternative, but further research is still needed. PMID:26301049

  6. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  7. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard C G

    2016-02-21

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn's disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT. PMID:26900282

  8. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard CG

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn’s disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT. PMID:26900282

  9. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources.

    PubMed

    Bundesmann, C; Tartz, M; Scholze, F; Leiter, H J; Scortecci, F; Gnizdor, R Y; Neumann, H

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1. PMID:20441379

  10. ADVANCES IN MOLECULAR IMAGING OF PANCREATIC BETA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mai; Lubag, Angelo; McGuire, Michael J.; Seliounine, Serguei Y.; Tsyganov, Edward N.; Antich, Peter P.; Sherry, A. Dean; Brown, Kathlynn C.; Sun, Xiankai

    2009-01-01

    The development of non-invasive imaging methods for early diagnosis of the beta cell associated metabolic diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), has recently drawn considerable interest from the molecular imaging community as well as clinical investigators. Due to the challenges imposed by the location of the pancreas, the sparsely dispersed beta cell population within the pancreas, and the poor understanding of the pathogenesis of the diseases, clinical diagnosis of beta cell abnormalities is still limited. Current diagnostic methods are invasive, often inaccurate, and usually performed post-onset of the disease. Advances in imaging techniques for probing beta cell mass and function are needed to address this critical health care problem. A variety of currently available imaging techniques have been tested for the assessment of the pancreatic beta cell islets. Here we discuss the current advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and nuclear imaging for the study of beta cell diseases. Spurred by early successes in nuclear imaging techniques for beta cells, especially positron emission tomography (PET), the need for beta cell specific ligands has expanded. Progress in the field for obtaining such ligands is presented. Additionally, we report our preliminary efforts of developing such a peptidic ligand for PET imaging of the pancreatic beta cells. PMID:18508529

  11. Diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of vascular birthmarks.

    PubMed

    Burrows, P E; Laor, T; Paltiel, H; Robertson, R L

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the role of modern diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of patients with vascular birthmarks. There are two main categories of vascular anomalies: hemangiomas and vascular malformations. The findings on plain radiography, sonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, and the appropriate sequence of investigation for the different vascular anomalies are discussed. PMID:9704205

  12. Diagnostic imaging of the lower genitourinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Rifkin, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Dr. Rifkin analyzes the relative merits of ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiography. He correlates ultrasound findings with those of computed tomography, radiography, and nuclear medicine and assesses the potential benefits of magnetic resonance imaging as compared with ultrasound and other imaging modalities. Each imaging modality is discussed in terms of its role as the primary, secondary, or complementary study for diagnoses involving the urinary bladder and perivesical spaces, the prostate and seminal vesicles, the urethra and penis, and the scrotal sac.

  13. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  14. New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.

    2013-12-01

    data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. The main purpose of this presentation is to describe new advanced diagnostic techniques of the near-Earth space plasma and point out the scientific challenges of the radio frequency analyser located on board of low orbiting satellites and LOFAR facilities.

  15. [Imaging and Laboratory Diagnostics for Tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Bauer, C M; Schmähl, A; Kreuter, M

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, since symptoms are often very unspecific or lacking. However active, prompt and accurate diagnosis is the key element in the public health response to tuberculosis and the cornerstone of tuberculosis control. Different diagnostic methods for an assured diagnosis of TB are necessary. Chest radiography is a useful keystone to identify tuberculosis, but diagnosis of tuberculosis cannot be established by radiography alone. CT scanning is used in patients without pathological chest radiography but clinically suspected active TB and to differentiate TB from other diseases. Radiological appearance is primarily determined by the immune status of patients and caverns and disseminated disease foci are often observed. Laboratory diagnostic methods include microscopic identification of acid-fast mycobacteria from any body fluid (especially sputum), as well as isolation and characterisation of mycobacteria in culture. It is then possible to type the pathogens by the shape of their colony, their growth behavior and their biochemical characteristics. These methods are regarded as the gold standard in diagnosis of active TB. In patients who are highly suspected of having TB, but whose sputum specimens tested negative for mycobacteria, a nucleic acid amplification test is additionally performed. Moreover, sensitivity testing with first and second line antitubercular drugs is applied as standard. Laboratory diagnostic testing of cellular immunity against pathogenic mycobacteria employs the tuberculin skin test (TST, Mantoux tuberculin test) or the more specific interferon γ test to determine γ interferon released by T lymphocytes stimulated in vitro. The new ELISA and ELISPOT procedures exhibit higher test specificity and less cross reactivity to NTM (non-tuberculosis mycobacteria), are independent of BCG-vaccination status and correlate better with the degree of exposure than does the TST. PMID:27187878

  16. Advanced Atmospheric Sounder and Imaging Radiometer (AASIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Design information for the Advanced Atmospheric Sounder and Imaging Radiometer is reported, which was developed to determine the configuration of a sensor for IR and visible imaging. The areas of technology reported include: systems design, optics, mechanics, electronics, detectors, radiative cooler, and radiometric calibration.

  17. Development of a synthetic phase contrast imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, J. C.; Lin, L.; Porkolab, M.

    2010-06-15

    A ''synthetic diagnostic'' has been developed to calculate the expected experimental response of phase contrast imaging (PCI), a scattering diagnostic used to measure density fluctuations in laboratory plasmas, to a tokamak discharge modeled with the GYRO nonlinear gyrokinetic code [J. Candy and R. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The synthetic PCI includes the spatial response of the experimental diagnostic, primarily implemented as a line integral of plasma density along the beam path, and the minimum and maximum wavenumber response resulting from the detection scheme. The synthetic PCI can be used for comparisons between GYRO and experiment as well as studies of the PCI response.

  18. Development of a synthetic phase contrast imaging diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, J. C.; Lin, L.; Porkolab, M.

    2010-06-01

    A "synthetic diagnostic" has been developed to calculate the expected experimental response of phase contrast imaging (PCI), a scattering diagnostic used to measure density fluctuations in laboratory plasmas, to a tokamak discharge modeled with the GYRO nonlinear gyrokinetic code [J. Candy and R. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The synthetic PCI includes the spatial response of the experimental diagnostic, primarily implemented as a line integral of plasma density along the beam path, and the minimum and maximum wavenumber response resulting from the detection scheme. The synthetic PCI can be used for comparisons between GYRO and experiment as well as studies of the PCI response.

  19. Advanced Imaging Algorithms for Radiation Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The intent of the proposed work, in collaboration with University of Michigan, is to develop the algorithms that will bring the analysis from qualitative images to quantitative attributes of objects containing SNM. The first step to achieving this is to develop an indepth understanding of the intrinsic errors associated with the deconvolution and MLEM algorithms. A significant new effort will be undertaken to relate the image data to a posited three-dimensional model of geometric primitives that can be adjusted to get the best fit. In this way, parameters of the model such as sizes, shapes, and masses can be extracted for both radioactive and non-radioactive materials. This model-based algorithm will need the integrated response of a hypothesized configuration of material to be calculated many times. As such, both the MLEM and the model-based algorithm require significant increases in calculation speed in order to converge to solutions in practical amounts of time.

  20. Diagnostic Imaging in Flames with Instantaneous Planar Coherent Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, A; Kliewer, C J

    2014-04-01

    Spatial mapping of temperature and molecular species concentrations is vitally important in studies of gaseous chemically reacting flows. Temperature marks the evolution of heat release and energy transfer, while species concentration gradients provide critical information on mixing and chemical reaction. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was pioneered in measurements of such processes almost 40 years ago and is authoritative in terms of the accuracy and precision it may provide. While a reacting flow is fully characterized in three-dimensional space, a limitation of CARS has been its applicability as a point-wise measurement technique, motivating advancement toward CARS imaging, and attempts have been made considering one-dimensional probing. Here, we report development of two-dimensional CARS, with the first diagnostics of a planar field in a combusting flow within a single laser pulse, resulting in measured isotherms ranging from 450 K up to typical hydrocarbon flame temperatures of about 2000 K with chemical mapping of O2 and N2. PMID:26274479

  1. Advanced MR Imaging of the Visual Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Duong, Timothy; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

    2015-08-01

    Vision is one of our most vital senses, deriving from the eyes as well as structures deep within the intracranial compartment. MR imaging, through its wide selection of sequences, offers an array of structural and functional imaging tools to interrogate this intricate system. This review describes several advanced MR imaging sequences and explores their potential clinical applications as well as areas for further development. PMID:26208415

  2. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  3. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  4. Diagnostic Imaging for Dental Implant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Aishwarya; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2014-01-01

    Dental implant is a device made of alloplastic (foreign) material implanted into the jaw bone beneath the mucosal layer to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis. Dental implants are gaining immense popularity and wide acceptance because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with oral function or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Appropriate treatment planning for replacement of lost teeth is required and imaging plays a pivotal role to ensure a satisfactory outcome. The development of pre-surgical imaging techniques and surgical templates helps the dentist place the implants with relative ease. This article focuses on various types of imaging modalities that have a pivotal role in implant therapy. PMID:25379354

  5. Diagnostic imaging for dental implant therapy.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Aishwarya; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2014-01-01

    Dental implant is a device made of alloplastic (foreign) material implanted into the jaw bone beneath the mucosal layer to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis. Dental implants are gaining immense popularity and wide acceptance because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with oral function or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Appropriate treatment planning for replacement of lost teeth is required and imaging plays a pivotal role to ensure a satisfactory outcome. The development of pre-surgical imaging techniques and surgical templates helps the dentist place the implants with relative ease. This article focuses on various types of imaging modalities that have a pivotal role in implant therapy. PMID:25379354

  6. Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.

  7. Computational Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics for Global Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    In this Review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

  8. MIBG in Neuroblastoma Diagnostic Imaging and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Susan E; Trout, Andrew T; Weiss, Brian D; Gelfand, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common malignancy observed in infants and young children. It has a varied prognosis, ranging from spontaneous regression to aggressive metastatic tumors with fatal outcomes despite multimodality therapy. Patients are divided into risk groups on the basis of age, stage, and biologic tumor factors. Multiple clinical and imaging tests are needed for accurate patient assessment. Iodine 123 ((123)I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is the first-line functional imaging agent used in neuroblastoma imaging. MIBG uptake is seen in 90% of neuroblastomas, identifying both the primary tumor and sites of metastatic disease. The addition of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT/computed tomography to (123)I-MIBG planar images can improve identification and characterization of sites of uptake. During scan interpretation, use of MIBG semiquantitative scoring systems improves description of disease extent and distribution and may be helpful in defining prognosis. Therapeutic use of MIBG labeled with iodine 131 ((131)I) is being investigated as part of research trials, both as a single agent and in conjunction with other therapies. (131)I-MIBG therapy has been studied in patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma and those with relapsed disease. Development and implementation of an institutional (131)I-MIBG therapy research program requires extensive preparation with a focus on radiation protection. PMID:26761540

  9. [Diagnostic imaging of central nervous system vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Hajime; Yamada, Kei

    2015-03-01

    Vasculitis involving the central nervous system presents with infarction and hemorrhage, which are often nonspecific findings. Laboratory examinations are essential for diagnosis of vasculitis in addition to comprehensive and systematic review of the clinical course. Although most findings tend to be nonspecific, enhancement and thickening of the vascular wall indicate vasculitis. Visualization of the vascular wall requires selection of the appropriate imaging modality and mode of image acquisition. Contrast-enhanced CT, MRI, and FDG-PET are useful for visualizing large vessel vasculitis, while CT, MRI, and angiography are effective for medium vessel vasculitis. The use of ultrasound is limited to evaluating vessels on the body surface. Although relatively thick vessels can be demonstrated by angiography, complete survey of small vessels is difficult. Here, we summarize the characteristics of each imaging modality and imaging findings of typical vasculitides-Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, Behçet's disease, primary angiitis of the CNS, and vasculitis associated with systemic disease. Differential diagnoses are also shown, including infective endocarditis, tuberculous meningitis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. PMID:25846439

  10. Advances in optical imaging for pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Alicia; Ripoll, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Imaging approaches are an essential tool for following up over time representative parameters of in vivo models, providing useful information in pharmacological studies. Main advantages of optical imaging approaches compared to other imaging methods are their safety, straight-forward use and cost-effectiveness. A main drawback, however, is having to deal with the presence of high scattering and high absorption in living tissues. Depending on how these issues are addressed, three different modalities can be differentiated: planar imaging (including fluorescence and bioluminescence in vivo imaging), optical tomography, and optoacoustic approaches. In this review we describe the latest advances in optical in vivo imaging with pharmacological applications, with special focus on the development of new optical imaging probes in order to overcome the strong absorption introduced by different tissue components, especially hemoglobin, and the development of multimodal imaging systems in order to overcome the resolution limitations imposed by scattering. PMID:26441646

  11. Hybrid-modality high-resolution imaging: for diagnostic biomedical imaging and sensing for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukeshan, Vadakke M.; Hoong Ta, Lim

    2014-11-01

    Medical diagnostics in the recent past has seen the challenging trend to come up with dual and multi-modality imaging for implementing better diagnostic procedures. The changes in tissues in the early disease stages are often subtle and can occur beneath the tissue surface. In most of these cases, conventional types of medical imaging using optics may not be able to detect these changes easily due to its penetration depth of the orders of 1 mm. Each imaging modality has its own advantages and limitations, and the use of a single modality is not suitable for every diagnostic applications. Therefore the need for multi or hybrid-modality imaging arises. Combining more than one imaging modalities overcomes the limitation of individual imaging method and integrates the respective advantages into a single setting. In this context, this paper will be focusing on the research and development of two multi-modality imaging platforms. The first platform combines ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for diagnostic applications in the eye. The second platform consists of optical hyperspectral and photoacoustic imaging for diagnostic applications in the colon. Photoacoustic imaging is used as one of the modalities in both platforms as it can offer deeper penetration depth compared to optical imaging. The optical engineering and research challenges in developing the dual/multi-modality platforms will be discussed, followed by initial results validating the proposed scheme. The proposed schemes offer high spatial and spectral resolution imaging and sensing, and is expected to offer potential biomedical imaging solutions in the near future.

  12. Advanced noninvasive imaging of spinal vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Eddleman, Christopher S.; Jeong, Hyun; Cashen, Ty A.; Walker, Matthew; Bendok, Bernard R.; Batjer, H. Hunt; Carroll, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal vascular malformations (SVMs) are an uncommon, heterogeneous group of vascular anomalies that can render devastating neurological consequences if they are not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Imaging SVMs has always presented a formidable challenge because their clinical and imaging presentations resemble those of neoplasms, demyelination diseases, and infection. Advancements in noninvasive imaging modalities (MR and CT angiography) have increased during the last decade and have improved the ability to accurately diagnose spinal vascular anomalies. In addition, intraoperative imaging techniques have been developed that aid in the intraoperative assessment before, during, and after resection of these lesions with minimal and/or optimal use of spinal digital subtraction angiography. In this report, the authors review recent advancements in the imaging of SVMs that will likely lead to more timely diagnoses and treatment while reducing procedural risk exposure to the patients who harbor these uncommon spinal lesions. PMID:19119895

  13. Recent advances in liver imaging.

    PubMed

    Mutter, D; Soler, L; Marescaux, J

    2010-10-01

    Liver surgery remains a difficult challenge in which preoperative data analysis and strategy definition may play a significant role in the success of the procedure. Medical image processing led to a major improvement of patient care by guiding the surgical gesture. From this initial data, new technologies of virtual reality and augmented reality can increase the potential of such images. The 3D modeling of the liver of patients from their CT scan or MRI thus allows an improved surgical planning. Simulation allows the procedure to be simulated preoperatively and offers the opportunity to train the surgical gesture before carrying it out. These three preoperative steps can be used intraoperatively thanks to the development of augmented reality, which consists of superimposing the preoperative 3D modeling of the patient onto the real intraoperative view of the patient and his/her organs. Augmented reality provides surgeons with a transparent view of the patient. This facilitated the intraoperative identification of the vascular anatomy and the control of the segmental arteries and veins in liver surgery, thus preventing intraoperative bleeding. It can also offer guidance due to the virtual improvement of their real surgical tools, which are tracked in real-time during the procedure. During the surgical procedure, augmented reality, therefore, offers surgeons a transparent view of their patient, which will lead to the automation of the most complex maneuvers. The new ways of processing and analyzing liver images have dramatically changed the approach to liver surgery. PMID:20932146

  14. Chemical Approaches for Advanced Optical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhixing

    Advances in optical microscopy have been constantly expanding our knowledge of biological systems. The achievements therein are a result of close collaborations between physicists/engineers who build the imaging instruments and chemists/biochemists who design the corresponding probe molecules. In this work I present a number of chemical approaches for the development of advanced optical imaging methods. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the recent advances of novel imaging approaches taking advantage of chemical tag technologies. Chapter 2 describes the second-generation covalent trimethoprim-tag as a viable tool for live cell protein-specific labeling and imaging. In Chapter 3 we present a fluorescence lifetime imaging approach to map protein-specific micro-environment in live cells using TMP-Cy3 as a chemical probe. In Chapter 4, we present a method harnessing photo-activatable fluorophores to extend the fundamental depth limit in multi-photon microscopy. Chapter 5 describes the development of isotopically edited alkyne palette for multi-color live cell vibrational imaging of cellular small molecules. These studies exemplify the impact of modern chemical approaches in the development of advanced optical microscopies.

  15. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  16. Disposable blast shields for use on NIF imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cal A.; Wang, Karen M.; Masters, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    The NIFs 192 lasers can deliver 2 MJ of energy to Target Chamber Center (TCC) to produce environments not available in any other experimental laboratory. The NIFs ability to deliver such intense energy to a small volume causes harsh consequences to experimental equipment and supporting diagnostics such as holhraums, support packages, target positioners, diagnostic equipment, and laser optics. Of these, the hohlraum and support packages are typically quickly vaporized and transformed into an expanding shell of high-hypersonic gases referred to as debris wind. During an experimental event such as fusion implosion, the target diagnostic components used to measure key observables in the experiment are subjected to extreme pressures and impact shocks due to incident debris wind loading. As diagnostics are positioned closer to TCC, the diagnostic pinhole stacks and other components along the diagnostic structure become more likely to be at or above the yield strength of the materials commonly used. In particular, the pinhole stack components and data recording instruments behind the pinholes are the most costly to replace. Thus, a conceptual configuration for a pinhole shield is proposed, analyzed, and tested with the intent of mitigating damage to the pinhole stack and imaging equipment and allowing immediate re-use of this diagnostic equipment. This pinhole shield would be a replaceable window that can be replaced quickly by inserting and removing it before and after each experimental laser shot, which will allow NIF to benefit from significant material and labor costs.

  17. [Coxitis fugax. The role of diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    de Pellegrin, M; Fracassetti, D; Ciampi, P

    1997-10-01

    Between 1990 and 1996, 129 children (mean age 4.8 years) with hip pain were examined consecutively. In group I (n = 100, mean age 4.14 +/- 2.2), transient synovitis of the hip was diagnosed; group II (n = 29, mean age 7.3 +/- 2.1) showed the following diagnoses: Perthes' disease (n = 12), early slipped capital femoral epiphysis (n = 5), Meyer's dysplasia (n = 2), septic arthritis of the hip (n = 2), osteomyelitis of the acetabulum (n = 1), abscess of the psoas (n = 1), chondromatosis of the hip joint (n = 1), Ewing's sarcoma of the os pubis (n = 1), hip dysplasia (n = 1). Three patients who had synovitis developed Perthes' disease and were assigned to group II. The efficiency of ultrasound, scintigraphy and MRI as diagnostic tools was tested in the examination of painful hip. A capsular distension was present in 73 cases and showed a significant statistical difference (t-test, P < 0.001) in group I between affected and unaffected hips. There were no differences in the measurements of the epiphyseal and metaphyseal width in group I between the affected and the nonaffected side (t-test, P = 0.91, P = 0.57) and between the first sonographic evaluation at presentation and at the follow-up (t-test, P = 0.053, P = 0.75). MRI was performed, because of persistent joint effusion, in 10 cases in group I, and Perthes' disease was excluded. In group II the use of an MRI allowed the diagnosis in 89% of the cases. Sonographic examination, together with X-ray examination and serological testing, represent the first choices in the evaluation of a painful hip at presentation and in the follow-up of transient synovitis. MRI should always be performed when abnormalities are present at the clinical and sonographic examination, and when the X-ray does not allow a clear diagnosis. PMID:9446093

  18. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a method for directly labeling proteins with radionuclides for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. It comprises: the steps of incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein-containing solution and incubating.

  19. State of the art: diagnostic tools and innovative therapies for treatment of advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ried, Michael; Marx, Alexander; Götz, Andrea; Hamer, Okka; Schalke, Berthold; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this review article, state-of-the-art diagnostic tools and innovative treatments of thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) are described with special respect to advanced tumour stages. Complete surgical resection (R0) remains the standard therapeutic approach for almost all a priori resectable mediastinal tumours as defined by preoperative standard computed tomography (CT). If lymphoma or germ-cell tumours are differential diagnostic considerations, biopsy may be indicated. Resection status is the most important prognostic factor in thymoma and TC, followed by tumour stage. Advanced (Masaoka-Koga stage III and IVa) tumours require interdisciplinary therapy decisions based on distinctive findings of preoperative CT scan and ancillary investigations [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] to select cases for primary surgery or neoadjuvant strategies with optional secondary resection. In neoadjuvant settings, octreotide scans and histological evaluation of pretherapeutic needle biopsies may help to choose between somatostatin agonist/prednisolone regimens and neoadjuvant chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Finally, a multimodality treatment regime is recommended for advanced and unresectable thymic tumours. In conclusion, advanced stage thymoma and TC should preferably be treated in experienced centres in order to provide all modern diagnostic tools (imaging, histology) and innovative therapy techniques. Systemic and local (hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy) medical treatments together with extended surgical resections have increased the therapeutic options in patients with advanced or recurrent thymoma and TC. PMID:26670806

  20. Advanced MR Imaging of Gliomas: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Fong Y.; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of cerebral gliomas have increased the demands on noninvasive neuroimaging for the diagnosis, therapeutic planning, tumor monitoring, and patient outcome prediction. In the meantime, improved magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques have shown much potentials in evaluating the key pathological features of the gliomas, including cellularity, invasiveness, mitotic activity, angiogenesis, and necrosis, hence, further shedding light on glioma grading before treatment. In this paper, an update of advanced MR imaging techniques is reviewed, and their potential roles as biomarkers of tumor grading are discussed. PMID:23862163

  1. Advanced Imaging of Chiari 1 Malformations.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Akbar; Shah, Manish N; Goyal, Manu S

    2015-10-01

    Type I Chiari malformations are congenital deformities involving cerebellar tonsillar herniation downward through the foramen magnum. Structurally, greater than 5 mm of tonsillar descent in adults and more than 6 mm in children is consistent with type I Chiari malformations. However, the radiographic severity of the tonsillar descent does not always correlate well with the clinical symptomatology. Advanced imaging can help clinically correlate imaging to symptoms. Specifically, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow abnormalities are seen in patients with type I Chiari malformation. Advanced MRI involving cardiac-gated and phase-contrast MRI affords a view of such CSF flow abnormalities. PMID:26408061

  2. Planning and developing a diagnostic imaging center.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Margaret J; Whelton, Dianne G

    2004-12-01

    The convergence of an aging population, new technology, and an increasing number of clinical applications and reimbursements has created a favorable environment for ambulatory imaging centers. From a patient's perspective, features such as easy access, parking, appointment availability, and a setting that caters to outpatients are attractive compared with the hospital environment. Before embarking on a venture, the execution of a careful, thorough planning process, from the inception of the idea to the opening, is vital to success. This article provides guidance on the process by discussing the process of determining whether a project is feasible; developing a business plan that will measure potential success; locating, financing, and planning space; contractor selection and project management; and planning operations. PMID:17411733

  3. Imaging and Markers as Novel Diagnostic Tools in Detecting Insignificant Prostate Cancer: A Critical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Nosov, Alexander; Novikov, Roman; Petrov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Recent therapeutic advances for managing low-risk prostate cancer include the active surveillance and focal treatment. However, locating a tumor and detecting its volume by adequate sampling is still problematic. Development of predictive biomarkers guiding individual therapeutic choices remains an ongoing challenge. At the same time, prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging is gaining increasing importance for prostate diagnostics. The high morphological resolution of T2-weighted imaging and functional MRI methods may increase the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostics. Also, recent studies founded an ability of novel biomarkers to identify clinically insignificant prostate cancer, risk of progression, and association with poor differentiation and, therefore, with clinical significance. Probably, the above mentioned methods would improve tumor characterization in terms of its volume, aggressiveness, and focality. In this review, we attempted to evaluate the applications of novel imaging techniques and biomarkers in assessing the significance of the prostate cancer. PMID:27351008

  4. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  5. Autofluorescence-based diagnostic UV imaging of tissues and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renkoski, Timothy E.

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and its early diagnosis is critical to improving treatment options and patient outcomes. In autofluorescence (AF) imaging, light of controlled wavelengths is projected onto tissue, absorbed by specific molecules, and re-emitted at longer wavelengths. Images of re-emitted light are used together with spectral information to infer tissue functional information and diagnosis. This dissertation describes AF imaging studies of three different organs using data collected from fresh human surgical specimens. In the ovary study, illumination was at 365 nm, and images were captured at 8 emission wavelengths. Measurements from a multispectral imaging system and fiber optic probe were used to map tissue diagnosis at every image pixel. For the colon and pancreas studies, instrumentation was developed extending AF imaging capability to sub-300 nm excitation. Images excited in the deep UV revealed tryptophan and protein content which are believed to change with disease state. Several excitation wavelength bands from 280 nm to 440 nm were investigated. Microscopic AF images collected in the pancreas study included both cultured and primary cells. Several findings are reported. A method of transforming fiber optic probe spectra for direct comparison with imager spectra was devised. Normalization of AF data by green reflectance data was found useful in correcting hemoglobin absorption. Ratio images, both AF and reflectance, were formulated to highlight growths in the colon. Novel tryptophan AF images were found less useful for colon diagnostics than the new ratio techniques. Microscopic tryptophan AF images produce useful visualization of cellular protein content, but their diagnostic value requires further study.

  6. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  7. Advances of imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2010-07-01

    A variety of imaging modalities, including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, and angiography, are currently used in evaluating patients with chronic liver disease and suspected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Further technological advancement will undoubtedly have a major impact on liver tumor imaging. Increased speed of data acquisition and consequently shorter scan times in CT and MRI show further improvement in resolution by further reducing motion artifacts. Development of new contrast materials for liver tumor imaging in US and MRI improve tumor detection and characterization by increasing the contrast resolution. Currently available advanced US techniques in the evaluation of HCC are various harmonic imaging techniques with contrast agents, volume imaging, and recently, US elastography, that has been developing and might play a role in characterizing liver nodules in the future. The latest advance in CT is the multidetector (MD) CT scanner where a 256- or 320-detector CT was introduced. Recent studies describe the high sensitivity of double arterial phase imaging in hepatic tumor detection and the usefulness of CT angiography by using MD CT in a detailed assessment of hepatic arterial anatomy using a three-dimensional dataset. In addition, perfusion CT imaging is also being developed and can be used for the characterization and treatment monitoring of HCC. Dual-energy CT with new technology is also continuously progressing. Advances in MR technology, including hardware and pulse sequence implementation, allow acquisition times to be reduced to the time frame of one breathhold, providing multiphasic dynamic MRI. Functional MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI, MR elastography, and new MR contrast agent with dual function have been investigated for the clinical utility of detection and characterization of HCCs. Functional MRI has a potential to be a promising technique for assessing HCC. PMID:20616584

  8. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects. PMID:26743286

  9. Beam imaging diagnostics for heavy ion beam fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Prost, L.; Ghiorso, W.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing techniques for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in the HIF-VNL in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions. The beams in current experiments range in energy from 50 keV to 2 MeV, with beam current densities from <10 to 200 mA/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of 4 to 20 {micro}s. The beam energy will range up to 10 MeV in near-future beam experiments. The imaging techniques, based on kapton films and optical scintillators, complement and, in some cases, may replace mechanical slit scanners. The kapton film images represent a time-integrated image on the film exposed to the beam. The optical scintillator utilizes glass and ceramic scintillator material imaged by a fast, image-intensified CCD-based camera. We will discuss the techniques, results, and plans for implementation of the diagnostics on the beam experiments.

  10. Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo, Joseph Mwamba; Nel, Susan; Pitcher, Richard Denys

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Objective To conduct an analysis of all registered South Africa (SA) diagnostic radiology equipment, assess the number of equipment units per capita by imaging modality, and compare SA figures with published international data, in preparation for the introduction of national health insurance (NHI) in SA. Methods The SA Radiation Control Board's database of registered diagnostic radiology equipment was analysed by modality, province and healthcare sector. Access to services was reflected as number of units/million population, and compared with published international data. Results General X-ray units are the most equitably distributed and accessible resource (34.8/million). For fluoroscopy (6.6/million), mammography (4.96/million), computed tomography (5.0/million) and magnetic resonance imaging (2.9/million), there are at least 10-fold discrepancies between the least and best resourced provinces. Although SA's overall imaging capacity is well above that of other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, it is lower than that of all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). While SA's radiological resources most closely approximate those of the United Kingdom, they are substantially lower than the UK. Conclusion SA access to radiological services is lower than that of any OECD country. For the NHI to achieve equitable access to diagnostic imaging for all citizens, SA will need a more homogeneous distribution of specialised radiological resources and customized imaging guidelines. PMID:26834910

  11. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  12. Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    VESGEN is a newly automated, user-interactive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two-dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). Primary applications of the VESGEN code are 2D vascular images acquired as clinical diagnostic images of the human retina and as experimental studies of the effects of vascular regulators and therapeutics on vessel remodeling.

  13. Advanced Imaging Modalities in the Detection of Cerebral Vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jena N.; Mehta, Vivek; Russin, Jonathan; Amar, Arun P.; Rajamohan, Anandh; Mack, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is complex and is not entirely understood. Mechanistic insights have been gained through advances in the capabilities of diagnostic imaging. Core techniques have focused on the assessment of vessel caliber, tissue metabolism, and/or regional perfusion parameters. Advances in imaging have provided clinicians with a multifaceted approach to assist in the detection of cerebral vasospasm and the diagnosis of delayed ischemic neurologic deficits (DIND). However, a single test or algorithm with broad efficacy remains elusive. This paper examines both anatomical and physiological imaging modalities applicable to post-SAH vasospasm and offers a historical background. We consider cerebral blood flow velocities measured by Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD). Structural imaging techniques, including catheter-based Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), CT Angiography (CTA), and MR Angiography (MRA), are reviewed. We examine physiologic assessment by PET, HMPAO SPECT, 133Xe Clearance, Xenon-Enhanced CT (Xe/CT), Perfusion CT (PCT), and Diffusion-Weighted/MR Perfusion Imaging. Comparative advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:23476766

  14. Advanced imaging research and development at DARPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Nibir K.; Dat, Ravi

    2012-06-01

    Advances in imaging technology have huge impact on our daily lives. Innovations in optics, focal plane arrays (FPA), microelectronics and computation have revolutionized camera design. As a result, new approaches to camera design and low cost manufacturing is now possible. These advances are clearly evident in visible wavelength band due to pixel scaling, improvements in silicon material and CMOS technology. CMOS cameras are available in cell phones and many other consumer products. Advances in infrared imaging technology have been slow due to market volume and many technological barriers in detector materials, optics and fundamental limits imposed by the scaling laws of optics. There is of course much room for improvements in both, visible and infrared imaging technology. This paper highlights various technology development projects at DARPA to advance the imaging technology for both, visible and infrared. Challenges and potentials solutions are highlighted in areas related to wide field-of-view camera design, small pitch pixel, broadband and multiband detectors and focal plane arrays.

  15. Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Peter W.; Cox, Stephen; Murphy, Bob; Grealish, Kevin; Joswick, Mike; Denley, Brian; Feda, Frank; Elmali, Loriann; Kohin, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important thermal imaging sensor programs currently in production: a family of thermal weapons sights for the United States Army and a thermal imager for the remote weapons station on the Stryker vehicle.

  16. Optimizing Patient-centered Communication and Multidisciplinary Care Coordination in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Merck, Lisa H; Froemming, Adam T; Vaughan, William; Brown, Michael D; Hess, Erik P; Applegate, Kimberly E; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-12-01

    Patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging relies on efficient communication and multispecialty care coordination to ensure optimal imaging utilization. The construct of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination cycle with three main phases (pretest, test, and posttest) provides a useful framework to evaluate care coordination in patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. This article summarizes findings reached during the patient-centered outcomes session of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The primary objective was to develop a research agenda focused on 1) defining component parts of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination process, 2) identifying gaps in communication that affect emergency diagnostic imaging, and 3) defining optimal methods of communication and multidisciplinary care coordination that ensure patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. Prioritized research questions provided the framework to define a research agenda for multidisciplinary care coordination in emergency diagnostic imaging. PMID:26575785

  17. Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in the Emergency Department - New Techniques for Speed and Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane

    2012-01-01

    Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain. PMID:22708910

  18. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging in the emergency department--new techniques for speed and diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane

    2012-05-01

    Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain. PMID:22708910

  19. Advanced endoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Helmut; Nägel, Andreas; Buda, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Advanced endoscopic imaging is revolutionizing our way on how to diagnose and treat colorectal lesions. Within recent years a variety of modern endoscopic imaging techniques was introduced to improve adenoma detection rates. Those include high-definition imaging, dye-less chromoendoscopy techniques and novel, highly flexible endoscopes, some of them equipped with balloons or multiple lenses in order to improve adenoma detection rates. In this review we will focus on the newest developments in the field of colonoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection rates. Described techniques include high-definition imaging, optical chromoendoscopy techniques, virtual chromoendoscopy techniques, the Third Eye Retroscope and other retroviewing devices, the G-EYE endoscope and the Full Spectrum Endoscopy-system. PMID:25789092

  20. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1993-06-07

    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  1. Advances in noninvasive imaging of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Menge, Tyler D; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer and its incidence has risen sharply in recent decades. Early detection of disease is critical for improving patient outcomes. Any pigmented lesion that is clinically concerning must be removed by biopsy for morphologic investigation on histology. However, biopsies are invasive and can cause significant morbidity, and their accuracy in detecting melanoma may be limited by sampling error. The advent of noninvasive imaging devices has allowed for assessment of intact skin, thereby minimizing the need for biopsy; and these technologies are increasingly being used in the diagnosis and management of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, ultrasonography, and multispectral imaging are noninvasive imaging techniques that have emerged as diagnostic aids to physical exam and/or conventional dermoscopy. This review summarizes the current knowledge about these techniques and discusses their practical applications and limitations. PMID:26963113

  2. Atherosclerosis diagnostic imaging by optical spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewko, M. D.; Choo-Smith, L. P.; Ko, A. C. T.; Smith, M. S. D.; Kohlenberg, E. M.; Bock, E. R.; Leonardi, L.; Sowa, M. G.

    2006-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is traditionally viewed as a disease of uncontrolled plaque growth leading to arterial occlusion. More recently, however, occlusion of the arterial lumen is being viewed as an acute event triggered by plaque rupture and thrombosis. An atheromatous plaque becomes vulnerable to sudden activation and/or rupture when a constellation of processes are activated by various trigger mechanisms. There is growing evidence that the vulnerability (i.e. susceptibility to rupture) and thrombogenic nature of the plaque need to be taken into account in the planning and treatment of the disease. X-ray fluoroscopy and intravascular ultrasound, the current clinical diagnostic tools are not capable of the providing a complete histological picture of the plaque region. Intravascular diagnostic imaging of coronary atherosclerotic plaques by optical means to assess plaque, patient risk and assist in planning treatment strategies represents the future in angioplasty treatment by interventional cardiologists. The techniques which will enable a clinically acceptable and reliable intravascular diagnostic platform are currently being investigated and compared to the clinical standard of histology. Currently, we are investigating the use of a number of optical and imaging techniques for biochemical analysis of arterial tissue including Raman, near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. Biochemical imaging will provide compositional information on collagen, elastin, lipid and thrombogenic by-products as well as gauging inflammation and tissue remodeling activity levels. To complement the functional biochemical imaging, optical coherence tomography will be provide structural morphological imaging. The synergistic combination of functional and structural imagery will provide the interventional cardiologist with a complete clinical picture of the atherosclerotic plaque region. The clinician can use this diagnostic information to plan a personalized treatment procedure based on

  3. Evolving imaging techniques in diagnostic strategies of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Robert-Ebadi, Helia; Le Gal, Grégoire; Righini, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Modern non invasive diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism (PE) rely on the sequential use of clinical probability assessment, D-dimer measurement and thoracic imaging tests. Planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy was the cornerstone for more than two decades and has now been replaced by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strategies using CTPA are very safe to rule out PE and have been well validated in large prospective management outcome studies. With the widespread use of CTPA, concerns regarding radiation and overdiagnosis of PE have paved the way for investigating new diagnostic modalities. V/Q single photon emission tomography has arisen as a highly accurate test and a potential alternative to CTPA. However, prospective management outcome studies are still lacking and are warranted before implementation in everyday clinical practice. PMID:26691634

  4. Healthcare provider and patient perspectives on diagnostic imaging investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor–patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers’ and patients’ perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation. Aim and setting: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars). Results: Two main themes guided our analysis: (1) provider perspectives; and (2) patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof. Conclusion: Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider–patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included. PMID:26245604

  5. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Malone; John R. Celesteb; Peter M. Celliers; Brent C. Froggeta; Robert L. Guyton; Morris I. Kaufman; Tony L. Lee; Brian J. MacGowan; Edmund W. Ng; Imants P. Reinbachs; Ronald B. Robinson; Lynn G. Seppala; Tom W. Tunnell; Phillip W. Watts

    2005-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1–5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  6. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R; Celeste, J; Celliers, P; Frogget, B; Guyton, R L; Kaufman, M; Lee, T; MacGowan, B; Ng, E W; Reinbachs, I P; Robinson, R B; Seppala, L; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P

    2005-07-07

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1-5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  7. Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnosis: Fundamentals and Technical Solutions - X-Ray Diagnostics- Computed Tomography - Nuclear Medical Diagnostics - Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Ultrasound Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krestel, Erich

    1990-10-01

    Erick Krestel, Editor Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics This book provides physicians and clinical physicists with detailed information on todya's imaging modalities and assists them in selecting the optimal system for each clinical application. Physicists, engineers and computer specialists engaged in research and development and sales departments will also find this book to be of considerable use. It may also be employed at universities, training centers and in technical seminars. The physiological and physical fundamentals are explained in part 1. The technical solutions contained in part 2 illustrate the numerous possibilities available in x-ray diagnostics, computed tomography, nuclear medical diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography and biomagnetic diagnostics. Overview of Contents Physiology of vision Image quality X-ray and gamma radiation X-ray diagnostics Computed tomography Nuclear medical diagnostics Magnetic resonance imaging Sonography Biomagnetic diagnostics

  8. Advancement in contemporary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, L Dinesh; Karthik, R; Gayathri, N; Sivasudha, T

    2016-04-01

    This review is intended to provide a summary of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapies for rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common form of inflammatory autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology. Bone degradation, cartilage and synovial destruction are three major pathways of RA pathology. Sentinel cells includes dendritic cells, macrophages and mast cells bound with the auto antigens and initiate the inflammation of the joints. Those cells further activates the immune cells on synovial membrane by releasing inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1, 6, 17, etc., Diagnosis of this disease is a combinational approach comprises radiological imaging, blood and serology markers assessment. The treatment of RA still remain inadequate due to the lack of knowledge in disease development. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs and corticosteroid are the commercial drugs to reduce pain, swelling and suppressing several disease factors. Arthroscopy will be an useful method while severe degradation of joint tissues. Gene therapy is a major advancement in RA. Suppressor gene locus of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes were inserted into the affected area to reduce the disease progression. To overcome the issues aroused from those therapies like side effects and expenses, phytocompounds have been investigated and certain compounds are proved for their anti-arthritic potential. Furthermore certain complementary alternative therapies like yoga, acupuncture, massage therapy and tai chi have also been proved for their capability in RA treatment. PMID:27044812

  9. Imaging VISAR diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R M; Bower, J R; Bradley, D K; Capelle, G A; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; Eckart, M J; Eggert, J H; Frogget, B C; Guyton, R L; Hicks, D G; Kaufman, M I; MacGowan, B J; Montelongo, S; Ng, E W; Robinson, R B; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P W; Zapata, P G

    2004-08-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires diagnostics to analyze high-energy density physics experiments. A VISAR (Velocity Interferometry System for Any Reflector) diagnostic has been designed to measure shock velocities, shock breakout times, and shock emission of targets with sizes from 1 to 5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter vacuum chamber. The optical relay sends the image out an equatorial port, through a 2-inch-thick vacuum window, and into two interferometers. A 60-kW VISAR probe laser operates at 659.5 nm with variable pulse width. Special coatings on the mirrors and cutoff filters are used to reject the NIF drive laser wavelengths and to pass a band of wavelengths for VISAR, passive shock breakout light, or thermal imaging light (bypassing the interferometers). The first triplet can be no closer than 500 mm from the target chamber center and is protected from debris by a blast window that is replaced after every event. The front end of the optical relay can be temporarily removed from the equatorial port, allowing other experimenters to use that port. A unique resolution pattern has been designed to validate the VISAR diagnostic before each use. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that the pointing accuracy of the optical axis can be checked. Seven CCD cameras monitor the diagnostic alignment.

  10. Surface Diagnostics in Tribology Technology and Advanced Coatings Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodologies used for surface property measurement of thin films and coatings, lubricants, and materials in the field of tribology. Surface diagnostic techniques include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and tribology examination. Each diagnostic technique provides specific measurement results in its own unique way. In due course it should be possible to coordinate the different pieces of information provided by these diagnostic techniques into a coherent self-consistent description of the surface properties. Examples are given on the nature and character of thin diamond films.

  11. Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) Testability Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossenfort, John

    2008-01-01

    As system designs become more complex, determining the best locations to add sensors and test points for the purpose of testing and monitoring these designs becomes more difficult. Not only must the designer take into consideration all real and potential faults of the system, he or she must also find efficient ways of detecting and isolating those faults. Because sensors and cabling take up valuable space and weight on a system, and given constraints on bandwidth and power, it is even more difficult to add sensors into these complex designs after the design has been completed. As a result, a number of software tools have been developed to assist the system designer in proper placement of these sensors during the system design phase of a project. One of the key functions provided by many of these software programs is a testability analysis of the system essentially an evaluation of how observable the system behavior is using available tests. During the design phase, testability metrics can help guide the designer in improving the inherent testability of the design. This may include adding, removing, or modifying tests; breaking up feedback loops, or changing the system to reduce fault propagation. Given a set of test requirements, the analysis can also help to verify that the system will meet those requirements. Of course, a testability analysis requires that a software model of the physical system is available. For the analysis to be most effective in guiding system design, this model should ideally be constructed in parallel with these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to present the final testability results of the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) after the system model was completed. The tool chosen to build the model and to perform the testability analysis with is the Testability Engineering and Maintenance System Designer (TEAMS-Designer). The TEAMS toolset is intended to be a solution to span all phases of the system, from design and

  12. Assessing the Risks for Modern Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, Jr.

    1998-05-01

    Some 35 years after Paul-Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity, ultrasonic imaging was developed by Paul Langevin. During this work, ultrasonic energy was observed to have a detrimental biological effect. These observations were confirmed a decade later by R. W. Wood and A. L. Loomis. It was not until the early 1950s that ultrasonic exposure conditions were controlled and specified so that studies could focus on the mechanisms by which ultrasound influenced biological materials. In the late 1940s, pioneering work was initiated to image the human body by ultrasonic techniques. These engineers and physicians were aware of the deleterious ultrasound effects at sufficiently high levels; this endeavored them to keep the exposure levels reasonably low. Over the past three decades, diagnostic ultrasound has become a sophisticated technology. Yet, our understanding of the potential risks has not changed appreciably. It is very encouraging that human injury has never been attributed to clinical practice of diagnostic ultrasound.

  13. Diagnostic Imaging of Canine Hepatobiliary Affections: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Adarsh; Varshney, A. C.; Tyagi, S. P.; Kanwar, M. S.; Sharma, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic disease is often treatable and has a predictable prognosis when a definitive diagnosis is made. The aim of clinicopathological evaluation of hepatobiliary affections is to identify and characterize hepatic damage and dysfunction, identify possible primary causes of secondary liver disease, differentiate causes of icterus, evaluate potential anaesthetic risks, assess prognosis and response to xenobiotics, and monitor response to therapy. This paper describes the different diagnostic methods and imaging techniques employed in diagnosis of hepatobiliary affections in dogs. Besides reviewing the significant clinical manifestations and imaging structural abnormalities in diagnostic approach to different hepatic affections, it also depicts radiographic, ultrasonographic, and wherever applicable, the laparoscopic characterization of different hepatic affections and target lesions encountered in clinical cases presented in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, COVAS, Palampur in the year 2007-2008. PMID:22577609

  14. Optical Imaging Techniques for Point-of-care Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongying; Isikman, Serhan O.; Mudanyali, Onur; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Improving the access to effective and affordable healthcare has long been a global endeavor. In this quest, the development of cost-effective and easy-to-use medical testing equipment that enable rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce the time and costs associated with healthcare services. To this end, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics plays a crucial role in healthcare delivery in both the developed and developing countries by bringing medical testing to patients, or to sites near patients. As the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases, including various types of cancers and many endemics relies on optical techniques, numerous compact and cost-effective optical imaging platforms have been developed in recent years for use at the POC. Here, we review the state-of-the-art optical imaging techniques that can have significant impact on global health by facilitating effective and affordable POC diagnostics. PMID:23044793

  15. Glaucoma Diagnosis and Monitoring Using Advanced Imaging Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Sehi, Mitra; Iverson, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Advanced ocular imaging technologies facilitate objective and reproducible quantification of change in glaucoma but at the same time, impose new challenges on scientists and clinicians for separating true structural change from imaging noise. This review examines time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and scanning laser polarimetry technologies and discusses the diagnostic accuracy and the ability of each technique for evaluation of glaucomatous progression. A broad review of the current literature reveals that objective assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex and optic nerve head topography may improve glaucoma monitoring when used as a complementary tool in conjunction with the clinical judgment of an expert. PMID:24470807

  16. Foundations of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan; Newbould, Rexford; Liu, Chunlei; Thijs, Vincent; Ropele, Stefan; Clayton, David B.; Krueger, Gunnar; Moseley, Michael E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: During the past decade, major breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality were made by means of quantum leaps in scanner hardware and pulse sequences. Some advanced MRI techniques have truly revolutionized the detection of disease states and MRI can now—within a few minutes—acquire important quantitative information noninvasively from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. This article provides an overview of the most common advanced MRI methods including diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, and the strengths and weaknesses of MRI at high magnetic field strengths. PMID:15897944

  17. Advanced smile diagnostics using CAD/CAM mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostics are essential for predictable restorative dentistry. Both patient and clinician must agree on a treatment goal before the final restorations are delivered to avoid future disappointments. However, fully understanding the patient's desires is difficult. A useful tool to overcome this problem is the diagnostic wax-up and mock-up. A potential treatment outcome is modeled in wax prior to treatment and transferred into the patient's mouth using silicon indexes and autopolymerizing resin to obtain the patient's approval. Yet, this time-consuming procedure only produces a single version of the possible treatment outcome, which can be unsatisfactory for both the patient and the restorative team. Contemporary digital technologies may provide advantageous features to aid in this diagnostic treatment step. This article reviews opportunities digital technologies offer in the diagnostic phase, and presents clinical cases to illustrate the procedures. PMID:26171442

  18. Imaging Live Bee Brains using Minimally-Invasive Diagnostic Radioentomology

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mark K; Tong, Jenna; Soleimani, Manucher; Bell, Duncan; Schäfer, Marc O

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymeonoptera: Apidae), brain volume and density to behavior (plasticity) makes it a great model for exploring the interactions between experience, behavior, and brain structure. Plasticity in the adult bee brain has been demonstrated in previous experiments. This experiment was conducted to identify the potentials and limitations of MicroCT (micro computed tomograpy) scanning “live” bees as a more comprehensive, non-invasive method for brain morphology and physiology. Bench-top and synchrotron MicroCT were used to scan live bees. For improved tissue differentiation, bees were fed and injected with radiographic contrast. Images of optic lobes, ocelli, antennal lobes, and mushroom bodies were visualized in 2D and 3D rendering modes. Scanning of live bees (for the first time) enabled minimally-invasive imaging of physiological processes such as passage of contrast from gut to haemolymph, and preliminary brain perfusion studies. The use of microCT scanning for studying insects (collectively termed ‘diagnostic radioentomology’, or DR) is increasing. Our results indicate that it is feasible to observe plasticity of the honey bee brain in vivo using diagnostic radioentomology, and that progressive, real-time observations of these changes can be followed in individual live bees. Limitations of live bee scanning, such as movement errors and poor tissue differentiation, were identified; however, there is great potential for in-vivo, non-invasive diagnostic radioentomology imaging of the honey bee for brain morphology and physiology. PMID:23421752

  19. Imaging of facial nerve schwannomas: diagnostic pearls and potential pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Mundada, Pravin; Purohit, Bela Satish; Kumar, Tahira Sultana; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are uncommon in the facial nerve and account for less than 1% of tumors of temporal bone. They can involve one or more than one segment of the facial nerve. The clinical presentations and the imaging appearances of facial nerve schwannomas are influenced by the topographical anatomy of the facial nerve and vary according to the segment(s) they involve. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging features of facial nerve schwannomas according to their various anatomical locations and also reviews the pertinent differential diagnoses and potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:26712680

  20. Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnostic value of radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.; Nichols, K.; Cefola, R.

    1986-11-01

    Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (HPVO) continues to be a diagnostic problem for clinicians due to nonspecific presentation of the disease (1,2). We reviewed our experience of the last 10 years to determine the diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide bone studies in this disease. We found 15 patients whose primary diagnosis was HPVO. Of the 15 patients, 12 had (99mTc)MDP bone scans which were all positive. Five of the 12 patients had positive (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scans and one patient with chronic active HPVO had negative /sup 67/Ga and (/sup 111/In)WBC bone images. At the same time, three patients' spine x-rays and one patient's CT scan of the vertebra were normal. Additionally, in three patients spine x-rays were interpreted as consistent with degenerative joint disease that contributed to the delay of the diagnosis. We conclude that when HPVO is suspected an abnormal (99mTc)MDP bone image increases the probability of the disease, even if the x-rays and CT scans of the spine are normal. An abnormal /sup 67/Ga image following an abnormal 99mTc bone image increases the specificity of the diagnosis. Normal (99mTc)MDP and (/sup 67/Ga)citrate bone images of the vertebra virtually exclude the diagnosis of HPVO.

  1. Towards real-time medical diagnostics using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorgan, Asgeir; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides non-contact, high resolution spectral images which has a substantial diagnostic potential. This can be used for e.g. diagnosis and early detection of arthritis in finger joints. Processing speed is currently a limitation for clinical use of the technique. A real-time system for analysis and visualization using GPU processing and threaded CPU processing is presented. Images showing blood oxygenation, blood volume fraction and vessel enhanced images are among the data calculated in real-time. This study shows the potential of real-time processing in this context. A combination of the processing modules will be used in detection of arthritic finger joints from hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance data.

  2. Postcards from the imaging informatics road. Despite policy complexities, diagnostic imaging informatics makes progress on multiple fronts.

    PubMed

    Hagland, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The current strategic landscape for imaging informatics is one filled with great contrasts and paradoxes. On the one hand, because imaging informatics was not explicitly addressed in Stage 1 of the meaningful use requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act/Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (ARRA-HITECH) legislation, it instantly lost some of the environment of turbo-charged energy characterized by areas that were directly addressed by the HITECH Act, such as quality data reporting, care management, and of course, core electronic health record (EHR) development. On the other hand, an interesting combination of factors--rapidly advancing technology, the expansion of the image archiving concept across different medical specialties, and the inclusion of diagnostic image-sharing as one element in the development of health information exchange (HIE) arrangements nationwide--is nonetheless pushing imaging informatics forward towards new innovations. The five articles below provide readers with different glimpses of the path ahead for imaging informatics. The first presents a look at the current policy and reimbursement landscape. Each of the four subsequent articles delve into different aspects of innovation, from a process developed at a public hospital to improve and speed up the diagnostic process for trauma patients, to a radiology-specific financial analytics solution in the group practice setting, to an advance in cardiology information systems, to a self-developed federated image viewing platform at one of the nation's largest integrated health systems. Each of those initiatives is very different; yet it is clear that a great deal of innovation is taking place across the US. healthcare system when it comes to imaging informatics. With a landscape filled with uncertainties and potential policy, reimbursement, and industry shifts in the offing, CIOs, CMIOs, and other healthcare IT leaders will need to think very

  3. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  4. Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

  5. Diagnostic Imaging Guidelines Implementation Study for Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, André E.; Laurencelle, Louis; Peterson, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Implementation strategies of imaging guidelines can assist in reducing the number of radiographic examinations. This study aimed to compare the perceived need for diagnostic imaging before and after an educational intervention strategy. Methods: One hundred sixty Swiss chiropractors attending a conference were randomized to either receive a radiology workshop, reviewing appropriate indications for diagnostic imaging for adult spine disorders (n = 80), or be in a control group (CG). One group of 40 individuals dropped out from the CG due to logistic reasons. Participants in the intervention group were randomly assigned to three subgroups to evaluate the effect of an online reminder at midpoint. All participants underwent a pretest and a final test at 14–16 weeks. A posttest was administered to two subgroups at 8–10 weeks. Results: There was no difference between baseline scores, and overall scores for the pretest and the final tests for all four groups were not significantly different. However, the subgroup provided with access to a reminder performed significantly better than the subgroup with whom they were compared (F = 4.486; df = 1 and 30; p = .043). Guideline adherence was 50.5% (95% CI, 39.1–61.8) for the intervention group and 43.7% (95% CI, 23.7–63.6) for the CG at baseline. Adherence at follow-up was lower, but mean group differences remained insignificant. Conclusions: Online access to specific recommendations while making a clinical decision may favorably influence the intention to either order or not order imaging studies. However, a didactic presentation alone did not appear to change the perception for the need of diagnostic imaging studies. PMID:20480010

  6. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  7. Satisfaction of search experiments in advanced imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbaum, Kevin S.

    2012-03-01

    The objective of our research is to understand the perception of multiple abnormalities in an imaging examination and to develop strategies for improved diagnostic. We are one of the few laboratories in the world pursuing the goal of reducing detection errors through a better understanding of the underlying perceptual processes involved. Failure to detect an abnormality is the most common class of error in diagnostic imaging and generally is considered the most serious by the medical community. Many of these errors have been attributed to "satisfaction of search," which occurs when a lesion is not reported because discovery of another abnormality has "satisfied" the goal of the search. We have gained some understanding of the mechanisms of satisfaction of search (SOS) traditional radiographic modalities. Currently, there are few interventions to remedy SOS error. For example, patient history that the prompts specific abnormalities, protects the radiologist from missing them even when other abnormalities are present. The knowledge gained from this programmatic research will lead to reduction of observer error.

  8. Strategic planning for radiology: opening an outpatient diagnostic imaging center.

    PubMed

    Leepson, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Launching a new diagnostic imaging center involves very specific requirements and roadmaps, including five major areas of change that have a direct impact on planning: Imaging and communication technology Finances and reimbursement Ownership structure of imaging entities Critical workforce shortages Imaging is moving outside radiology First, planning must focus on the strategic level of any organization, whether it is a multi-national corporation or a six-person radiology group. Think of all organizations as a triangle with three horizontal levels: strategic, managerial and operational. The strategic level of decision-making is at the top of the triangle, and here is where planning must take place. For strategic planning to work, there must be focused time and energy spent on this activity, usually away from the reading room and imaging center. There are five planning strategies, which must have the explicit goal of developing and growing the imaging center. The five strategies are: Clinical and quality issues, Governance and administration, Technology, Relationships, Marketing and business development. The best way to plan and implement these strategies is to create work groups of radiologists, technologists, and administrative and support staff. Once the group agrees on the strategy and tactic, it takes responsibility for implementation. Embarking on the launch of a new outpatient diagnostic imaging center is no small undertaking, and anyone who has struggled with such an endeavor can readily attest to the associated challenges and benefits. Success depends on many things, and one of the most important factors relates to the amount of time and the quality of effort spent on strategic planning at the outset. Neglecting or skimping on this phase may lead to unforeseen obstacles that could potentially derail the project. PMID:12800560

  9. A comprehensive review of diagnostic imaging technologies to evaluate the retina and the optic disk.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Asima; Aman, Rabia; Reddy, Ashvini K

    2015-10-01

    Ophthalmic imaging has undergone a revolution over the past 20 years with increasingly efficient and high-definition modalities now available. The use of wide-field retinal angiography, fundus autofluorescence, state-of-the-art spectral domain, and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography has proven to be effective in this field. This comprehensive review is devoted to retinal and optic disk imaging modalities and their clinical implications. It is based on the published literature in the field of ophthalmic imaging with a focus on recent advances. Ophthalmic imaging plays a crucial role in the management of patients with both isolated retinal disease and systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. Evolving technology enables imaging of ocular disease in vivo, facilitating objective assessment of disease progression and response to treatment. These latest technical improvements in ophthalmic imaging are now a part of standard ophthalmic assessment in academic centers and most private practices. In the coming years, further advances may improve diagnostic sensitivity and enable cost-effective screening of large populations. PMID:26043677

  10. Image stabilization for SWIR advanced optoelectronic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru; Granciu, Dana

    2015-02-01

    At long ranges and under low visibility conditions, Advanced Optoelectronic Device provides the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in the Short-wave Infra-red - SWIR (wavelengths between 1,1 ÷2,5 μm), significantly better than in the near wave infrared - NWIR and visible spectral bands [1,2]. The quality of image is nearly independent of the polarization in the incoming light, but it is influenced by the relative movement between the optical system and the observer (the operators' handshake), and the movement towards the support system (land and air vehicles). All these make it difficult to detect objectives observation in real time. This paper presents some systems enhance which the ability of observation and sighting through the optical systems without the use of the stands, tripods or other means. We have to eliminate the effect of "tremors of the hands" and the vibration in order to allow the use of optical devices by operators on the moving vehicles on land, on aircraft, or on boats, and to provide additional comfort for the user to track the moving object through the optical system, without losing the control in the process of detection and tracking. The practical applications of stabilization image process, in SWIR, are the most advanced part of the optical observation systems available worldwide [3,4,5]. This application has a didactic nature, because it ensures understanding by the students about image stabilization and their participation in research.

  11. Application of aptamers in diagnostics, drug-delivery and imaging.

    PubMed

    Chandola, Chetan; Kalme, Sheetal; Casteleijn, Marco G; Urtti, Arto; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy

    2016-09-01

    Aptamers are small, single-stranded oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that bind to their target with high specificity and affinity. Although aptamers are analogous to antibodies for a wide range of target recognition and variety of applications, they have significant advantages over antibodies. Since aptamers have recently emerged as a class of biomolecules with an application in a wide array of fields, we need to summarize the latest developments herein. In this review we will discuss about the latest developments in using aptamers in diagnostics, drug delivery and imaging. We begin with diagnostics, discussing the application of aptamers for the detection of infective agents itself, antigens/ toxins (bacteria), biomarkers (cancer), or a combination. The ease of conjugation and labelling of aptamers makes them a potential tool for diagnostics. Also, due to the reduced off-target effects of aptamers, their use as a potential drug delivery tool is emerging rapidly. Hence, we discuss their use in targeted delivery in conjugation with siRNAs, nanoparticles, liposomes, drugs and antibodies. Finally, we discuss about the conjugation strategies applicable for RNA and DNA aptamers for imaging. Their stability and self-assembly after heating makes them superior over protein-based binding molecules in terms of labelling and conjugation strategies. PMID:27581942

  12. Quantitative Computed Tomography and Image Analysis for Advanced Muscle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnus K.; Arnadottir, Iris D.; Marcante, Andrea; Piccione, Francesco; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT) and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration. PMID:27478562

  13. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB[sub 2] and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB[sub 2].

  14. Rapid diagnostics for avian influenza -- Advances in testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of tools are available for the diagnosis of avian influenza virus. They can be generally divided into the serologic diagnostic tests and direct virus detection tests. The serologic tests are important primarily for active surveillance to assure our poultry flocks are free of avian influe...

  15. Advanced clinical monitoring: considerations for real-time hemodynamic diagnostics.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, J. M.; Cordova, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to ease staffing burdens and potentially improve patient outcome in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment, we are developing a real-time system to accurately and efficiently diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. The system is being designed to utilize all relevant routinely-monitored physiological data in order to automatically diagnose potentially fatal events. The initial stage of this project involved formulating the overall system design and appropriate methods for real-time data acquisition, data storage, data trending, waveform analysis, and implementing diagnostic rules. Initially, we defined a conceptual analysis of the minimum physiologic data set, and the monitoring time-frames (trends) which would be required to diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. Following that analysis, we used a fuzzy logic diagnostic engine to analyze physiological data during a simulated arrhythmic cardiac arrest (ACA) in order to assess the validity of our diagnostic methodology. We used rate, trend, and morphologic data extracted from the following signals: expired CO2 time-concentration curve (capnogram), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure. The system performed well: The fuzzy logic engine effectively diagnosed the likelihood of ACA from the subtle hemodynamic trends which preceded the complete arrest. As the clinical picture worsened, the fuzzy logic-based system accurately indicated the change in patient condition. Termination of the simulated arrest was rapidly detected by the diagnostic engine. In view of the effectiveness of this fuzzy logic implementation, we plan to develop additional fuzzy logic modules to diagnose other cardiopulmonary emergencies. PMID:7950025

  16. The clinician's guide to diagnostic imaging: Cost effective pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Z.D.; Chew, F.S.; Ellis, D.A.; Brigham, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents logical, step-by-step imaging sequences for 47 medical, surgical, and pediatric problems. Topics considered include breast cancer screening, acute spinal trauma, search for primary cancer of unknown origin, acute anuria, blunt chest trauma, new onset seizures, and spinal cord compression from metastases. Other chapters have been rewritten to enhance the clarity of presentation and to incorporate new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, dipyridamole stress testing, and single photon emission computed tomography. The book highlights the expanding role of CT in evaluation of thoracic and abdominal problems, the emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a vital diagnostic tool for the central nervous system, and the clinical utility of many newly developed radiopharmaceuticals.

  17. Choice of diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in periodontics and implantology

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Swarna; Sirisha, K.; Srilalitha, Anumadi; Srinivas, Moogala

    2013-01-01

    Imaging forms an integral component for diagnosis of dental and in specific periodontal diseases. To date, intra-oral radiographic techniques are the main non-invasive diagnostic aids for the detection and assessment of internal changes in mineralized periodontal tissues like alveolar bone. These analog radiographic techniques suffer from inherent limitations like: Two dimensional projection, magnification, distortion, superimposition and misrepresentation of anatomic structures. The evolution of novel imaging modalities, namely cone beam computed tomography, tuned aperture CT empowered dental researchers to visualize the periodontium three dimensionally. This improves interpretation of structural and biophysical changes, ensures densitometric assessments of dentoalveolar structures including variations in alveolar bone density, and peri-implant bone healing more precisely. This detailed review, highlights current leading edge concepts, envisions a wide range of imaging modalities which pave the way for better understanding and early intervention of periodontal diseases. PMID:24554878

  18. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  19. Image Quality Analysis of Various Gastrointestinal Endoscopes: Why Image Quality Is a Prerequisite for Proper Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Weon Jin; An, Pyeong; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Arising from human curiosity in terms of the desire to look within the human body, endoscopy has undergone significant advances in modern medicine. Direct visualization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by traditional endoscopy was first introduced over 50 years ago, after which fairly rapid advancement from rigid esophagogastric scopes to flexible scopes and high definition videoscopes has occurred. In an effort towards early detection of precancerous lesions in the GI tract, several high-technology imaging scopes have been developed, including narrow band imaging, autofocus imaging, magnified endoscopy, and confocal microendoscopy. However, these modern developments have resulted in fundamental imaging technology being skewed towards red-green-blue and this technology has obscured the advantages of other endoscope techniques. In this review article, we have described the importance of image quality analysis using a survey to consider the diversity of endoscope system selection in order to better achieve diagnostic and therapeutic goals. The ultimate aims can be achieved through the adoption of modern endoscopy systems that obtain high image quality. PMID:26473119

  20. Visualization, imaging and new preclinical diagnostics in radiation oncology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Innovative strategies in cancer radiotherapy are stimulated by the growing knowledge on cellular and molecular tumor biology, tumor pathophysiology, and tumor microenvironment. In terms of tumor diagnostics and therapy monitoring, the reliable delineation of tumor boundaries and the assessment of tumor heterogeneity are increasingly complemented by the non-invasive characterization of functional and molecular processes, moving preclinical and clinical imaging from solely assessing tumor morphology towards the visualization of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Functional and molecular imaging techniques allow for the non-invasive characterization of tissues in vivo, using different modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). With novel therapeutic concepts combining optimized radiotherapy with molecularly targeted agents focusing on tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell death, the non-invasive assessment of tumor microcirculation and tissue water diffusion, together with strategies for imaging the mechanisms of cellular injury and repair is of particular interest. Characterizing the tumor microenvironment prior to and in response to irradiation will help to optimize the outcome of radiotherapy. These novel concepts of personalized multi-modal cancer therapy require careful pre-treatment stratification as well as a timely and efficient therapy monitoring to maximize patient benefit on an individual basis. Functional and molecular imaging techniques are key in this regard to open novel opportunities for exploring and understanding the underlying mechanisms with the perspective to optimize therapeutic concepts and translate them into a personalized form of radiotherapy in the near future. PMID:24387195

  1. Histology, imaging and new diagnostic work-flows in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, John; Yagi, Yukako

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Since their introduction in 1999, fully automated, high speed, high-resolution whole slide imaging devices have become increasing more reliable, fast and capable. While by no means perfect, these devices have evolved to a point where one can consider placing them in a pre-diagnostic role in a clinical histology lab. Methods At the Massachusetts General Hospital, we are running a pilot study placing high end WSI devices in our main clinical histology lab (after the cover slipper and before slides are sent to the pathologist) to examine the requirement for both the machine and the laboratory. Results Placing WSI systems in the clinical lab stresses the system in terms of reliability and throughput. Significantly however, success requires significant modification to the lab workflow. It is likely laboratories need to move from manual, large batch processes to increasingly automated, continuous flow (or mini-batch) processes orchestrated by the LIS using bar coding to track and direct slides, and incorporating the decision to image into the specimen type and the histology orders. Furthermore, image quality, capture speed and reliability are functions of the quality of the histology presented to the WSI devices. Conclusion Imaging in pathology does not begin in a WSI robot but in the grossing room and in the histology lab. As more and more imaging devices are placed in histology lab, the inter-relationships histology and pathology imaging will become increasing understood. PMID:18673502

  2. Advances in Optical Fiber-Based Faraday Rotation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; McHale, G B; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    In the past two years, we have used optical fiber-based Faraday Rotation Diagnostics (FRDs) to measure pulsed currents on several dozen capacitively driven and explosively driven pulsed power experiments. We have made simplifications to the necessary hardware for quadrature-encoded polarization analysis, including development of an all-fiber analysis scheme. We have developed a numerical model that is useful for predicting and quantifying deviations from the ideal diagnostic response. We have developed a method of analyzing quadrature-encoded FRD data that is simple to perform and offers numerous advantages over several existing methods. When comparison has been possible, we have seen good agreement with our FRDs and other current sensors.

  3. CMOS Time-Resolved, Contact, and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging for DNA Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Nan; Cheung, Ka Wai; Wong, Hiu Tung; Ho, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental limitations such as bulkiness and high cost prevent the fluorescence technique from becoming ubiquitous for point-of-care deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and other in-field molecular diagnostics applications. The complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, as benefited from process scaling, provides several advanced capabilities such as high integration density, high-resolution signal processing, and low power consumption, enabling sensitive, integrated, and low-cost fluorescence analytical platforms. In this paper, CMOS time-resolved, contact, and multispectral imaging are reviewed. Recently reported CMOS fluorescence analysis microsystem prototypes are surveyed to highlight the present state of the art. PMID:25365460

  4. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A.; Doerner, R.

    2012-10-15

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  5. [Diagnostic imaging techniques for hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Mollerup, Talie Khadem; Lorentzen, Torben; Møller, Jakob M; Nørgaard, Henrik; Achiam, Michael P

    2015-07-27

    Hepatic metastases (HM) are amongst the most important prognostic factors in patient survival from colorectal cancer. The diagnostic imaging techniques for accurate detection and characterization of colorectal metastases are therefore vital. In a review of the literature, MRI showed the highest sensitivity for detection of HM lesions < 1 cm, but the amount of MR scanners is insufficient. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computed tomography have similar sensitivity for detection of HM, but each method also have limitation such as operator dependency or enhanced risk of cancer due to ionizing radiation. PMID:26238008

  6. Diagnostic imaging applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 8, 9, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckenbach, E. S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    It is more important than ever that engineers have an understanding of the future needs of clinical and research medicine, and that physicians know somthing about probable future developments in instrumentation capabilities. Only by maintaining such a dialog can the most effective application of technological advances to medicine be achieved. This workshop attempted to provide this kind of information transfer in the limited field of diagnostic imaging. Biomedical research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is discussed, taking into account imaging results from space exploration missions, as well as biomedical research tasks based in these technologies. Attention is also given to current and future indications for magnetic resonance in medicine, high speed quantitative digital microscopy, computer processing of radiographic images, computed tomography and its modern applications, position emission tomography, and developments related to medical ultrasound.

  7. Optical diagnostics for turbulent and multiphase flows: Particle image velocimetry and photorefractive optics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hern, T.J.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shagam, R.N.; Blanchat, T.K.; Chu, T.Y.; Tassin-Leger, A.L.; Henderson, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project ``Optical Diagnostics for Turbulent and Multiphase Flows.`` Advanced optical diagnostics have been investigated and developed for flow field measurements, including capabilities for measurement in turbulent, multiphase, and heated flows. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) includes several techniques for measurement of instantaneous flow field velocities and associated turbulence quantities. Nonlinear photorefractive optical materials have been investigated for the possibility of measuring turbulence quantities (turbulent spectrum) more directly. The two-dimensional PIV techniques developed under this LDRD were shown to work well, and were compared with more traditional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Three-dimensional PIV techniques were developed and tested, but due to several experimental difficulties were not as successful. The photorefractive techniques were tested, and both potential capabilities and possible problem areas were elucidated.

  8. Use of high dynamic range imaging for quantitative combustion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Giassi, Davide; Liu, Bolun; Long, Marshall B

    2015-05-10

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is applied to quantitative combustion diagnostics in coflow laminar diffusion flames as a way to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and measurement sensitivity. The technique relies on the combination of partially saturated frames into a single unsaturated image; in this work, the effectiveness of the HDR approach is demonstrated when applied to two-color ratio pyrometry. Specifically, it is shown than an increase in SNR results in more precise temperature measurements for both soot and thin filament pyrometry. Linearity and reciprocity analysis under partially saturated conditions were performed on three selected detectors, and the camera response functions, which are required for HDR image reconstruction, were determined. The linearity/reciprocity of the detectors allowed the use of a simplified algorithm that was implemented to compute the HDR images; soot and flame temperature were calculated from those images by employing color-ratio pyrometry. The reciprocity analysis revealed that pixel cross talk can be a limiting factor in a detector's HDR capabilities. The comparison with low dynamic range results showed the advantage of the HDR approach. Due to the higher SNR, the measured temperature exhibits a smoother distribution, and the range is extended to lower temperature regions, where the pyrometry technique starts to lose sensitivity due to detector limitations. PMID:25967519

  9. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Ina; Hume, Kelly R.; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Peters, Rachel M.; Weiss, Robert S.; Webb, Watt W.

    2010-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading killer among all cancers for both men and women in the US, and is associated with one of the lowest 5-year survival rates. Current diagnostic techniques, such as histopathological assessment of tissue obtained by computed tomography guided biopsies, have limited accuracy, especially for small lesions. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can be improved by introducing a real-time, optical guidance method based on the in vivo application of multiphoton microscopy (MPM). In particular, we hypothesize that MPM imaging of living lung tissue based on twophoton excited intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation can provide sufficient morphologic and spectroscopic information to distinguish between normal and diseased lung tissue. Here, we used an experimental approach based on MPM with multichannel fluorescence detection for initial discovery that MPM spectral imaging could differentiate between normal and neoplastic lung in ex vivo samples from a murine model of lung cancer. Current results indicate that MPM imaging can directly distinguish normal and neoplastic lung tissues based on their distinct morphologies and fluorescence emission properties in non-processed lung tissue. Moreover, we found initial indication that MPM imaging differentiates between normal alveolar tissue, inflammatory foci, and lung neoplasms. Our long-term goal is to apply results from ex vivo lung specimens to aid in the development of multiphoton endoscopy for in vivo imaging of lung abnormalities in various animal models, and ultimately for the diagnosis of human lung cancer.

  10. Assessing the value of diagnostic imaging: the role of perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potchen, E. J.; Cooper, Thomas G.

    2000-04-01

    The value of diagnostic radiology rests in its ability to provide information. Information is defined as a reduction in randomness. Quality improvement in any system requires diminution in the variation in its performance. The major variation in performance of the system of diagnostic radiology occurs in observer performance and in the communication of information from the observer to someone who will apply that information to the benefit of the patient. The ability to provide information can be determined by observer performance studies using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The amount of information provided by each observer can be measured in terms of the uncertainty they reduce. Using a set of standardized radiographs, some normal and some abnormal, sorting them randomly, and then asking an observer to redistribute them according to their probability of normality can measure the difference in the value added by different observers. By applying this observer performance measure, we have been able to characterize individual radiologists, groups of radiologists, and regions of the United States in their ability to add value in chest radiology. The use of these technologies in health care may improve upon the contribution of diagnostic imaging.

  11. Advances in Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    D'Silva, Andrew; Wright, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, our understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) has paved the way for ablation to be utilized as an effective treatment option. With the aim of gaining more detailed anatomical representation, advances have been made using various imaging modalities, both before and during the ablation procedure, in planning and execution. Options have flourished from procedural fluoroscopy, electroanatomic mapping systems, preprocedural computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and combinations of these technologies. Exciting work is underway in an effort to allow the electrophysiologist to assess scar formation in real time. One advantage would be to lessen the learning curve for what are very complex procedures. The hope of these developments is to improve the likelihood of a successful ablation procedure and to allow more patients access to this treatment. PMID:22091384

  12. Advanced imaging systems programs at DARPA MTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Nibir K.; Elizondo, Lee A.; Dat, Ravi; Elizondo, Shelly L.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we review a few selected imaging technology development programs at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the reflective visible to the emissive/thermal long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral bands. For the reflective visible band, results are shown for two different imagers: a gigapixel monocentric multi-scale camera design that solves the scaling issues for a high pixel count, and a wide field of view and a single photon detection camera with a large dynamic range. Also, a camera with broadband capability covering both reflective and thermal bands (0.5 μm to 5.0 μm) with >80% quantum efficiency is discussed. In the emissive/thermal band, data is presented for both uncooled and cryogenically cooled LWIR detectors with pixel pitches approaching the fundamental detection limits. By developing wafer scale manufacturing processes and reducing the pixel size of uncooled thermal imagers, it is shown that an affordable camera on a chip, capable of seeing through obscurants in day or night, is feasible. Also, the fabrication and initial performance of the world's first 5 μm pixel pitch LWIR camera is discussed. Lastly, we use an initial model to evaluate the signal to noise ratio and noise equivalent differential temperature as a function of well capacity to predict the performance for this thermal imager.

  13. Can Imaging Put the “Advanced” Back in Advanced Wound Care?

    PubMed Central

    DaCosta, Ralph S.; Ottolino-Perry, Kathryn; Banerjee, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    An effective, scientifically validated, diagnostic tool helps clinicians make better, timely, and more objective medical decisions in the care of their patients. Today, the need for such tools is especially urgent in the field of wound care where patient-centric care is the goal, under ever tightening clinical budget constraints. In an era of countless “innovative” treatment options, that is, advanced dressings, negative pressure devices, and various debridement instruments available to the wound care clinical team, one area that has arguably languished in the past decade has been innovation in wound diagnostics. Whereas medical imaging is a mainstay in the diagnostic toolkit across many other medical fields (oncology, neurology, gastroenterology, orthopedics, etc.), the field of wound care has yet to realize the full potential that advances in imaging technologies have to offer the clinician. In this issue, the first of a series in wound imaging and diagnostics, four articles have been assembled, highlighting some of the recent advances in wound imaging technologies. PMID:27602251

  14. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  15. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-04-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  16. Point of care diagnostics for sexually transmitted infections: perspectives and advances

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte; Hardick, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) tests are urgently needed to control sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics, so that patients can receive immediate diagnoses and treatment. Current POC assays for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae perform inadequately and require better assays. Diagnostics for Trichomonas vaginalis rely on wet preparation, with some notable advances. Serological POC assays for syphilis can impact resource-poor settings, with many assays available, but only one available in the U.S. HIV POC diagnostics demonstrate the best performance, with excellent assays available. There is a rapid assay for HSV lesion detection; but no POC serological assays are available. Despite the inadequacy of POC assays for treatable bacterial infections, application of technological advances offers the promise of advancing POC diagnostics for all STIs. PMID:24484215

  17. Recent Advances in Diagnostic Strategies for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an increasing epidemic in Korea, and associated diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is its most common and disabling complication. DPN has an insidious onset and heterogeneous clinical manifestations, making it difficult to detect high-risk patients of DPN. Early diagnosis is recommended and is the key factor for a better prognosis and preventing diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, or disability. However, diagnostic tests for DPN are not clearly established because of the various pathophysiology developing from the nerve injury to clinical manifestations, differences in mechanisms according to the type of diabetes, comorbidities, and the unclear natural history of DPN. Therefore, DPN remains a challenge for physicians to screen, diagnose, follow up, and evaluate for treatment response. In this review, diagnosing DPN using various methods to assess clinical symptoms and/or signs, sensorineural impairment, and nerve conduction studies will be discussed. Clinicians should rely on established modalities and utilize current available testing as complementary to specific clinical situations. PMID:27246283

  18. Endoscopy and polyps-diagnostic and therapeutic advances in management

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Scott R; Johnson, Eric K; Champagne, Bradley; Davis, Brad; Lee, Sang; Rivadeneira, David; Ross, Howard; Hayden, Dana A; Maykel, Justin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts aimed at early detection through screening, colon cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with an estimated 51000 deaths during 2013 alone. The goal remains to identify and remove benign neoplastic polyps prior to becoming invasive cancers. Polypoid lesions of the colon vary widely from hyperplastic, hamartomatous and inflammatory to neoplastic adenomatous growths. Although these lesions are all benign, they are common, with up to one-quarter of patients over 60 years old will develop pre-malignant adenomatous polyps. Colonoscopy is the most effective screening tool to detect polyps and colon cancer, although several studies have demonstrated missed polyp rates from 6%-29%, largely due to variations in polyp size. This number can be as high as 40%, even with advanced (> 1 cm) adenomas. Other factors including sub-optimal bowel preparation, experience of the endoscopist, and patient anatomical variations all affect the detection rate. Additional challenges in decision-making exist when dealing with more advanced, and typically larger, polyps that have traditionally required formal resection. In this brief review, we will explore the recent advances in polyp detection and therapeutic options. PMID:23885138

  19. The general optics structure of millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic on TOKAMAK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.; Xie, J.; Liu, W. D.; Luo, C.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Chen, M.; Hu, X.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced imaging optics techniques have significantly improved the performance of millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics, such as Electron Cyclotron Emission imaging and Microwave Imaging of Reflectometry. The fundamental functions of millimeter-wave imaging optics are focusing, collecting the emission or reflected microwave signal from the target area in the plasma and focusing the emitted (reflected) signal on the detector array. The location of the observation area can be changed using the focus lens. Another important function of the imaging optics is zooming. The size of the observation area in poloidal direction can be adjusted by the zoom lenses and the poloidal spatial resolution is determined by the level of zoom. The field curvature adjustment lenses are employed to adjust the shape of the image plane in the poloidal direction to reduce crosstalk between neighboring channels. The incident angle on each channel is controlled using the specific surface type of the front-side lenses to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. All functions are decoupled with the minimum number of lenses. Successful applications are given.

  20. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. Wan, B.; Hu, L.; Hu, C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M.; Shi, Y.

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  1. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined. PMID:26258129

  2. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined. PMID:26258129

  3. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  4. Recent Advances in Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual Energy, Spectral and Molecular CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A.; Willemink, Martin J.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Due to its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for detection of CAD, and non-invasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of the cardiologist. In the last few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred—including dual energy CT (DECT), spectral CT and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging modality tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  5. GIS diagnostics: thermal imaging systems used for poor contact detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avital, Doron; Brandenbursky, V.; Farber, A.

    2004-04-01

    The reliability of GIS is very high but any failure that occurs can cause extensive damage result and the repair times are considerably long. The consequential losses to system security and economically can be high, especially if the nominal GIS voltage is 420 kV and above. In view of these circumstances, increasing attention is being given to diagnostic techniques for in-service maintenance undertaken to improve the reliability and availability of GIS. Recently considerable progress has been made in diagnostic techniques and they are now used successfully during the service life of the equipment. These diagnostic techniques in general focus on the GIS insulation system and are based on partial discharge (PD) measurements in GIS. There are three main methods for in-service PD detection in GIS: - the chemical method that rely on the detection of cracked gas caused by PD, the acoustic method designed to detect the acoustic emission excited by PD, and, the electrical method which is based on detection of electrical resonance at ultra high frequencies (UHF) up to 1.5 GHz caused by PD excitation in GIS chambers (UHF method). These three dielectric diagnostic methods cannot be used for the detection of poor current carrying contacts in GIS. This problem does not always produce partial discharges and at early stages it does not cause gas cracking. An interesting solution to use two techniques - the current unbalance alarm scheme and partial discharge monitoring was advised by A. Salinas from South California Edison Co. Unfortunately this way is complicated and very expensive. The investigations performed in Japan on standing alone SF6 breaker showed that joule heating of the contact accompanied by released power of 1600 Watt produce temperature difference on the enclosure up to 7 degrees centigrade that could be detected by infra-red Thermal Imaging System. According to CIGRE Joint Working Group 33/23.12 Report, 11% of all GIS failures are due to poor current carrying

  6. Recent advances in the molecular diagnostics of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world, representing a major global health issue. Although the incidence of GC is declining, the outcomes for GC patients remain dismal because of the lack of effective biomarkers to detect early GC and predict both recurrence and chemosensitivity. Current tumor markers for GC, including serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, are not ideal due to their relatively low sensitivity and specificity. Recent improvements in molecular techniques are better able to identify aberrant expression of GC-related molecules, including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, and DNA methylation, as novel molecular markers, although the molecular pathogenesis of GC is complicated by tumor heterogeneity. Detection of genetic and epigenetic alterations from gastric tissue or blood samples has diagnostic value in the management of GC. There are high expectations for molecular markers that can be used as new screening tools for early detection of GC as well as for patient stratification towards personalized treatment of GC through prediction of prognosis and drug-sensitivity. In this review, the studies of potential molecular biomarkers for GC that have been reported in the publicly available literature between 2012 and 2015 are reviewed and summarized, and certain highlighted papers are examined. PMID:26379391

  7. Image processing in digital chest radiography: effect on diagnostic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Manninen, H; Partanen, K; Lehtovirta, J; Matsi, P; Soimakallio, S

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of digital image processing of chest radiographs was evaluated in a clinical study. In 54 patients, chest radiographs in the posteroanterior projection were obtained by both 14 inch digital image intensifier equipment and the conventional screen-film technique. The digital radiographs (512 x 512 image format) viewed on a 625 line monitor were processed in three different ways: (1) standard display; (2) digital edge enhancement for the standard display; and (3) inverse intensity display. The radiographs were interpreted independently by three radiologists. The diagnoses were confirmed by CT, follow-up radiographs and clinical records. Chest abnormalities of the films analyzed included 21 primary lung tumors, 44 pulmonary nodules, 16 cases with mediastinal disease and 17 cases with pneumonia/atelectasis. Interstitial lung disease, pleural plaques, and pulmonary emphysema were found in 30, 18 and 19 cases, respectively. The sensitivity of conventional radiography when averaged overall findings was better than that of the digital techniques (P less than 0.001). The differences in diagnostic accuracy measured by sensitivity and specificity between the three digital display modes were small. Standard image display showed better sensitivity for pulmonary nodules (0.74 vs 0.66; P less than 0.05) but poorer specificity for pulmonary emphysema (0.85 vs. 0.93; P less than 0.05) compared with inverse intensity display. We conclude that when using 512 x 512 image format, the routine use of digital edge enhancement and tone reversal at digital chest radiographs is not warranted. PMID:1563421

  8. Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) Diagnostics for Wind Energy and Energy Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pol, Suhas Uddhav

    2012-06-04

    Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) is a laser based technique that involves correlation analysis of tracer particle images to estimate the velocity field in a fluid. High resolution velocity measurement capability and non-intrusive nature of PIV make it desirable for understanding complex fluid flow phenomena occurring in various scenarios. This presentation briefly describes the development of novel PIV diagnostics that forward Wind Energy research and advance scaling models to solve expensive maintenance issues of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR). Two new diagnostic implementations of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to facilitate understanding of wind turbine aerodynamics in unprecedented detail. It has been demonstrated that a Large-Field PIV (LF-PIV) diagnostic capable of measuring large scale flow fields of up to 4.3m x 2.8m per camera has been developed. This diagnostic, which represents a significant leap in the field of view of existing centimeter scale PIV systems, allows the measurement of velocity fields at multiple points with high accuracy for large scale flows, such as, flows around wind turbines. Further, to characterize the near blade boundary layer of wind turbines a rotating PIV system (R-PIV) is also under development at LANL (patent application in progress). Design considerations and results of bench top tests that confirm the reliability of PIV measurements obtained using the above diagnostics will be presented in this talk. PIV along with conductivity and temperature probe data has been useful to develop models that simulate the evolution of the layered structure of crude oil stored in the subterranean caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR). Understanding the evolution of stratified layers of crude oil that are subjected to geothermal forcing is crucial in improving the efficiency of maintenance procedures carried out for the SPR and hence ensure Energy Security of

  9. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  10. Recent advances in morphological cell image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengyong; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wu, Guang; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed. PMID:22272215

  11. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  12. Mobile Phones Democratize and Cultivate Next-Generation Imaging, Diagnostics and Measurement Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run e.g., biomedical tests and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally. PMID:24647550

  13. On modelling the kinestatic charge detector for digital radiographic diagnostic and portal imaging.

    PubMed

    Qi, G; Goloubev, M Y; DiBianca, F A; Samant, S

    2002-01-01

    The kinestatic charge detection (KCD) principle has been a digital radiography technique for more than a decade. The advances of the KCD technique have gone from diagnostic imaging to portal imaging. However, little work has been done on understanding the selection of key KCD parameters and relationships between them. In the present study, an engineering model was established that could be used to optimize the placements of key parameters in terms of KCD system mechanical design. In the proposed KCD engineering model, the basic energy conservation law was applied to the process of ion transmission. It allows for the computation of the KCD design parameters such as the optimum grid placement, high voltage board tilt angle and grid wire space, as well as to provide recommendations on high voltage board and electric potentials and their ratio. PMID:12487709

  14. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha

    2015-08-15

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  15. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Qu, Miao; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun

    2015-08-01

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm(2) and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work. PMID:26329179

  16. Sodium and T1ρ MRI for molecular and diagnostic imaging of articular cartilage†

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Arijitt; Mellon, Eric; Niyogi, Sampreet; Witschey, Walter; Kneeland, J. Bruce; Reddy, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In this article, both sodium magnetic resonance (MR) and T1ρ relaxation mapping aimed at measuring molecular changes in cartilage for the diagnostic imaging of osteoarthritis are reviewed. First, an introduction to structure of cartilage, its degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA) and an outline of diagnostic imaging methods in quantifying molecular changes and early diagnostic aspects of cartilage degeneration are described. The sodium MRI section begins with a brief overview of the theory of sodium NMR of biological tissues and is followed by a section on multiple quantum filters that can be used to quantify both bi-exponential relaxation and residual quadrupolar interaction. Specifically, (i) the rationale behind the use of sodium MRI in quantifying proteoglycan (PG) changes, (ii) validation studies using biochemical assays, (iii) studies on human OA specimens, (iv) results on animal models and (v) clinical imaging protocols are reviewed. Results demonstrating the feasibility of quantifying PG in OA patients and comparison with that in healthy subjects are also presented. The section concludes with the discussion of advantages and potential issues with sodium MRI and the impact of new technological advancements (e.g. ultra-high field scanners and parallel imaging methods). In the theory section on T1ρ, a brief description of (i) principles of measuring T1ρ relaxation, (ii) pulse sequences for computing T1ρ relaxation maps, (iii) issues regarding radio frequency power deposition, (iv) mechanisms that contribute to T1ρ in biological tissues and (v) effects of exchange and dipolar interaction on T1ρ dispersion are discussed. Correlation of T1ρ relaxation rate with macromolecular content and biomechanical properties in cartilage specimens subjected to trypsin and cytokine-induced glycosaminoglycan depletion and validation against biochemical assay and histopathology are presented. Experimental T1ρ data from osteoarthritic specimens, animal models, healthy human

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of an ultrasonic multiple transducer cardiac imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, R. L.; Brown, O. R.; Harrison, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic multiple-transducer imaging system for intracardiac structure visualization is developed in order to simplify visualization of the human heart in vivo without radiation hazard or invasion of the body. Results of the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the devised system in a clinical setting for adult patients are presented and discussed. Criteria are presented for recognition of mitral valva prolapse, mitral stenosis, pericardial effusion, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular dyssynergy. The probable cause for false-positive and false-negative diagnoses is discussed. However, hypertrophic myopathy and congestive myopathy were unable to be detected. Since only qualitative criteria were used, it was not possible to differentiate patients with left ventricular volume overload from patients without cardiac pathology.

  18. Advancing Porous Silicon Biosensor Technology for Use in Clinical Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Lisa Marie

    Inexpensive and robust analytical techniques for detecting molecular recognition events are in great demand in healthcare, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Despite vast research in this area, challanges remain to develop practical biomolecular platforms that, meet the rigorous demands of real-world applications. This includes maintaining low-cost devices that are sensitive and specific in complex test specimens, are stable after storage, have short assay time, and possess minimal complexity of instrumentation for readout. Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) material has been identified as an ideal candidate towards achieving these goals and the past decade has seen diverse proof-of-principle studies developing optical-based sensing techniques. In Part 1 of this thesis, the impact of surface chemistry and PSi morphology on detection sensitivity of target molecules is investigated. Initial proof-of-concept that PSi devices facilitate detection of protein in whole blood is demonstrated. This work highlights the importance of material stability and blocking chemistry for sensor use in real world biological samples. In addition, the intrinisic filtering capability of the 3-D PSi morphology is shown as an advantage in complex solutions, such as whole blood. Ultimately, this initial work identified a need to improve detection sensitivity of the PSI biosensor technique to facilitate clinical diagnostic use over relevant target concentration ranges. The second part of this thesis, builds upon sensitivity challenges that are highlighted in the first part of the thesis and development of a surface-bound competitive inhibition immunoassay facilitated improved detection sensitivity of small molecular weight targets (opiates) over a relevant clinical concentration range. In addition, optimization of assay protocol addressed issues of maintaining stability of sensors after storage. Performance of the developed assay (specificity and sensitivity) was then validated in a

  19. Characterization of Fluorescent Polystyrene Microspheres for Advanced Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisto, Pietro M. F.; Lowe, K. Todd; Byun, Guibo; Simpson, Roger; Vercamp, Max; Danley, Jason E.; Koh, Brian; Tiemsin, Pacita; Danehy, Paul M.; Wohl, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent dye-doped polystyrene latex microspheres (PSLs) are being developed for velocimetry and scalar measurements in variable property flows. Two organic dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB) and dichlorofluorescence (DCF), are examined to assess laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) properties for flow imaging applications and single-shot temperature measurements. A major interest in the current research is the application of safe dyes, thus DCF is of particular interest, while RhB is used as a benchmark. Success is demonstrated for single-point laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and also imaging fluorescence, excited via a continuous wave 2 W laser beam, for exposures down to 10 ms. In contrast, when exciting with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 200 mJ/pulse, no fluorescence was detected, even when integrating tens of pulses. We show that this is due to saturation of the LIF signal at relatively low excitation intensities, 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than the pulsed laser intensity. A two-band LIF technique is applied in a heated jet, indicating that the technique effectively removes interfering inputs such as particle diameter variation. Temperature measurement uncertainties are estimated based upon the variance measured for the two-band LIF intensity ratio and the achievable dye temperature sensitivity, indicating that particles developed to date may provide about +/-12.5 C precision, while future improvements in dye temperature sensitivity and signal quality may enable single-shot temperature measurements with sub-degree precision.

  20. Diagnostic advances and opportunities in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    D'Armini, Andrea M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterised by the presence of thromboembolic material in the pulmonary circulation, and patients have a poor prognosis without treatment. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms, such as breathlessness and syncope, which means that other more common conditions are sometimes suspected before CTEPH, leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. This is problematic because CTEPH is potentially curable with surgical pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA); indeed, CTEPH should always be considered in any patient with unexplained pulmonary hypertension (PH). Several key evaluations are necessary and complementary to confirm a diagnosis of CTEPH and assess operability. Echocardiography is initially used to confirm a general diagnosis of PH. Ventilation/perfusion scanning is then essential in the first stage of CTEPH diagnosis, with a wedge-shaped perfusion deficit indicative of CTEPH. This should be followed by right heart catheterisation (RHC) which is mandatory in confirming the diagnosis and providing haemodynamic parameters that are key predictors of the risk associated with PEA and subsequent prognosis. RHC is ideally coupled with conventional pulmonary angiography, the gold-standard technique for confirming the location and extent of disease, and thus whether the obstruction is surgically accessible. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is also now routinely used as a complementary technique to aid diagnosis and operability assessment. Recent improvements in the resolution of other noninvasive techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, allow for detailed reconstructions of the vascular tree and imaging of vessel defects, and interest in their use is increasing. PMID:26028637

  1. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  2. Recent advances in human viruses imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Florian, Paula Ecaterina; Rouillé, Yves; Ruta, Simona; Nichita, Norica; Roseanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Microscopy techniques are often exploited by virologists to investigate molecular details of critical steps in viruses' life cycles such as host cell recognition and entry, genome replication, intracellular trafficking, and release of mature virions. Fluorescence microscopy is the most attractive tool employed to detect intracellular localizations of various stages of the viral infection and monitor the pathogen-host interactions associated with them. Super-resolution microscopy techniques have overcome the technical limitations of conventional microscopy and offered new exciting insights into the formation and trafficking of human viruses. In addition, the development of state-of-the art electron microscopy techniques has become particularly important in studying virus morphogenesis by revealing ground-braking ultrastructural details of this process. This review provides recent advances in human viruses imaging in both, in vitro cell culture systems and in vivo, in the animal models recently developed. The newly available imaging technologies bring a major contribution to our understanding of virus pathogenesis and will become an important tool in early diagnosis of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics to combat the disease. PMID:27059598

  3. Advances in fluorescence labeling strategies for dynamic cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Kevin M; Palmer, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic advances in optical physics, probe design, molecular biology, labeling techniques and computational analysis have propelled fluorescence imaging into new realms of spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. This review aims to discuss advances in fluorescent probes and live-cell labeling strategies, two areas that remain pivotal for future advances in imaging technology. Fluorescent protein– and bio-orthogonal–based methods for protein and RNA imaging are discussed as well as emerging bioengineering techniques that enable their expression at specific genomic loci (for example, CRISPR and TALENs). Important attributes that contribute to the success of each technique are emphasized, providing a guideline for future advances in dynamic live-cell imaging. PMID:24937069

  4. Advances in associated-particle neutron probe diagnostics for substance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Dickerman, Charles E.; Frey, Manfred

    1995-09-01

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) shows potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles can yield a separate course tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. Generally, no collimators or radiation shielding are needed. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Most recently, inspection applications have been investigated for radioactive waste characterization, presence of cocaine in propane tanks, and uranium and plutonium smuggling. Based on lessons learned with the present APSTNG system, an advanced APSTNG tube (along with improved high voltage supply and control units) is being designed and fabricated that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  5. Advances in associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe diagnostics for substance detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; Frey, M.

    1995-07-01

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) shows potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. Generally no collimators or radiation shielding are needed. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Most recently, inspection applications have been investigated for radioactive waste characterization, presence of cocaine in propane tanks, and uranium and plutonium smuggling. Based on lessons learned with the present APSTNG system, an advanced APSTNG tube (along with improved high voltage supply and control units) is being designed and fabricated that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  6. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  7. 75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop; request...

  8. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the

  9. Advancing research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease: the IWG-2 criteria.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Bruno; Feldman, Howard H; Jacova, Claudia; Hampel, Harald; Molinuevo, José Luis; Blennow, Kaj; DeKosky, Steven T; Gauthier, Serge; Selkoe, Dennis; Bateman, Randall; Cappa, Stefano; Crutch, Sebastian; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Fox, Nick C; Galasko, Douglas; Habert, Marie-Odile; Jicha, Gregory A; Nordberg, Agneta; Pasquier, Florence; Rabinovici, Gil; Robert, Philippe; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Sarazin, Marie; Epelbaum, Stéphane; de Souza, Leonardo C; Vellas, Bruno; Visser, Pieter J; Schneider, Lon; Stern, Yaakov; Scheltens, Philip; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2014-06-01

    In the past 8 years, both the International Working Group (IWG) and the US National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association have contributed criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that better define clinical phenotypes and integrate biomarkers into the diagnostic process, covering the full staging of the disease. This Position Paper considers the strengths and limitations of the IWG research diagnostic criteria and proposes advances to improve the diagnostic framework. On the basis of these refinements, the diagnosis of AD can be simplified, requiring the presence of an appropriate clinical AD phenotype (typical or atypical) and a pathophysiological biomarker consistent with the presence of Alzheimer's pathology. We propose that downstream topographical biomarkers of the disease, such as volumetric MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET, might better serve in the measurement and monitoring of the course of disease. This paper also elaborates on the specific diagnostic criteria for atypical forms of AD, for mixed AD, and for the preclinical states of AD. PMID:24849862

  10. Diagnostic imaging of blunt abdominal trauma in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vittorio; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Trinci, Margherita; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Brunese, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood, and blunt trauma accounts for 80-90 % of abdominal injuries. The mechanism of trauma is quite similar to that of the adults, but there are important physiologic differences between children and adults in this field, such as the smaller blood vessels and the high vasoconstrictive response, leading to the spreading of a non-operative management. The early imaging of children undergoing a low-energy trauma can be performed by CEUS, a valuable diagnostic tool to demonstrate solid organ injuries with almost the same sensitivity of CT scans; nevertheless, as for as urinary tract injuries, MDCT remains still the technique of choice, because of its high sensitivity and accuracy, helping to discriminate between an intra-peritoneal form a retroperitoneal urinary leakage, requiring two different managements. The liver is the most common organ injured in blunt abdominal trauma followed by the spleen. Renal, pancreatic, and bowel injuries are quite rare. In this review we present various imaging findings of blunt abdominal trauma in children. PMID:27075018

  11. Diagnostic imaging of ankle impingement syndromes in athletes.

    PubMed

    Spiga, S; Vinci, V; Tack, S; Macarini, L; Rossi, M; Coppolino, F; Boi, C; Genovese, E A

    2013-08-01

    The chronic ankle pain is a very frequent clinical problem, which is often characterized by a painful mechanical limitation of full-range ankle movement. A large amount of causes are involved in its pathogenesis, but the most common forms are secondary to an osseous or soft tissue abnormality. Especially for professional athletes, impingement lesions are the most important causes of chronic pain; however, this symptomatology can also affect ordinary people, mostly in those who work in environments that cause severe mechanical stress on the joints. This group of pathologies is characterized by a joint conflict secondary to an abnormal contact among bone surfaces or between bones and soft tissues. Diagnosis is mainly clinic and secondly supported by imaging in order to localize the critical area of impingement and determine the organic cause responsible for the joint conflict. Treatments for different forms of impingement are similar. Usually, the first step is a conservative approach (rest, physiotherapy, ankle bracing, shoe modification and local injection of corticosteroids), and only in case of unsuccessful response, the second step is the operative treatment with open and arthroscopic techniques. The aim of the study is to describe different MR imaging patterns, comparing our data with those reported in the literature, in order to identify the best accurate diagnostic protocol. PMID:23949936

  12. PACS and diagnostic imaging service delivery--a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Laurence N

    2011-05-01

    This review sets out the current position with regard to the implementation of PACS throughout the United Kingdom and the impact this has had on improving patient care. In December 2007 England had implemented full hospital-wide PACS in all hospitals: a major achievement in the relatively short time period of three years. The different approaches used by each country of the UK to achieve full national PACS are described in addition to the current issues with the sharing of images and reports across different healthcare organisations with regard to technical solutions, clinical safety and governance. The review gives insight into the changing methods of service delivery to address increasing demand pressures on diagnostic imaging services and how the national PACS implementation, specifically in England, has made a significant contribution to measures to improve efficiencies. The role of Teleradiology is discussed in the context of supporting local patient services rather than undermining them and the concept of cross-healthcare reporting 'Grids' is described. Finally, in the summary it is recognised that the vast wealth of knowledge accumulated during the national implementations has placed the UK in a strong position to facilitate full national data sharing across all healthcare organisations to improve patient care. PMID:21600402

  13. [Transparency regime: semiotics of radiographical images in urological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H

    2012-10-01

    Shortly after Röntgen discovered x-rays urology became one of the main test fields for the application of this new technology. Initial scepticism among physicians, who were inclined to cling to traditional manual methods of diagnosing, was replaced by enthusiasm for radiographic technologies and the new method soon became the standard in, for example the diagnosis of concrements. Patients favoring radiographic procedures over the use of probes and a convincing documentation of stones in radiograms were factors that impacted the relatively rapid integration of radiology into urology. The radiographic representation of soft tissues and body cavities was more difficult and the development of contrast agents in particular posed a serious problem. Several patients died during this research. A new diagnostic dimension was revealed when radiography and cystography were combined to form the method of retrograde pyelography. However, the problem of how urologists could learn how to read the new images remained. In order to allow trainee physicians to practice interpreting radiograms atlases were produced which offered explanatory texts and drawings for radiographic images of the kidneys, the bladder etc. Thus, urologists developed a self-contained semiotics which facilitated the appropriation of a unique urological radiographical gaze. PMID:22914883

  14. Advanced Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques of the Human Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Jalal B.; Bammer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Unlike those of the brain, advances in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the human spinal cord have been challenged by the more complicated and inhomogeneous anatomy of the spine, the differences in magnetic susceptibility between adjacent air and fluid-filled structures and the surrounding soft tissues, and the inherent limitations of the initially used echo-planar imaging techniques used to image the spine. Interval advances in DWI techniques for imaging the human spinal cord, with the specific aims of improving the diagnostic quality of the images, and the simultaneous reduction in unwanted artifacts have resulted in higher-quality images that are now able to more accurately portray the complicated underlying anatomy and depict pathologic abnormality with improved sensitivity and specificity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has benefited from the advances in DWI techniques, as DWI images form the foundation for all tractography and DTI. This review provides a synopsis of the many recent advances in DWI of the human spinal cord, as well as some of the more common clinical uses for these techniques, including DTI and tractography. PMID:22158130

  15. Recent Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging Relevant to the Management of Patients with Suspected Cardiac Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    White, James A; Fine, Nowell M

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis is a form of infiltrative cardiomyopathy typically presenting with progressive heart failure. The clinical presentation and morphological findings often overlap with other cardiovascular diseases, and frequently results in misdiagnosis and consequent under-reporting. Cardiovascular imaging is playing an increasingly important diagnostic and prognostic role in this referral population, and is reducing the reliance on endomyocardial biopsy as a confirmatory testing. Advancements across multiple cardiac imaging modalities, including echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging, and computed tomography, are improving diagnostic accuracy and offering novel approaches to sub-type differentiation and prognostication. This review explores recent advancements in cardiac imaging for the diagnosis, typing, and staging of cardiac amyloidosis, with a focus on new and evolving techniques. Emphasis is also placed on the promise of non-invasive cardiac imaging to provide value across the spectrum of this clinical disease, from early disease identification (prior to the development of increased wall thickness) through to markers of advanced disease associated with early mortality. PMID:27319007

  16. Diagnostic imaging and interventional therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Palma, L D

    1998-08-01

    Diagnostic imaging has many important roles in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In diagnosis, lipiodol CT (LCT) has been shown to be the most sensitive imaging modality (90-97%) for all sizes of lesions; all other modalities have high sensitivities for lesions 1-3 cm but low sensitivities for lesions < 1 cm (ultrasound 33-37%, conventional CT 20-42% and digital subtraction angiography 40-55%). All imaging modalities understage HCC. Once again LCT is the most accurate method of evaluating the extent of tumour, but even this method does not identify all satellite nodules. Ultrasound has been proposed as a screening method, but this cannot be justified on the basis of its results or cost benefit analysis. Both CT and dynamic MRI play useful roles in evaluating the efficacy and follow-up of patients undergoing chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). Although surgery remains the best treatment of HCC, it is unsuitable in most of the cases which would be better treated with interventional therapy. This article presents a review of the literature regarding the use of TACE, PEI or a combination of both procedures in the treatment of HCC. A multicentric study has shown that patients with monofocal lesions less than 5 cm in diameter are better treated with PEI, which is therefore a good alternative to the surgical treatment; patients with multifocal lesions (maximum of three lesions) show a better survival with TACE. Combined treatment with TACE and PEI proves to be effective in patients with large HCC. PMID:9828792

  17. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  18. Going the Distance: Taking a Diagnostic Imaging Program to Frontier and Rural Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malosh, Ann; Mallory, Stacy; Olson, Marcene

    2009-01-01

    The Grow Your Own diagnostic imaging program is a public/private collaborative venture involving the efforts of an array of community colleges, employers, workforce, and educational partners throughout Oregon. This statewide Community College Partnership delivers diagnostic imaging education to Oregon's rural communities via distributed learning…

  19. [Clinical trial requests of indigenous diagnostic imaging ultrasound devices in first-time registration application].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojun; Cao, Guofang; Tao, Kan

    2012-11-01

    This article introduces the clinical requests of indigenous diagnostic imaging ultrasound devices in first-time registration application and the clinical trial requests in Technical Review Guidance of Ultrasound Imaging Diagnostic Devices (category III) Registration and puts forward some questions of the guidance's implementation. It is hoped to help concerned people. PMID:23461122

  20. Research Priorities in the Utilization and Interpretation of Diagnostic Imaging: Education, Assessment, and Competency.

    PubMed

    Lewiss, Resa E; Chan, Wilma; Sheng, Alexander Y; Soto, Jorge; Castro, Alexandra; Meltzer, Andrew C; Cherney, Alan; Kumaravel, Manickam; Cody, Dianna; Chen, Esther H

    2015-12-01

    The appropriate selection and accurate interpretation of diagnostic imaging is a crucial skill for emergency practitioners. To date, the majority of the published literature and research on competency assessment comes from the subspecialty of point-of-care ultrasound. A group of radiologists, physicists, and emergency physicians convened at the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference to discuss and prioritize a research agenda related to education, assessment, and competency in ordering and interpreting diagnostic imaging. A set of questions for the continued development of an educational curriculum on diagnostic imaging for trainees and competency assessment using specific assessment methods based on current best practices was delineated. The research priorities were developed through an iterative consensus-driven process using a modified nominal group technique that culminated in an in-person breakout session. The four recommendations are: 1) develop a diagnostic imaging curriculum for emergency medicine (EM) residency training; 2) develop, study, and validate tools to assess competency in diagnostic imaging interpretation; 3) evaluate the role of simulation in education, assessment, and competency measures for diagnostic imaging; 4) study is needed regarding the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria, an evidence-based peer-reviewed resource in determining the use of diagnostic imaging, to maximize its value in EM. In this article, the authors review the supporting reliability and validity evidence and make specific recommendations for future research on the education, competency, and assessment of learning diagnostic imaging. PMID:26568277

  1. Incidental findings in imaging diagnostic tests: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, B; Donat, L; Hernández-Aguado, I

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to summarise the available evidence on the frequency and management of incidental findings in imaging diagnostic tests. Original articles were identified by a systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Plus databases using appropriate medical headings. Extracted variables were study design; sample size; type of imaging test; initial diagnosis; frequency and location of incidental findings; whether clinical follow-up was performed; and whether a definitive diagnosis was made. Study characteristics were assessed by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Any disagreement was solved by consensus. The relationship between the frequency of incidental findings and the study characteristics was assessed using a one-way ANOVA test, as was the frequency of follow-up of incidental findings and the frequency of confirmation. 251 potentially relevant abstracts were identified and 44 articles were finally included in the review. Overall, the mean frequency of incidental findings was 23.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.8–31.3%). The frequency of incidental findings was higher in studies involving CT technology (mean 31.1%, 95% CI 20.1–41.9%), in patients with an unspecific initial diagnosis (mean 30.5, 95% CI 0–81.6) and when the location of the incidental findings was unspecified (mean 33.9%, 95% CI 18.1–49.7). The mean frequency of clinical follow-up was 64.5% (95% CI 52.9–76.1%) and mean frequency of clinical confirmation was 45.6% (95% CI 32.1–59.2%). Although the optimal strategy for the management of these abnormalities is still unclear, it is essential to be aware of the low clinical confirmation in findings of moderate and major importance. PMID:20335439

  2. Current profile reconstruction using electron temperature imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Finkenthal, M.; Pacella, D.; Kaita, R.; Stratton, B.; Sabbagh, S.

    2004-10-01

    Flux surface shape information can be used to constrain the current profile for reconstruction of the plasma equilibrium. One method of inferring flux surface shape relies on plasma x-ray emission; however, deviations from the flux surfaces due to impurity and density asymmetries complicate the interpretation. Electron isotherm surfaces should correspond well to the plasma flux surfaces, and equilibrium constraint modeling using this isotherm information constrains the current profile. The KFIT code is used to assess the profile uncertainty and to optimize the number, location and SNR required for the Te detectors. As Te imaging detectors we consider tangentially viewing, vertically spaced, linear gas electron multiplier arrays operated in pulse height analysis (PHA) mode and multifoil soft x-ray arrays. Isoflux coordinate sets provided by Te measurements offer a strong constraint on the equilibrium reconstruction in both a stacked horizontal array configuration and a crossed horizontal and vertical beam system, with q0 determined to within ±4%. The required SNR can be provided with either PHA or multicolor diagnostic techniques, though the multicolor system requires ˜×4 better statistics for comparable final errors.

  3. Diagnostic utility and clinical application of imaging for pleural space infections.

    PubMed

    Heffner, John E; Klein, Jeffrey S; Hampson, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Timely diagnosis of pleural space infections and rapid initiation of effective pleural drainage for those patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions or empyema represent keystone principles for managing patients with pneumonia. Advances in chest imaging provide opportunities to detect parapneumonic effusions with high sensitivity in patients hospitalized for pneumonia and to guide interventional therapy. Standard radiographs retain their primary role for screening patients with pneumonia for the presence of an effusion to determine the need for thoracentesis. Ultrasonography and CT scanning, however, have greater sensitivity for fluid detection and provide additional information for determining the extent and nature of pleural infection. MRI and PET scan can image pleural disease, but their role in managing parapneumonic effusions is not yet clearly defined. Effective application of chest images for patients at risk for pleural infection, however, requires a comprehensive understanding of the unique features of each modality and relative value. This review presents the diagnostic usefulness and clinical application of chest imaging studies for evaluating and managing pleural space infections in patients hospitalized for pneumonia. PMID:20133295

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging of cervical spinal cord: A quantitative diagnostic tool in cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Toktas, Zafer Orkun; Tanrıkulu, Bahattin; Koban, Orkun; Kilic, Turker; Konya, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique potentially able to evaluate the microscopic structural organization of white matter fibers. Aim: This study aimed to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained by DTI in stenotic versus nonstenotic cervical spinal segments of patients with clinical and neurological evidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 21 patients with CSM but without T2 changes on conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor (DT) images from the stenotic and nonstenotic segments of the subjects were obtained. FA and ADC values were estimated and compared with stenotic versus nonstenotic segments. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test was used [Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 12.0]. Results: In the most stenotic segments, the mean FA value was significantly lower (0.4228 ± 0.1090 vs 0.6884 ± 0.0075, P < 0.001) and the mean ADC value was significantly higher (1.312 ± 0.2405 vs 0.9183 ± 0.1477, P < 0.001) when compared to nonstenotic segments. In addition, there was a negative correlation between FA and ADC values (r = 0.63, P = 0.002). Conclusions: DTI of the cervical spine seems to be a promising novel imaging modality in patients with CSM. Advances in Knowledge: DTI may offer increased diagnostic sensitivity as compared to standard MRI and enables earlier detection of the disease. PMID:27041882

  5. Issues in using whole slide imaging for diagnostic pathology: "routine" stains, immunohistochemistry and predictive markers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C R

    2014-08-01

    The traditional microscope, together with the "routine" hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain, remains the "gold standard" for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases; remarkably, it and the majority of associated biological stains are more than 150 years old. Immunohistochemistry has added to the repertoire of "stains" available. Because of the need for specific identification and even measurement of "biomarkers," immunohistochemistry has increased the demand for consistency of performance and interpretation of staining results. Rapid advances in the capabilities of digital imaging hardware and software now offer a realistic route to improved reproducibility, accuracy and quantification by utilizing whole slide digital images for diagnosis, education and research. There also are potential efficiencies in work flow and the promise of powerful new analytical methods; however, there also are challenges with respect to validation of the quality and fidelity of digital images, including the standard H & E stain, so that diagnostic performance by pathologists is not compromised when they rely on whole slide images instead of traditional stained tissues on glass slides. PMID:24325681

  6. Design and Performance of the Compact YAG Imaging System for Diagnostics at GMCA Beamlines at APS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Shenglan; Fischetti, Robert F.; Benn, Richard; Corcoran, Stephen

    2007-01-19

    A compact YAG (Chromium Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet - Cr4+:YAG) imaging system has been designed as a diagnostic tool for monochromatic x-rays emanating from the first 'Hard' x-ray dual-canted undulator at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This imaging system consists of a flat YAG crystal, right angle prism/mirror, video camera and monitor. A flat YAG crystal with a diameter of 10 mm has been installed in vacuum and positioned downstream of the monochromator of the insertion device beamline. Another 20 mm diameter YAG crystal has been installed in vacuum after the horizontal deflecting mirrors of the second insertion device beamline. CCD cameras are mounted in air close to the window of the vacuum ports to image the fluorescence of the YAG crystals. An additional 25 mm diameter YAG crystal has been used for K-B (Kirkpatrick-Baez) mirror focusing and beamline alignment. These YAG imaging systems have greatly facilitated beamline commissioning as well as sample alignment to the x-ray beam in the macromolecular crystallography endstation. An overview of the optics design, mechanical design and the performance of these devices will be presented in the paper.

  7. Responsive Theranostic Systems: Integration of Diagnostic Imaging Agents and Responsive Controlled Release Drug Delivery Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Caldorera-Moore, Mary E.; Liechty, William B.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The ability to non-invasively monitor and treat physiological conditions within the human body has been an aspiration of researchers and medical professionals for decades. The emergences of nanotechnology opened up new possibilities for effective vehicles that could accomplish non-invasive detection of diseases and localized treatment systems to be developed. In turn, extensive research efforts have been spent on the development of imaging moiety that could be used to seek out specific diseased conditions and can be monitored with convention clinical imaging modalities. Nanoscale detection agents like these have the potential to increase early detection of pathophysiological conditions because they have the capability to detect abnormal cells before they even develop into diseased tissue and/or tumors. Once the diseased cells are detected it would be constructive to just be able to treat them simultaneously. From here, the concept of multifunctional carriers that could target, detect, and treat diseased cells emerged. The term “theranostics” has been created to describe this promising area of research that focuses on the combination of diagnostic detection agents with therapeutic drug delivery carriers. Targeted theranostic nanocarriers offer an attractive improvement to disease treatment because of their ability to simultaneously diagnose, image, and treat at targeted diseased sites. Research efforts in the field of theranostics encompass a broad variety of drug delivery vehicles, detection agents, and targeting modalities for the development of an all-in-one, localized, diagnostic and treatment system. Nanotheranostic systems that utilize metallic or magnetic imaging nanoparticles have the added capability to be used as thermal therapeutic systems. This review aims to explore recent advancements in the field of nanotheranostics and the various fundamental components of an effective theranostic carrier. PMID:21932809

  8. Completing the Pain Circuit: Recent Advances in Imaging Pain and Inflammation beyond the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Linnman, Clas; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    This review describes some of the recent developments in imaging aspects of pain in the periphery. It is now possible to image nerves in the cornea non-invasively, to image receptor level expression and inflammatory processes in injured tissue, to image nerves and alterations in nerve properties, to image astrocyte and glial roles in neuroinflammatory processes, and to image pain conduction functionally in the trigeminal ganglion. These advances will ultimately allow us to describe the pain pathway, from injury site to behavioral consequence, in a quantitative manner. Such a development could lead to diagnostics determining the source of pain (peripheral or central), objective monitoring of treatment progression, and, hopefully, objective biomarkers of pain. PMID:24228169

  9. Completing the Pain Circuit: Recent Advances in Imaging Pain and Inflammation beyond the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    This review describes some of the recent developments in imaging aspects of pain in the periphery. It is now possible to image nerves in the cornea non-invasively, to image receptor level expression and inflammatory processes in injured tissue, to image nerves and alterations in nerve properties, to image astrocyte and glial roles in neuroinflammatory processes, and to image pain conduction functionally in the trigeminal ganglion. These advances will ultimately allow us to describe the pain pathway, from injury site to behavioral consequence, in a quantitative manner. Such a development could lead to diagnostics determining the source of pain (peripheral or central), objective monitoring of treatment progression, and, hopefully, objective biomarkers of pain. PMID:24228169

  10. Advancing the science of measurement of diagnostic errors in healthcare: the Safer Dx framework

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic errors are major contributors to harmful patient outcomes, yet they remain a relatively understudied and unmeasured area of patient safety. Although they are estimated to affect about 12 million Americans each year in ambulatory care settings alone, both the conceptual and pragmatic scientific foundation for their measurement is under-developed. Health care organizations do not have the tools and strategies to measure diagnostic safety and most have not integrated diagnostic error into their existing patient safety programs. Further progress toward reducing diagnostic errors will hinge on our ability to overcome measurement-related challenges. In order to lay a robust groundwork for measurement and monitoring techniques to ensure diagnostic safety, we recently developed a multifaceted framework to advance the science of measuring diagnostic errors (The Safer Dx framework). In this paper, we describe how the framework serves as a conceptual foundation for system-wide safety measurement, monitoring and improvement of diagnostic error. The framework accounts for the complex adaptive sociotechnical system in which diagnosis takes place (the structure), the distributed process dimensions in which diagnoses evolve beyond the doctor's visit (the process) and the outcomes of a correct and timely “safe diagnosis” as well as patient and health care outcomes (the outcomes). We posit that the Safer Dx framework can be used by a variety of stakeholders including researchers, clinicians, health care organizations and policymakers, to stimulate both retrospective and more proactive measurement of diagnostic errors. The feedback and learning that would result will help develop subsequent interventions that lead to safer diagnosis, improved value of health care delivery and improved patient outcomes. PMID:25589094

  11. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  12. Combining in Vitro Diagnostics with in Vivo Imaging for Earlier Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Laeseke, Paul F; Chen, Ru; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Brentnall, Teresa A; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and is associated with a dismal prognosis, particularly when diagnosed at an advanced stage. Overall survival is significantly improved if PDAC is detected at an early stage prior to the onset of symptoms. At present, there is no suitable screening strategy for the general population. Available diagnostic serum markers are not sensitive or specific enough, and clinically available imaging modalities are inadequate for visualizing early-stage lesions. In this article, the role of currently available blood biomarkers and imaging tests for the early detection of PDAC will be reviewed. Also, the emerging biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents being developed to improve the specificity of current imaging modalities for PDAC will be discussed. A strategy incorporating blood biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents could lead to improved screening and earlier detection of PDAC in the future. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:26599925

  13. Nanoparticles for biomedical imaging, therapy, and quantitative diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yust, Brian G.

    Nanoparticles and nanomaterials are known to exhibit extraordinary characteristics and have a wide range of application which utilizes their unique properties. In particular, nanoparticles have shown great promise towards advancing the state of biological and biomedical techniques such as in vivo and in vitro imaging modalities, biosensing, and disease detection and therapy. Nanocrystalline hosts: NaYF4, KYF4, KGdF4, NaMF3, and KMF3 (M=Mg, Ba, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cr) doped with rare earth ions have been synthesized by thermolysis, solvothermal, and hydrothermal methods. The morphology and spectroscopic properties have been thoroughly characterized. These nanoparticles (NP) are particularly useful for biomedical purposes since both the exciting and emitting wavelengths are in the near-infrared, where most tissues do not strongly absorb or scatter light. In vivo and in vitro imaging was performed with a 980 nm excitation source. Finally, NPs were conjugated with zinc phthalocyanine, a photosensitizer with a large absorption coefficient in the red and NIR regions, to illustrate the efficacy of these NPs as a platform for dual-mode infrared-activated imaging and photodynamic platforms. In addition, nonlinear optical nanomaterials, such as BaTiO3 and Ag@BaTiO3, were also synthesized and characterized. The nonlinear optical properties were investigated, and it is demonstrated that these nanoparticles can produce phase conjugate waves when used in a counterpropagating four wave mixing setup. The third order susceptibility is quantified using the z-scan technique, and the toxicity of these nanoparticles is also explored.

  14. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Heidbrink, W W; Wan, B; von Hellermann, M G; Zhu, Y; Gao, W; Wu, C; Li, Y; Fu, J; Lyu, B; Yu, Y; Shi, Y; Ye, M; Hu, L; Hu, C

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented. PMID:25430314

  15. Advanced Reservoir Imaging Using Frequency-Dependent Seismic Attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Hilterman; Tad Patzek; Gennady Goloshubin; Dmitriy Silin; Charlotte Sullivan; Valeri Korneev

    2007-12-31

    Our report concerning advanced imaging and interpretation technology includes the development of theory, the implementation of laboratory experiments and the verification of results using field data. We investigated a reflectivity model for porous fluid-saturated reservoirs and demonstrated that the frequency-dependent component of the reflection coefficient is asymptotically proportional to the reservoir fluid mobility. We also analyzed seismic data using different azimuths and offsets over physical models of fractures filled with air and water. By comparing our physical model synthetics to numerical data we have identified several diagnostic indicators for quantifying the fractures. Finally, we developed reflectivity transforms for predicting pore fluid and lithology using rock-property statistics from 500 reservoirs in both the shelf and deep-water Gulf of Mexico. With these transforms and seismic AVO gathers across the prospect and its down-dip water-equivalent reservoir, fluid saturation can be estimated without a calibration well that ties the seismic. Our research provides the important additional mechanisms to recognize, delineate, and validate new hydrocarbon reserves and assist in the development of producing fields.

  16. Recent Advances in Metabolic Profiling And Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa; Titus, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a metabolic disease. Cancer cells, being highly proliferative, show significant alterations in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, respiration, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Metabolites like peptides, nucleotides, products of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, fatty acids, and steroids can be an important read out of disease when characterized in biological samples such as tissues and body fluids like urine, serum, etc. The cancer metabolome has been studied since the 1960s by analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Current research is focused on the identification and validation of biomarkers in the cancer metabolome that can stratify high-risk patients and distinguish between benign and advanced metastatic forms of the disease. In this review, we discuss the current state of prostate cancer metabolomics, the biomarkers that show promise in distinguishing indolent from aggressive forms of the disease, the strengths and limitations of the analytical techniques being employed, and future applications of metabolomics in diagnostic imaging and personalized medicine of prostate cancer. PMID:25632377

  17. Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy. PMID:24689058

  18. Advanced imaging in COPD: insights into pulmonary pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves a complex interaction of structural and functional abnormalities. The two have long been studied in isolation. However, advanced imaging techniques allow us to simultaneously assess pathological processes and their physiological consequences. This review gives a comprehensive account of the various advanced imaging modalities used to study COPD, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the nuclear medicine techniques positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Some more recent developments in imaging technology, including micro-CT, synchrotron imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT), are also described. The authors identify the pathophysiological insights gained from these techniques, and speculate on the future role of advanced imaging in both clinical and research settings. PMID:25478198

  19. Nanoparticulate assemblies of amphiphiles and diagnostically active materials for multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Willem J M; Strijkers, Gustav J; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Cormode, David P; Fayad, Zahi A; Nicolay, Klaas

    2009-07-21

    Modern medicine has greatly benefited from recent dramatic improvements in imaging techniques. The observation of physiological events through interactions manipulated at the molecular level offers unique insight into the function (and dysfunction) of the living organism. The tremendous advances in the development of nanoparticulate molecular imaging agents over the past decade have made it possible to noninvasively image the specificity, pharmacokinetic profiles, biodistribution, and therapeutic efficacy of many novel compounds. Several types of nanoparticles have demonstrated utility for biomedical purposes, including inorganic nanocrystals, such as iron oxide, gold, and quantum dots. Moreover, natural nanoparticles, such as viruses, lipoproteins, or apoferritin, as well as hybrid nanostructures composed of inorganic and natural nanoparticles, have been applied broadly. However, among the most investigated nanoparticle platforms for biomedical purposes are lipidic aggregates, such as liposomal nanoparticles, micelles, and microemulsions. Their relative ease of preparation and functionalization, as well as the ready synthetic ability to combine multiple amphiphilic moieties, are the most important reasons for their popularity. Lipid-based nanoparticle platforms allow the inclusion of a variety of imaging agents, ranging from fluorescent molecules to chelated metals and nanocrystals. In recent years, we have created a variety of multifunctional lipid-based nanoparticles for molecular imaging; many are capable of being used with more than one imaging technique (that is, with multimodal imaging ability). These nanoparticles differ in size, morphology, and specificity for biological markers. In this Account, we discuss the development and characterization of five different particles: liposomes, micelles, nanocrystal micelles, lipid-coated silica, and nanocrystal high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We also demonstrate their application for multimodal molecular imaging

  20. A Vision for Better Health: Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Gemperline, Erin; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules from small molecules to large proteins by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. Its usefulness in biomarker discovery towards clinical applications has obtained success by correlating the molecular expression of tissues acquired from MSI with well-established histology. Results To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in clinical applications, such as biomarker diagnostics of different diseases, prognostics of disease severities and metabolic response to drug treatment, etc. These studies have provided significant insight in clinical studies over the years and current technical advances are further facilitating the improvement of this field. Although the underlying concept is simple, factors such as choice of ionization method, sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis must be taken into account for successful applications of MSI. Herein, we briefly reviewed these key elements yet focused on the clinical applications of MSI that cannot be addressed by other means. Conclusions Challenges and future perspectives in this field are also discussed to conclude that the ever-growing applications with continuous development of this powerful analytical tool will lead to a better understanding of the biology of diseases and improvements in clinical diagnostics. PMID:23078851

  1. Recent Advances in Imaging Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Braskie, Meredith N.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in brain imaging technology in the past five years have contributed greatly to the understanding of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we review recent research related to amyloid imaging, new methods for magnetic resonance imaging analyses, and statistical methods. We also review research that evaluates AD risk factors and brain imaging, in the context of AD prediction and progression. We selected a variety of illustrative studies, describing how they advanced the field and are leading AD research in promising new directions. PMID:22672880

  2. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  3. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and can cause tissue death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light ... location of cavities within these light areas. The x-ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities ...

  4. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  5. Recent advances in ophthalmic molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramos de Carvalho, J Emanuel; Verbraak, Frank D; Aalders, Maurice C; van Noorden, Cornelis J; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of molecular imaging techniques is the visualization of molecular processes and functional changes in living animals and human patients before morphological changes occur at the cellular and tissue level. Ophthalmic molecular imaging is still in its infancy and has mainly been used in small animals for pre-clinical research. The goal of most of these pre-clinical studies is their translation into ophthalmic molecular imaging techniques in clinical care. We discuss various molecular imaging techniques and their applications in ophthalmology. PMID:24529711

  6. Investigating the Link Between Radiologists Gaze, Diagnostic Decision, and Image Content

    SciTech Connect

    Tourassi, Georgia; Voisin, Sophie; Paquit, Vincent C; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods: Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from six radiologists who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Texture analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results: By pooling the data from all radiologists machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, cognition, and error. Merging radiologists gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the radiologists diagnostic errors while confirming 96.2% of their correct diagnoses. The radiologists individual errors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of their peers. However, personalized tuning appears to be beneficial in many cases to capture more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions: Machine learning algorithms combining image features with radiologists gaze data and diagnostic decisions can be effectively developed to recognize cognitive and perceptual errors associated with the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms.

  7. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  8. Advances in hyperspectral LWIR pushbroom imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holma, Hannu; Mattila, Antti-Jussi; Hyvärinen, Timo; Weatherbee, Oliver

    2011-06-01

    Two long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imagers have been under extensive development. The first one utilizes a microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) and the second one is based on an Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) FPA. Both imagers employ a pushbroom imaging spectrograph with a transmission grating and on-axis optics. The main target has been to develop high performance instruments with good image quality and compact size for various industrial and remote sensing application requirements. A big challenge in realizing these goals without considerable cooling of the whole instrument is to control the instrument radiation. The challenge is much bigger in a hyperspectral instrument than in a broadband camera, because the optical signal from the target is spread spectrally, but the instrument radiation is not dispersed. Without any suppression, the instrument radiation can overwhelm the radiation from the target even by 1000 times. The means to handle the instrument radiation in the MCT imager include precise instrument temperature stabilization (but not cooling), efficient optical background suppression and the use of background-monitoring-on-chip (BMC) method. This approach has made possible the implementation of a high performance, extremely compact spectral imager in the 7.7 to 12.4 μm spectral range. The imager performance with 84 spectral bands and 384 spatial pixels has been experimentally verified and an excellent NESR of 14 mW/(m2srμm) at 10 μm wavelength with a 300 K target has been achieved. This results in SNR of more than 700. The LWIR imager based on a microbolometer detector array, first time introduced in 2009, has been upgraded. The sensitivity of the imager has improved drastically by a factor of 3 and SNR by about 15 %. It provides a rugged hyperspectral camera for chemical imaging applications in reflection mode in laboratory and industry.

  9. Computational Diagnostic Techniques for Electromagnetic Scattering: Analytical Imaging, Near Fields, and Surface Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.; Talcott, Noel A., Jr.; Shaeffer, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents three techniques and the graphics implementations which can be used as diagnostic aides in the design and understanding of scattering structures: Imaging, near fields, and surface current displays. The imaging analysis is a new bistatic k space approach which has potential for much greater information than standard experimental approaches. The near field and current analysis are implementations of standard theory while the diagnostic graphics displays are implementations exploiting recent computer engineering work station graphics libraries.

  10. Methodology for design of adaptive interfaces for diagnostic workstations with integrated images and reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harreld, Michael R.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Liu, Brent J.; El-Saden, Suzie; Duckwiler, Gary R.

    1998-06-01

    Diagnostic workstations have generally lacked acceptance due to awkward interfaces, poor usability and lack of clinical data integration. We developed a new methodology for the design and implementation of diagnostic workstations and applied the methodology in diagnostic neuroradiology. The methodology facilitated the objective design and evaluation of optimal diagnostic features, including the integration of images and reports, and the implementation of intelligent and adaptive graphical user interfaces. As a test of this new methodology, we developed and evaluated a neuroradiological diagnostic workstation. The general goals of diagnostic neuroradiologists were modeled and directly used in the design of the UCLA Digital ViewBox, an object-oriented toolkit for medical imaging workstations. For case-specific goals, an object-oriented protocol toolkit was developed for rapid development and integration of new protocols, modes, and tools. Each protocol defines a way to arrange and process data in order to accomplish diagnostic goals that are specific to anatomy (e.g., a spine protocol), or to a suspected pathology (e.g., a tumor protocol). Each protocol was divided into modes that represent diagnostic reading tasks. Each mode was further broken down into functions supporting that task. Via a data mediator engine, the workstation communicated with clinical data repositories, including the UCLA HIS, Clinical RIS/PACS and individual DICOM compatible scanners. The data mediator served to transparently integrate, retrieve, and cache image and report data. Task-oriented Reading protocols automatically present the appropriate diagnostic information and diagnostic tools to the radiologist. We describe a protocol toolkit that enables the rapid design and implementation of customized reading protocols. We also present an intelligent layer that enables the automatic presentation of the appropriate information. This new methodology for diagnostic workstation design led to an

  11. Combining advanced imaging processing and low cost remote imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew J.; McQuiddy, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Target images are very important for evaluating the situation when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are deployed. These images add a significant amount of information to determine the difference between hostile and non-hostile activities, the number of targets in an area, the difference between animals and people, the movement dynamics of targets, and when specific activities of interest are taking place. The imaging capabilities of UGS systems need to provide only target activity and not images without targets in the field of view. The current UGS remote imaging systems are not optimized for target processing and are not low cost. McQ describes in this paper an architectural and technologic approach for significantly improving the processing of images to provide target information while reducing the cost of the intelligent remote imaging capability.

  12. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Mieke M P; Breur, Johannes M P J; Budde, Ricardo P J; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Meijboom, Folkert J; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. PMID:25552386

  13. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  14. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-26

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  15. Advances in Microfluidic PCR for Point-of-Care Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seungkyung; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Shin; Wang, Tza-Huei; Yang, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Global burdens from existing or emerging infectious diseases emphasize the need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to enhance timely recognition and intervention. Molecular approaches based on PCR methods have made significant inroads by improving detection time and accuracy but are still largely hampered by resource-intensive processing in centralized laboratories, thereby precluding their routine bedside- or field-use. Microfluidic technologies have enabled miniaturization of PCR processes onto a chip device with potential benefits including speed, cost, portability, throughput, and automation. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in microfluidic PCR technologies and discuss practical issues and perspectives related to implementing them into infectious disease diagnostics. PMID:21741465

  16. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  17. [How relevant are diagnostics and therapy in body image disorder?].

    PubMed

    Vocks, Silja; Bauer, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Body image-related interventions become increasingly important in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Previous studies concerning body image disturbance conducted by means of diverse research methods focused on different components of body image - the perceptive, cognitive-emotional and the behavioral component. However, regarding the etiology, maintenance and treatment of body image disturbance in eating disorders, many questions remain unanswered. An integrative perspective on the different body image components within a theoretical framework as well as the development of specific body image-related interventions according to individual indications would be desirable. PMID:25594272

  18. Repeated Diagnostic Imaging Studies in Ontario and the Impact of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Liu, Kuan; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; McArthur, Eric; Jain, Arsh K; Ordon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health information exchange systems can link the results of diagnostic imaging tests across hospitals and geographic areas. One of the potential benefits of these systems is a reduction in imaging studies ordered by physicians who do not know about or have access to the previous imaging results. We used administrative data from Ontario, Canada (from the year 2013), to measure how frequently the same cross-sectional imaging study is repeated in a patient. Overall, 12.8% of the specified imaging tests were repeated within 90 days. An area of Southwestern Ontario with a health information exchange system for diagnostic imaging tests had a 13% lower rate of repeat cross-sectional imaging compared with the rest of the province (11.2 vs 12.8%, p < 0.01). The use of linked radiology systems may be able to reduce the number of repeated imaging tests and improve patient safety and hospital efficiency. PMID:27133604

  19. Center for Advanced Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop 2004

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, J H; Carrano, C; Poyneer, L; Palmer, D; Baker, K; Chen, D; London, R; Weinert, G; Brase, J; Paglieroni, D; Lopez, A; Grant, C W; Wright, W; Burke, M; Miller, W O; DeTeresa, S; White, D; Toeppen, J; Haugen, P; Kamath, C; Nguyen, T; Manay, S; Newsam, S; Cantu-Paz, E; Pao, H; Chang, J; Chambers, D; Leach, R; Paulson, C; Romero, C E; Spiridon, A; Vigars, M; Welsh, P; Zumstein, J; Romero, K; Oppenheim, A; Harris, D B; Dowla, F; Brown, C G; Clark, G A; Ong, M M; Clance, T J; Kegelmeyer, l M; Benzuijen, M; Bliss, E; Burkhart, S; Conder, A; Daveler, S; Ferguson, W; Glenn, S; Liebman, J; Norton, M; Prasad, R; Salmon, T; Kegelmeyer, L M; Hafiz, O; Cheung, S; Fodor, I; Aufderheide, M B; Bary, A; Martz, Jr., H E; Burke, M W; Benson, S; Fisher, K A; Quarry, M J

    2004-11-15

    Welcome to the Eleventh Annual C.A.S.I.S. Workshop, a yearly event at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, presented by the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences, or CASIS, and sponsored by the LLNL Engineering Directorate. Every November for the last 10 years we have convened a diverse set of engineering and scientific talent to share their work in signal processing, imaging, communications, controls, along with associated fields of mathematics, statistics, and computing sciences. This year is no exception, with sessions in Adaptive Optics, Applied Imaging, Scientific Data Mining, Electromagnetic Image and Signal Processing, Applied Signal Processing, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Imaging, and Nondestructive Characterization.

  20. 2D x-ray imaging spectroscopic diagnostics using convex bent crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, Daniel; Presura, Radu; Wallace, Matt; Largent, Billy; Haque, Showera; Arias, Angel; Khanal, Vijay; Ivanov, Vladimir

    2013-10-01

    A new 2-dimensional time-integrated x-ray spectroscopic diagnostics technique was developed to create multi-monochromatic images of high-energy density Al plasmas. 2-dimensional is an advanced spectroscopic tool, providing a way to determine the spatial dependence of plasma temperature and density (Te and ne) in hot plasmas. The new technique uses the strong source broadening of convex cylindrically bent KAP crystal spectrometers, which contains spatial information along the dispersive direction. The perpendicular direction is imaged using a slit. The spatial resolution of the method is improved by the deconvolution of the source broadened line profiles from the lineshapes (recorded by the convex crystal spectrometer) with lineshapes of minimum instrumental broadening. The latter spectra were recorded with a concave cylindrically bent KAP crystal spectrometer, based on the Johann geometry. Spectroscopic model of the plasma x-ray emission was developed using the PrismSPECT code. The identification of suitable spectral features allows deriving Te and ne from line intensities. We applied this model to get temperature and density distribution maps for wire array z-pinch plasmas. Work supported by the DOE/NNSA under grant DE-NA0001834 and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  1. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  2. Development of advanced diagnostics for characterization of burning droplets in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Subramanian; Buermann, Dale H.; Bachalo, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques currently used for microgravity research are generally not as advanced as those used in earth based gravity experiments. Diagnostic techniques for measuring the instantaneous radial temperature profile (or temperature gradients) within the burning droplet do not exist. Over the past few years, Aerometrics has been researching and developing a rainbow thermometric technique for measuring the droplet temperatures of burning droplets. This technique has recently been integrated with the phase Doppler interferometric technique to yield a diagnostic instrument that can be used to simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and temperature of burning droplets in complex spray flames. Also, the rainbow thermometric technique has been recently integrated with a point-diffraction interferometric technique for measuring the instantaneous gas phase temperature field surrounding a burning droplet. These research programs, apart from being very successful, have also helped us identify other innovative techniques for the characterization of burning droplets. For example, new techniques have been identified for measuring the instantaneous regression rate of burning droplets. Also, there is the possibility of extracting the instantaneous radial temperature distribution or the temperature gradients within a droplet during transient heating. What is important is that these diagnostic techniques have the potential for making use of inexpensive, light-weight, and rugged devices such as diode lasers and linear CCD arrays. As a result, they can be easily packaged for incorporation into microgravity drop-test and flight-test facilities. Furthermore, with the use of linear CCD arrays, data rates as high as 10-100 kHz can be easily achieved. This data rate is orders of magnitude higher than what is currently achievable. In this research and development program, a compact and rugged diagnostic system will be developed that can be used to measure instantaneous fuel

  3. Responsive theranostic systems: integration of diagnostic imaging agents and responsive controlled release drug delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Caldorera-Moore, Mary E; Liechty, William B; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2011-10-18

    For decades, researchers and medical professionals have aspired to develop mechanisms for noninvasive treatment and monitoring of pathological conditions within the human body. The emergence of nanotechnology has spawned new opportunities for novel drug delivery vehicles capable of concomitant detection, monitoring, and localized treatment of specific disease sites. In turn, researchers have endeavored to develop an imaging moiety that could be functionalized to seek out specific diseased conditions and could be monitored with conventional clinical imaging modalities. Such nanoscale detection systems have the potential to increase early detection of pathophysiological conditions because they can detect abnormal cells before they even develop into diseased tissue or tumors. Ideally, once the diseased cells are detected, clinicians would like to treat those cells simultaneously. This idea led to the concept of multifunctional carriers that could target, detect, and treat diseased cells. The term "theranostics" has been created to describe this promising area of research that focuses on the combination of diagnostic detection agents with therapeutic drug delivery carriers. Targeted theranostic nanocarriers offer an attractive improvement to disease treatment because of their ability to execute simultaneous functions at targeted diseased sites. Research efforts in the field of theranostics encompass a broad variety of drug delivery vehicles, imaging contrast agents, and targeting modalities for the development of an all-in-one, localized detection and treatment system. Nanotheranostic systems that utilize metallic or magnetic imaging nanoparticles can also be used as thermal therapeutic systems. This Account explores recent advances in the field of nanotheranostics and the various fundamental components of an effective theranostic carrier. PMID:21932809

  4. Functional knee assessment with advanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Amano, Keiko; Li, Qi; Ma, C Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is to restore the native stability of the knee joint and to prevent further injury to meniscus and cartilage, yet studies have suggested that joint laxity remains prevalent in varying degrees after ACL reconstruction. Imaging can provide measurements of translational and rotational motions of the tibiofemoral joint that may be too small to detect in routine physical examinations. Various imaging modalities, including fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have emerged as powerful methods in measuring the minute details involved in joint biomechanics. While each technique has its own strengths and limitations, they have all enhanced our understanding of the knee joint under various stresses and movements. Acquiring the knowledge of the complex and dynamic motions of the knee after surgery would help lead to improved surgical techniques and better patient outcomes. PMID:27052009

  5. SHG nanoprobes: advancing harmonic imaging in biology.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, William P; Fraser, Scott E; Pantazis, Periklis

    2012-05-01

    Second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes have recently emerged as versatile and durable labels suitable for in vivo imaging, circumventing many of the inherent drawbacks encountered with classical fluorescent probes. Since their nanocrystalline structure lacks a central point of symmetry, they are capable of generating second harmonic signal under intense illumination - converting two photons into one photon of half the incident wavelength - and can be detected by conventional two-photon microscopy. Because the optical signal of SHG nanoprobes is based on scattering, rather than absorption as in the case of fluorescent probes, they neither bleach nor blink, and the signal does not saturate with increasing illumination intensity. When SHG nanoprobes are used to image live tissue, the SHG signal can be detected with little background signal, and they are physiologically inert, showing excellent long-term photostability. Because of their photophysical properties, SHG nanoprobes provide unique advantages for molecular imaging of living cells and tissues with unmatched sensitivity and temporal resolution. PMID:22392481

  6. Advanced MEMS-based infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming

    2003-04-01

    Infrared radiation imager is of important for a wide range of applications. IR infrared imagers have not been widely available due to cost and complexity issues. A major cost of IR imager is associated with the requirements of cooling and pixel-level integration with electronic amplifier and read-out circuitry that are often incompatible with the detector materials. Recent research activities have lead to a new class of IR imager based on thermally isolated MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) arrays whose bending can be directly detected by optical means. This approach eliminates the need for cooling and complex electronic multiplexers, holding the potential to drastically reduce IR imager cost. However, MEMS based IR imaging devices demonstrated to date are less sensitive than the commercially available ones. We have established a comprehensive finite element model (FEM) using Ansys tool. An accurate computer model for the proposed MEME IR detector is critical for the device development and fabrication. The model greatly enhanced our capability to cost effectively optimize the design from concept to fabrication layout. Our model predicts the deformation of this pixel structure under a surface stress for both thermal and photo-induced effects under various conditions. This simulation model provided a design base for new generation of optical MEMS IR sensors that has higher sensitivity and the potential of incorporating passive thermal amplification. Our simple MEMS design incorporates optical read-out, which eliminates the drawback of electronic means that inevitably introduce additional signal loss due to thermal contact made to the detector element. When packaged under vacuum environment, significant sensitivity improvement is anticipated. The deflection of a cantilever as a function of a rise in its temperature is determined by the classical thermomechanical governing equation for a bimaterial cantilever beam. Our finite element model is established using

  7. Advanced Optical Imaging Techniques for Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, developmental neuroscience has been transformed by the widespread application of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Even greater progress is imminent, as recent innovations in microscopy now enable imaging with increased depth, speed, and spatial resolution; reduced phototoxicity; and in some cases without external fluorescent probes. We discuss these new techniques and emphasize their dramatic impact on neurobiology, including the ability to image neurons at depths exceeding 1 mm, to observe neurodevelopment noninvasively throughout embryogenesis, and to visualize neuronal processes or structures that were previously too small or too difficult to target with conventional microscopy. PMID:23831260

  8. Recent Advances in the Imaging Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Value of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ijin; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DPTA), or gadoxetic acid for short, is a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent which is now increasingly used for the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions, particularly in patients at high-risk of developing hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). In fact, several recent guidelines now recognize gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-MRI) as the primary diagnostic imaging modality for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, although it must be noted that several major guidelines still include only extracellular contrast media-enhanced computed tomography and MRI. The primary merits of Gd-EOB-MRI lie in the fact that it can provide not only dynamic imaging, but also hepatobiliary phase (HBP) imaging which can lead to high lesion-to-liver contrast and give additional information regarding hepatocyte uptake via organic anion transporting polypeptides. This, in turn, allows higher sensitivity in detecting small HCCs and helps provide additional information regarding the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Indeed, many recent studies have investigated the diagnostic value of Gd-EOB-MRI for early HCCs as well as its role as a potential imaging biomarker in predicting outcome. We herein review the recent advances in the imaging diagnosis of HCCs focusing on the applications of Gd-EOB-MRI and the challenging issues that remain. PMID:26989660

  9. Recent Advances in the Imaging Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Value of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Joo, Ijin; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DPTA), or gadoxetic acid for short, is a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent which is now increasingly used for the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions, particularly in patients at high-risk of developing hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). In fact, several recent guidelines now recognize gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-MRI) as the primary diagnostic imaging modality for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, although it must be noted that several major guidelines still include only extracellular contrast media-enhanced computed tomography and MRI. The primary merits of Gd-EOB-MRI lie in the fact that it can provide not only dynamic imaging, but also hepatobiliary phase (HBP) imaging which can lead to high lesion-to-liver contrast and give additional information regarding hepatocyte uptake via organic anion transporting polypeptides. This, in turn, allows higher sensitivity in detecting small HCCs and helps provide additional information regarding the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Indeed, many recent studies have investigated the diagnostic value of Gd-EOB-MRI for early HCCs as well as its role as a potential imaging biomarker in predicting outcome. We herein review the recent advances in the imaging diagnosis of HCCs focusing on the applications of Gd-EOB-MRI and the challenging issues that remain. PMID:26989660

  10. Recent Advances in CT and MR Imaging for Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong-Hee; Joo, Ijin; Woo, Hyun Sik

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Accurate diagnosis and assessment of disease extent are crucial for proper management of patients with HCC. Imaging plays a crucial role in early detection, accurate staging, and the planning of management strategies. A variety of imaging modalities are currently used in evaluating patients with suspected HCC; these include ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, and angiography. Among these modalities, dynamic MRI and CT are regarded as the best imaging techniques available for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC. Recent improvements in CT and MRI technology have made noninvasive and reliable diagnostic assessment of hepatocellular nodules possible in the cirrhotic liver, and biopsy is frequently not required prior to treatment. Until now, the major challenge for radiologists in imaging cirrhosis has been the characterization of small cirrhotic nodules smaller than 2 cm in diameter. Further technological advancement will undoubtedly have a major impact on liver tumor imaging. The increased speed of data acquisition in CT and MRI has allowed improvements in both spatial and temporal resolution, which have made possible a more precise evaluation of the hemodynamics of liver nodules. Furthermore, the development of new, tissue-specific contrast agents such as gadoxetic acid has improved HCC detection on MRI. In this review, we discuss the role of CT and MRI in the diagnosis and staging of HCC, recent technological advances, and the strengths and limitations of these imaging modalities. PMID:24159569

  11. Acoustic Radiation Force Elasticity Imaging in Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joshua R.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods has been the focus of intense research activity since the mid-1990s. In characterizing the mechanical properties of soft tissues, these techniques image an entirely new subset of tissue properties that cannot be derived with conventional ultrasound techniques. Clinically, tissue elasticity is known to be associated with pathological condition and with the ability to image these features in vivo, elasticity imaging methods may prove to be invaluable tools for the diagnosis and/or monitoring of disease. This review focuses on ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods that generate an acoustic radiation force to induce tissue displacements. These methods can be performed non-invasively during routine exams to provide either qualitative or quantitative metrics of tissue elasticity. A brief overview of soft tissue mechanics relevant to elasticity imaging is provided, including a derivation of acoustic radiation force, and an overview of the various acoustic radiation force elasticity imaging methods. PMID:23549529

  12. Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

    2011-09-10

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

  13. Advances in image registration and fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Christopher; Rogers, Jeremy; Smith, Moira; Heather, Jamie; Bernhardt, Mark; Hickman, Duncan

    2008-03-01

    Many image fusion systems involving passive sensors require the accurate registration of the sensor data prior to performing fusion. Since depth information is not readily available in such systems, all registration algorithms are intrinsically approximations based upon various assumption about the depth field. Although often overlooked, many registration algorithms can break down in certain situations and this may adversely affect the image fusion performance. In this paper, we discuss a framework for quantifying the accuracy and robustness of image registration algorithms which allows a more precise understanding of their shortcomings. In addition, some novel algorithms have been investigated that overcome some of these limitations. A second aspect of this work has considered the treatment of images from multiple sensors whose angular and spatial separation is large and where conventional registration algorithms break down (typically greater than a few degrees of separation). A range of novel approaches is reported which exploit the use of parallax to estimate depth information and reconstruct a geometrical model of the scene. The imagery can then be combined with this geometrical model to render a variety of useful representations of the data. These techniques (which we term Volume Registration) show great promise as a means of gathering and presenting 3D and 4D scene information for both military and civilian applications.

  14. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  15. Advances in PET Imaging of Degenerative, Cerebrovascular, and Traumatic Causes of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Eisenmenger, Laura B; Huo, Eugene J; Hoffman, John M; Minoshima, Satoshi; Matesan, Manuela C; Lewis, David H; Lopresti, Brian J; Mathis, Chester A; Okonkwo, David O; Mountz, James M

    2016-01-01

    In this review we present the most recent advances in nuclear medicine imaging as a diagnostic and management tool for dementia. The clinical diagnosis of dementia syndromes can be challenging for physicians, particularly in the early stages of disease. Given the growing number of individuals affected by dementia, early and accurate diagnosis can lead to improved clinical management of patients. Although tests are available for exclusion of certain causes of cognitive impairment, the results rarely allow the clinician to make a definitive diagnosis. For this reason, information obtained from imaging ("imaging biomarkers") is playing an increasingly important role in the workup of patients with suspected dementia. Imaging biomarkers also provide indispensable tools for clinical and preclinical studies of dementing illnesses to elucidate their pathophysiology and to develop better therapies. A wide range of imaging has been used to diagnose and investigate neurodegenerative disorders including structural, cerebral perfusion, glucose metabolism, neurochemical, and molecular imaging. In the first section, we discuss the imaging methods used in clinical practice to diagnose dementia as well as explore additional experimental modalities that are currently used as research tools. In the second section, a comprehensive review covering the myriad aspects of vascular disease as a cause of dementia is presented and illustrated with MRI- and PET-focused case examples. In the third section, advances in imaging Alzheimer disease pathology are emphasized by reviewing current approaches for PET imaging with β-amyloid imaging agents. We provide an outline for the appropriate use criteria for β-amyloid imaging agents in dementia. In addition, the recognition of the importance of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles as related to Alzheimer disease progression has led to the development of promising tau imaging agents such as [(18)F]T807. The last section provides a history brain

  16. Diagnostic Systems Plan for the Advanced Light Source Top-OffUpgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Walter; Chin, Mike; Robin, David; Sannibale, Fernando; Scarvie, Tom; Steier, Christoph

    2005-05-10

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) will soon be upgraded to enable top-off operations [1], in which electrons are quasi-continuously injected to produce constant stored beam current. The upgrade is structured in two phases. First, we will upgrade our injector from 1.5 GeV to 1.9 GeV to allow full energy injection and will start top-off operations. In the second phase, we will upgrade the Booster Ring (BR) with a bunch cleaning system to allow high bunch purity top-off injection. A diagnostics upgrade will be crucial for success in both phases of the top-off project, and our plan for it is described in this paper. New booster ring diagnostics will include updated beam position monitor (BPM) electronics, a tune monitoring system, and a new scraper. Two new synchrotron light monitors and a beam stop will be added to the booster-to-storage ring transfer line (BTS), and all the existing beam current monitors along the accelerator chain will be integrated into a single injection efficiency monitoring application. A dedicated bunch purity monitor will be installed in the storage ring (SR). Together, these diagnostic upgrades will enable smooth commissioning of the full energy injector and a quick transition to high quality top-off operation at the ALS.

  17. The circuit of polychromator for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qing; Hsieh, C L; Zhao, Junyu; Chen, Hui; Li, Fengjuan

    2013-09-01

    The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T(e)) gradient and low electron density (n(e)). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasing stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10. PMID:24089826

  18. The circuit of polychromator for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, Qing; Zhao, Junyu; Chen, Hui; Li, Fengjuan; Hsieh, C. L.

    2013-09-15

    The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T{sub e}) gradient and low electron density (n{sub e}). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasing stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10.

  19. Recent advances in radiology and medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, R.E.; Sherwood, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first chapter, on the radiology of arthritis, is an overview. The second and seventh chapters are on the chest the former, on adult respiratory distress syndrome, is a brief summary, and the latter, on digital radiography of the chest with the prototype slit-scanning technique. The third chapter reviews computed tomography of the lumbar spine. The following two chapters are on MR imaging, one on the central nervous system (covering demyelinating diseases, cardiovascular disease, infections, and tumors), with excellent illustrations; and one on MR imaging of the body. The illustrations are good. The following chapter is on extracardiac digital subtraction angiography (DSA), with an interesting table comparing and contrasting conventional angiography with both intraveneous and intraarterial DSA. The eighth chapter on pediatric imaging fits a world of experience. Chapter 9 is an update on contrast media, while the next chapter is on barium infusion examination of the small intestine. The final three chapters are concerned with the present state of angioplasty, interventional radiology in the urinary tract.

  20. Advanced image analysis for the preservation of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Fenella G.; Christens-Barry, William; Toth, Michael B.; Boydston, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The Library of Congress' Preservation Research and Testing Division has established an advanced preservation studies scientific program for research and analysis of the diverse range of cultural heritage objects in its collection. Using this system, the Library is currently developing specialized integrated research methodologies for extending preservation analytical capacities through non-destructive hyperspectral imaging of cultural objects. The research program has revealed key information to support preservation specialists, scholars and other institutions. The approach requires close and ongoing collaboration between a range of scientific and cultural heritage personnel - imaging and preservation scientists, art historians, curators, conservators and technology analysts. A research project of the Pierre L'Enfant Plan of Washington DC, 1791 had been undertaken to implement and advance the image analysis capabilities of the imaging system. Innovative imaging options and analysis techniques allow greater processing and analysis capacities to establish the imaging technique as the first initial non-invasive analysis and documentation step in all cultural heritage analyses. Mapping spectral responses, organic and inorganic data, topography semi-microscopic imaging, and creating full spectrum images have greatly extended this capacity from a simple image capture technique. Linking hyperspectral data with other non-destructive analyses has further enhanced the research potential of this image analysis technique.

  1. Advanced Imaging Among Health Maintenance Organization Enrollees With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loggers, Elizabeth T.; Fishman, Paul A.; Peterson, Do; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Greenberg, Caprice; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Lowry, Sarah; Ramaprasan, Arvind; Wagner, Edward H.; Weeks, Jane C.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare expenditures for advanced imaging studies (defined as computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], positron emission tomography [PET] scans, and nuclear medicine studies [NM]) rapidly increased in the past two decades for patients with cancer. Imaging rates are unknown for patients with cancer, whether under or over age 65 years, in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), where incentives may differ. Materials and Methods: Incident cases of breast, colorectal, lung, prostate, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cancers diagnosed in 2003 and 2006 from four HMOs in the Cancer Research Network were used to determine 2-year overall mean imaging counts and average total imaging costs per HMO enrollee by cancer type for those under and over age 65. Results: There were 44,446 incident cancer patient cases, with a median age of 75 (interquartile range, 71-81), and 454,029 imaging procedures were performed. The mean number of images per patient increased from 7.4 in 2003 to 12.9 in 2006. Rates of imaging were similar across age groups, with the exception of greater use of echocardiograms and NM studies in younger patients with breast cancer and greater use of PET among younger patients with lung cancer. Advanced imaging accounted for approximately 41% of all imaging, or approximately 85% of the $8.7 million in imaging expenditures. Costs were nearly $2,000 per HMO enrollee; costs for younger patients with NHL, leukemia, and lung cancer were nearly $1,000 more in 2003. Conclusion: Rates of advanced imaging appear comparable among FFS and HMO participants of any age with these six cancers. PMID:24844241

  2. An Approach for Balancing Diagnostic Image Quality with Cancer Risk: Application to Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging of 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric C.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Wayson, Michael B.; Abadia, Andres F.; Treves, S. Ted

    2012-01-01

    A recent survey of pediatric hospitals showed a large variability in the activity administered for diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging of children. Imaging guidelines, especially for pediatric patients, must balance the risks associated with radiation exposure with the need to obtain the high-quality images necessary to derive the benefits of an accurate clinical diagnosis. Methods Pharmacokinetic modeling and a pediatric series of nonuniform rational B-spline–based phantoms have been used to simulate 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid SPECT images. Images were generated for several different administered activities and for several lesions with different target-to-background activity concentration ratios; the phantoms were also used to calculate organ S values for 99mTc. Channelized Hotelling observer methodology was used in a receiver-operating-characteristic analysis of the diagnostic quality of images with different modeled administered activities (i.e., count densities) for anthropomorphic reference phantoms representing two 10-y-old girls with equal weights but different body morphometry. S value–based dosimetry was used to calculate the mean organ-absorbed doses to the 2 pediatric patients. Using BEIR VII age- and sex-specific risk factors, we converted absorbed doses to excess risk of cancer incidence and used them to directly assess the risk of the procedure. Results Combined, these data provided information about the tradeoff between cancer risk and diagnostic image quality for 2 phantoms having the same weight but different body morphometry. The tradeoff was different for the 2 phantoms, illustrating that weight alone may not be sufficient for optimally scaling administered activity in pediatric patients. Conclusion The study illustrates implementation of a rigorous approach for balancing the benefits of adequate image quality against the radiation risks and also demonstrates that weight-based adjustment to the administered activity is suboptimal

  3. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  4. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  5. Development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States, with over 500,000 deaths expected this year. While significant progress has been made in the treatment and management of cancer, challenges remain because of the complexity and the heterogeneous nature of the disease. The improvement that has been seen in survival rates reflects advancements not only in treatment, but also in early stage detection and diagnostics for certain cancers. In particular, early stage detection and treatment of cancer before it has metastasized to other organs has resulted in a dramatic improvement in patient survival rates. One area of research that has shown considerable promise in further advancing diagnostics and early cancer detection is nanotechnology. Specifically, semiconductor and metal nanoparticles have great potential to provide advanced technology platforms for ultrasensitive and multiplexed detection of disease markers and probe disease on the molecular level. Because they are in the same size regime as biological molecules, these nanoparticles exhibit unique interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomarkers of interest for detecting and diagnosing disease. However, high-quality nanoparticles are often unsuited for use in complex biological environments because of their coatings and surface chemistry. In this dissertation, we describe the design and development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for use in blood, cell and tissue diagnostic applications. First, low-molecular weight, amphiphilic polymers, with hydrocarbon chains capable of noncovalent interactions with nanoparticle surface ligands and a hydrophilic backbone to render the nanoparticle water soluble, were synthesized and characterized for use in nanoparticle coating applications. We demonstrate that the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the nanoparticle surface, the amphiphilic polymer and the aqueous solvent were able to drive the coating and water

  6. Application of advanced laser diagnostics to hypersonic wind tunnels and combustion systems.

    SciTech Connect

    North, Simon W.; Hsu, Andrea G.; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2009-09-01

    This LDRD was a Sandia Fellowship that supported Andrea Hsu's PhD research at Texas A&M University and her work as a visitor at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility. The research project at Texas A&M University is concerned with the experimental characterization of hypersonic (Mach>5) flowfields using experimental diagnostics. This effort is part of a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) and is a collaboration between the Chemistry and Aerospace Engineering departments. Hypersonic flight conditions often lead to a non-thermochemical equilibrium (NTE) state of air, where the timescale of reaching a single (equilibrium) Boltzmann temperature is much longer than the timescale of the flow. Certain molecular modes, such as vibrational modes, may be much more excited than the translational or rotational modes of the molecule, leading to thermal-nonequilibrium. A nontrivial amount of energy is therefore contained within the vibrational mode, and this energy cascades into the flow as thermal energy, affecting flow properties through vibrational-vibrational (V-V) and vibrational-translational (V-T) energy exchanges between the flow species. The research is a fundamental experimental study of these NTE systems and involves the application of advanced laser and optical diagnostics towards hypersonic flowfields. The research is broken down into two main categories: the application and adaptation of existing laser and optical techniques towards characterization of NTE, and the development of new molecular tagging velocimetry techniques which have been demonstrated in an underexpanded jet flowfield, but may be extended towards a variety of flowfields. In addition, Andrea's work at Sandia National Labs involved the application of advanced laser diagnostics to flames and turbulent non-reacting jets. These studies included quench-free planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and mixture fraction measurements via Rayleigh scattering.

  7. MDIS (medical diagnostic imaging support) workstation issues: clinical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald V.; Smith, Suzy; Cawthon, Michael A.

    1991-05-01

    A joint DoD effort is in the final stages of contract acquisition to achieve a ''filmless'' hospital environment in the near future. Success of implementation lays to a large degree on an effective image workstation. This paper will discuss soft copy image display (SCID) of the MDIS system including hardware and software.

  8. Dyslexia: advances in clinical and imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Koeda, Tatsuya; Seki, Ayumi; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the characteristics of Japanese dyslexia, and to demonstrate several of our studies about the extraction of these characteristic and their neurophysiological and neuroimaging abnormalities, as well as advanced studies of phonological awareness and the underlying neural substrate. Based on these results, we have proposed a 2-step approach for remedial education (e-learning web site: http://www.dyslexia-koeda.jp/). The first step is decoding, which decreases reading errors, and the second is vocabulary learning, which improves reading fluency. This 2-step approach is designed to serve first grade children. In addition, we propose the RTI (response to intervention) model as a desirable system for remedial education. PMID:21146943

  9. Theoretical and Monte Carlo optimization of a stacked three-layer flat-panel x-ray imager for applications in multi-spectral diagnostic medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Maurino, Sebastian; Badano, Aldo; Cunningham, Ian A.; Karim, Karim S.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new design of a stacked three-layer flat-panel x-ray detector for dual-energy (DE) imaging. Each layer consists of its own scintillator of individual thickness and an underlying thin-film-transistor-based flat-panel. Three images are obtained simultaneously in the detector during the same x-ray exposure, thereby eliminating any motion artifacts. The detector operation is two-fold: a conventional radiography image can be obtained by combining all three layers' images, while a DE subtraction image can be obtained from the front and back layers' images, where the middle layer acts as a mid-filter that helps achieve spectral separation. We proceed to optimize the detector parameters for two sample imaging tasks that could particularly benefit from this new detector by obtaining the best possible signal to noise ratio per root entrance exposure using well-established theoretical models adapted to fit our new design. These results are compared to a conventional DE temporal subtraction detector and a single-shot DE subtraction detector with a copper mid-filter, both of which underwent the same theoretical optimization. The findings are then validated using advanced Monte Carlo simulations for all optimized detector setups. Given the performance expected from initial results and the recent decrease in price for digital x-ray detectors, the simplicity of the three-layer stacked imager approach appears promising to usher in a new generation of multi-spectral digital x-ray diagnostics.

  10. WE-A-BRF-01: Dual-Energy CT Imaging in Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Molloi, S; Li, B; Yin, F; Chen, H

    2014-06-15

    The quantification accuracy of dual-energy imaging is influenced by the fundamentals of x-ray physics, system geometry, data acquisition hardware/protocol, system calibration, and image processing technique. This symposium will provide updates on the following advanced application areas: Mammography. Volumetric breast density techniques based on standard mammograms require estimation of breast thickness, which is difficult to accurately measure. By comparison, calculation of breast density using dual energy mammography does not require measurement of breast thickness. Dual energy mammography has been implemented using both energy integrating flat panel detectors in conjunction with beam energy switching and energy resolved photon counting detectors. These techniques have been optimized using simulation studies and validated using physical phantoms and postmortem breasts. Chemical decomposition was used as the gold standard for volumetric breast density measurement in postmortem breasts. Breast density measurements have also been compared with results from four-category BI-RADS density rankings, standard image thresholding and Fuzzy k-mean clustering techniques. These studies indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure volumetric breast density. Cardiovascular CT. The predicative accuracy of risk models for recurrent stroke and cardiac arrest depends heavily on accurate differentiation of thrombus or calcium from iodine in left atrial appendage or coronary arteries. The amount of energy separation is constrained by image noise; therefore, optimal kVp, beam filtration, and balanced flux are essential for the quantification accuracy of iodine and calcium. The basis materials are combined linearly to generate monochromatic energy images, where CT# accuracy and CNR are energy dependent. With optimal monochromatic energy, the mean iodine concentration for the thrombus, circulatory stasis, and control groups are significantly different. Risk

  11. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas–Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography. PMID:24587692

  12. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

  13. Advances in CT imaging for urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Yasir; Patino, Manuel; Das, Chandan J.; Eisner, Brian; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Kambadakone, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a lifetime-estimated recurrence risk of over 50%. Imaging plays a critical role in the initial diagnosis, follow-up and urological management of urinary tract stone disease. Unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) is highly sensitive (>95%) and specific (>96%) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis and is the imaging investigation of choice for the initial assessment of patients with suspected urolithiasis. The emergence of multi-detector CT (MDCT) and technological innovations in CT such as dual-energy CT (DECT) has widened the scope of MDCT in the stone disease management from initial diagnosis to encompass treatment planning and monitoring of treatment success. DECT has been shown to enhance pre-treatment characterization of stone composition in comparison with conventional MDCT and is being increasingly used. Although CT-related radiation dose exposure remains a valid concern, the use of low-dose MDCT protocols and integration of newer iterative reconstruction algorithms into routine CT practice has resulted in a substantial decrease in ionizing radiation exposure. In this review article, our intent is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnosis and post-treatment evaluation of urolithiasis and review the impact of emerging CT technologies such as dual energy in clinical practice. PMID:26166961

  14. Advances in CT imaging for urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Yasir; Patino, Manuel; Das, Chandan J; Eisner, Brian; Sahani, Dushyant V; Kambadakone, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a lifetime-estimated recurrence risk of over 50%. Imaging plays a critical role in the initial diagnosis, follow-up and urological management of urinary tract stone disease. Unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) is highly sensitive (>95%) and specific (>96%) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis and is the imaging investigation of choice for the initial assessment of patients with suspected urolithiasis. The emergence of multi-detector CT (MDCT) and technological innovations in CT such as dual-energy CT (DECT) has widened the scope of MDCT in the stone disease management from initial diagnosis to encompass treatment planning and monitoring of treatment success. DECT has been shown to enhance pre-treatment characterization of stone composition in comparison with conventional MDCT and is being increasingly used. Although CT-related radiation dose exposure remains a valid concern, the use of low-dose MDCT protocols and integration of newer iterative reconstruction algorithms into routine CT practice has resulted in a substantial decrease in ionizing radiation exposure. In this review article, our intent is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnosis and post-treatment evaluation of urolithiasis and review the impact of emerging CT technologies such as dual energy in clinical practice. PMID:26166961

  15. Advanced terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed weapon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Redman, Brian; Espinola, Richard L.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Griffin, Steven T.; Halford, Carl E.; Reynolds, Joe

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The details of this MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security and Defence Symposium. The focus of this paper is to report on recent advances to the base model which have been designed to more realistically account for the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system. The advanced terahertz-band imaging system performance model now also accounts for target and background thermal emission, and has been recast into a user-friendly, Windows-executable tool. This advanced THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. This paper will describe the advanced THz model and its new radiometric sub-model in detail, and provide modeling and experimental results on target observability as a function of target and background orientation.

  16. Cancer diagnostics using neural network sorting of processed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Charles L.; Schreeder, Marshall; Grundy, Walt; Kinser, Jason M.

    1996-03-01

    A combination of image processing with neural network sorting was conducted to demonstrate feasibility of automated cervical smear screening. Nuclei were isolated to generate a series of data points relating to the density and size of individual nuclei. This was followed by segmentation to isolate entire cells for subsequent generation of data points to bound the size of the cytoplasm. Data points were taken on as many as ten cells per image frame and included correlation against a series of filters providing size and density readings on nuclei. Additional point data was taken on nuclei images to refine size information and on whole cells to bound the size of the cytoplasm, twenty data points per assessed cell were generated. These data point sets, designated as neural tensors, comprise the inputs for training and use of a unique neural network to sort the images and identify those indicating evidence of disease. The neural network, named the Fast Analog Associative Memory, accumulates data and establishes lookup tables for comparison against images to be assessed. Six networks were trained to differentiate normal cells from those evidencing various levels abnormality that may lead to cancer. A blind test was conducted on 77 images to evaluate system performance. The image set included 31 positives (diseased) and 46 negatives (normal). Our system correctly identified all 31 positives and 41 of the negatives with 5 false positives. We believe this technology can lead to more efficient automated screening of cervical smears.

  17. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Radiometric Response Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.; Evans, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is one of three instruments to be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). ALI contains a number of innovative features, including a wide field of view optical design, compact multispectral focal plane arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe detectors for the short wave infrared bands, and silicon carbide optics. This document outlines the techniques adopted during ground calibration of the radiometric response of the Advanced Land Imager. Results from system level measurements of the instrument response, signal-to-noise ratio, saturation radiance, and dynamic range for all detectors of every spectral band are also presented.

  18. [Interventional MR imaging: state of the art and technological advances].

    PubMed

    Viard, R; Rousseau, J

    2008-01-01

    Due to its excellent soft tissue contrast and lack of ionizing radiation, MR imaging is well suited for interventional procedures. MRI is being increasingly used for guidance during percutaneous procedures or surgery. Technical advances in interventional MR imaging are reviewed in this paper. Ergonomical factors with improved access to patients as well as advances in informatics, electronics and robotics largely explain this increasing role. Different elements are discussed from improved access to patients in the scanners to improved acquisition pulse sequences. Selected clinical applications and recent publications will be presented to illustrate the current status of this technique. PMID:18288022

  19. Factors That Will Determine Future Utilization Trends in Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M

    2016-08-01

    Radiologists are facing uncertain times, and in this kind of environment, strategic planning is important but difficult. In particular, it is hard to know whether future imaging volume will increase, decrease, or stay approximately the same. In this article, the authors discuss a variety of factors that will influence imaging use in the coming years. Some factors will tend to increase imaging use, whereas others will tend to curtail it. Some of these factors will affect individual groups differently, depending on their locations and the circumstances of their practices. Radiologists would be well advised to become aware of and consider these factors as they go about their planning processes. PMID:27056260

  20. [Diagnostic imaging and visualization of radiation treatment effects in soft tissue sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Berger, F; Reiser, M F; Graser, A

    2012-03-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare malignant neoplasms accounting for only 1% of malignant tumors in adults. Complete surgical resection of tumors is the key to therapeutic success. Indications for adjuvant radiation therapy vary according to the lesion grade. Comprehensive diagnostic imaging significantly contributes to successful preoperative planning procedures. Besides morphological imaging, functional imaging strategies will have an increasing impact on individual risk assessment and contribute to optimized, non-invasive treatment response monitoring. PMID:22395900

  1. Advanced Imaging Catheter: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Krulevitch, P; Colston, B; DaSilva, L; Hilken, D; Kluiwstra, J U; Lee, A P; London, R; Miles, R; Schumann, D; Seward, K; Wang, A

    2001-07-20

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is an approach whereby procedures conventionally performed with large and potentially traumatic incisions are replaced by several tiny incisions through which specialized instruments are inserted. Early MIS, often called laparoscopic surgery, used video cameras and laparoscopes to visualize and control the medical devices, which were typically cutting or stapling tools. More recently, catheter-based procedures have become a fast growing sector of all surgeries. In these procedures, small incisions are made into one of the main arteries (e.g. femoral artery in the thigh), and a long thin hollow tube is inserted and positioned near the target area. The key advantage of this technique is that recovery time can be reduced from months to a matter of days. In the United States, over 700,000 catheter procedures are performed annually representing a market of over $350 million. Further growth in this area will require significant improvements in the current catheter technology. In order to effectively navigate a catheter through the tortuous vessels of the body, two capabilities must exist: imaging and positioning. In most cases, catheter procedures rely on radiography for visualization and manual manipulation for positioning of the device. Radiography provides two-dimensional, global images of the vasculature and cannot be used continuously due to radiation exposure to both the patient and physician. Intravascular ultrasound devices are available for continuous local imaging at the catheter tip, but these devices cannot be used simultaneously with therapeutic devices. Catheters are highly compliant devices, and manipulating the catheter is similar to pushing on a string. Often, a guide wire is used to help position the catheter, but this procedure has its own set of problems. Three characteristics are used to describe catheter maneuverability: (1) pushability -- the amount of linear displacement of the distal end (inside body) relative to

  2. Imaging spectrometer technologies for advanced Earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kuperfman, P.; Salazar, R. P.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    A major requirement of multispectral imaging systems for advanced Earth remote sensing is the provision for greater spectral resolution and more versatile spectral band selection. The imaging spectrometer instrument concept provides this versatility by the combination of pushbroom imaging and spectrally dispersing optics using area array detectors in the focal plane. The shuttle imaging spectrometer concept achieves 10- and 20-meter ground instantaneous fields of view with 20-nanometer spectral resolution from Earth Orbit. Onboard processing allows the selection of spectral bands during flight; this, in turn, permits the sensor parameters to be tailored to the experiment objectives. Advances in optical design, infrared detector arrays, and focal plane cooling indicate the feasibility of the instrument concept and support the practicability of a validation flight experiment for the shuttle in the late 1980s.

  3. Imaging spectrometer technologies for advanced earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kupferman, P.; Salazar, R. P.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    A major requirement of multispectral imaging systems for advanced earth remote sensing is the provision for greater spectral resolution and more versatile spectral band selection. The imaging spectrometer instrument concept provides this versatility by the combination of pushbroom imaging and spectrally dispersing optics using area array detectors in the focal plane. The shuttle imaging spectrometer concept achieves 10- and 20-meter ground instantaneous fields of view with 20-nanometer spectral resolution from earth orbit. Onboard processing allows the selection of spectral bands during flight; this, in turn, permits the sensor parameters to be tailored to the experiment objectives. Advances in optical design, infrared detector arrays, and focal plane cooling indicate the feasibility of the instrument concept and support the practicability of a validation flight experiment for the shuttle in the late 1980s. Previously announced in STAR as N83-28542

  4. Advanced digital detectors for neutron imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2003-12-01

    Neutron interrogation provides unique information valuable for Nonproliferation & Materials Control and other important applications including medicine, airport security, protein crystallography, and corrosion detection. Neutrons probe deep inside massive objects to detect small defects and chemical composition, even through high atomic number materials such as lead. However, current detectors are bulky gas-filled tubes or scintillator/PM tubes, which severely limit many applications. Therefore this project was undertaken to develop new semiconductor radiation detection materials to develop the first direct digital imaging detectors for neutrons. The approach relied on new discovery and characterization of new solid-state sensor materials which convert neutrons directly to electronic signals via reactions BlO(n,a)Li7 and Li6(n,a)T.

  5. Capabilities of Imaging Interferometry for Plasma Diagnostics in Open Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Sanin, A.L.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.

    2005-01-15

    Two modifications of imaging interferometry: heterodyne (HI) and phase contrast interferometers (PCI) are designed for observation of plasma density profiles and density fluctuations respectively. Besides, spatial distributions of plasma velocities, velocities fluctuations and related electrical fields can be obtained from the analysis of HI and PCI data. New sensitive phase counters, developed at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, enable HI to include some capabilities of the PCI. In addition to well recognized transversal spatial resolution of imaging technique, progress in deconvolution of line-of-sight-integrated data was recently made. Computer simulation, bench-test experiments and recent experimental results from the Large Helical Device illustrate the potentials of the imaging interferometry for investigation of plasma. Application of the imaging interferometry with spatial resolution along the viewing line to mirror machines is finally considered.

  6. Angiomia Imaging and Diagnostics, Angiography and Functional MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer these procedures and interpret the results. As technology and understanding of disease pathology evolves, combinations of ... integrated and layered approach. In some cases, imaging technology, which has been around for a decade or ...

  7. Scanning multispectral IR reflectography SMIRR: an advanced tool for art diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Daffara, Claudia; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca; Barucci, Marco; Fontana, Raffaella

    2010-06-15

    Spectral imaging technology, widely used in remote sensing applications, such as satellite or radar imaging, has recently gained importance in the field of artwork conservation. In particular, multispectral imaging in the near-infrared region (NIR) has proved useful in analyzing ancient paintings because of the transparency of most pigments and their varied reflectance changes over this spectral region. A variety of systems, with different detectors and filtering or dispersing technologies, have been implemented. Despite the recognized potential of multispectral NIR imaging, which provides information on both spectral and spatial domains (thus extending the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy), most of the systems currently used in art diagnostics have limitations. The technology is still in its early stages of development in this field. In this Account, we present the scanning multispectral IR reflectography (SMIRR) technique for artwork analysis, together with an integrated device for the acquisition of imaging data. The instrument prototype is a no-contact optical scanner with a single-point measurement of the reflectance, capable of simultaneously collecting a set of 14 spatially registered images at different wavelengths in the NIR range of 800-2300 nm. The data can be analyzed as a spectral cube, both as a stack of wavelength resolved images (multi-NIR reflectography) and as a series of point reflectance spectra, one for each sampled pixel on the surface (NIR spectrometry). We explore the potential of SMIRR in the analysis of ancient paintings and show its advantages over the wide-band conventional method. The multispectral option allows the choice of the most effective NIR bands and improves the ability to detect hidden features. The interband comparison aids in localizing areas of different pictorial materials with particular NIR reflectance. In addition to the analysis of single monochromatic images, enhancement procedures involving the

  8. A 2-D ECE Imaging Diagnostic for TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Deng, B. H.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, H. Lu, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    A true 2-D extension to the UC Davis ECE Imaging (ECEI) concept is under development for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak in 2003. This combines the use of linear arrays with multichannel conventional wideband heterodyne ECE radiometers to provide a true 2-D imaging system. This is in contrast to current 1-D ECEI systems in which 2-D images are obtained through the use of multiple plasma discharges (varying the scanned emission frequency each discharge). Here, each array element of the 20 channel mixer array measures plasma emission at 16 simultaneous frequencies to form a 16x20 image of the plasma electron temperature Te. Correlation techniques can then be applied to any pair of the 320 image elements to study both radial and poloidal characteristics of turbulent Te fluctuations. The system relies strongly on the development of low cost, wideband (2-18 GHz) IF detection electronics for use in both ECE Imaging as well as conventional heterodyne ECE radiometry. System details, with a strong focus on the wideband IF electronics development, will be presented. *Supported by U.S. DoE Contracts DE-FG03-95ER54295 and DE-FG03-99ER54531.

  9. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Biosensing: In Vivo Diagnostics and Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Henry, Anne-Isabelle; Sharma, Bhavya; Cardinal, M Fernanda; Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2016-07-01

    This perspective presents recent developments in the application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to biosensing, with a focus on in vivo diagnostics. We describe the concepts and methodologies developed to date and the target analytes that can be detected. We also discuss how SERS has evolved from a "point-and-shoot" stand-alone technique in an analytical chemistry laboratory to an integrated quantitative analytical tool for multimodal imaging diagnostics. Finally, we offer a guide to the future of SERS in the context of clinical diagnostics. PMID:27268724

  10. Diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of leg pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Bresler, Michael; Mar, Winnie; Toman, Jordan

    2012-04-01

    The causes of leg pain in the athlete are diverse. Pain can relate to more common etiologies, such as musculotendinous injury to the hamstrings and Achilles tendon as well as stress injury to bone, with tibial stress injuries comprising the most common cause for lower leg pain in athletes. Less-common causes include chronic exertional compartment syndrome and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, both of which cause pain as a result of muscle ischemia. Radiologic evaluation plays an important role in differentiating among the many possible causes of leg pain and is often essential in determining degree of injury as well as in documenting healing before patient return to athletic activity. With PAES and hamstring and Achilles injuries, imaging may be helpful in surgical planning as well as in determining an underlying anatomic cause for injury. Several of these conditions can be evaluated with multiple different imaging modalities. The imaging modality of choice should be selected based on the sensitivity and specificity of the imaging examination but should also be tailored to each individual patient after determining comorbidities that may preclude certain types of imaging as well as assessing the patient's ability to undergo such testing. PMID:22341013

  11. Committee Opinion No. 656 Summary: Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Imaging studies are important adjuncts in the diagnostic evaluation of acute and chronic conditions. However, confusion about the safety of these modalities for pregnant and lactating women and their infants often results in unnecessary avoidance of useful diagnostic tests or the unnecessary interruption of breastfeeding. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are not associated with risk and are the imaging techniques of choice for the pregnant patient, but they should be used prudently and only when use is expected to answer a relevant clinical question or otherwise provide medical benefit to the patient. With few exceptions, radiation exposure through radiography, computed tomography scan, or nuclear medicine imaging techniques is at a dose much lower than the exposure associated with fetal harm. If these techniques are necessary in addition to ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging or are more readily available for the diagnosis in question, they should not be withheld from a pregnant patient. Breastfeeding should not be interrupted after gadolinium administration. PMID:26942384

  12. Committee Opinion No. 656: Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Imaging studies are important adjuncts in the diagnostic evaluation of acute and chronic conditions. However, confusion about the safety of these modalities for pregnant and lactating women and their infants often results in unnecessary avoidance of useful diagnostic tests or the unnecessary interruption of breastfeeding. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are not associated with risk and are the imaging techniques of choice for the pregnant patient, but they should be used prudently and only when use is expected to answer a relevant clinical question or otherwise provide medical benefit to the patient. With few exceptions, radiation exposure through radiography, computed tomography scan, or nuclear medicine imaging techniques is at a dose much lower than the exposure associated with fetal harm. If these techniques are necessary in addition to ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging or are more readily available for the diagnosis in question, they should not be withheld from a pregnant patient. Breastfeeding should not be interrupted after gadolinium administration. PMID:26942391

  13. Clinics in diagnostic imaging. 141. Complete anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hollie M Y; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2012-09-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with right knee pain and swelling following a football injury. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear and lateral meniscal tears. The torn ACL was repaired with a graft obtained from the semitendinosus muscle, and the menisci were debrided. The mechanisms of injury to the ACL are varied and may be due to direct or indirect contact with the knee as well as with twisting injuries. Knowledge of the ACL's normal anatomy, together with MR imaging technique and understanding of the appearance of the lesion on MR examination, is crucial to aid in the identification of an ACL tear. Diagnosis of an ACL tear should be based on direct MR imaging signs, although indirect signs may be helpful, particularly in chronic tears. Other associated injuries to be aware of include meniscal and other ligamentous injuries. Normal ACL graft and post-ACL graft reconstruction complications are also briefly discussed. PMID:23023908

  14. Imaging antenna array at 119 microns. [for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neikirk, N. P.; Tong, P. P.; Putledge, D. B.; Park, H.; Young, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    A focal-plane imaging antenna array has been demonstrated at 119 microns. The array is a line of evaporated silver bow-tie antennas with bismuth microbolometer detectors on a silicon substrate. Radiation is coupled into the array by a lens placed on the back of the substrate. The bolometers are thermally isolated from the silicon substrate with a half-micron layer of polyimide. The array performance is demonstrated by coherent imaging of a series of holes at half the diffraction-limited cut-off frequency.

  15. Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Sachiko; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko; Miyoshi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopic images of paraffin-embedded cancer tissues have been measured by a terahertz time domain spectrometer. For the systematic identification of cancer tumors, the principal component analysis and the clustering analysis were applied. In three of the four samples, the cancer tissue was recognized as an aggregate of the data points in the principal component plots. By the agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the data points were well categorized into cancer and the other tissues. This method can be also applied to various kinds of automatic discrimination of plural components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

  16. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (162). Meckel’s diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dinesh R; Pulickal, Geoiphy G; Lo, Zhiwen J; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    A 28-year-old Chinese man presented with acute bleeding per rectum. Computed tomography showed a posterior outpouching arising from the distal ileum. The outpouching had hyperaemic walls, but no active contrast extravasation was detected. Technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy showed focal areas of abnormal uptake in the right side of the pelvis, superior and posterior to the urinary bladder. These areas of uptake appeared simultaneously with the gastric uptake and demonstrated gradual increase in intensity on subsequent images. The diagnosis of Meckel’s diverticulum was confirmed on surgery and the lesion was resected. The clinical and imaging features of Meckel’s diverticulum are discussed. PMID:26451056

  17. Interferometric Imaging Diagnostics of X Hya's Circumstellar Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubois, X.; Wittkowski, M.; Perrin, G.; Kervella, P.; Ridgway, S. T.; Thiébaut, E.

    2015-08-01

    Optical interferometry is a powerful tool to investigate the close environment of AGB stars. With a spatial resolution of a few milli-arcseconds, it is even possible to image directly the surface of angularly large objects. This is of special interest for Mira stars and red supergiants for which the dust-wind is initiated from or very close to the photosphere by an interplay between pulsation and convection. Based on two-epoch interferometric observations of the Mira star X Hya, we show how the variation of the angular size with wavelength challenges pulsation models and how reconstructed images can reveal the evolution of the object shape and its asymmetric structures.

  18. Microwave-heating-coupled photoacoustic radar for tissue diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    An investigation of microwave (MW) heating effects on biotissue for enhancing photoacoustic radar (PAR) signals was conducted. Localized tissue heating generated by MWs was used to improve PAR imaging depth and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Elevated temperatures were measured with thermocouples in ex vivo bovine muscle. The measured temperature rise on the heated spot surface by MWs was in agreement with theoretical predictions. The study showed localized MW heating can increase the photoacoustic imaging depth by 11%, and the SNR by 5% in ex vivo bovine muscle.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostics of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kociemba, Anna; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna; Siniawski, Andrzej; Łanocha, Magdalena; Janus, Magdalena; Stajgis, Marek; Grajek, Stefan; Pyda, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has a growing application in the diagnostics of myocardial infarction (MI). It is a non-invasive method that can be used regardless of the shape of patient’s body. A single study allows assessment of the morphology and function of the cardiac muscle. It visualizes many pathophysiologic changes such as edema, microvascular obstruction (MVO) or necrosis, and complications of MI, like myocardial hemorrhage (MH) or thrombus, which are very difficult to diagnose using other methods. An obvious advantage of CMR is the possibility to differentiate an acute MI from the chronic one and to identify the etiology of fibrosis. All the aforementioned features of CMR have made it a useful tool in planning the treatment and assessing the prognosis of patients after MI. PMID:22802842

  20. AXIOM: Advanced X-ray imaging of the magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembay, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C.; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S.; Owen, C. J.; Read, A. M.; Peacocke, L.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.; Yeoman, T.

    2012-04-01

    AXIOM (Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere) is a concept mission which aims to explain how the Earth's magnetosphere responds to the changing impact of the solar wind using a unique method never attempted before; performing wide-field soft X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the magnetosheath, magnetopause and bow shock at high spatial and temporal resolution. Global imaging of these regions is possible because of the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) process which produces elevated soft X-ray emission from the interaction of high charge-state solar wind ions with primarily neutral hydrogen in the Earth's exosphere and near-interplanetary space.

  1. The ADIS advanced data acquisition, imaging, and storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The design and development of Automated Ultrasonic Scanning Systems (AUSS) by McDonnell Aircraft Company has provided the background for the development of the ADIS advanced data acquisition, imaging, and storage system. The ADIS provides state-of-the-art ultrasonic data processing and imaging features which can be utilized in both laboratory and production line composite evaluation applications. System features, such as, real-time imaging, instantaneous electronic rescanning, multitasking capability, histograms, and cross-sections, provide the tools necessary to inspect and evaluate composite parts quickly and consistently.

  2. AXIOM: Advanced X-Ray Imaging Of the Magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembay, S.; Branduardi-Rayrnont, G.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S.; Owen, C. J.; Read, A. M.; Peacocke, L.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    AXIOM (Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere) is a concept mission which aims to explain how the Earth's magnetosphere responds to the changing impact of the solar wind using a unique method never attempted before; performing wide-field soft X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the magnetosheath. magnetopause and bow shock at high spatial and temporal resolution. Global imaging of these regions is possible because of the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) process which produces elevated soft X-ray emission from the interaction of high charge-state solar wind ions with primarily neutral hydrogen in the Earth's exosphere and near-interplanetary space.

  3. The Advanced Space Plant Culture Device with Live Imaging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weibo; Zhang, Tao; Tong, Guanghui

    The live imaging techniques, including the color and fluorescent imags, are very important and useful for space life science. The advanced space plant culture Device (ASPCD) with live imaging Technique, developed for Chinese Spacecraft, would be introduced in this paper. The ASPCD had two plant experimental chambers. Three cameras (two color cameras and one fluorescent camera) were installed in the two chambers. The fluorescent camera could observe flowering genes, which were labeled by GFP. The lighting, nutrient, temperature controling and water recycling were all independent in each chamber. The ASPCD would beed applied to investigate for the growth and development of the high plant under microgravity conditions on board the Chinese Spacecraft.

  4. In-flight performance of the Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffrey J.; Osgood, Roderic; Auchter, Joseph; Hurt, W. Todd; Hitomi, Miyamoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Tahara, Yoshihiko; Tadros, Alfred; Faller, Ken; Mclaren, Mark; Sheffield, Jonathan; Gaiser, John; Kamel, Ahmed; Gunshor, Mathew

    2006-08-01

    The Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) was developed by Raytheon and delivered to Space Systems/Loral as the Imager Subsystem for Japan's MTSAT-1R satellite. MTSAT-1R was launched from the Tanegashima Space Center on 2005 February 26 and became formally operational on 2005 June 28. This paper compares in-flight performance of JAMI with predictions made before launch. The performance areas discussed include radiometric sensitivity (NEDT and SNR) versus spectral channel, calibration accuracy versus spectral channel derived from comparisons of JAMI and AIRS measurements and image navigation and registration.

  5. Enhanced CT images by the wavelet transform improving diagnostic accuracy of chest nodules.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuhua; Liu, Xiangye; Wang, Huan; Liang, Zhigang; Wu, Wei; He, Qian; Li, Kuncheng; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy in the interpretation of chest nodules using original CT images versus enhanced CT images based on the wavelet transform. The CT images of 118 patients with cancers and 60 with benign nodules were used in this study. All images were enhanced through an algorithm based on the wavelet transform. Two experienced radiologists interpreted all the images in two reading sessions. The reading sessions were separated by a minimum of 1 month in order to minimize the effect of observer's recall. The Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test was used to analyze the interpretation results between original and enhanced images. The Kruskal-Wallis H nonparametric test of K independent samples was used to investigate the related factors which could affect the diagnostic accuracy of observers. The area under the ROC curves for the original and enhanced images was 0.681 and 0.736, respectively. There is significant difference in diagnosing the malignant nodules between the original and enhanced images (z = 7.122, P < 0.001), whereas there is no significant difference in diagnosing the benign nodules (z = 0.894, P = 0.371). The results showed that there is significant difference between original and enhancement images when the size of nodules was larger than 2 cm (Z = -2.509, P = 0.012, indicating the size of the nodules is a critical evaluating factor of the diagnostic accuracy of observers). This study indicated that the image enhancement based on wavelet transform could improve the diagnostic accuracy of radiologists for the malignant chest nodules. PMID:19937084

  6. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Analog integrator for the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research magnetic diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, J. G.; Lee, S. G.; Son, D.; Ga, E. M.

    2007-04-01

    An analog integrator, which automatically compensates an integrating drift, has been developed for the magnetic diagnostics in the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR). The compensation of the drift is done by the analog to digital converter-register-digital to analog converter in the integrator. The integrator will be used in the equilibrium magnetic field measurements by using inductive magnetic sensors during a plasma discharge in the KSTAR machine. Two differential amplifiers are added to the signal path between each magnetic sensor and the integrator in order to improve the performance of the integrator because a long signal cable of 100 m will be used for the measurement in the KSTAR machine. In this work, the characteristics of the integrator with two differential amplifiers are experimentally investigated.

  8. Emittance and Phase Space Exchange for Advanced Beam Manipulation and Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-04-27

    Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between transverse phase space (x,x') and longitudinal phase space (z,{delta}), where x is the transverse position, x' is the transverse divergence, and z and {delta} are relative longitudinal position and energy deviation with respect to the reference particle. Methods to achieve exact phase space exchanges, i.e., mapping x to z, x' to {delta}, z to x, and {delta} to x', are suggested. Schemes to mitigate and completely compensate for the thick-lens effect of the transverse cavity on emittance exchange are studied. Some applications of the phase space exchange for advanced beam manipulation and diagnostics are discussed.

  9. MULTISPECTRAL DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING OF THE IRIS IN PIGMENT DISPERSION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Daniel K.; Lukic, Ana; Yang, Yongyi; Wilensky, Jacob T.; Wernick, Miles N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine if wavelength selection with near infrared (NIR) iris imaging may enhance iris transillumination defects (ITDs) in pigment dispersion syndrome. Methods An experimental apparatus was used to acquire iris images in 6 African-American (AA) and 6 White patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Light emitting diode (LED) probes of 6 different spectral bands (700 to 950 nm) were used to project light into patients' eyes. Iris patterns were photographed, ITD regions of interest were outlined, and region of interest contrasts were calculated for each spectral band. Results Contrasts varied as a function of wavelength (P<0.0001) for both groups, but tended to be highest in the 700 to 800 nm range. Contrasts were higher in Whites than AAs at 700 nm but the opposite was found at 810 nm (P<0.001). Conclusions Optimized NIR iris imaging may be wavelength dependent. Ideal wavelength to image ITDs in more pigmented eyes may be slightly longer than for less pigmented eyes. PMID:21423031

  10. Imaging for understanding speech communication: Advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-04-01

    Research in speech communication has relied on a variety of instrumentation methods to illuminate details of speech production and perception. One longstanding challenge has been the ability to examine real-time changes in the shaping of the vocal tract; a goal that has been furthered by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, movement tracking, and magnetic resonance imaging. The spatial and temporal resolution afforded by these techniques, however, has limited the scope of the investigations that could be carried out. In this talk, we focus on some recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging that allow us to perform near real-time investigations on the dynamics of vocal tract shaping during speech. Examples include Demolin et al. (2000) (4-5 images/second, ultra-fast turbo spin echo) and Mady et al. (2001,2002) (8 images/second, T1 fast gradient echo). A recent study by Narayanan et al. (2004) that used a spiral readout scheme to accelerate image acquisition has allowed for image reconstruction rates of 24 images/second. While these developments offer exciting prospects, a number of challenges lie ahead, including: (1) improving image acquisition protocols, hardware for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio, and optimizing spatial sampling; (2) acquiring quality synchronized audio; and (3) analyzing and modeling image data including cross-modality registration. [Work supported by NIH and NSF.

  11. New dual gas puff imaging system with up-down symmetry on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. C.; Shao, L. M.; Zweben, S. J.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; Cao, B.; Wang, H. Q.; Wang, L.; Yan, N.; Xia, S. B.; Zhang, W.; Chen, R.; Chen, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Xiong, H.; Zhao, Y.; Wan, B. N.; Gong, X. Z.; Gao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gas puff imaging (GPI) offers a direct and effective diagnostic to measure the edge turbulence structure and velocity in the edge plasma, which closely relates to edge transport and instability in tokamaks. A dual GPI diagnostic system has been installed on the low field side on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The two views are up-down symmetric about the midplane and separated by a toroidal angle of 66.6°. A linear manifold with 16 holes apart by 10 mm is used to form helium gas cloud at the 130×130 mm (radial versus poloidal) objective plane. A fast camera is used to capture the light emission from the image plane with a speed up to 390 804 frames/s with 64×64 pixels and an exposure time of 2.156 μs. The spatial resolution of the system is 2 mm at the objective plane. A total amount of 200 Pa.L helium gas is puffed into the plasma edge for each GPI viewing region for about 250 ms. The new GPI diagnostic has been applied on EAST for the first time during the recent experimental campaign under various plasma conditions, including ohmic, L-mode, and type-I, and type-III ELMy H-modes. Some of these initial experimental results are also presented.

  12. Advanced technology development for image gathering, coding, and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1990-01-01

    Three overlapping areas of research activities are presented: (1) Information theory and optimal filtering are extended to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. (2) Focal-plane processing techniques and technology are developed to combine effectively image gathering with coding. The emphasis is on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. (3) A breadboard adaptive image-coding system is being assembled. This system will be used to develop and evaluate a number of advanced image-coding technologies and techniques as well as research the concept of adaptive image coding.

  13. Recent Advances in 19Fluorine Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Perfluorocarbon Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Schmieder, Anne H.; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Keupp, Jochen; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    The research roots of 19fluorine (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date back over 35 years. Over that time span, 1H imaging flourished and was adopted worldwide with an endless array of applications and imaging approaches, making magnetic resonance an indispensable pillar of biomedical diagnostic imaging. For many years during this timeframe, 19F imaging research continued at a slow pace as the various attributes of the technique were explored. However, over the last decade and particularly the last several years, the pace and clinical relevance of 19F imaging has exploded. In part, this is due to advances in MRI instrumentation, 19F/1H coil designs, and ultrafast pulse sequence development for both preclinical and clinical scanners. These achievements, coupled with interest in the molecular imaging of anatomy and physiology, and combined with a cadre of innovative agents, have brought the concept of 19F into early clinical evaluation. In this review, we attempt to provide a slice of this rich history of research and development, with a particular focus on liquid perfluorocarbon compound-based agents. PMID:27110430

  14. A Novel Murine Model for Localized Radiation Necrosis and its Characterization Using Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Sarah C.; Hope, Andrew; Kiehl, Erich; Perry, Arie; Travers, Sarah; Garbow, Joel R.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To develop a murine model of radiation necrosis using fractionated, subtotal cranial irradiation; and to investigate the imaging signature of radiation-induced tissue damage using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four mice each received 60 Gy of hemispheric (left) irradiation in 10 equal fractions. Magnetic resonance images at 4.7 T were subsequently collected using T1-, T2-, and diffusion sequences at selected time points after irradiation. After imaging, animals were killed and their brains fixed for correlative histologic analysis. Results: Contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images at months 2, 3, and 4 showed changes consistent with progressive radiation necrosis. Quantitatively, mean diffusivity was significantly higher (mean = 0.86, 1.13, and 1.24 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms at 2, 3, and 4 months, respectively) in radiated brain, compared with contralateral untreated brain tissue (mean = 0.78, 0.82, and 0.83 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms) (p < 0.0001). Histology reflected changes typically seen in radiation necrosis. Conclusions: This murine model of radiation necrosis will facilitate investigation of imaging biomarkers that distinguish between radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence. In addition, this preclinical study supports clinical data suggesting that diffusion-weighted imaging may be helpful in answering this diagnostic question in clinical settings.

  15. X-ray and EUV micro-imaging systems for laser ICF diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Mu, B.; Wang, X.; Huang, W.; Li, J.; Wang, Z.

    2013-10-01

    Plasma imaging diagnostics plays an important role for laser ICF. Based on the urgent need to carry out high-resolution, high-throughput plasma diagnostics, grazing-incidence X-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscopes and normal-incidence EUV Schwarzschild imaging system were developed. The X-ray multilayer KB microscopes were successfully been applied in the physics experiments of SGII laser facility. Combined with streaked camera, the Mo-backlit implosion flow line of hollow Carbon-Hydrogen (CH) spherical target was obtained in SGII. The 4.75keV single-channel and four-channel KB microscopes were also developed for self-emission and short-pulse backlit imaging diagnostic of CH cylindrical target. In addition, according to the need of ultra-short laser pulse plasma diagnostics, the Schwarzschild imaging system working at 68eV was researched, and the physical experiments of hot electron transport with Schwarzschild imaging system were performed in SILEX-I laser facility.

  16. Diagnostic image quality of hysterosalpingography: ionic versus non ionic water soluble iodinated contrast media

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nor, H; Jayapragasam, KJ; Abdullah, BJJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic image quality between three different water soluble iodinated contrast media in hysterosalpingography (HSG). Material and method In a prospective randomised study of 204 patients, the diagnostic quality of images obtained after hysterosalpingography were evaluated using Iopramide (106 patients) and Ioxaglate (98 patients). 114 patients who had undergone HSG examination using Iodamide were analysed retrospectively. Image quality was assessed by three radiologists independently based on an objective set of criteria. The obtained results were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Visualisation of fimbrial rugae was significantly better with Iopramide and Ioxaglate than Iodamide. All contrast media provided acceptable diagnostic image quality with regard to uterine, fallopian tubes outline and peritoneal spill. Uterine opacification was noted to be too dense in all three contrast media and not optimal for the assessment of intrauterine pathology. Higher incidence of contrast intravasation was noted in the Iodamide group. Similarly, the numbers of patients diagnosed with bilateral blocked fallopian tubes were also higher in the Iodamide group. Conclusion HSG using low osmolar contrast media (Iopramide and Ioxaglate) demonstrated diagnostic image qualities similar to HSG using conventional high osmolar contrast media (Iodamide). However, all three contrast media were found to be too dense for the detection of intrauterine pathology. Better visualisation of the fimbrial outline using Ioxaglate and Iopramide were attributed to their low contrast viscosity. The increased incidence of contrast media intravasation and bilateral tubal blockage using Iodamide are probably related to the high viscosity. PMID:21611058

  17. Diagnostic ultrasound at MACH 20: retroperitoneal and pelvic imaging in space.

    PubMed

    Jones, J A; Sargsyan, A E; Barr, Y R; Melton, S; Hamilton, D R; Dulchavsky, S A; Whitson, P A

    2009-07-01

    An operationally available diagnostic imaging capability augments spaceflight medical support by facilitating the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of medical or surgical conditions, by improving medical outcomes and, thereby, by lowering medical mission impacts and the probability of crew evacuation due to medical causes. Microgravity-related physiological changes occurring during spaceflight can affect the genitourinary system and potentially cause conditions such as urinary retention or nephrolithiasis for which ultrasonography (U/S) would be a useful diagnostic tool. This study describes the first genitourinary ultrasound examination conducted in space, and evaluates image quality, frame rate, resolution requirements, real-time remote guidance of nonphysician crew medical officers and evaluation of on-orbit tools that can augment image acquisition. A nonphysician crew medical officer (CMO) astronaut, with minimal training in U/S, performed a self-examination of the genitourinary system onboard the International Space Station, using a Philips/ATL Model HDI-5000 ultrasound imaging unit located in the International Space Station Human Research Facility. The CMO was remotely guided by voice commands from experienced, earth-based sonographers stationed in Mission Control Center in Houston. The crewmember, with guidance, was able to acquire all of the target images. Real-time and still U/S images received at Mission Control Center in Houston were of sufficient quality for the images to be diagnostic for multiple potential genitourinary applications. Microgravity-based ultrasound imaging can provide diagnostic quality images of the retroperitoneum and pelvis, offering improved diagnosis and treatment for onboard medical contingencies. Successful completion of complex sonographic examinations can be obtained even with minimally trained nonphysician ultrasound operators, with the assistance of ground-based real-time guidance. PMID:19427106

  18. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (166). Nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lin Wah; Chinchure, Dinesh; Lim, Tze Chwan

    2016-03-01

    A 68-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with choreoathetoid movements affecting the upper and lower left limbs. Computed tomography of the brain did not show any intracranial abnormalities. However, subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed an increased T1 signal in the right basal ganglia, raising the suspicion of nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus. Management consisted of adjusting her insulin dose to achieve good glycaemic control. The patient subsequently recovered and was discharged after eight days. There are many causes of basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity, including hyperglycaemia in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. This case emphasises the importance of MR imaging in the early diagnosis of hyperglycaemia as a cause of chorea-hemiballismus, to enable early treatment and a better clinical outcome. PMID:26996977

  19. Validating new diagnostic imaging criteria for primary progressive aphasia via anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Bisenius, S; Neumann, J; Schroeter, M L

    2016-04-01

    Recently, diagnostic clinical and imaging criteria for primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have been revised by an international consortium (Gorno-Tempini et al. Neurology 2011;76:1006-14). The aim of this study was to validate the specificity of the new imaging criteria and investigate whether different imaging modalities [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)] require different diagnostic subtype-specific imaging criteria. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analyses were conducted for PPA subtypes across a large cohort of 396 patients: firstly, across MRI studies for each of the three PPA subtypes followed by conjunction and subtraction analyses to investigate the specificity, and, secondly, by comparing results across MRI vs. FDG-PET studies in semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Semantic dementia showed atrophy in temporal, fusiform, parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus, and amygdala, progressive nonfluent aphasia in left putamen, insula, middle/superior temporal, precentral, and frontal gyri, logopenic progressive aphasia in middle/superior temporal, supramarginal, and dorsal posterior cingulate gyri. Results of the disease-specific meta-analyses across MRI studies were disjunct. Similarly, atrophic and hypometabolic brain networks were regionally dissociated in both semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. In conclusion, meta-analyses support the specificity of new diagnostic imaging criteria for PPA and suggest that they should be specified for each imaging modality separately. PMID:26901360

  20. Practical pediatric imaging: diagnostic radiology of infants and children

    SciTech Connect

    Kirks, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    A textbook of pediatric radiology is reviewed. Practical techniques of imaging in the pediatric patient is discussed with emphasis on the problems involved in pediatric radiology. There are useful hints on equipment, protection, and special examinations. Information is included on traditional organ systems and techniques of examination, as well as descriptions of common general abnormalities, including normal variants and rarer specific abnormalities. There are four appendices dealing with patient preparation, suggested projections, radiation dosage, and recommended techniques.

  1. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Singh, Navjeeven; Sharma, Sonal; Rohatgi, Jolly; Oberai, Rakesh; Chatterjee, Kingshuk

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a well-known clinical entity, characterized by facial angio-fibroma, shagreen patch, and hypo-melanotic, and confetti-like skin lesions. An exquisite fresh case is being narrated, emphasizing its microscopic pathology. The role of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, in particular, is highlighted to define the large variety of neurological abrasions for determining its future progression. PMID:26288435

  2. Comparison of different phantoms used in digital diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bor, Dogan; Unal, Elif; Uslu, Anil

    2015-09-01

    The organs of extremity, chest, skull and lumbar were physically simulated using uniform PMMA slabs with different thicknesses alone and using these slabs together with aluminum plates and air gaps (ANSI Phantoms). The variation of entrance surface air kerma and scatter fraction with X-ray beam qualities was investigated for these phantoms and the results were compared with those measured from anthropomorphic phantoms. A flat panel digital radiographic system was used for all the experiments. Considerable variations of entrance surface air kermas were found for the same organs of different designs, and highest doses were measured for the PMMA slabs. A low contrast test tool and a contrast detail test object (CDRAD) were used together with each organ simulation of PMMA slabs and ANSI phantoms in order to test the clinical image qualities. Digital images of these phantom combinations and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired in raw and clinically processed formats. Variation of image quality with kVp and post processing was evaluated using the numerical metrics of these test tools and measured contrast values from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Our results indicated that design of some phantoms may not be efficient enough to reveal the expected performance of the post processing algorithms.

  3. Eliminating rib shadows in chest radiographic images providing diagnostic assistance.

    PubMed

    Oğul, Hasan; Oğul, B Buket; Ağıldere, A Muhteşem; Bayrak, Tuncay; Sümer, Emre

    2016-04-01

    A major difficulty with chest radiographic analysis is the invisibility of abnormalities caused by the superimposition of normal anatomical structures, such as ribs, over the main tissue to be examined. Suppressing the ribs with no information loss about the original tissue would therefore be helpful during manual identification or computer-aided detection of nodules on a chest radiographic image. In this study, we introduce a two-step algorithm for eliminating rib shadows in chest radiographic images. The algorithm first delineates the ribs using a novel hybrid self-template approach and then suppresses these delineated ribs using an unsupervised regression model that takes into account the change in proximal thickness (depth) of bone in the vertical axis. The performance of the system is evaluated using a benchmark set of real chest radiographic images. The experimental results determine that proposed method for rib delineation can provide higher accuracy than existing methods. The knowledge of rib delineation can remarkably improve the nodule detection performance of a current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. It is also shown that the rib suppression algorithm can increase the nodule visibility by eliminating rib shadows while mostly preserving the nodule intensity. PMID:26775736

  4. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  5. Multimodal snapshot spectral imaging for oral cancer diagnostics: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Noah; Schwarz, Richard A.; Hu, Aaron; Bhattar, Vijayashree; Howe, Jana; Williams, Michelle D.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging and spectroscopy have emerged as effective tools for detecting malignant changes associated with oral cancer. While clinical studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for detection, current devices either interrogate a small region or can have reduced performance for some benign lesions. We describe a snapshot imaging spectrometer that combines the large field-of-view of widefield imaging with the diagnostic strength of spectroscopy. The portable device can stream RGB images at 7.2 frames per second and record both autofluorescence and reflectance spectral datacubes in < 1 second. We report initial data from normal volunteers and oral cancer patients. PMID:23760882

  6. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  7. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, D; Ito, N; Nagayama, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kohagura, J; Sugito, S; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array. PMID:25430218

  8. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sugito, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.

    2014-11-15

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  9. New advanced netted ground based and topside radio diagnostics for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Krankowski, Andrzej; Morawski, Marek; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2014-05-01

    data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. The main purpose of this presentation is to describe new advanced diagnostic techniques of the near-Earth space plasma and point out the scientific challenges of the radio frequency analyser located on board of low orbiting satellites and LOFAR facilities. This research is partly supported by grant O N517 418440

  10. A Novel Murine Model for Localized Radiation Necrosis and its Characterization using Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Sarah C.; Hope, Andrew; Kiehl, Erich; Perry, Arie; Travers, Sarah; Garbow, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Magnetic resonance (MR) images following external beam radiotherapy for brain tumors often display signal changes characteristic of either tumor progression and/or radiation injury. No non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers have been identified that clearly distinguish between these two disease processes. This study’s objective was to develop a murine model of radiation necrosis using fractionated, sub-total cranial irradiation and to investigate the imaging signature of radiation-induced tissue damage using advanced MR imaging techniques. Methods Twenty four mice each received 60 Gy of hemispheric (left) irradiation in ten equal fractions. MR images at 4.7 T were subsequently collected using T1-, T2- and diffusion-sequences at selected time points following irradiation or implantation. Following imaging, animals were euthanized and their brains were fixed for correlative histology. Results Contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted MR images at months 2, 3, and 4 showed changes consistent with progressive radiation necrosis. Quantitatively, mean diffusivity was significantly higher (mean = 0.86, 1.13, and 1.24 μm2/ms at 2, 3, and 4 months, respectively) in radiated brain, compared with contralateral untreated brain tissue (mean = 0.78, 0.82, and 0.83 μm2/ms) (p<0.0001). Histology reflected changes typically seen in radiation necrosis. Conclusions This murine model of radiation necrosis will facilitate investigation of imaging biomarkers that distinguish between radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence. In addition, this preclinical study supports clinical data suggesting that DWI may be helpful in answering this diagnostic question in clinical settings. PMID:19735877

  11. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers. PMID:26626047

  12. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-12-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers.

  13. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThis article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). MethodsThe study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. ResultsFindings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. ConclusionsThe authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ. PMID:26229631

  14. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  15. Review of Quantitative Ultrasound: Envelope Statistics and Backscatter Coefficient Imaging and Contributions to Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Michael L; Mamou, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Conventional medical imaging technologies, including ultrasound, have continued to improve over the years. For example, in oncology, medical imaging is characterized by high sensitivity, i.e., the ability to detect anomalous tissue features, but the ability to classify these tissue features from images often lacks specificity. As a result, a large number of biopsies of tissues with suspicious image findings are performed each year with a vast majority of these biopsies resulting in a negative finding. To improve specificity of cancer imaging, quantitative imaging techniques can play an important role. Conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging is mainly qualitative in nature. However, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging can provide specific numbers related to tissue features that can increase the specificity of image findings leading to improvements in diagnostic ultrasound. QUS imaging can encompass a wide variety of techniques including spectral-based parameterization, elastography, shear wave imaging, flow estimation, and envelope statistics. Currently, spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics are not available on most conventional clinical ultrasound machines. However, in recent years, QUS techniques involving spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics have demonstrated success in many applications, providing additional diagnostic capabilities. Spectral-based techniques include the estimation of the backscatter coefficient (BSC), estimation of attenuation, and estimation of scatterer properties such as the correlation length associated with an effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and the effective acoustic concentration (EAC) of scatterers. Envelope statistics include the estimation of the number density of scatterers and quantification of coherent to incoherent signals produced from the tissue. Challenges for clinical application include correctly accounting for attenuation effects and transmission losses and implementation of QUS on

  16. White Paper AGA: Advanced Imaging in Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prateek; Brill, Joel; Canto, Marcia; DeMarco, Daniel; Fennerty, Brian; Gupta, Neil; Laine, Loren; Lieberman, David; Lightdale, Charles; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Odze, Robert; Tokar, Jeffrey; Kochman, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced imaging technologies such as narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, i-Scan, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography are readily available for use by endoscopists in routine clinical practice. In November 2014, the American Gastroenterological Association's Center for GI Innovation and Technology conducted a 2-day workshop to discuss endoscopic image enhancement technologies, focusing on their role in 2 specific clinical conditions (colon polyps and Barrett's esophagus) and on issues relating to training and implementation of these technologies (white papers). Although the majority of the studies that use enhanced imaging technologies have been positive, these techniques ideally need to be validated in larger cohorts and in community centers. As it stands today, detailed endoscopic examination with high-definition white-light endoscopy and random 4-quadrant biopsy remains the standard of care. However, the workshop panelists agreed that in the hands of endoscopists who have met the preservation and incorporation of valuable endoscopic innovation thresholds (diagnostic accuracy) with enhanced imaging techniques (specific technologies), use of the technique in Barrett's esophagus patients is appropriate. PMID:26462567

  17. Diagnostic agreement when comparing still and video imaging for the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Killough, Emily; Spector, Lisa; Moffatt, Mary; Wiebe, Jan; Nielsen-Parker, Monica; Anderst, Jim

    2016-02-01

    Still photo imaging is often used in medical evaluations of child sexual abuse (CSA) but video imaging may be superior. We aimed to compare still images to videos with respect to diagnostic agreement regarding hymenal deep notches and transections in post-pubertal females. Additionally, we evaluated the role of experience and expertise on agreement. We hypothesized that videos would result in improved diagnostic agreement of multiple evaluators as compared to still photos. This was a prospective quasi-experimental study using imaging modality as the quasi-independent variable. The dependent variable was diagnostic agreement of participants regarding presence/absence of findings indicating penetrative trauma on non-acute post-pubertal genital exams. Participants were medical personnel who regularly perform CSA exams. Diagnostic agreement was evaluated utilizing a retrospective selection of videos and still photos obtained directly from the videos. Videos and still photos were embedded into an on-line survey as sixteen cases. One-hundred sixteen participants completed the study. Participant diagnosis was more likely to agree with study center diagnosis when using video (p<0.01). Use of video resulted in statistically significant changes in diagnosis in four of eight cases. In two cases, the diagnosis of the majority of participants changed from no hymenal transection to transection present. No difference in agreement was found based on experience or expertise. Use of video vs. still images resulted in increased agreement with original examiner and changes in diagnostic impressions in review of CSA exams. Further study is warranted, as video imaging may have significant impacts on diagnosis. PMID:26746111

  18. Diagnostic imaging in a patient with an acute knee injury.

    PubMed

    Sago, Carrie E; Labuda, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    The patient was a 23-year-old man, currently serving in a military airborne operations unit. During a jump training exercise, the patient's right lower extremity became entangled in his parachute equipment upon exiting the aircraft, which caused hyperextension and valgus forces upon his right knee. Due to concern for a fracture, the patient was transported to an emergency department, where conventional radiographs were completed and interpreted by a radiologist as negative for a fracture. Following further physical examination by a physical therapist, magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was ordered, revealing ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament. PMID:23277192

  19. Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: Diagnostic Performance and Prognostic Value of PET/MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jeong Min; Hur, Bo Yun; Joo, Ijin; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kang, Keon Wook; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonace (MR) imaging (hereafter, PET/MR imaging) in the detection of liver metastases and to assess its prognostic value in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLMs). Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study, with waiver of informed consent. A total of 55 patients with 98 CRLMs who underwent PET/MR imaging and multidetector computed tomography (CT) between January 2013 and June 2014 comprised the study population. Of these patients, 34 underwent hepatic resection, 18 of whom also underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Two board-certificated radiologists independently assessed the four image sets (ie, multidetector CT, whole-body PET, MR imaging with a liver-specific contrast agent [hereafter, EOB MR imaging], and PET/MR imaging). To compare the diagnostic performance of each imaging modality, jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic and generalized estimating equations were used. To assess prognostic value, recurrence-free survival of the 18 patients who underwent NAC followed by hepatic resection was analyzed by using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results The reader-averaged figure of merit of PET/MR imaging was significantly higher than that of either multidetector CT (P = .003) or PET (P = .020) in the detection of CRLMs. However, no significant difference was observed between figure of merit for PET/MR imaging and that for EOB MR imaging (P = .231). After NAC, six of the 18 patients had isometabolic CRLMs on PET images, and 12 patients had hypermetabolic CRLMs. The 1-year recurrence-free survival rate was 80% in patients with isometabolic CRLMs and 14% in patients with hypermetabolic CRLMs, showing a significant difference (P = .026). Conclusion PET/MR imaging can yield significantly higher diagnostic performance in the detection of CRLMs

  20. Predicting diagnostic error in Radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Application in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Sophie; Pinto, Frank M; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathy; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels. Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from 4 Radiology residents and 2 breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADs images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated. Results: Diagnostic error can be predicted reliably by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model (AUC=0.79). Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (average AUC of 0.837 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (average AUC of 0.667 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features. Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted reliably by leveraging the radiologists gaze behavior and image content.

  1. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Pinto, Frank; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  2. [The importance of clinical information in diagnostic imaging in the febrile patient].

    PubMed

    Szücs-Farkas, Z; Vock, P

    2006-10-01

    From conventional radiography to cross-sectional imaging methods, modern radiology offers a wide range of diagnostic tools for investigating patients with fever. To achieve the best results and to yield a correct diagnosis, the radiologist must tailor the diagnostic protocol individually for every patient. The decision on the most suitable imaging method, and the type and timing of contrast media strongly depends on the suspected diagnosis. Based on patient history and laboratory data, some modalities may be contraindicated or the patient may need a premedication. The authors give a short overview of diagnostic strategies in evaluating the most important causes of fever and point to the need of discussion and co-operation between clinicians and radiologists. PMID:17048182

  3. Coronal Diagnostics from Narrowband Images Around 30.4 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andretta, V.; Telloni, D.; Del Zanna, G.

    2012-07-01

    Images taken in the band centered at 30.4 nm are routinely used to map the radiance of the He ii Ly α line on the solar disk. That line is one of the strongest, if not the strongest, line in the EUV observed in the solar spectrum, and one of the few lines in that wavelength range providing information on the upper chromosphere or lower transition region. However, when observing the off-limb corona, the contribution from the nearby Si xi 30.3 nm line can become significant. In this work we aim at estimating the relative contribution of those two lines in the solar corona around the minimum of solar activity. We combine measurements from CDS taken in August 2008 with temperature and density profiles from semiempirical models of the corona to compute the radiances of the two lines, and of other representative coronal lines ( e.g. Mg x 62.5 nm, Si xii 52.1 nm). Considering both diagnosed quantities from line ratios (temperatures and densities) and line radiances in absolute units, we obtain a good overall match between observations and models. We find that the Si xi line dominates the He ii line from just above the limb up to ≈ 2 R ⊙ in streamers, while its contribution to narrowband imaging in the 30.4 nm band is expected to become smaller, even negligible in the corona beyond ≈ 2 - 3 R ⊙, the precise value being strongly dependent on the coronal temperature profile.

  4. New features for detecting cervical precancer using hyperspectral diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okimoto, Gordon S.; Parker, Mary F.; Mooradian, Gregory C.; Saggese, Steven J.; Grisanti, Ames A.; O'Connor, Dennis M.; Miyazawa, Kunio

    2001-05-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) in the wavelet domain provides powerful new features for the non-invasive detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. These features are known as principal wavelet components (PWCs). The multiscale structure of the fluorescence spectrum for each pixel of the hyperspectral data cube is extracted using the continuous wavelet transform. PCA is then used to compress and denoise the wavelet representation for presentation to a feed- forward neural network for tissue classification. Using PWC features as inputs to a 5-class NN resulted in average correct classification rates of 95% over five cervical tissue classes corresponding to low-grade dysplasia, squamous, columnar, metaplasia plus a fifth class for other unspecified tissue types, blood and mucus. A 2-class NN was also trained to discriminate between CIN1 and normal tissue with sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 99%, respectively. All performance assessments were based on test data from a set of patients not seen during NN training. Trained neural classifiers were used to `compress' and transform 3D hyperspectral data cubes into 2D color-coded images that accurately mapped the spatial distribution of both normal and dysplastic tissue over the surface of the entire cervix.

  5. Correlation of diagnostic ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in scrotal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Kaplan, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of scrotal ultrasound imaging (SU) and radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) in 43 patients (pts), age: 16-75. Twenty-two of them complained of scrotal pain; 18 had a scrotal mass; and 4 had a history of trauma. The final diagnoses were conformed by surgery (n = 21) and long-term follow-up (n = 22) and included 4 late phase and 1 early testicular torsion (TT), 11 acute epididymitis (AE), 4 subacute epididymitis (SE), 5 malignant tumors, 3 testicular atrophy, 2 intratesticular hematomas, 10 hydroceles or other cystic lesions, and miscellaneous. In pts with scrotal pain, 3/4 with late phase TT were correctly diagnosed, while one pt with early TT and 11/15 with AE or SE were not diagnosed by SU. All of them were correctly diagnosed with RSI except one with scrotal cyst. SU was able to separate cystic masses (n = 10) from solid masses (n = 6), but cannot separate malignant from benign lesions. SU was excellent in detecting 19 hydroceles and 2 intratesticular hematomas, while 3 lesions < 1 cm. were not seen in RSI. The authors concluded that SU is useful in pts with scrotal mass to separate solid from cystic lesions. However, SU is unable to differentiate the acute epididymitis from early testicular torsion. In pts with acute scrotal pain, SU is not helpful and RSI should still be the first study performed.

  6. Unsteady shock wave diagnostics with high-speed imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skews, B. W.; Kleine, H.; MacLucas, D.; Takehara, K.; Teranishi, H.; Etoh, T. G.

    2008-11-01

    The visual study of unsteady shock wave dynamics has in the past predominantly been done using single-shot images. The advent of ultra-fast, good-resolution high-speed digital cameras has changed this state of affairs and allows the true development of the flow to be studied. It enables the detection of weaker features which are easily overlooked in singleshot visualizations by virtue of the fact that human vision is very sensitive to detecting the motion of an object, even if it generates only a faint optical signal. Recent application of these devices to the study of the focusing of a shock wave in a cylindrical cavity has identified a number of previously unknown features, while other features that previously had been inadequately reported could be clearly identified and explained The observation of deliberately generated weak disturbances allows the quantification of which part of the flow is influenced by which part of the boundaries encompassing it. Whilst the imaging itself is very useful it is also highly desirable to use techniques from which quantitative data can be obtained. Color, such as in direction- and magnitude-indicating color schlieren, and polychrome shearing interferometry, adds an additional dimension to such investigations.

  7. Opto-acoustic imaging system for early breast cancer diagnostics: experimental and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Tanya D.; Zharinov, Alexei M.; Kozhushko, Viktor V.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Karabutov, Alexander A.

    2006-03-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) imaging is based on the generation of thermoelastic stress waves by heating an object in an optically heterogeneous medium with a short laser pulse. The stress waves contain information on the distribution of structures with enhanced optical absorption that can be used for early cancer diagnostics. This technique has already been applied in-vivo for breast cancer diagnostics and yielded higher contrast of obtained images than that of X-ray or ultrasonic images. The resolution was comparable with that yielded by ultrasonic imaging. Therefore, OA imaging is a very promising technique and it is being rapidly developed. Research in the area is now mostly targeted to the development of OA wave detection systems and image reconstruction algorithms. In this work a new design of receiving array transducer, that allows to enhance image resolution is proposed. The array consists of 64 focused piezo-elements made of PVDF slabs imposed on a spherical surface. Resolution yielded by the array in different directions is determined. Several tissue irradiation geometries and laser wavelengths are considered for optimization of the OA image contrast. Obtained results are used for maximum imaging depth studies. All the investigations include both numerical modelling and experiment.

  8. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and current technical advances are facilitating further improvements in this field. neurotransmitters, focusing specifically on the challenges and recent Herein, we advances of MSI of neurotransmitters. PMID:24568355

  9. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    PubMed Central

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. The exercise was a four-part operation undertaken with the subjects in the lateral position. The reliability analysis included use of the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability. [Results] ICC (1.1) values for the pelvic floor elevation measurement with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device were 0.98 [contraction of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle], 0.99 [contraction of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs)], 0.98 (co-contraction of the TrA and PFMs), and 0.98 (resistance of the TrA and PFMs). This study proved the reliability of the method because the coefficient of reliability was 0.97 or more for all of the measurements, even for those during exercise. [Conclusion] The diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device measures pelvic floor elevation with high reliability. PMID:26355420

  10. Research priorities for the influence of gender on diagnostic imaging choices in the emergency department setting.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, John V; Cherney, Alan R; Evans, Elizabeth M; Kennedy Hall, Michael; Hess, Erik P; Kline, Jeffrey A; Mitchell, Alice M; Mills, Angela M; Weigner, Michael B; Moore, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is a cornerstone of patient evaluation in the acute care setting, but little effort has been devoted to understanding the appropriate influence of sex and gender on imaging choices. This article provides background on this issue and a description of the working group and consensus findings reached during the diagnostic imaging breakout session at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." Our goal was to determine research priorities for how sex and gender may (or should) affect imaging choices in the acute care setting. Prior to the conference, the working group identified five areas for discussion regarding the research agenda in sex- and gender-based imaging using literature review and expert consensus. The nominal group technique was used to identify areas for discussion for common presenting complaints to the emergency department where ionizing radiation is often used for diagnosis: suspected pulmonary embolism, suspected kidney stone, lower abdominal pain with a concern for appendicitis, and chest pain concerning for coronary artery disease. The role of sex- and gender-based shared decision-making in diagnostic imaging decisions is also raised. PMID:25420885

  11. Advances in surgery. Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advancements made in surgery. Specifically discussed are--NMR imaging--its uses in diagnostic radiology; anal tumors and surgical therapy; aneurysms and theoretical aspects of NMR imaging.

  12. Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna M; Elbuluk, Osama; Mertan, Francesca; Sankineni, Sandeep; Margolis, Daniel J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the United States that results in over 30,000 deaths per year. The current state of prostate cancer diagnosis, based on PSA screening and sextant biopsy, has been criticized for both overdiagnosis of low-grade tumors and underdiagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥7). Recently, image guidance has been added to perform targeted biopsies of lesions detected on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans. These methods have improved the ability to detect clinically significant cancer, while reducing the diagnosis of low-grade tumors. Several approaches have been explored to improve the accuracy of image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, including in-bore MRI-guided, cognitive fusion, and MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. This review will examine recent advances in these image-guided targeted prostate biopsy techniques. PMID:25596716

  13. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  14. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection.

    PubMed

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-06-12

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized (13)C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized (13)C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  15. Advanced hyperspectral video imaging system using Amici prism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiao; Fang, Xiaojing; Cao, Xun; Ma, Chenguang; Dai, Qionghai; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin

    2014-08-11

    In this paper, we propose an advanced hyperspectral video imaging system (AHVIS), which consists of an objective lens, an occlusion mask, a relay lens, an Amici prism and two cameras. An RGB camera is used for spatial reading and a gray scale camera is used for measuring the scene with spectral information. The objective lens collects more light energy from the observed scene and images the scene on an occlusion mask, which subsamples the image of the observed scene. Then, the subsampled image is sent to the gray scale camera through the relay lens and the Amici prism. The Amici prism that is used to realize spectral dispersion along the optical path reduces optical distortions and offers direct view of the scene. The main advantages of the proposed system are improved light throughput and less optical distortion. Furthermore, the presented configuration is more compact, robust and practicable. PMID:25321019

  16. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  17. Evaluation of negative ion distribution changes by image processing diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, K. Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Distributions of hydrogen Balmer-α (H{sub α}) intensity and its reduction behavior close to a plasma grid (PG) surface have been observed by a spectrally selective imaging system in an arc discharge type negative hydrogen ion source in National Institute for Fusion Science. H{sub α} reduction indicates a reduction of negative hydrogen ions because the mutual neutralization process between H{sup +} and H{sup −} ions causes the dominant excitation process for H{sub α} emission in the rich H{sup −} condition such as in ionic plasma. We observed a significant change in H{sub α} reduction distribution due to change in the bias voltage, which is used to suppress the electron influx. Small H{sub α} reduction in higher bias is likely because the production of negative ions is suppressed by the potential difference between the plasma and PG surface.

  18. Imaging Diagnostic and Therapeutic Targets - Steroid Receptors in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Amy M.; Clark, Amy S.; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Linden, Hannah M.; Dehdashti, Farrokh

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) are important steroid hormone receptor biomarkers used to determine prognosis and predict benefit from endocrine therapies for breast cancer patients. Receptor expression is routinely measured in biopsy specimens using immunohistochemistry, although such testing can be challenging particularly in the setting of metastatic disease. ERα and PR can be quantitatively assayed non-invasively with positron emission tomography (PET). This approach provides the opportunity to assess receptor expression and function in “real-time”, within the entire tumor, and across distant sites of metastatic disease. This article reviews the current evidence of ERα and PR PET imaging as predictive and early response biomarkers for endocrine therapy. PMID:26834106

  19. Contrast agents in diagnostic imaging: Present and future.

    PubMed

    Caschera, Luca; Lazzara, Angelo; Piergallini, Lorenzo; Ricci, Domenico; Tuscano, Bruno; Vanzulli, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Specific contrast agents have been developed for x ray examinations (mainly CT), sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Most of them are extracellular agents which create different enhancement on basis of different vascularization or on basis of different interstitial network in tissues, but some can be targeted to a particular cell line (e.g. hepatocyte). Microbubbles can be used as carrier for therapeutic drugs which can be released in specific targets under sonographic guidance, decreasing systemic toxicity and increasing therapeutic effect. Radiologists have to choose a particular contrast agent knowing its physical and chemical properties and the possibility of adverse reactions and balancing them with the clinical benefits of a more accurate diagnosis. As for any drug, contrast agents can cause adverse events, which are more frequent with Iodine based CA, but also with Gd based CA and even with sonographic contrast agents hypersensitivity reaction can occur. PMID:27168225

  20. Evaluation of a lens-free imager to facilitate tuberculosis diagnostics in MODS.

    PubMed

    Solis, Leonardo; Coronel, Jorge; Rueda, Daniel; Gilman, Robert H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control efforts are hampered by a mismatch in diagnostic technology. Lack of adequate early diagnostics and Multi-drug resistant (MDR) detection is a critical problem in control efforts. Alternate and novel diagnostic approaches are required, especially in low-resources settings where they are needed most. The Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) assay is a cost-effective, highly sensitive, and specific method based on the detection of characteristic cording growth patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), in microscopic examination of a liquid culture under an inverted microscope. By adding antimicrobials to the wells, MODS also determines antimicrobial susceptibility in both MDR and Extreme Drug Resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. The interpretation of a MODS culture performed in a 24 well plate, requires an extensive inspection over the entire surface to detect TB cords. This process requires significant time and effort from a trained microscopist. We evaluated a lens-free imager system, able to render microscopic images of live specimens, for the proof of principle to be used for MODS culture interpretation. The lens-free imager system is able to digitalize a 24-mm(2) surface with approximately 40X magnification in a single capture. The evaluation of the lens-free imager found that it produced microscopic images that were adequate for MODS interpretation by a human expert. Compared to the average time that takes a microscopist to completely examine a MODS culture sample, the lens free imager notably reduced the time of inspection. Therefore, lens-free imager variants may constitute promising systems to aid in the diagnostics of tuberculosis, by simplifying and reducing the time of inspection and permitting automatization of MODS interpretation. PMID:26980492

  1. Optical design and characterization of an advanced computational imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, R. Hamilton; Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Raskar, Ramesh; Shi, Boxin; Barsi, Christopher; Zhao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    We describe an advanced computational imaging system with an optical architecture that enables simultaneous and dynamic pupil-plane and image-plane coding accommodating several task-specific applications. We assess the optical requirement trades associated with custom and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) optics and converge on the development of two low-cost and robust COTS testbeds. The first is a coded-aperture programmable pixel imager employing a digital micromirror device (DMD) for image plane per-pixel oversampling and spatial super-resolution experiments. The second is a simultaneous pupil-encoded and time-encoded imager employing a DMD for pupil apodization or a deformable mirror for wavefront coding experiments. These two testbeds are built to leverage two MIT Lincoln Laboratory focal plane arrays - an orthogonal transfer CCD with non-uniform pixel sampling and on-chip dithering and a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) with advanced on-chip per-pixel processing capabilities. This paper discusses the derivation of optical component requirements, optical design metrics, and performance analyses for the two testbeds built.

  2. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  3. Advanced imaging techniques for the detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    Mammography is the only breast imaging examination that has been shown to reduce breast cancer mortality. Population-based sensitivity is 75% to 80%, but sensitivity in high-risk women with dense breasts is only in the range of 50%. Breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become additional standard modalities used in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In high-risk women, ultrasound is known to detect approximately four additional cancers per 1,000 women. MRI is exquisitely sensitive for the detection of breast cancer. In high-risk women, it finds an additional four to five cancers per 100 women. However, both ultrasound and MRI are also known to lead to a large number of additional benign biopsies and short-term follow-up examinations. Many new breast imaging tools have improved and are being developed to improve on our current ability to diagnose early-stage breast cancer. These can be divided into two groups. The first group is those that are advances in current techniques, which include digital breast tomosynthesis and contrast-enhanced mammography and ultrasound with elastography or microbubbles. The other group includes new breast imaging platforms such as breast computed tomography (CT) scanning and radionuclide breast imaging. These are exciting advances. However, in this era of cost and radiation containment, it is imperative to look at all of them objectively to see which will provide clinically relevant additional information. PMID:24451711

  4. Labeling of virus components for advanced, quantitative imaging analyses.

    PubMed

    Sakin, Volkan; Paci, Giulia; Lemke, Edward A; Müller, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, investigation of virus-cell interactions has moved from ensemble measurements to imaging analyses at the single-particle level. Advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques provide single-molecule sensitivity and subdiffraction spatial resolution, allowing observation of subviral details and individual replication events to obtain detailed quantitative information. To exploit the full potential of these techniques, virologists need to employ novel labeling strategies, taking into account specific constraints imposed by viruses, as well as unique requirements of microscopic methods. Here, we compare strengths and limitations of various labeling methods, exemplify virological questions that were successfully addressed, and discuss challenges and future potential of novel approaches in virus imaging. PMID:26987299

  5. [Development of DICOM image viewing software for efficient image reading and evaluation of distributed server system for diagnostic environment].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, K

    2000-12-01

    To construct an efficient diagnostic environment using computer displays, the author investigated the time of network transmission using clinical images. In our hospital, we introduced optical-fiber 100Base-Fx Ethernet connections between 22 HIS-segments and one RIS-segment. Although Ethernet architecture is inexpensive, the speed of image transmission becomes 2371 KB/sec. (4.6 CT-slice/sec.) in the RIS-segment and 996 KB/sec. (1.9 CT-slice/sec.) from the RIS-segment to HIS-segments. Because one examination is transmitted in one minute, it does not disturb image reading. Otherwise, a distributed server system using inexpensive personal computers helps in constructing an efficient system. This investigation showed that commercially based Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine(DICOM) servers and RSNA Central Test Node servers are not so different in transmission speed. The author programmed and developed DICOM transmission and viewing software for Macintosh computers. This viewer includes two inventions, dynamic tiling window system (DTWS) and window binding mode(WBM). On DTWS, windows, tiles, and images are independent objects, which are movable and resizable. The tile-matrix is changeable by mouse dragging, which realizes suitable tile rectangles for wide-low or narrow-high images. The arranging window tool prevents windows from scattering. Using WBM, any operation affects each window similarly. This means that the relationship of compared images is always equivalent. DTWS and WBM contribute greatly to a filmless diagnostic environment. PMID:11197836

  6. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of non-invasive imaging in diabetes management

    PubMed Central

    Barsanti, Cristina; Lenzarini, Francesca; Kusmic, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging technologies are acquiring an increasing relevance to assist clinicians in diagnosis and to guide management and therapeutic treatment of patients, thanks to their non invasive and high resolution properties. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography are the most used imaging modalities to provide detailed morphological reconstructions of tissues and organs. In addition, the use of contrast dyes or radionuclide-labeled tracers permits to get functional and quantitative information about tissue physiology and metabolism in normal and disease state. In recent years, the development of multimodal and hydrid imaging techniques is coming to be the new frontier of medical imaging for the possibility to overcome limitations of single modalities and to obtain physiological and pathophysiological measurements within an accurate anatomical framework. Moreover, the employment of molecular probes, such as ligands or antibodies, allows a selective in vivo targeting of biomolecules involved in specific cellular processes, so expanding the potentialities of imaging techniques for clinical and research applications. This review is aimed to give a survey of characteristics of main diagnostic non-invasive imaging techniques. Current clinical appliances and future perspectives of imaging in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of diabetic complications affecting different organ systems will be particularly addressed. PMID:26131322

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-09-01

    Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer.A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic F-FDG uptake on F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy.Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result.F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  8. The Diagnostic Value of Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) in Detecting Blood Flow Signals of Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Li, Gang; Li, Jing; Ren, Wei-dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The correlation between color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) for detecting blood flow in breast lesions was investigated, as was the diagnostic value of SMI in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions. These lesions were evaluated using both CDFI and SMI according to Adler's method. Pathologic examination showed 57 malignant lesions and 66 benign lesions. The number of blood vessels in a single mass was detected by 2 techniques (SMI and CDFI), and the difference between the 2 values (SMI-CDFI) was calculated. The optimal threshold for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and the diagnostic performances of SMI, CDFI, and SMI-CDFI were calculated. For the total lesions and malignant lesions alone, the difference between SMI and CDFI for detecting blood flow was significant (P < 0.01), but the difference was not significant for benign lesions (P = 0.15). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64–0.82) for CDFI; 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74–0.89) for SMI; and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.95) for SMI-CDFI. Furthermore, the modality of “SMI-CDFI” showed the best diagnostic performance. SMI provides further microvessel information in breast lesions. The diagnostic modality of “SMI-CDFI” can improve the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in the differentiation between benign and malignant masses. PMID:26356718

  9. Image-based diagnostic aid for interstitial lung disease with secondary data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Müller, Henning; Hidki, Asmâa; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2007-03-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a relatively heterogeneous group of around 150 illnesses with often very unspecific symptoms. The most complete imaging method for the characterisation of ILDs is the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest but a correct interpretation of these images is difficult even for specialists as many diseases are rare and thus little experience exists. Moreover, interpreting HRCT images requires knowledge of the context defined by clinical data of the studied case. A computerised diagnostic aid tool based on HRCT images with associated medical data to retrieve similar cases of ILDs from a dedicated database can bring quick and precious information for example for emergency radiologists. The experience from a pilot project highlighted the need for detailed database containing high-quality annotations in addition to clinical data. The state of the art is studied to identify requirements for image-based diagnostic aid for interstitial lung disease with secondary data integration. The data acquisition steps are detailed. The selection of the most relevant clinical parameters is done in collaboration with lung specialists from current literature, along with knowledge bases of computer-based diagnostic decision support systems. In order to perform high-quality annotations of the interstitial lung tissue in the HRCT images an annotation software and its own file format is implemented for DICOM images. A multimedia database is implemented to store ILD cases with clinical data and annotated image series. Cases from the University & University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) are retrospectively and prospectively collected to populate the database. Currently, 59 cases with certified diagnosis and their clinical parameters are stored in the database as well as 254 image series of which 26 have their regions of interest annotated. The available data was used to test primary visual features for the classification of lung tissue patterns

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of an international static-imaging telepathology consultation service.

    PubMed

    Halliday, B E; Bhattacharyya, A K; Graham, A R; Davis, J R; Leavitt, S A; Nagle, R B; McLaughlin, W J; Rivas, R A; Martinez, R; Krupinski, E A; Weinstein, R S

    1997-01-01

    Static-image and dynamic- (real-time) image telepathology are competing technologies. Although some studies suggest that the diagnostic accuracy of the dynamic-image telepathology approaches the accuracy of light microscopy, few reports have documented the diagnostic accuracy of static-image telepathology as used in the setting of an actual surgical pathology consultation practice. We report the results of an analysis of 171 telepathology consultation cases submitted to the Arizona-International Telemedicine Network (AITN). Digital images were submitted by pathologists from six participating institutions in Arizona, Mexico, and China. Telepathologists could render a telepathology diagnosis (TP) or defer rendering a diagnosis to obtain additional video images, glass slides for detailed analysis, or to obtain tissue blocks for special studies such as immunohistochemistry. The telepathologists rendered diagnoses for 144 cases and deferred 27 cases. Two pathologists retrospectively evaluated-glass slides from each case and rendered a consensus glass slide (GS) "truth" diagnosis. There was 88.2% concordance between TP and GS diagnoses (127 of 144 diagnoses). Concordance of 96.5% was achieved for clinically important diagnoses (139 of 144 diagnoses). Telepathologists deferred making a diagnosis to obtain glass slides for conventional light microscopy in 14 cases (8.1%) and for results of immunohistochemistry studies in 13 cases (7.6%). Thus, correct diagnoses were rendered by static-image telepathology in 127 of 171 cases (74.3%) at the time of telepathology diagnostic sessions. Inappropriate field selection and sampling biases of referring pathologists, as well as a tendency of static-image telepathologists to underestimate the complexity of some cases, may reduce the value of consultations based on the viewing of static images. PMID:9013826

  11. Advanced indium antimonide monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Merilainen, C. A.; Thom, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued process development of SiO2 insulators for use in advanced InSb monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays is described. Specific investigations into the use of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO2 as a gate insulator for InSb charge coupled devices is discussed, as are investigations of other chemical vapor deposited SiO2 materials.

  12. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  13. A collinear self-emission and laser-backlighting imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, S. C.; Collins, G. IV; Gunasekera, K.; Mariscal, D.; Beg, F. N.; Haas, D. M.; Veloso, F.; Blesener, I. C.; Cahill, A. D.; Hoyt, C. L.; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.

    2012-08-15

    In this work we demonstrate a design for obtaining laser backlighting (e.g., interferometry) and time-resolved extreme ultraviolet self-emission images along the same line-of-sight. This is achieved by modifying a single optical component in the laser collection optics with apertures and pinhole arrangements suitable for single or multiple frame imaging onto a gated detector, such as a microchannel plate. Test results for exploding wire experiments show that machining of the optic does not affect the overall quality of the recovered laser images, and that, even with a multiple frame system, the area sacrificed to achieve collinear imaging is relatively small. The diagnostics can therefore allow direct correlation of laser and self-emission images and their derived quantities, such as electron density in the case of interferometry. Simple methods of image correlation are also demonstrated.

  14. Questions and answers: what can be said by diagnostic imaging in neuroendocrine tumors?

    PubMed

    Cuccurullo, V; Faggiano, A; Scialpi, M; Cascini, G L; Piunno, A; Catalano, O; Colao, A; Mansi, L

    2012-12-01

    The neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the gastro-entero-pancreatic area (GEP) represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies from the histologic, clinico-laboratoristic (functioning and non-functioning variants), and therapeutic point of view. It is an issue becoming more frequent for the diagnostic imager, being radiologist as well as nuclear physician. Imaging (together with biopsy) plays a key role in the diagnostic assessment and staging (including grading and prognostic definition), in evaluating response to treatment, and in follow-up of GEP-NET. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT), octreoscan and PET-CT are the most widely diffuse and accurate imaging modalities employed in this setting. Other methods, such as Magnetic Resonance and Endoscopic Ultrasound, may also play a significant role. PMID:23235192

  15. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Claudia F.E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced due to new techniques involving increased magnetic field strength and developments in coils and pulse sequences. These advances allow increased opportunity to delineate the complex skull base anatomy and may guide the diagnosis and treatment of the myriad of pathologies that can affect the skull base. Objectives The objective of this article is to provide a brief background of the development of MRI and illustrate advances in skull base imaging, including techniques that allow improved conspicuity, characterization, and correlative physiologic assessment of skull base pathologies. Data Synthesis Specific radiographic illustrations of increased skull base conspicuity including the lower cranial nerves, vessels, foramina, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and effacement of endolymph are provided. In addition, MRIs demonstrating characterization of skull base lesions, such as recurrent cholesteatoma versus granulation tissue or abscess versus tumor, are also provided as well as correlative clinical findings in CSF flow studies in a patient pre- and post-suboccipital decompression for a Chiari I malformation. Conclusions This article illustrates MRI radiographic advances over the past 20 years, which have improved clinicians' ability to diagnose, define, and hopefully improve the treatment and outcomes of patients with underlying skull base pathologies. PMID:25992137

  16. The formation of IRIS diagnostics. III. Near-ultraviolet spectra and images

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, T. M. D.; Leenaarts, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Uitenbroek, H. E-mail: jorritl@astro.uio.no E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2013-12-01

    The Mg II h and k lines are the prime chromospheric diagnostics of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). In the previous papers of this series, we used a realistic three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamics model to calculate the h and k lines in detail and investigated how their spectral features relate to the underlying atmosphere. In this work, we employ the same approach to investigate how the h and k diagnostics fare when taking into account the finite resolution of IRIS and different noise levels. In addition, we investigate the diagnostic potential of several other photospheric lines and near-continuum regions present in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) window of IRIS and study the formation of the NUV slit-jaw images. We find that the instrumental resolution of IRIS has a small effect on the quality of the h and k diagnostics; the relations between the spectral features and atmospheric properties are mostly unchanged. The peak separation is the most affected diagnostic, but mainly due to limitations of the simulation. The effects of noise start to be noticeable at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 20, but we show that with noise filtering one can obtain reliable diagnostics at least down to a S/N of 5. The many photospheric lines present in the NUV window provide velocity information for at least eight distinct photospheric heights. Using line-free regions in the h and k far wings, we derive good estimates of photospheric temperature for at least three heights. Both of these diagnostics, in particular the latter, can be obtained even at S/Ns as low as 5.

  17. The Formation of IRIS Diagnostics. III. Near-ultraviolet Spectra and Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, T. M. D.; Leenaarts, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Uitenbroek, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Mg II h&k lines are the prime chromospheric diagnostics of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). In the previous papers of this series, we used a realistic three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamics model to calculate the h&k lines in detail and investigated how their spectral features relate to the underlying atmosphere. In this work, we employ the same approach to investigate how the h&k diagnostics fare when taking into account the finite resolution of IRIS and different noise levels. In addition, we investigate the diagnostic potential of several other photospheric lines and near-continuum regions present in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) window of IRIS and study the formation of the NUV slit-jaw images. We find that the instrumental resolution of IRIS has a small effect on the quality of the h&k diagnostics; the relations between the spectral features and atmospheric properties are mostly unchanged. The peak separation is the most affected diagnostic, but mainly due to limitations of the simulation. The effects of noise start to be noticeable at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 20, but we show that with noise filtering one can obtain reliable diagnostics at least down to a S/N of 5. The many photospheric lines present in the NUV window provide velocity information for at least eight distinct photospheric heights. Using line-free regions in the h&k far wings, we derive good estimates of photospheric temperature for at least three heights. Both of these diagnostics, in particular the latter, can be obtained even at S/Ns as low as 5.

  18. Design of a Thermal Imaging Diagnostic Using 90-Degree, Off-Axis, Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Robert M.; Becker, Steven A.; Dolan, Daniel H.; Hacking, Richard G.; Hickman, Randy J.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Turley, William D.

    2006-09-01

    Thermal imaging is an important, though challenging, diagnostic for shockwave experiments. Shock-compressed materials undergo transient temperature changes that cannot be recorded with standard (greater than ms response time) infrared detectors. A further complication arises when optical elements near the experiment are destroyed. We have designed a thermal-imaging system for studying shock temperatures produced inside a gas gun at Sandia National Laboratories. Inexpensive, diamond-turned, parabolic mirrors relay an image of the shocked target to the exterior of the gas gun chamber through a sapphire vacuum port. The 3000–5000-nm portion of this image is directed to an infrared camera which acquires a snapshot of the target with a minimum exposure time of 150 ns. A special mask is inserted at the last intermediate image plane, to provide dynamic thermal background recording during the event. Other wavelength bands of this image are split into high-speed detectors operating at 900–1700 nm, and at 1700–3000 nm for timeresolved pyrometry measurements. This system incorporates 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors, which can collect low f/# light over a broad spectral range, for high-speed imaging. Matched mirror pairs must be used so that aberrations cancel. To eliminate image plane tilt, proper tip-to-tip orientation of the parabolic mirrors is required. If one parabolic mirror is rotated 180 degrees about the optical axis connecting the pair of parabolic mirrors, the resulting image is tilted by 60 degrees. Different focal-length mirrors cannot be used to magnify the image without substantially sacrificing image quality. This paper analyzes performance and aberrations of this imaging diagnostic.

  19. Localization of Diagnostically Relevant Regions of Interest in Whole Slide Images: a Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Ezgi; Aksoy, Selim; Shapiro, Linda G; Weaver, Donald L; Brunyé, Tad T; Elmore, Joann G

    2016-08-01

    Whole slide digital imaging technology enables researchers to study pathologists' interpretive behavior as they view digital slides and gain new understanding of the diagnostic medical decision-making process. In this study, we propose a simple yet important analysis to extract diagnostically relevant regions of interest (ROIs) from tracking records using only pathologists' actions as they viewed biopsy specimens in the whole slide digital imaging format (zooming, panning, and fixating). We use these extracted regions in a visual bag-of-words model based on color and texture features to predict diagnostically relevant ROIs on whole slide images. Using a logistic regression classifier in a cross-validation setting on 240 digital breast biopsy slides and viewport tracking logs of three expert pathologists, we produce probability maps that show 74 % overlap with the actual regions at which pathologists looked. We compare different bag-of-words models by changing dictionary size, visual word definition (patches vs. superpixels), and training data (automatically extracted ROIs vs. manually marked ROIs). This study is a first step in understanding the scanning behaviors of pathologists and the underlying reasons for diagnostic errors. PMID:26961982

  20. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosch, R.; Trosseille, C.; Caillaud, T.; Allouche, V.; Bourgade, J. L.; Briat, M.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Le Breton, J. P.; Llavador, P.; Loupias, B.; Miquel, J. L.; Oudot, G.; Perez, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Rousseaux, C.; Rubbelynck, C.; Stemmler, P.; Troussel, P.; Ulmer, J. L.; Wrobel, R.; Beauvais, P.; Pallet, M.; Prevot, V.

    2016-03-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here.

  1. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility.

    PubMed

    Rosch, R; Trosseille, C; Caillaud, T; Allouche, V; Bourgade, J L; Briat, M; Brunel, P; Burillo, M; Casner, A; Depierreux, S; Gontier, D; Jadaud, J P; Le Breton, J P; Llavador, P; Loupias, B; Miquel, J L; Oudot, G; Perez, S; Raimbourg, J; Rousseau, A; Rousseaux, C; Rubbelynck, C; Stemmler, P; Troussel, P; Ulmer, J L; Wrobel, R; Beauvais, P; Pallet, M; Prevot, V

    2016-03-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here. PMID:27036783

  2. Design and initial characterisation of X-ray beam diagnostic imagers for the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; Freund, Wolfgang; Grünert, Jan; Planas, Marc; Roth, Thomas; Samoylova, Liubov; Lyamayev, Viktor

    2015-05-01

    The European X-Ray Free-Electron-Laser facility requires diagnostics of its x-ray photon beam. Besides other diagnostic components, imaging stations will be employed for the characterisation of beam properties like position, profile, and pointing, before and after different types of mirrors, slits and monochromators. In combination with soft x-ray grating monochromators or other dispersive devices, imagers can also deliver spectral information. The imagers will usually absorb the beam (invasive devices), however, for some applications they will be partially transmissive to allow for beam pointing monitoring together with a second imaging unit further downstream. For the first commissioning 25 diagnostic imagers are planned at various positions in the photon beam tunnels. Further similar devices are under development for monitoring the beam properties at the experimental stations. The design of theses imaging stations will be described. Initial testing has started and the optimization of some components will be reported. The main components of these imaging stations are: retractable scintillators for conversion of x-rays to visible light, mirrors, optics and CCD / CMOS cameras for image recording, an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber, and the associated control electronics and software. Scintillators and mirrors will be the only components in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. Performance characteristics are addressed, especially mechanical stability, spatial resolution, signal-to-noise properties, and radiation hardness. The challenge in the design is to deal with a wide range of beam properties: photon energies from 0.26 - 25 keV, beam sizes from several 100 μm to several mm, large beam position shifts of up to 120 mm, pulse durations of 10 fs and pulse energies up to 10 mJ which may destroy materials by a single pulse.

  3. Digital diagnostic imaging with a comprehensive PACS: hypothetical economic evaluation at a large community hospital.

    PubMed

    Warburton, R N; Fisher, P D; Nosil, J; Brauer, G W; Lawrence, W J; Ritchie, G W

    1990-05-01

    Since 1983, the 422-bed Victoria General Hospital (VGH) and Siemens Electric Limited have been piloting the implementation of digital medical imaging, including digital acquisition of diagnostic images, in British Columbia. Although full PACS is not yet in place at VGH, experience to date has been used to project annual cost figures (including capital replacement) for a fully digital department. The resulting economic evaluation has been labeled hypothetical to emphasize that some key cost components were estimated rather than observed; this paper presents updated cost figures based on recent revisions to proposed departmental equipment configuration. Compared with conventional diagnostic imaging, digital imaging appears to raise overall annual costs at VGH by nearly $0.7 million, (Canadian currency) or 11.6%; this is more favorable than the previous results, which indicated extra annual costs of $1 million (16.9%). Sensitivity analysis still indicates that all reasonable changes in the underlying assumptions result in higher costs for digital imaging than for conventional imaging. Digital imaging appears likely to offer lower radiation exposure to patients, shorter waiting times, and other potential advantages, but as yet the price of obtaining these benefits remains substantial. PMID:2092808

  4. X-ray phase-contrast imaging of the breast—advances towards clinical implementation

    PubMed Central

    Herzen, J; Willner, M; Grandl, S; Scherer, K; Bamberg, F; Reiser, M F; Pfeiffer, F; Hellerhoff, K

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer constitutes about one-quarter of all cancers and is the leading cause of cancer death in women. To reduce breast cancer mortality, mammographic screening programmes have been implemented in many Western countries. However, these programmes remain controversial because of the associated radiation exposure and the need for improvement in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Phase-contrast imaging is a new X-ray-based technology that has been shown to provide enhanced soft-tissue contrast and improved visualization of cancerous structures. Furthermore, there is some indication that these improvements of image quality can be maintained at reduced radiation doses. Thus, X-ray phase-contrast mammography may significantly contribute to advancements in early breast cancer diagnosis. Feasibility studies of X-ray phase-contrast breast CT have provided images that allow resolution of the fine structure of tissue that can otherwise only be obtained by histology. This implies that X-ray phase-contrast imaging may also lead to the development of entirely new (micro-) radiological applications. This review provides a brief overview of the physical characteristics of this new technology and describes recent developments towards clinical implementation of X-ray phase-contrast imaging of the breast. PMID:24452106

  5. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this has been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.

  6. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A. A.; Warwick, T.; Anders, S.; Lamble, G.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1999-05-12

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications.

  7. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this hasmore » been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.« less

  8. Red Fluorescent Proteins: Advanced Imaging Applications and Future Design

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Subach, Oksana M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years a large series of the advanced red-shifted fluorescent proteins (RFPs) has been developed. These enhanced RFPs provide new possibilities to study biological processes at the levels ranging from single molecules to whole organisms. Herein the relationship between the properties of the RFPs of different phenotypes and their applications to various imaging techniques are described. Existing and emerging imaging approaches are discussed for conventional RFPs, far-red FPs, RFPs with a large Stokes shift, fluorescent timers, irreversibly photoactivatable and reversibly photo-switchable RFPs. Advantages and limitations of specific RFPs for each technique are presented. Recent progress in understanding the chemical transformations of red chromophores allows the future RFP phenotypes and their respective novel imaging applications to be foreseen. PMID:22851529

  9. Advanced gastrointestinal endoscopic imaging for inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Rath, Timo; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy is of paramount importance for diagnosis, monitoring and dysplasia surveillance in patients with both, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Moreover, with the recent recognition that mucosal healing is directly linked to the clinical outcome of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders, a growing demand exists for the precise, timely and detailed endoscopic assessment of superficial mucosal layer. Further, the novel field of molecular imaging has tremendously expanded the clinical utility and applications of modern endoscopy, now encompassing not only diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment but also the prediction of individual therapeutic responses. Within this review, we describe how novel endoscopic approaches and advanced endoscopic imaging methods such as high definition and high magnification endoscopy, dye-based and dye-less chromoendoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, endocytoscopy and molecular imaging now allow for the precise and ultrastructural assessment of mucosal inflammation and describe the potential of these techniques for dysplasia detection. PMID:26811662

  10. NOTE: An innovative phantom for quantitative and qualitative investigation of advanced x-ray imaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarot, C. B.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Haycocks, T.; Moseley, D. J.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-11-01

    Development, characterization, and quality assurance of advanced x-ray imaging technologies require phantoms that are quantitative and well suited to such modalities. This note reports on the design, construction, and use of an innovative phantom developed for advanced imaging technologies (e.g., multi-detector CT and the numerous applications of flat-panel detectors in dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT) in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. The design addresses shortcomings of existing phantoms by incorporating criteria satisfied by no other single phantom: (1) inserts are fully 3D—spherically symmetric rather than cylindrical; (2) modules are quantitative, presenting objects of known size and contrast for quality assurance and image quality investigation; (3) features are incorporated in ideal and semi-realistic (anthropomorphic) contexts; and (4) the phantom allows devices to be inserted and manipulated in an accessible module (right lung). The phantom consists of five primary modules: (1) head, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to brain lesions; (2) left lung, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to lung modules; (3) right lung, an accessible hull in which devices may be placed and manipulated; (4) liver, featuring conrast-detail spheres approximate to metastases; and (5) abdomen/pelvis, featuring simulated kidneys, colon, rectum, bladder, and prostate. The phantom represents a two-fold evolution in design philosophy—from 2D (cylindrically symmetric) to fully 3D, and from exclusively qualitative or quantitative to a design accommodating quantitative study within an anatomical context. It has proven a valuable tool in investigations throughout our institution, including low-dose CT, dual-energy radiography, and cone-beam CT for image-guided radiation therapy and surgery.

  11. An innovative phantom for quantitative and qualitative investigation of advanced x-ray imaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Chiarot, C B; Siewerdsen, J H; Haycocks, T; Moseley, D J; Jaffray, D A

    2005-11-01

    Development, characterization, and quality assurance of advanced x-ray imaging technologies require phantoms that are quantitative and well suited to such modalities. This note reports on the design, construction, and use of an innovative phantom developed for advanced imaging technologies (e.g., multi-detector CT and the numerous applications of flat-panel detectors in dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT) in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. The design addresses shortcomings of existing phantoms by incorporating criteria satisfied by no other single phantom: (1) inserts are fully 3D--spherically symmetric rather than cylindrical; (2) modules are quantitative, presenting objects of known size and contrast for quality assurance and image quality investigation; (3) features are incorporated in ideal and semi-realistic (anthropomorphic) contexts; and (4) the phantom allows devices to be inserted and manipulated in an accessible module (right lung). The phantom consists of five primary modules: (1) head, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to brain lesions; (2) left lung, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to lung modules; (3) right lung, an accessible hull in which devices may be placed and manipulated; (4) liver, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to metastases; and (5) abdomen/pelvis, featuring simulated kidneys, colon, rectum, bladder, and prostate. The phantom represents a two-fold evolution in design philosophy--from 2D (cylindrically symmetric) to fully 3D, and from exclusively qualitative or quantitative to a design accommodating quantitative study within an anatomical context. It has proven a valuable tool in investigations throughout our institution, including low-dose CT, dual-energy radiography, and cone-beam CT for image-guided radiation therapy and surgery. PMID:16237228

  12. Advances in Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fauvel, Mathieu; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Tilton, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images are presented in this paper. Several techniques are investigated for combining both spatial and spectral information. Spatial information is extracted at the object (set of pixels) level rather than at the conventional pixel level. Mathematical morphology is first used to derive the morphological profile of the image, which includes characteristics about the size, orientation and contrast of the spatial structures present in the image. Then the morphological neighborhood is defined and used to derive additional features for classification. Classification is performed with support vector machines using the available spectral information and the extracted spatial information. Spatial post-processing is next investigated to build more homogeneous and spatially consistent thematic maps. To that end, three presegmentation techniques are applied to define regions that are used to regularize the preliminary pixel-wise thematic map. Finally, a multiple classifier system is defined to produce relevant markers that are exploited to segment the hyperspectral image with the minimum spanning forest algorithm. Experimental results conducted on three real hyperspectral images with different spatial and spectral resolutions and corresponding to various contexts are presented. They highlight the importance of spectral-spatial strategies for the accurate classification of hyperspectral images and validate the proposed methods.

  13. The Evolution of Advanced Molecular Diagnostics for the Detection and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maureen H; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant advancements in the methods used for detecting and characterizing Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common cause of respiratory illness and community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. The repertoire of available molecular diagnostics has greatly expanded from nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) that encompass a variety of chemistries used for detection, to more sophisticated characterizing methods such as multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), single nucleotide polymorphism typing, and numerous macrolide susceptibility profiling methods, among others. These many molecular-based approaches have been developed and employed to continually increase the level of discrimination and characterization in order to better understand the epidemiology and biology of M. pneumoniae. This review will summarize recent molecular techniques and procedures and lend perspective to how each has enhanced the current understanding of this organism and will emphasize how Next Generation Sequencing may serve as a resource for researchers to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the genomic complexities of this insidious pathogen. PMID:27014191

  14. The Evolution of Advanced Molecular Diagnostics for the Detection and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant advancements in the methods used for detecting and characterizing Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common cause of respiratory illness and community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. The repertoire of available molecular diagnostics has greatly expanded from nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) that encompass a variety of chemistries used for detection, to more sophisticated characterizing methods such as multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), single nucleotide polymorphism typing, and numerous macrolide susceptibility profiling methods, among others. These many molecular-based approaches have been developed and employed to continually increase the level of discrimination and characterization in order to better understand the epidemiology and biology of M. pneumoniae. This review will summarize recent molecular techniques and procedures and lend perspective to how each has enhanced the current understanding of this organism and will emphasize how Next Generation Sequencing may serve as a resource for researchers to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the genomic complexities of this insidious pathogen. PMID:27014191

  15. Advances in the Treatment of Aortic Valve Disease: is it Time for Companion Diagnostics?

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review Aortic valve disease (AVD) is a growing public health problem, and the pathogenesis underlying AVD is complex. The lack of durable bioprostheses and pharmacologic therapies remain central needs in care. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent clinical studies that impact the care of children with AVD and to explore ongoing translational research efforts. Recent findings Clinical studies have evaluated the durability of bioprosthetics and surgical strategies, tested statins during early disease, and identified new predictive biomarkers. Large animal models have demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel bioprosthetic scaffold. Mouse models of latent AVD have advanced our ability to elucidate natural history and perform preclinical studies that test new treatments in the context of early disease. Summary Current priorities for AVD patients include identifying new pharmacologic treatments and developing durable bioprostheses. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed that bridge pediatric and adult programs, bring together different types of expertise and leverage network and consortium resources. As our understanding of the underlying complex genetics is better defined, companion diagnostics may transform future clinical trials and ultimately improve the care of patients with AVD by promoting personalized medicine and early intervention. PMID:25089943

  16. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, Y. B.; Wan, B. N.; Lan, H.; Liu, Y. L.; Wei, J.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Wang, H. Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhao, J. L.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.; Lin, X.; Li, X. L.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

  17. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Xu, G S; Tritz, K; Zhu, Y B; Wan, B N; Lan, H; Liu, Y L; Wei, J; Zhang, W; Hu, G H; Wang, H Q; Duan, Y M; Zhao, J L; Wang, L; Liu, S C; Ye, Y; Li, J; Lin, X; Li, X L

    2015-12-01

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks. PMID:26724032

  18. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Lan, H.; Liu, Y. L.; Wei, J.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Wang, H. Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhao, J. L.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.; Lin, X.; Li, X. L.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2015-12-15

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

  19. Application of advanced millimeter/far-infrared sources to collective Thomson scattering plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboinikow, P.; Cohn, D.R.; Temkin, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced millimeter/far infrared sources to substantially improve the effectiveness of collective Thomson scattering plasma diagnostics is discussed. Gyrotrons, CO/sub 2/ lasers and far infrared lasers which are optically pumped with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation can now provide important new capabilities in terms of combined high peak power and high average power, fine frequency tunability and a wide range of operating frequencies. Their capabilities can improve the signal to noise ratio and make possible time dependent scattering measurements. Both thermal level scattering used for determination of ion temperature and low level non-thermal measurements used for the investigation of plasma turbulence and wave phenomena are considered. Rapidly pulsed gyrotrons, CO/sub 2/, and optically pumped lasers can provide a range of combinations of high peak power and high energy during a given time interval. The use of this high peak power - high energy trade off capability to maximize signal to noise ratios is discussed. Dramatic reduction in stray light, using fine frequency source tunability and gas absorption cell technology, is also discussed.

  20. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  1. OpenID connect as a security service in Cloud-based diagnostic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weina; Sartipi, Kamran; Sharghi, Hassan; Koff, David; Bak, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of cloud computing is driving the next generation of diagnostic imaging (DI) systems. Cloud-based DI systems are able to deliver better services to patients without constraining to their own physical facilities. However, privacy and security concerns have been consistently regarded as the major obstacle for adoption of cloud computing by healthcare domains. Furthermore, traditional computing models and interfaces employed by DI systems are not ready for accessing diagnostic images through mobile devices. RESTful is an ideal technology for provisioning both mobile services and cloud computing. OpenID Connect, combining OpenID and OAuth together, is an emerging REST-based federated identity solution. It is one of the most perspective open standards to potentially become the de-facto standard for securing cloud computing and mobile applications, which has ever been regarded as "Kerberos of Cloud". We introduce OpenID Connect as an identity and authentication service in cloud-based DI systems and propose enhancements that allow for incorporating this technology within distributed enterprise environment. The objective of this study is to offer solutions for secure radiology image sharing among DI-r (Diagnostic Imaging Repository) and heterogeneous PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) as well as mobile clients in the cloud ecosystem. Through using OpenID Connect as an open-source identity and authentication service, deploying DI-r and PACS to private or community clouds should obtain equivalent security level to traditional computing model.

  2. Whole slide imaging diagnostic concordance with light microscopy for breast needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W Scott; Hinrichs, Steven H; Lele, Subodh M; Baker, John J; Lazenby, Audrey J; Talmon, Geoffrey A; Smith, Lynette M; West, William W

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of whole slide imaging (WSI) in breast needle biopsy diagnosis in comparison with standard light microscopy (LM). The study examined the effects of image capture magnification and computer monitor quality on diagnostic concordance of WSI and LM. Four pathologists rendered diagnoses using WSI to examine 85 breast biopsies (92 parts; 786 slides) consisting of benign and malignant cases. Each WSI case was evaluated using images captured at either ×20 or ×40 magnifications and viewed using a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) grade, color-calibrated monitor or a standard, desktop liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitor. For each combination, the WSI result was compared with the original, LM diagnosis. The overall concordance rate observed between WSI and LM was 97.1% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 94.3%-98.5%). After a washout period, all cases were reviewed a second time by each pathologist after using LM, and the second LM diagnosis was compared with the WSI diagnosis rendered by the same pathologist. Intraobserver concordance between WSI and LM was 95.4% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.4%). The second LM diagnoses were also compared with the original LM diagnoses, and the observed interobserver LM concordance rate was 97.3% (95% CI: 93.1%-99.0%). The study data demonstrated that breast needle biopsy diagnoses rendered by WSI were equivalent to diagnoses rendered by LM. No diagnostic differences were detected between the underlying viewing system parameters of monitor quality and image capture resolution. The results of this study demonstrated that WSI can be effectively used in subspecialty diagnostic cases where a minimum amount of tissue is available. PMID:24913758

  3. Quantitative SHG imaging in osteoarthritis model mice, implying a diagnostic application.

    PubMed

    Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Oshima, Yusuke; Saitou, Takashi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Hikita, Atsuhiko; Miura, Hiromasa; Iimura, Tadahiro; Imamura, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) restricts the daily activities of patients and significantly decreases their quality of life. The development of non-invasive quantitative methods for properly diagnosing and evaluating the process of degeneration of articular cartilage due to OA is essential. Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging enables the observation of collagen fibrils in live tissues or organs without staining. In the present study, we employed SHG imaging of the articular cartilage in OA model mice ex vivo. Consequently, three-dimensional SHG imaging with successive image processing and statistical analyses allowed us to successfully characterize histopathological changes in the articular cartilage consistently confirmed on histological analyses. The quantitative SHG imaging technique presented in this study constitutes a diagnostic application of this technology in the setting of OA. PMID:25780732

  4. A 10MHz Fiber-Coupled Photodiode Imaging Array for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2013-10-01

    HyperV Technologies has been developing an imaging diagnostic comprised of arrays of fast, low-cost, long-record-length, fiber-optically-coupled photodiode channels to investigate plasma dynamics and other fast, bright events. By coupling an imaging fiber bundle to a bank of amplified photodiode channels, imagers and streak imagers of 100 to 10,000 pixels can be constructed. By interfacing analog photodiode systems directly to commercial analog to digital convertors and modern memory chips, a prototype pixel with an extremely deep record length (128 k points at 40 Msamples/s) has been achieved for a 10 bit resolution system with signal bandwidths of at least 10 MHz. Progress on a prototype 100 Pixel streak camera employing this technique is discussed along with preliminary experimental results and plans for a 10,000 pixel imager. Work supported by USDOE Phase 1 SBIR Grant DE-SC0009492.

  5. Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS)—A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Oguzhan; Lortlar Ünlü, Nese; Yalçın Özkumur, Ayça; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the growing need in disease diagnostics has stimulated rapid development of new technologies with unprecedented capabilities. Recent emerging infectious diseases and epidemics have revealed the shortcomings of existing diagnostics tools, and the necessity for further improvements. Optical biosensors can lay the foundations for future generation diagnostics by providing means to detect biomarkers in a highly sensitive, specific, quantitative and multiplexed fashion. Here, we review an optical sensing technology, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS), and the relevant features of this multifunctional platform for quantitative, label-free and dynamic detection. We discuss two distinct modalities for IRIS: (i) low-magnification (ensemble biomolecular mass measurements) and (ii) high-magnification (digital detection of individual nanoparticles) along with their applications, including label-free detection of multiplexed protein chips, measurement of single nucleotide polymorphism, quantification of transcription factor DNA binding, and high sensitivity digital sensing and characterization of nanoparticles and viruses. PMID:26205273

  6. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  7. Metadata requirements for results of diagnostic imaging procedures: a BIIF profile to support user applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicholas J.; Lloyd, David S.; Reynolds, Melvin I.; Plummer, David L.

    2002-05-01

    A visible digital image is rendered from a set of digital image data. Medical digital image data can be stored as either: (a) pre-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic print, or (b) un-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic negative. The appropriate image data storage format and associated header data (metadata) required by a user of the results of a diagnostic procedure recorded electronically depends on the task(s) to be performed. The DICOM standard provides a rich set of metadata that supports the needs of complex applications. Many end user applications, such as simple report text viewing and display of a selected image, are not so demanding and generic image formats such as JPEG are sometimes used. However, these are lacking some basic identification requirements. In this paper we make specific proposals for minimal extensions to generic image metadata of value in various domains, which enable safe use in the case of two simple healthcare end user scenarios: (a) viewing of text and a selected JPEG image activated by a hyperlink and (b) viewing of one or more JPEG images together with superimposed text and graphics annotation using a file specified by a profile of the ISO/IEC Basic Image Interchange Format (BIIF).

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in assessment of Meniscal and ACL tear: Correlation with arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Jamal; Alam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Khalid, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in injuries related to anterior cruciate ligament and menisci and compare its effectiveness with that of arthroscopy. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Radiology & Medical Imaging of Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September 2012 to March 2014. Fifty four patients (including 30 men and 24 women) with internal derangement of knee referred from the orthopedic consulting clinics underwent MR imaging followed by arthroscopic evaluation. The presence of meniscal and ligamentous abnormality on the imaging was documented by two trained radiologist. Findings were later compared with arthroscopic findings. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging for menisci and ACL injury were calculated: 100% sensitivity, 88.4% specificity, 90% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 94.4% accuracy were noted for medial meniscal injury. Similarly, MR had sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 85.7%, negative predictive value of 95%, and accuracy of 92.5% for lateral meniscal injuries. Likewise, anterior cruciate ligament had 91.6% sensitivity, 95.2% specificity, 84.6% positive predictive value, 97.5% negative predictive value, and 94.4% accuracy. Conclusion: MRI is extremely helpful in identifying meniscal and anterior cruciate ligaments tears. MR imaging has high negative predictive value making it better choice as screening tool compared to diagnostic arthroscopic evaluation in most patients with soft tissue trauma to knee. PMID:26101472

  9. An advanced image analysis tool for the quantification and characterization of breast cancer in microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Goudas, Theodosios; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents an advanced image analysis tool for the accurate and fast characterization and quantification of cancer and apoptotic cells in microscopy images. The proposed tool utilizes adaptive thresholding and a Support Vector Machines classifier. The segmentation results are enhanced through a Majority Voting and a Watershed technique, while an object labeling algorithm has been developed for the fast and accurate validation of the recognized cells. Expert pathologists evaluated the tool and the reported results are satisfying and reproducible. PMID:25681102

  10. Recent Advances in Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiming; Sun, Jihong; Yang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a life-threatening disease with high morbidity and mortality owing to its diverse causes. Liver biopsy, as the current gold standard for diagnosing and staging liver fibrosis, has a number of limitations, including sample variability, relatively high cost, an invasive nature, and the potential of complications. Most importantly, in clinical practice, patients often reject additional liver biopsies after initiating treatment despite their being necessary for long-term follow-up. To resolve these problems, a number of different noninvasive imaging-based methods have been developed for accurate diagnosis of liver fibrosis. However, these techniques only reflect morphological or perfusion-related alterations in the liver, and thus they are generally only useful for the diagnosis of late-stage liver fibrosis (liver cirrhosis), which is already characterized by “irreversible” anatomic and hemodynamic changes. Thus, it is essential that new approaches are developed for accurately diagnosing early-stage liver fibrosis as at this stage the disease may be “reversed” by active treatment. The development of molecular MR imaging technology has potential in this regard, as it facilitates noninvasive, target-specific imaging of liver fibrosis. We provide an overview of recent advances in molecular MR imaging for the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis and we compare novel technologies with conventional MR imaging techniques. PMID:25874221

  11. Imaging of the heart: historical perspective and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Lam, W C; Pennell, D J

    2016-02-01

    Correct diagnosis must be made before appropriate treatment can be given. The aim of cardiac imaging is to establish cardiac diagnosis as accurate as possible and to avert unnecessary invasive procedures. There are many different modalities of cardiac imaging and each of them has advanced tremendously throughout the past decades. Echocardiography, as the first-line modality in most clinical circumstances, has progressed from two-dimensional, single-planed M-mode in the 1960s to three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography nowadays. Cardiac computed tomography angiogram (CCTA) has revolutionised the management of coronary artery disease as it allows clinicians to visualise the coronary arteries without performing an invasive angiogram. Because of the high negative predictive value, CCTA plays an important reassuring role in acute chest pain management. The greatest strength of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is that it provides information in tissue characterization. It is the modality of choice in assessing myocardial viability and myocardial infiltration such as haemochromatosis or amyloidosis. Each of these modalities has its own strengths and limitations. In fact, they are complementing each other in different clinical settings. Cardiac imaging will continue to advance and, not long from now, we will not need invasive procedures to make an accurate cardiac diagnosis. PMID:26647305

  12. Modeling of imaging diagnostics for laser plasma interaction experiments with the code PARAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, K.; Riazuelo, G.; Labaune, C.

    2005-09-01

    We have developed a diagnostic simulation tool for the code PARAX to interpret recent measurements of far-field images of the laser light transmitted through a preformed plasma. This includes the complete treatment of the propagation of the light coming from a well-defined region of plasma through the rest of the plasma and all the optics of the imaging system. We have modeled the whole light path, as well as the spatio-temporal integration of the instruments, and the limited collecting aperture for the light emerging out of the plasma. The convolution of computed magnitudes with the plasma and diagnostics transfer functions is indispensable to enable the comparison between experiments and simulations. This tool is essential in the study of the propagation of intense laser beams in plasma media.

  13. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance. PMID:20517632

  14. Diesel combustion and emissions formation using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Understanding how emissions are formed during diesel combustion is central to developing new engines that can comply with increasingly stringent emission standards while maintaining or improving performance levels. Laser-based planar imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing the temporally and spatially resolved information required for this understanding. Using an optically accessible research engine, a variety of two-dimensional (2-D) imaging diagnostics have been applied to investigators of direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion and emissions formation. These optical measurements have included the following laser-sheet imaging data: Mie scattering to determine liquid-phase fuel distributions, Rayleigh scattering for quantitative vapor-phase-fuel/air mixture images, laser induced incandescence (LII) for relative soot concentrations, simultaneous LII and Rayleigh scattering for relative soot particle-size distributions, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to obtain early PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon) distributions, PLIF images of the OH radical that show the diffusion flame structure, and PLIF images of the NO radical showing the onset of NO{sub x} production. In addition, natural-emission chemiluminescence images were obtained to investigate autoignition. The experimental setup is described, and the image data showing the most relevant results are presented. Then the conceptual model of diesel combustion is summarized in a series of idealized schematics depicting the temporal and spatial evolution of a reacting diesel fuel jet during the time period investigated. Finally, recent PLIF images of the NO distribution are presented and shown to support the timing and location of NO formation hypothesized from the conceptual model.

  15. Primary Paratracheal Leiomyoma: Increased Preoperative Diagnostic Specificity With Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Marie-Hélène; Aisagbonhi, Omonigho; Digumarthy, Subba; Wright, Cameron D; Ackman, Jeanne B

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 47-year-old woman whose primary mediastinal leiomyoma was incidentally found during evaluation of her persistent cough. The preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal leiomyoma is challenging because of its rarity and indeterminate features on chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography-CT. We highlight how magnetic resonance imaging can substantially contribute to mediastinal mass characterization and diagnostic specificity. PMID:27449453

  16. Early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with presumed diskospondylitis: 10 cases (2008-2014).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with diskospondylitis. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 10 client-owned dogs < 6 months of age. PROCEDURES Medical records were searched to identify juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis. Signalment, history, examination findings, diagnostic test results, and imaging procedures were reviewed. Archived diagnostic images were retrieved and retrospectively evaluated. Data analysis was descriptive. RESULTS All dogs were evaluated for signs of vertebral pain ≤ 3 weeks after treatment for blunt trauma, bite wounds, or systemic illness. The earliest radiographic change was a narrowed intervertebral disk space (found for 28 disk spaces ≤ 2 weeks after evaluation for signs of vertebral pain); subluxation of adjacent vertebrae was identified for 8 of 28 affected disks, either initially or within the following 2 weeks. Vertebral end plate lysis was not an initial radiographic feature but was evident in follow-up radiographs. Ultrasonographic and transverse, multiformatted, volume-rendered CT images were obtained for 5 and 4 dogs, respectively. Ultrasonographic changes included ventrally bulging hypoechoic material at the affected disk site and loss of typical normal reverberation artifact in 4 dogs; these were detected prior to radiographic changes in 2 dogs. Affected disks on volume-rendered CT images had altered coloration in 3 of 4 dogs, and this was identified prior to radiographic changes in 1 dog. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis had early imaging findings that were atypical, compared with the changes described for adult dogs with this condition. PMID:27556268

  17. Strategy and optimization of diagnostic imaging in painful hip in adults.

    PubMed

    Blum, A; Raymond, A; Teixeira, P

    2015-02-01

    Diagnostic imaging strategy in painful hip depends on many factors, but in all cases, plain X-ray is the first investigation. It may be sufficient to reach diagnosis and determine treatment options. More effective but more expensive exploration is indicated in two circumstances: when plain X-ray is non-contributive, and when diagnosis has been established but more accurate imaging assessment is needed to guide treatment. Following radiography, the choice of imaging techniques depends not only on the suspected pathology but also on the availability of equipment and its performance. MRI is probably the technique that provides the most comprehensive results; recent improved accessibility has significantly simplified the diagnostic algorithm. CT remains invaluable, and current techniques have reduced patient irradiation to a level similar to that of standard X-ray. Finally, cost is an important consideration in choosing the means of exploration, but the overall financial impact of the various strategies for diagnosis of painful hip is not well established. This article aims to provide a simple and effective diagnostic strategy for the assessment of painful hip, taking account of the clinical situation, and to detail the most typical semiologic patterns of each disease affecting this joint. PMID:25599865

  18. Microwave Imaging and Holographic Diagnostic to Antennas in Cylindrical Near-Field Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the issues pertaining to microwave imaging and holographic diagnostic to antennas in cylindrical near-field measurements are addressed. The theoretical approach is based on expanding the work in [1] and [2] where a cylindrical wave expansion of the field on a cylindrical near-field surface is given. The sampling probe is modeled by its equivalent aperture current (idealized circular aperture) and incorporated into the near-field to far-field transformation. The method of steepest decent is applied to obtain the far-field. In its implementation, however, one could specify directly the angular spectrum at which the far-field is desired to be calculated without resorting to interpolation. The microwave imaging and holographic diagnostic is based on back projection where a plane wave expansion of the far-field is obtained. This approach necessitates the knowledge of the far-field at exact angular spectrum resulting from application of 2-D FFT. Hence, we were able to construct simply the near-field on a plane not necessarily on the aperture plane of the test antenna but also on planes perpendicular to the aperture plane [3]. And a 3-D high resolution and high precision antenna imaging of the test antenna is obtained from cylindrical near-field simulated measurements. In addition microwave holographic diagnostic of large NASA scatterometer radar antenna obtained from measured near-field on a cylindrical surface will be given if time permits.

  19. The diagnostic value of iron oxide nanoparticles for imaging of myocardial inflammation--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Bietenbeck, Michael; Florian, Anca; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an integral part in the diagnostic work-up of cardiac inflammatory diseases. In this context, superparamagnetic iron oxide-based contrast agents can provide additional diagnostic information regarding the assessment of myocardial infarction and myocarditis. After intravenous administration, these nanoparticles are taken up by activated monocytes and macrophages, which predominantly accumulate in regions associated with inflammation as was successfully shown in recent preclinical studies. Furthermore, first clinical studies with a new iron oxide-complex that was clinically approved for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia recently demonstrated a superior diagnostic value of iron oxide nanoparticles compared to gadolinium-based compounds for imaging of myocardial inflammation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In this article, we outline the basic features of superparamagnetic iron oxide-based contrast agents and review recent studies using such nanoparticles for cardiac imaging in case of acute myocardial infarction as well as acute myocarditis. Moreover, we highlight the translational potential of these agents and possible research applications with regard to imaging and therapy. PMID:26152269

  20. Diagnostic Imaging of Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Case and Discussion of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tuong, Betty; Harris, Alison C.; Yoshida, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are derived from neuroendocrine cells that are capable of producing functional peptide hormones. These tumors occur most frequently in the GI tract and lungs. GI NETs frequently metastasize into the liver, though NETs of primary hepatic origin are extremely rare. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are typically all employed for characterization of these lesions but their appearance on diagnostic imaging can be highly variable. Reported here is an interesting case of a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), along with a discussion of the imaging characteristics of these tumors. Additionally, the current standards for definitive diagnosis and treatment of PHNETs are discussed. PMID:25258691