Science.gov

Sample records for advanced diagnostic tools

  1. New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.

    2013-12-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  2. State of the art: diagnostic tools and innovative therapies for treatment of advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ried, Michael; Marx, Alexander; Götz, Andrea; Hamer, Okka; Schalke, Berthold; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this review article, state-of-the-art diagnostic tools and innovative treatments of thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) are described with special respect to advanced tumour stages. Complete surgical resection (R0) remains the standard therapeutic approach for almost all a priori resectable mediastinal tumours as defined by preoperative standard computed tomography (CT). If lymphoma or germ-cell tumours are differential diagnostic considerations, biopsy may be indicated. Resection status is the most important prognostic factor in thymoma and TC, followed by tumour stage. Advanced (Masaoka-Koga stage III and IVa) tumours require interdisciplinary therapy decisions based on distinctive findings of preoperative CT scan and ancillary investigations [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] to select cases for primary surgery or neoadjuvant strategies with optional secondary resection. In neoadjuvant settings, octreotide scans and histological evaluation of pretherapeutic needle biopsies may help to choose between somatostatin agonist/prednisolone regimens and neoadjuvant chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Finally, a multimodality treatment regime is recommended for advanced and unresectable thymic tumours. In conclusion, advanced stage thymoma and TC should preferably be treated in experienced centres in order to provide all modern diagnostic tools (imaging, histology) and innovative therapy techniques. Systemic and local (hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy) medical treatments together with extended surgical resections have increased the therapeutic options in patients with advanced or recurrent thymoma and TC. PMID:26670806

  3. Scanning multispectral IR reflectography SMIRR: an advanced tool for art diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Daffara, Claudia; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca; Barucci, Marco; Fontana, Raffaella

    2010-06-15

    Spectral imaging technology, widely used in remote sensing applications, such as satellite or radar imaging, has recently gained importance in the field of artwork conservation. In particular, multispectral imaging in the near-infrared region (NIR) has proved useful in analyzing ancient paintings because of the transparency of most pigments and their varied reflectance changes over this spectral region. A variety of systems, with different detectors and filtering or dispersing technologies, have been implemented. Despite the recognized potential of multispectral NIR imaging, which provides information on both spectral and spatial domains (thus extending the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy), most of the systems currently used in art diagnostics have limitations. The technology is still in its early stages of development in this field. In this Account, we present the scanning multispectral IR reflectography (SMIRR) technique for artwork analysis, together with an integrated device for the acquisition of imaging data. The instrument prototype is a no-contact optical scanner with a single-point measurement of the reflectance, capable of simultaneously collecting a set of 14 spatially registered images at different wavelengths in the NIR range of 800-2300 nm. The data can be analyzed as a spectral cube, both as a stack of wavelength resolved images (multi-NIR reflectography) and as a series of point reflectance spectra, one for each sampled pixel on the surface (NIR spectrometry). We explore the potential of SMIRR in the analysis of ancient paintings and show its advantages over the wide-band conventional method. The multispectral option allows the choice of the most effective NIR bands and improves the ability to detect hidden features. The interband comparison aids in localizing areas of different pictorial materials with particular NIR reflectance. In addition to the analysis of single monochromatic images, enhancement procedures involving the

  4. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  5. Biophotonic Tools in Cell and Tissue Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, Michael; Hoffman, Robert A.; Levenson, Richard; Milner, Thomas E.; Dowell, M. L.; Williams, P. A.; White, G. S.; Gaigalas, A. K.; Hwang, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to maintain the rapid advance of biophotonics in the U.S. and enhance our competitiveness worldwide, key measurement tools must be in place. As part of a wide-reaching effort to improve the U.S. technology base, the National Institute of Standards and Technology sponsored a workshop titled “Biophotonic tools for cell and tissue diagnostics.” The workshop focused on diagnostic techniques involving the interaction between biological systems and photons. Through invited presentations by industry representatives and panel discussion, near- and far-term measurement needs were evaluated. As a result of this workshop, this document has been prepared on the measurement tools needed for biophotonic cell and tissue diagnostics. This will become a part of the larger measurement road-mapping effort to be presented to the Nation as an assessment of the U.S. Measurement System. The information will be used to highlight measurement needs to the community and to facilitate solutions. PMID:27110461

  6. Advanced diagnostics for reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Baganoff, D.; Bowman, C. T.; Byer, R. L.; Cantwell, B. J.

    1983-11-01

    Progress is reported for the third year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas are: (1) fiber optic absorption/fluorescence probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visable and infrared laser sources; (2) wavelength modulation spectroscopy, using rapid-scanning ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources, for measurements of species, temperature and absorption lineshapes, (3) quantitative flow visualization, including temporally and spatially resolved species measurements in a plane, using laser-induced fluorescence; (4) multiple-point velocity visualization; (5) plasma diagnostics, utilizing planar laser-induced fluorescence and wavelength modulation techniques; (6) diagnostic techniques for thermionic converter plasmas; (7) application of advanced diagnostic techniques for studies of turbulent reacting flows; (8) development of measurement techniques and a novel facility for investigations of droplet evaporation in turbulent flows; (9) holographic display techniques for 3-D visualization of flowfield data; (10) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) for temperature and velocity measurements in a supersonic jet; and (11) computed absorption tomography system for species measurements in a plane.

  7. Advanced diagnostics for plasma chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, C.H.

    1994-03-01

    Since July 15, 1992, the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University has been engaged in a four-year research program on Advanced Diagnostics for Plasma Chemistry. The goal of this program is to develop state-of-the-art laser-based diagnostics of molecular species in harsh chemical environments, particularly those encountered in plasma synthesis of new materials. Emphasis has been placed on exploiting a new nonlinear spectroscopy, degenerate four wave mixing, as well as linear laser induced fluorescence to accomplish these goals. The present submittal is a proposal for the continuation funding for the third year of this program, from July 15, 1994, until July 14, 1995. Section 2 summarizes the research accomplished during the first eighteen months of the program. Section 3 discusses the plans for continuing research activities. Publications and presentations to date resulting from this program are listed in Section 4. The proposed budget for the third year is given in Section 5.

  8. Investigating the Effectiveness of Classroom Diagnostic Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purposes of the study are to investigate what teachers experience while using the Classroom Diagnostic Tools (CDT) and to relate those experiences to the rate of growth in students' mathematics achievement. The CDT contains three components: an online computer adaptive diagnostic test, interactive web-based student reports, and…

  9. Diagnostic Tools for Learning Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Raili

    2001-01-01

    The Learning Organization Diamond Tool was designed for holistic analysis of 10 learning organization elements at the individual and organizational levels. A test in 25 Finnish organizations established validity. Comparison with existing tools showed that differences derive from their different purposes. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  10. Adults' Prejudice Toward Youth: A Diagnostic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    Designed to reveal the nature of widespread pejorative orientations faced by youth in an adult world, the diagnostic tool consists of a 9-item inventory which is to be self-administered in group situations and self-analyzed by the subject. The tool provides a means of measuring and investigating the patterns of coexistence among three different…

  11. Diagnostic CALL Tool for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsabaan, Majed; Ramsay, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Our proposed work is aimed at teaching non-native Arabic speakers how to improve their pronunciation. This paper reports on a diagnostic tool for helping non-native speakers of Arabic improve their pronunciation, particularly of words involving sounds that are not distinguished in their native languages. The tool involves the implementation of…

  12. [New diagnostic tools for arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Teres, C; Burri, H

    2015-05-27

    Cardiac arrhythmias are common conditions that often manifest themselves intermittently, thus complicating their diagnosis, particularly in the ambulatory setting. Recently, technological advances have facilitated public access to health applications and devices. This article reviews the available technologies and analyses their usefulness for the diagnosis of arrhythmias in the context of everyday clinical practice. PMID:26182638

  13. Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

  14. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Ahad S.; Durand, Robert; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Early disease detection is not only vital to reduce disease severity and prevent complications, but also critical to increase success rate of therapy. Saliva has been studied extensively as a potential diagnostic tool over the last decade due to its ease and non-invasive accessibility along with its abundance of biomarkers, such as genetic material and proteins. This review will update the clinician on recent advances in salivary biomarkers to diagnose autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, cystic fibrosis), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, HIV, oral cancer, caries and periodontal diseases. Considering their accuracy, efficacy, ease of use and cost effectiveness, salivary diagnostic tests will be available in dental offices. It is expected that the advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the establishment of defined guidelines and results following rigorous testing will allow salivary diagnostics to be used as chair-side tests for several oral and systemic diseases in the near future. PMID:26937373

  15. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  16. Diagnostic tools in Rhinology EAACI position paper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This EAACI Task Force document aims at providing the readers with a comprehensive and complete overview of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease. We have tried to logically order the different important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of sinonasal disease into a consensus document. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology has contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology. PMID:22410181

  17. Web100-based Network Diagnostic Tool

    2003-03-20

    NDT is a client/server based network diagnostic tool developed to aid in finding network performance and configuration problems. The tool measures data transfer rates between two internet hosts (client and server). It also gathers detailed TCP statistical variable counters supplied by the Web100 modified server and uses these TCP variables to compute the theoretical performance rate between the two internet hosts. It then compares these analytical results with the measured results to determine if performancemore » or configuration problems exist and translates these results into plain text messages to aid users and network operators in resolving reported problems.« less

  18. Advances in molecular diagnostics for Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Desmond M

    2011-07-01

    The two most important molecular diagnostic techniques for bovine tuberculosis are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because of its rapid determination of infection, and DNA strain typing because of its ability to answer important epidemiological questions. PCR tests for Mycobacterium bovis have been improved through recent advances in PCR technology, but still lack the sensitivity of good culture methods, and in some situations are susceptible to giving both false negative and false positive results. Therefore, PCR does not usually replace the need for culture, but is used to provide fast preliminary results. DNA typing of M. bovis isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) was developed 25 years ago in New Zealand, and remains an important tool in the New Zealand control scheme, where the typing results are combined with other information to determine large and expensive possum poisoning operations. A range of other DNA typing systems developed for M. bovis in the 1990 s have assisted epidemiological investigations in some countries but are now less commonly used. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing and spoligotyping, either alone or together, have now become the preferred approaches as they are robust and amenable to electronic analysis and comparison. Spoligotyping gives only moderate discrimination but can be easily applied to large numbers of isolates, and VNTR typing provides better discrimination than all other methods except for REA. While the current typing techniques are sufficient for most epidemiological purposes, more discriminating methods are likely to become available in the near future. PMID:21420257

  19. Diagnostic Tools for Onchocerciasis Elimination Programs.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Fischer, Peter U; Weil, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Major disease-control programs have greatly reduced both disease and infection prevalence by mass distribution of donated ivermectin. Recent studies have shown that local elimination was achieved in some areas following many years of ivermectin. The global health community has recently decided to build on these successes with a new program that aims to eliminate onchocerciasis. Diagnostic tests that were useful for identifying priority areas for disease prevention may not be adequate tools for elimination programs. This paper reviews available and emerging diagnostic tests for onchocerciasis and considers how they might be best employed during different stages of onchocerciasis elimination programs. PMID:26458784

  20. Diagnosis demystified: CT as diagnostic tool in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Shruthi, Nagaraja; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis in endodontics is usually based on clinical and radiographical presentations, which are only empirical methods. The role of healing profession is to apply knowledge and skills towards maintaining and restoring the patient's health. Recent advances in imaging technologies have added to correct interpretation and diagnosis. CT is proving to be an effective tool in solving endodontic mysteries through its three-dimensional visualisation. CT imaging offers many diagnostic advantages to produce reconstructed images in selected projection and low-contrast resolution far superior to that of all other X-ray imaging modalities. This case report is an endeavour towards effective treatment planning of cases with root fracture, root resorption using spiral CT as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. PMID:23814212

  1. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR. PMID:26403490

  2. New V and V Tools for Diagnostic Modeling Environment (DME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Nelson, Stacy; Merriam, Marshall (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide correctness and reliability criteria for verification and validation (V&V) of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Diagnostic Modeling Environment, describe current NASA Ames Research Center tools for V&V of Model Based Reasoning systems, and discuss the applicability of Advanced V&V to DME. This report is divided into the following three sections: (1) correctness and reliability criteria; (2) tools for V&V of Model Based Reasoning; and (3) advanced V&V applicable to DME. The Executive Summary includes an overview of the main points from each section. Supporting details, diagrams, figures, and other information are included in subsequent sections. A glossary, acronym list, appendices, and references are included at the end of this report.

  3. Recent Advances in Beam Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorito, R. B.

    2002-12-01

    We describe recent advances in diagnostics of the transverse phase space of charged particle beams. The emphasis of this paper is on the utilization of beam-based optical radiation for the precise measurement of the spatial distribution, divergence and emittance of relativistic charged particle beams. The properties and uses of incoherent as well as coherent optical transition, diffraction and synchrotron radiation for beam diagnosis are discussed.

  4. Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.

  5. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: current diagnostic criteria and advances in MRI diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Magill, Stephen T; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Weinstein, Philip R; Chin, Cynthia T; Jacques, Line

    2015-09-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is caused by compression of the brachial plexus as it traverses from the thoracic outlet to the axilla. Diagnosing nTOS can be difficult because of overlap with other complex pain and entrapment syndromes. An nTOS diagnosis is made based on patient history, physical exam, electrodiagnostic studies, and, more recently, interpretation of MR neurograms with tractography. Advances in high-resolution MRI and tractography can confirm an nTOS diagnosis and identify the location of nerve compression, allowing tailored surgical decompression. In this report, the authors review the current diagnostic criteria, present an update on advances in MRI, and provide case examples demonstrating how MR neurography (MRN) can aid in diagnosing nTOS. The authors conclude that improved high-resolution MRN and tractography are valuable tools for identifying the source of nerve compression in patients with nTOS and can augment current diagnostic modalities for this syndrome. PMID:26323825

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Advances in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haoran; Song, Tianqiang

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the growing knowledge on biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), as well as continuous improvement in imaging techniques and experienced interpretation of imaging features of the nodules in cirrhotic liver, the detection and characterization of HCC has improved in the past decade. A number of practice guidelines for imaging diagnosis have been developed to reduce interpretation variability and standardize management of HCC, and they are constantly updated with advances in imaging techniques and evidence based data from clinical series. In this article, we strive to review the imaging techniques and the characteristic features of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhotic liver, with emphasis on the diagnostic value of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and utilization of hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agents. We also briefly describe the concept of liver imaging reporting and data systems and discuss the consensus and controversy of major practice guidelines. PMID:26632539

  7. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity is

  8. PCR AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR BRUCELLOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous PCR-based assays have been developed for the identification of Brucella to improve diagnostic capabilities. Collectively, the repertoire of assays addresses several aspects of the diagnostic process. For some purposes, the simple identification of Brucella is adequate (e.g. diagnosis of ...

  9. Advanced Diagnostics for Developing High-Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.-J.; Yakimenko, V.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  10. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH-BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  11. Metabolic fingerprinting as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Ellis, David I; Dunn, Warwick B; Griffin, Julian L; Allwood, J William; Goodacre, Royston

    2007-09-01

    Within the framework of systems biology, functional analyses at all 'omic levels have seen an intense level of activity during the first decade of the twenty-first century. These include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics. It could be said that metabolomics offers some unique advantages over the other 'omics disciplines and one of the core approaches of metabolomics for disease diagnostics is metabolic fingerprinting. This review provides an overview of the main metabolic fingerprinting approaches used for disease diagnostics and includes: infrared and Raman spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by an introduction to a wide range of novel mass spectrometry-based methods, which are currently under intense investigation and developmental activity in laboratories worldwide. It is hoped that this review will act as a springboard for researchers and clinicians across a wide range of disciplines in this exciting era of multidisciplinary and novel approaches to disease diagnostics. PMID:17924839

  12. Comparison of emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-04-06

    Diagnostic software tools for large commercial buildings are being developed to help detect and diagnose energy and other performance problems with building operations. These software applications utilize energy management control system (EMCS) trend log data. Due to the recent development of diagnostic tools, there has been little detailed comparison among the tools and a limited awareness of tool capabilities by potential users. Today, these diagnostic tools focus mainly on air handlers, but the opportunity exists for broadening the scope of the tools to include all major parts of heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in more detail. This paper compares several tools in the following areas: (1) Scope, intent, and background; (2) Data acquisition, pre-processing, and management; (3) Problems detected; (4) Raw data visualization; (5) Manual and automated diagnostic methods and (6) Level of automation. This comparison is intended to provide practitioners and researchers with a picture of the current state of diagnostic tools. There is tremendous potential for these tools to help improve commercial building energy and non-energy performance.

  13. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  14. DIAGNOSTIC TOOL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION THROUGH REGIONAL CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case studies are a useful vehicle for developing and testing conceptual models, classification systems, diagnostic tools and models, and stressor-response relationships. Furthermore, case studies focused on specific places or issues of interest to the Agency provide an excellent ...

  15. Plasma Diagnostics Development for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Timothy; Kittrell, Carter; Chan, Anthony; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    2000-10-01

    The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) engine is a next-generation rocket engine under development at the Johnson Space Center's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory. With an exhaust velocity up to 50 times that of chemical rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine, the VASIMR concept promises fast, efficient interplanetary flight. Rice University has participated in VASIMR research since 1996 and at present is developing two new diagnostic probes: a retarding potential analyzer to measure the velocity of ions in the rocket's exhaust, and a moveable optical probe to examine the spectrum of the rocket's helicon plasma source. In support of the probe development, a test facility is under construction at Rice, consisting of a small electric rocket engine firing into a 2-m vacuum chamber. This engine, the MPD (magnetoplasmadynamic) thruster, dates from the 1960's and provides a well-characterized source plasma for testing of the probes under development. We present details of the ion energy analyzer and the facility under construction at Rice.

  16. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools. PMID:24992636

  17. Neuronavigation as a diagnostic tool: An innovative application.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian A; Chumas, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    The role of neuronavigation in tumour surgery is well established. We present an innovative use for this software, as a tool to compare ventricular size between serial sets of cranial imaging. We conclude that neuronavigation software is potentially a powerful diagnostic tool that should not be overlooked when making comparative assessments between scans. PMID:26742421

  18. Latest advances in advanced diagnostic and therapeutic pulmonary procedures.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Gerard A; Feller-Kopman, David; Chen, Alexander; Wahidi, Momen; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Ernst, Armin

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, patients with a myriad of pulmonary conditions have been diagnosed and treated with new technologies developed for the pulmonary community. Advanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures once performed in an operating theater under general anesthesia are now routinely performed in a bronchoscopy suite under moderate sedation with clinically meaningful improvements in outcome. With the miniaturization of scopes and instruments, improvements in optics, and creative engineers, a host of new devices has become available for clinical testing and use. A growing community of pulmonologists is doing comparative effectiveness trials that test new technologies against the current standard of care. While more research is needed, it seems reasonable to provide an overview of pulmonary procedures that are in various stages of development, testing, and practice at this time. Five areas are covered: navigational bronchoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound, endoscopic lung volume reduction, bronchial thermoplasty, and pleural procedure. Appropriate training for clinicians who wish to provide these services will become an area of intense scrutiny as new skills will need to be acquired to ensure patient safety and a good clinical result. PMID:23208336

  19. Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology Advancements for Plasma Diagnostics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu

    To realize fusion plant, the very first step is to understand the fundamental physics of materials under fusion conditions, i.e. to understand fusion plasmas. Our research group, Plasma Diagnostics Group, focuses on developing advanced tools for physicists to extract as much information as possible from fusion plasmas at millions degrees. The Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics is a very useful tool invented in this group to study fusion plasma electron temperature and it fluctuations. This dissertation presents millimeter wave imaging technology advances recently developed in this group to improve the ECEI system. New technologies made it more powerful to image and visualize magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) activities and micro-turbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis start from development of miniaturized elliptical substrate lens array. This novel substrate lens array replaces the previous generation substrate lens, hyper-hemispherical substrate lens, in terms of geometry. From the optical performance perspective, this substitution not only significantly simplifies the optical system with improved optical coupling, but also enhances the RF/LO coupling efficiency. By the benefit of the mini lens focusing properties, a wideband dual-dipole antenna array is carefully designed and developed. The new antenna array is optimized simultaneously for receiving both RF and LO, with sharp radiation patterns, low side-lobe levels, and less crosstalk between adjacent antennas. In addition, a high frequency antenna is also developed, which extends the frequency limit from 145 GHz to 220 GHz. This type of antenna will be used on high field operation tokamaks with toroidal fields in excess of 3 Tesla. Another important technology advance is so-called extended bandwidth double down-conversion electronics. This new electronics extends the instantaneous IF coverage from 2 to 9.2 GHz to 2 to 16.4 GHz. From the plasma point of view, it means that the

  20. PICADAR: a diagnostic predictive tool for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Behan, Laura; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Hogg, Claire; Carroll, Mary; Evans, Hazel J.; Goutaki, Myrofora; Harris, Amanda; Packham, Samantha; Walker, Woolf T.

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are nonspecific and guidance on whom to refer for testing is limited. Diagnostic tests for PCD are highly specialised, requiring expensive equipment and experienced PCD scientists. This study aims to develop a practical clinical diagnostic tool to identify patients requiring testing. Patients consecutively referred for testing were studied. Information readily obtained from patient history was correlated with diagnostic outcome. Using logistic regression, the predictive performance of the best model was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The model was simplified into a practical tool (PICADAR) and externally validated in a second diagnostic centre. Of 641 referrals with a definitive diagnostic outcome, 75 (12%) were positive. PICADAR applies to patients with persistent wet cough and has seven predictive parameters: full-term gestation, neonatal chest symptoms, neonatal intensive care admittance, chronic rhinitis, ear symptoms, situs inversus and congenital cardiac defect. Sensitivity and specificity of the tool were 0.90 and 0.75 for a cut-off score of 5 points. Area under the curve for the internally and externally validated tool was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. PICADAR represents a simple diagnostic clinical prediction rule with good accuracy and validity, ready for testing in respiratory centres referring to PCD centres. PMID:26917608

  1. PICADAR: a diagnostic predictive tool for primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Behan, Laura; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Kuehni, Claudia E; Hogg, Claire; Carroll, Mary; Evans, Hazel J; Goutaki, Myrofora; Harris, Amanda; Packham, Samantha; Walker, Woolf T; Lucas, Jane S

    2016-04-01

    Symptoms of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are nonspecific and guidance on whom to refer for testing is limited. Diagnostic tests for PCD are highly specialised, requiring expensive equipment and experienced PCD scientists. This study aims to develop a practical clinical diagnostic tool to identify patients requiring testing.Patients consecutively referred for testing were studied. Information readily obtained from patient history was correlated with diagnostic outcome. Using logistic regression, the predictive performance of the best model was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The model was simplified into a practical tool (PICADAR) and externally validated in a second diagnostic centre.Of 641 referrals with a definitive diagnostic outcome, 75 (12%) were positive. PICADAR applies to patients with persistent wet cough and has seven predictive parameters: full-term gestation, neonatal chest symptoms, neonatal intensive care admittance, chronic rhinitis, ear symptoms, situs inversus and congenital cardiac defect. Sensitivity and specificity of the tool were 0.90 and 0.75 for a cut-off score of 5 points. Area under the curve for the internally and externally validated tool was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively.PICADAR represents a simple diagnostic clinical prediction rule with good accuracy and validity, ready for testing in respiratory centres referring to PCD centres. PMID:26917608

  2. Using Automated Diagnostic Tools to Provide Energy Services

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2000-06-01

    Recently, a small number of automated diagnostic tools for building systems have become commercially available. These tools distinguish themselves from analytic software and trouble-shooting tools by automating the actual process of reaching conclusions from empirical data. Their distinction is that they produce easily-used information from (raw) data. These tools can be contrasted with tools that provide assistance in diagnosis, for example, by plotting data in various ways so performance problems can be detected and diagnosed by a knowledgeable expert. The availability of such expertise is limited and applying it manually takes considerable time. Automation reduces the time required for performance-problem detection and the associated costs.

  3. Kinesiophobia – Introducing a New Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Andrzej; Saulicz, Edward; Gnat, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    Technical development of human civilisation brings about a decrease of adaptation potential of an individual, which is directly linked to deficient motor activity. Only precise identification of factors leading to hypokinesia would make prophylactic and therapeutic actions possible. In this article, authors would like to introduce a new, original tool aiming at diagnosing limitations of motor activity in adults. They propose a synthetic diagnosis of hypokinesia in two domains: biological and psycho-social, which is based on the contemporary model of health. PMID:23487514

  4. Kinesiophobia - introducing a new diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Andrzej; Saulicz, Edward; Gnat, Rafał

    2011-06-01

    Technical development of human civilisation brings about a decrease of adaptation potential of an individual, which is directly linked to deficient motor activity. Only precise identification of factors leading to hypokinesia would make prophylactic and therapeutic actions possible. In this article, authors would like to introduce a new, original tool aiming at diagnosing limitations of motor activity in adults. They propose a synthetic diagnosis of hypokinesia in two domains: biological and psycho-social, which is based on the contemporary model of health. PMID:23487514

  5. Progress and limits of TSE diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Jacques; Maillet, Séverine; Simon, Stéphanie; Morel, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Following the two "mad cow" crises of 1996 and 2000, there was an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnostic methods to identify animals infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. This stimulated research in the field of prion diagnosis and led to the establishment of numerous so-called "rapid tests" which have been in use in Europe since 2001 for monitoring at-risk populations (rendering plants) and animals slaughtered for human consumption (slaughterhouse). These rapid tests have played a critical role in the management of the mad cow crisis by allowing the removal of prion infected carcasses from the human food chain, and by allowing a precise epidemiological monitoring of the BSE epizootic. They are all based on the detection of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc) or PrP(res)) in brain tissues and consequently are only suitable for post-mortem diagnosis. Since it is now very clear that variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) can be transmitted by blood transfusion, the development of a blood test for the diagnosis of vCJD is a top priority. Although significant progress has been made in this direction, including the development of the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology, at the time this paper was written, this objective had not yet been achieved. This is the most important challenge for the years to come in this field of prion research. PMID:18284910

  6. Peripheral Lymphadenopathy: Approach and Diagnostic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Shahrzad; Shojaiefard, Abolfazl; Khorgami, Zhamak; Alinejad, Shahriar; Ghorbani, Ali; Ghafouri, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral lymph nodes, located deep in the subcutaneous tissue, clean antigens from the extracellular fluid. Generally, a normal sized lymph node is less than one cm in diameter. Peripheral lymphadenopathy (LAP) is frequently due to a local or systemic, benign, self-limited, infectious disease. However, it could be a manifestation of underlying malignancy. Seventy-five percent of all LAPs are localized, with more than 50% being seen in the head and neck area. LAP may be localized or generalized. Cervical lymph nodes are involved more often than the other lymphatic regions. Generally, it is due to infections, but most of the supraclavicular lymphadenopathies are associated with malignancy. Based on different geographical areas, the etiology is various. For example, in tropical areas, tuberculosis (TB) is a main benign cause of LAP in adults and children. Complete history taking and physical examination are mandatory for diagnosis; however, laboratory tests, imaging diagnostic methods, and tissue samplings are the next steps. Tissue diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy or excisional biopsy is the gold standard evaluation for LAP. We concluded that in patients with peripheral LAP, the patient’s age and environmental exposures along with a careful history taking and physical examination can help the physician to request step by step further work-up when required, including laboratory tests, imaging modalities, and tissue diagnosis, to reach an appropriate diagnosis. PMID:24753638

  7. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  8. Turfgrass diagnostics and new, advanced technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies for sustainable, integrated disease management start with reliable pathogen identification. Conventional identification methods such as disease symptomology, host association, morphology and biochemical tests are still key diagnostic indicators for many phytopathogens; however, nucleic ac...

  9. DEVICE CONTROL TOOL FOR CEBAF BEAM DIAGNOSTICS SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Chevtsov

    2008-02-11

    Continuously monitoring the beam quality in the CEBAF accelerator, a variety of beam diagnostics software created at Jefferson Lab makes a significant contribution to very high availability of the machine for nuclear physics experiments. The interface between this software and beam instrumentation hardware components is provided by a device control tool, which is optimized for beam diagnostics tasks. As a part of the device/driver development framework at Jefferson Lab, this tool is very easy to support and extend to integrate new beam instrumentation components. All device control functions are based on the configuration (ASCII text) files that completely define the used hardware interface standards (CAMAC, VME, RS-232, GPIB, etc.) and communication protocols. The paper presents the main elements of the device control tool for beam diagnostics software at Jefferson Lab.

  10. Advanced Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop and implement technologies that address advanced combustion diagnostics and rapid Btu measurements of fuels. These are the fundamental weaknesses associated with the combustion processes of a furnace.

  11. METABOLOMICS AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL FISH TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...

  12. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  13. Diagnostics of nonlocal plasmas: advanced techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Strakhova, Anastasiya; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    This talk generalizes our recent results, obtained in different directions of plasma diagnostics. First-method of flat single-sided probe, based on expansion of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in series of Legendre polynomials. It will be demonstrated, that flat probe, oriented under different angles with respect to the discharge axis, allow to determine full EVDF in nonlocal plasmas. It is also shown, that cylindrical probe is unable to determine full EVDF. We propose the solution of this problem by combined using the kinetic Boltzmann equation and experimental probe data. Second-magnetic diagnostics. This method is implemented in knudsen diode with surface ionization of atoms (KDSI) and based on measurements of the magnetic characteristics of the KDSI in presence of transverse magnetic field. Using magnetic diagnostics we can investigate the wide range of plasma processes: from scattering cross-sections of electrons to plasma-surface interactions. Third-noncontact diagnostics method for direct measurements of EVDF in remote plasma objects by combination of the flat single-sided probe technique and magnetic polarization Hanley method.

  14. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  15. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  16. Exposure tool control for advanced semiconductor lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    This is a review paper to show how we control exposure tool parameters in order to satisfy patterning performance and productivity requirements for advanced semiconductor lithography. In this paper, we will discuss how we control illumination source shape to satisfy required imaging performance, heat-induced lens aberration during exposure to minimize the aberration impact on imaging, dose and focus control to realize uniform patterning performance across the wafer and patterning position of circuit patterns on different layers. The contents are mainly about current Nikon immersion exposure tools.

  17. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  18. Genetics, diagnostics and therapeutic advances in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Rinella, Mary E.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, NAFLD was confirmed as the fastest growing aetiology for hepatocellular cancer in the USA. However, 2014 also saw progress in our understanding of the heritability and pathogenesis of NAFLD, and an important clinical trial targeting the farnesoid X receptor pathway has illustrated advances in developing a pharmacological therapy. PMID:25560844

  19. Self-advancing step-tap tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor); Penner, Ronald K. (Inventor); Franklin, Larry D. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and tool for simultaneously forming a bore in a work piece and forming a series of threads in said bore. In an embodiment, the tool has a predetermined axial length, a proximal end, and a distal end, said tool comprising: a shank located at said proximal end; a pilot drill portion located at said distal end; and a mill portion intermediately disposed between said shank and said pilot drill portion. The mill portion is comprised of at least two drill-tap sections of predetermined axial lengths and at least one transition section of predetermined axial length, wherein each of said at least one transition section is sandwiched between a distinct set of two of said at least two drill-tap sections. The at least two drill-tap sections are formed of one or more drill-tap cutting teeth spirally increasing along said at least two drill-tap sections, wherein said tool is self-advanced in said work piece along said formed threads, and wherein said tool simultaneously forms said bore and said series of threads along a substantially similar longitudinal axis.

  20. Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

  1. Diagnostic Tools for Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses Applicable to North American Veterinary Diagnosticians.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William C; Daniels, Peter; Ostlund, Eileen N; Johnson, Donna E; Oberst, Richard D; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Mediger, Jessica; McIntosh, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    This review provides an overview of current and potential new diagnostic tests for bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses compiled from international participants of the Orbivirus Gap Analysis Workshop, Diagnostic Group. The emphasis of this review is on diagnostic tools available to North American veterinary diagnosticians. Standard diagnostic tests are readily available for BT/EHD viruses, and there are described tests that are published in the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual. There is however considerable variation in the diagnostic approach to these viruses. Serological assays are well established, and many laboratories are experienced in running these assays. Numerous nucleic acid amplification assays are also available for BT virus (BTV) and EHD virus (EHDV). Although there is considerable experience with BTV reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), there are no standards or comparisons of the protocols used by various state and federal veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Methods for genotyping BTV and EHDV isolates are available and are valuable tools for monitoring and analyzing circulating viruses. These methods include RT-PCR panels or arrays, RT-PCR and sequencing of specific genome segments, or the use of next-generation sequencing. In addition to enabling virus characterization, use of advanced molecular detection methods, including DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing, significantly enhance the ability to detect unique virus strains that may arise through genetic drift, recombination, or viral genome segment reassortment, as well as incursions of new virus strains from other geographical areas. PMID:26086557

  2. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  3. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology

    PubMed Central

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  4. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  5. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  6. Advances in three-dimensional diagnostic radiology

    PubMed Central

    TER HAAR ROMENY, BART M.; ZUIDERVELD, KAREL J.; VAN WAES, PAUL F. G. M.; VAN WALSUM, THEO; VAN DER WEIJDEN, REMKO; WEICKERT, JOACHIM; STOKKING, RIK; WINK, ONNO; KALITZIN, STILIYAN; MAINTZ, TWAN; ZONNEVELD, FRANS; VIERGEVER, MAX A.

    1998-01-01

    The maturity of current 3D rendering software in combination with recent developments in computer vision techniques enable an exciting range of applications for the visualisation, measurement and interactive manipulation of volumetric data, relevant both for diagnostic imaging and for anatomy. This paper reviews recent work in this area from the Image Sciences Institute at Utrecht University. The processes that yield a useful visual presentation are sequential. After acquisition and before any visualisation, an essential step is to prepare the data properly: this field is known as ‘image processing’ or ‘computer vision’ in analogy with the processing in human vision. Examples will be discussed of modern image enhancement and denoising techniques, and the complex process of automatically finding the objects or regions of interest, i.e. segmentation. One of the newer and promising methodologies for image analysis is based on a mathematical analysis of the human (cortical) visual processing: multiscale image analysis. After preprocessing the 3D rendering can be acquired by simulating the ‘ray casting’ in the computer. New possibilities are presented, such as the integrated visualisation in one image of (accurately registered) datasets of the same patient acquired in different modality scanners. Other examples include colour coding of functional data such as SPECT brain perfusion or functional magnetic resonance (MR) data and even metric data such as skull thickness on the rendered 3D anatomy from MR or computed tomography (CT). Optimal use and perception of 3D visualisation in radiology requires fast display and truly interactive manipulation facilities. Modern and increasingly cheaper workstations (<$10000) allow this to be a reality. It is now possible to manipulate 3D images of 2563 at 15 frames per second interactively, placing virtual reality within reach. The possibilities of modern workstations become increasingly more sophisticated and versatile

  7. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  8. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Misuri, Alessio

    2002-06-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  9. Rapid diagnostics for avian influenza -- Advances in testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of tools are available for the diagnosis of avian influenza virus. They can be generally divided into the serologic diagnostic tests and direct virus detection tests. The serologic tests are important primarily for active surveillance to assure our poultry flocks are free of avian influe...

  10. Advanced smile diagnostics using CAD/CAM mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostics are essential for predictable restorative dentistry. Both patient and clinician must agree on a treatment goal before the final restorations are delivered to avoid future disappointments. However, fully understanding the patient's desires is difficult. A useful tool to overcome this problem is the diagnostic wax-up and mock-up. A potential treatment outcome is modeled in wax prior to treatment and transferred into the patient's mouth using silicon indexes and autopolymerizing resin to obtain the patient's approval. Yet, this time-consuming procedure only produces a single version of the possible treatment outcome, which can be unsatisfactory for both the patient and the restorative team. Contemporary digital technologies may provide advantageous features to aid in this diagnostic treatment step. This article reviews opportunities digital technologies offer in the diagnostic phase, and presents clinical cases to illustrate the procedures. PMID:26171442

  11. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  12. Tomography as a promising diagnostic tool for plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Onchi, T.; Ohshima, S.; Shimizu, A.

    2016-02-01

    A system for plasma turbulence tomography has been developed in a linear cylindrical plasma as a prototype with aiming at future application on toroidal plasma of higher temperature. This paper describes the diagnostic system in both aspects of the soft- and hardware, and reports the first results of tomographic reconstruction that can successfully produce local emission and its fluctuations. In the reconstruction process, two dimensional view of plasma is obtained for approximately 0.6 ms in every sampling time of 1 μs using parallel processing of 120 cores with 10 personal computers. The results include the steady state analysis of local fluctuation power spectra using fast Fourier transform, analysis of temporal behavior of fluctuation power spectra with wavelet transform, and analyses of the structural deformation or pattern of local plasma emission, demonstrating that the success of tomography as a promising diagnostic tool for plasma turbulence.

  13. Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Malon, Radha S. P.; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

  14. Development of advanced composite ceramic tool material

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Chuanzhen; Ai Xing

    1996-08-01

    An advanced ceramic cutting tool material has been developed by means of silicon carbide whisker (SiCw) reinforcement and silicon carbide particle (SiCp) dispersion. The material has the advantage of high bending strength and fracture toughness. Compared with the mechanical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiCp(AP), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiCw(JX-1), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiCp/SiCw(JX-2-I), it confirms that JX-2-I composites have obvious additive effects of both reinforcing and toughening. The reinforcing and toughening mechanisms of JX-2-I composites were studied based on the analysis of thermal expansion mismatch and the observation of microstructure. The cutting performance of JX-2-I composites was investigated primarily.

  15. Development of Doppler Global Velocimetry as a Flow Diagnostics Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The development of Doppler global velocimetry is described from its inception to its use as a flow diagnostics tool. Its evolution is traced from an elementary one-component laboratory prototype, to a full three-component configuration operating in a wind tunnel at focal distances exceeding 15 m. As part of the developmental process, several wind tunnel flow field investigations were conducted. These included supersonic flow measurements about an oblique shock, subsonic and supersonic measurements of the vortex flow above a delta wing, and three-component measurements of a high-speed jet.

  16. Diagnostic tools for mixing models of stream water chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Mixing models provide a useful null hypothesis against which to evaluate processes controlling stream water chemical data. Because conservative mixing of end-members with constant concentration is a linear process, a number of simple mathematical and multivariate statistical methods can be applied to this problem. Although mixing models have been most typically used in the context of mixing soil and groundwater end-members, an extension of the mathematics of mixing models is presented that assesses the "fit" of a multivariate data set to a lower dimensional mixing subspace without the need for explicitly identified end-members. Diagnostic tools are developed to determine the approximate rank of the data set and to assess lack of fit of the data. This permits identification of processes that violate the assumptions of the mixing model and can suggest the dominant processes controlling stream water chemical variation. These same diagnostic tools can be used to assess the fit of the chemistry of one site into the mixing subspace of a different site, thereby permitting an assessment of the consistency of controlling end-members across sites. This technique is applied to a number of sites at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed located near Atlanta, Georgia.

  17. Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) Testability Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossenfort, John

    2008-01-01

    As system designs become more complex, determining the best locations to add sensors and test points for the purpose of testing and monitoring these designs becomes more difficult. Not only must the designer take into consideration all real and potential faults of the system, he or she must also find efficient ways of detecting and isolating those faults. Because sensors and cabling take up valuable space and weight on a system, and given constraints on bandwidth and power, it is even more difficult to add sensors into these complex designs after the design has been completed. As a result, a number of software tools have been developed to assist the system designer in proper placement of these sensors during the system design phase of a project. One of the key functions provided by many of these software programs is a testability analysis of the system essentially an evaluation of how observable the system behavior is using available tests. During the design phase, testability metrics can help guide the designer in improving the inherent testability of the design. This may include adding, removing, or modifying tests; breaking up feedback loops, or changing the system to reduce fault propagation. Given a set of test requirements, the analysis can also help to verify that the system will meet those requirements. Of course, a testability analysis requires that a software model of the physical system is available. For the analysis to be most effective in guiding system design, this model should ideally be constructed in parallel with these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to present the final testability results of the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) after the system model was completed. The tool chosen to build the model and to perform the testability analysis with is the Testability Engineering and Maintenance System Designer (TEAMS-Designer). The TEAMS toolset is intended to be a solution to span all phases of the system, from design and

  18. Insulator-based dielectrophoretic diagnostic tool for babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Adekanmbi, Ezekiel O; Ueti, Massaro W; Rinaldi, Brady; Suarez, Carlos E; Srivastava, Soumya K

    2016-05-01

    Babesia species are obligate intraerythrocytic tick-borne protozoan parasites that are the etiologic agents of babesiosis, a potentially life-threatening, malaria-like illness in humans and animals. Babesia-infected people have been known to suffer from complications including liver problems, severe hemolytic anemia, and kidney failure. As reported by the Food and Drug Administration, 38% of mortality cases observed in transfusion recipients were associated with transfusion transmitted diseases of which babesiosis is the chief culprit. As of now, no tests have been licensed yet for screening blood donors for babesiosis. Current diagnostic tools for babesiosis including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction are expensive and burdened with multifarious shortcomings. In this research, a low-cost, high-specificity, quick, and easy-to-use insulator-based dielectrophoretic diagnostic tool is developed for characterizing and concentrating Babesia-infected cells in their homogenous mixture with healthy cell population. In this work, a mixture of Babesia-infected (varying parasitemia) and healthy red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) was exposed to non-uniform electric fields in a fabricated microfluidic platform to manipulate and sort the Babesia-infected cells within a minute. At DC voltage configurations of 10 V and 0/6 V in the inlet and the two outlet channels, respectively, the diseased cells were seen to flow in a direction different from the healthy RBCs. Bright field and fluorescence microscopy were utilized to present qualitative differentiation of the healthy erythrocytes from the infected cells. The proposed micro device platform was able to enrich RBCs from 0.1% to ∼70% parasitemia. This device, when finally developed into a point-of-care diagnostic chip, would enhance the detection of Babesia-infected erythrocytes and as well serve as a precursor to babesiosis vaccine development. PMID

  19. Synergistic advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizzi, Frederic L.

    2003-04-01

    Significant advances are more fully exploiting ultrasound's potential for noninvasive diagnosis and treatment. Therapeutic systems employ intense focused beams to thermally kill cancer cells in, e.g., prostate; to stop bleeding; and to treat specific diseases (e.g., glaucoma). Diagnostic ultrasound techniques can quantitatively image an increasingly broad spectrum of physical tissue attributes. An exciting aspect of this progress is the emerging synergy between these modalities. Advanced diagnostic techniques may contribute at several stages in therapy. For example, treatment planning for small ocular tumors uses 50-MHz, 3-D ultrasonic images with 0.05-mm resolution. Thermal simulations employ these images to evaluate desired and undesired effects using exposure stategies with specially designed treatment beams. Therapy beam positioning can use diagnostic elastography to sense tissue motion induced by radiation pressure from high-intensity treatment beams. Therapy monitoring can sense lesion formation using elastography motion sensing (to detect the increased stiffness in lesions); harmonic imaging (to sense altered nonlinear properties); and spectrum analysis images (depicting changes in the sizes, concentration, and configuration of sub-resolution structures.) Experience from these applications will greatly expand the knowledge of acoustic phenomena in living tissues and should lead to further advances in medical ultrasound.

  20. Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP); (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW); and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.

  1. Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

  2. Psychological autopsy studies as diagnostic tools: are they methodologically flawed?

    PubMed

    Hjelmeland, Heidi; Dieserud, Gudrun; Dyregrov, Kari; Knizek, Birthe L; Leenaars, Antoon A

    2012-08-01

    One of the most established "truths" in suicidology is that almost all (90% or more) of those who kill themselves suffer from one or more mental disorders, and a causal link between the two is implied. Psychological autopsy (PA) studies constitute one main evidence base for this conclusion. However, there has been little reflection on the reliability and validity of this method. For example, psychiatric diagnoses are assigned to people who have died by suicide by interviewing a few of the relatives and/or friends, often many years after the suicide. In this article, we scrutinize PA studies with particular focus on the diagnostic process and demonstrate that they cannot constitute a valid evidence base for a strong relationship between mental disorders and suicide. We show that most questions asked to assign a diagnosis are impossible to answer reliably by proxies, and thus, one cannot validly make conclusions. Thus, as a diagnostic tool psychological autopsies should now be abandoned. Instead, we recommend qualitative approaches focusing on the understanding of suicide beyond mental disorders, where narratives from a relatively high number of informants around each suicide are systematically analyzed in terms of the informants' relationships with the deceased. PMID:24563941

  3. An Early Diagnostic Tool for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kambiz, Shoista; van Neck, Johan W.; Cosgun, Saniye G.; van Velzen, Marit H. N.; Janssen, Joop A. M. J. L.; Avazverdi, Naim; Hovius, Steven E. R.; Walbeehm, Erik T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin’s rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the skin rewarming rate in diabetic rats is related to microvascular changes and whether this is accompanied by changes observed in classical diagnostic methods for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Computer-assisted infrared thermography was used to assess the rewarming rate after cold exposure on the plantar skin of STZ diabetic rats’ hind paws. Peripheral neuropathy was determined by the density of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENFs), mechanical sensitivity, and electrophysiological recordings. Data were obtained in diabetic rats at four, six, and eight weeks after the induction of diabetes and in controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, a delayed rewarming rate, decreased skin blood flow and decreased density of IENFs were observed. However, the mechanical hyposensitivity and decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) developed 6 and 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Our study shows that the skin rewarming rate is related to microvascular changes in diabetic rats. Moreover, the skin rewarming rate is a non-invasive method that provides more information for an earlier diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy than the classical monofilament test and MNCV in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:25984949

  4. Wavelet analysis as a nonstationary plasma fluctuation diagnostic tool

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, S.; Powers, E.J.; Ouroua, A.; Heard, J.W.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Analysis of nonstationary plasma fluctuation data has been a long-time challenge for the plasma diagnostic community. For this reason, in this paper the authors present and apply wavelet transforms as a new diagnostic tool to analyze nonstationary plasma fluctuation data. Unlike the Fourier transform, which represents a given signal globally without temporal resolution, the wavelet transform provides a local representation of the given signal in the time-scale domain. The fundamental concepts and multiresolution properties of wavelet transforms, along with a brief comparison with the short-time Fourier transform, are presented in this paper. The selection of a prototype wavelet or a mother wavelet is also discussed. Digital implementation of wavelet spectral analysis, which include time-scale power spectra and scale power spectra are described. The efficacy of the wavelet approach is demonstrated by analyzing transient broadband electrostatic potential fluctuations inside the inversion radius of sawtoothing TEXT-U plasmas during electron cyclotron resonance heating. The potential signals are collected using a 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe.

  5. Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Hentschel, Werner

    2000-08-01

    Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline engines to further reduce fuel consumption and pollution. Pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and holographic interferometry are used for analysing the knocking behaviour of modern engines and for correct positioning of knocking sensors. Holographic interferometry shows up the vibrational behaviour of brake components and their interaction during braking, and allows optimisation for noise-free brake systems. Scanning laser vibrometry analyses structure-born noise of a whole car body for the optimisation of its interior acoustical behaviour.Modern engine combustion concepts such as in direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines benefit from laser diagnostic tools which permit deeper insight into the in-cylinder processes such as flow generation, fuel injection and spray formation, atomisation and mixing, ignition and combustion, and formation and reduction of pollutants. The necessary optical access inside a cylinder is realised by so-called 'transparent engines' allowing measurements nearly during the whole engine cycle. Measurement techniques and results on double-pulse particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a frequency-doubled YAG laser for in-cylinder flow analysis are presented, as well as Mie-scattering on droplets using a copper vapour laser combined with high-speed filming, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with an excimer laser for spray and fuel vapour analysis.

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: advances in disease pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ameen, M

    2010-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common tropical dermatoses worldwide and is of major public health importance. It is caused by numerous Leishmania protozoa species, which are responsible for its clinical diversity. With changes in vector (sandfly) habitat and increased travel among human populations, its incidence is rising, and in nonendemic countries, including the UK, it is increasingly diagnosed in migrants, returned travellers, and military personnel. Diagnostic tests have not always been sufficiently sensitive, and despite a wide range of treatments, poor therapeutic responses and adverse effects are common. In the past decade, there have been notable advances in molecular diagnostics, in the understanding of host immune responses to infection, and in new therapeutic interventions and vaccine development. PMID:20831602

  7. Evaluation of free non-diagnostic DICOM software tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei; Deserno, Thomas M.; Spitzer, Klaus

    2008-03-01

    A variety of software exists to interpret files or directories compliant to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard and display them as individual images or volume rendered objects. Some of them offer further processing and analysis features. The surveys that have been published so far are partly not up-to-date anymore, and neither a detailed description of the software functions nor a comprehensive comparison is given. This paper aims at evaluation and comparison of freely available, non-diagnostic DICOM software with respect to the following aspects: (i) data import; (ii) data export; (iii) header viewing; (iv) 2D image viewing; (v) 3D volume viewing; (vi) support; (vii) portability; (viii) workability; and (ix) usability. In total, 21 tools were included: 3D Slicer, AMIDE, BioImage Suite, DicomWorks, EViewBox, ezDICOM, FPImage, ImageJ, JiveX, Julius, MedImaView, MedINRIA, MicroView, MIPAV, MRIcron, Osiris, PMSDView, Syngo FastView, TomoVision, UniViewer, and XMedCon. Our results in table form can ease the selection of appropriate DICOM software tools. In particular, we discuss use cases for the inexperienced user, data conversion, and volume rendering, and suggest Syngo FastView or PMSDView, DicomWorks or XMedCon, and ImageJ or UniViewer, respectively.

  8. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Chen, D L; Shen, B; Granetz, R S; Sun, Y; Qian, J P; Wang, Y; Xiao, B J

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well. PMID:26520954

  9. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P. Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.; Granetz, R. S.

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  10. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Patterson, D.; Wang, X.

    1995-07-01

    Principal diagnostics systems have been installed and nearly all have been commissioned on the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility. Data have been obtained on beam position, beam profile, current, beam loss rate, and synchrotron radiation monitors on both injector rings and most recently the main 7-GeV storage ring. Results for the 150- to 450-MeV electron beams in the accumulator ring, up to 7 GeV in the injector synchrotron, and 4.5 to 7 GeV in the SR will be presented.

  11. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p < 0.05) in the advice network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p > 0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343

  12. Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

    2014-01-01

    Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

  13. Advancing the science of measurement of diagnostic errors in healthcare: the Safer Dx framework

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic errors are major contributors to harmful patient outcomes, yet they remain a relatively understudied and unmeasured area of patient safety. Although they are estimated to affect about 12 million Americans each year in ambulatory care settings alone, both the conceptual and pragmatic scientific foundation for their measurement is under-developed. Health care organizations do not have the tools and strategies to measure diagnostic safety and most have not integrated diagnostic error into their existing patient safety programs. Further progress toward reducing diagnostic errors will hinge on our ability to overcome measurement-related challenges. In order to lay a robust groundwork for measurement and monitoring techniques to ensure diagnostic safety, we recently developed a multifaceted framework to advance the science of measuring diagnostic errors (The Safer Dx framework). In this paper, we describe how the framework serves as a conceptual foundation for system-wide safety measurement, monitoring and improvement of diagnostic error. The framework accounts for the complex adaptive sociotechnical system in which diagnosis takes place (the structure), the distributed process dimensions in which diagnoses evolve beyond the doctor's visit (the process) and the outcomes of a correct and timely “safe diagnosis” as well as patient and health care outcomes (the outcomes). We posit that the Safer Dx framework can be used by a variety of stakeholders including researchers, clinicians, health care organizations and policymakers, to stimulate both retrospective and more proactive measurement of diagnostic errors. The feedback and learning that would result will help develop subsequent interventions that lead to safer diagnosis, improved value of health care delivery and improved patient outcomes. PMID:25589094

  14. Diagnostic imaging advances in murine models of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Markus; Lenz, Philipp; Mücke, Marcus M; Gohar, Faekah; Willeke, Peter; Domagk, Dirk; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic-remittent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract still evoking challenging clinical diagnostic and therapeutic situations. Murine models of experimental colitis are a vital component of research into human IBD concerning questions of its complex pathogenesis or the evaluation of potential new drugs. To monitor the course of colitis, to the present day, classical parameters like histological tissue alterations or analysis of mucosal cytokine/chemokine expression often require euthanasia of animals. Recent advances mean revolutionary non-invasive imaging techniques for in vivo murine colitis diagnostics are increasingly available. These novel and emerging imaging techniques not only allow direct visualization of intestinal inflammation, but also enable molecular imaging and targeting of specific alterations of the inflamed murine mucosa. For the first time, in vivo imaging techniques allow for longitudinal examinations and evaluation of intra-individual therapeutic response. This review discusses the latest developments in the different fields of ultrasound, molecularly targeted contrast agent ultrasound, fluorescence endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy as well as tomographic imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and fluorescence-mediated tomography, discussing their individual limitations and potential future diagnostic applications in the management of human patients with IBD. PMID:26811642

  15. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources.

    PubMed

    Bundesmann, C; Tartz, M; Scholze, F; Leiter, H J; Scortecci, F; Gnizdor, R Y; Neumann, H

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1. PMID:20441379

  16. Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Wapner, Ronald J; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The past few years have seen extraordinary advances in prenatal genetic practice led by 2 major technological advances; next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma to noninvasively identify fetal chromosome abnormalities, and microarray analysis of chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid samples, resulting in increased cytogenetic resolution. Noninvasive prenatal screening of cell-free DNA has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 superior to all previous screening approaches with slightly lower performance for other common aneuploidies. These tests have rapidly captured an increasing market share, with substantial reductions in the number of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis performed suggesting that physicians and patients regard such screening approaches as an equivalent replacement for diagnostic testing. Simultaneously, many clinical programs have noted significant decreases in patient counseling. In 2012 the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded a blinded comparison of karyotype with the emerging technology of array comparative genomic hybridization showing that in patients with a normal karyotype, 2.5% had a clinically relevant microdeletion or duplication identified. In pregnancies with an ultrasound-detected structural anomaly, 6% had an incremental finding, and of those with a normal scan, 1.6% had a copy number variant. For patients of any age with a normal ultrasound and karyotype, the chance of a pathogenic copy number variant is greater than 1%, similar to the age-related risk of aneuploidy in the fetus of a 38 year old. This risk is 4-fold higher than the risk of trisomy 21 in a woman younger than 30 years and 5- to 10-fold higher than the present accepted risk of a diagnostic procedure. Based on this, we contend that every patient, regardless of her age, be educated about these risks and offered the opportunity to have a diagnostic procedure with

  17. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  18. Prediction of liver cirrhosis, using diagnostic imaging tools

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Suk Keu; Lee, Chang Hee; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is important. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. However, its invasiveness and sampling bias limit the applicability of the method. Basic imaging for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis has developed over the last few decades, enabling early detection of morphological changes of the liver by ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are also accurate diagnostic methods for advanced liver cirrhosis, for which early diagnosis is difficult. There are a number of ways to compensate for this difficulty, including texture analysis to more closely identify the homogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, elastography to measure the stiffness and elasticity of the liver, and perfusion studies to determine the blood flow volume, transit time, and velocity. Amongst these methods, elastography using US and MRI was found to be slightly easier, faster, and able to provide an accurate diagnosis. Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis using MRI or US elastography is therefore a realistic alternative, but further research is still needed. PMID:26301049

  19. Diagnostic tools for hypertension and salt sensitivity testing

    PubMed Central

    Felder, Robin A.; White, Marquitta J.; Williams, Scott M.; Jose, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review One-third of the world’s population has hypertension and it is responsible for almost 50% of deaths from stroke or coronary heart disease. These statistics do not distinguish salt-sensitive from salt-resistant hypertension or include normotensives who are salt-sensitive even though salt sensitivity, independent of blood pressure, is a risk factor for cardiovascular and other diseases, including cancer. This review describes new personalized diagnostic tools for salt sensitivity. Recent findings The relationship between salt intake and cardiovascular risk is not linear, but rather fits a J-shaped curve relationship. Thus, a low-salt diet may not be beneficial to everyone and may paradoxically increase blood pressure in some individuals. Current surrogate markers of salt sensitivity are not adequately sensitive or specific. Tests in the urine that could be surrogate markers of salt sensitivity with a quick turn-around time include renal proximal tubule cells, exosomes, and microRNA shed in the urine. Summary Accurate testing of salt sensitivity is not only laborious but also expensive, and with low patient compliance. Patients who have normal blood pressure but are salt-sensitive cannot be diagnosed in an office setting and there are no laboratory tests for salt sensitivity. Urinary surrogate markers for salt sensitivity are being developed. PMID:23197156

  20. Development of diagnostic tools for the EUV spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Kranzusch, Sebastian; Eckert, G.; Peth, Christian; Schaefer, Bernd

    2002-07-01

    The successful implementation of EUV lithography systems strongly relies both on the efficiency of the employed optical components and the precise control of the relevant source parameters. Utilizing a laser-based plasma source for the generation of 13nm radiation, metrology for comprehensive characterization of EUV radiation and the related optics is developed at Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen. A soft X-ray plasma is produced with the help of a Nd:YAG laser which is focused into a pulsed xenon or oxygen gas jet. The alternate use of these two target gases accomplishes either a very intense broadband emission (Xe), or a less intense narrow-band line emission (O2) at the wavelength of 13nm. Additional filtering with the help of Mo/Si mirrors yields quasi-monochromatic 13nm radiation, as needed for testing of optical components, especially reflectometry. The performance of the EUV source is monitored with respect to source diameter, emission characteristics, and 13nm conversion efficiency by the help of different diagnostic tools, including EUV sensitive pin-hole cameras, photo-diodes and an EUV spectrometer. Moreover, first wavefront measurements of EUV radiation are performed with the help of a Hartmann wavefront analyzer, which was sensibilized for 13nm radiation.

  1. SEM analysis as a diagnostic tool for photovoltaic cell degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osayemwenre, Gilbert; Meyer, E. L.

    2013-04-01

    The importance of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis as a diagnostic tool for analyzing the degradation of a polycrystalline Photovoltaic cell has been studied. The main aim of this study is to characterize the surface morphology of hot spot regions (degraded) cells in photovoltaic solar cells. In recent years, production of hetero and multi-junction solar cells has experience tremendous growth as compared to conventional silicon (Si) solar cells. Thin film photovoltaic solar cells generally are more prone to exhibiting defects and associated degradation modes. To improve the lifetime of these cells and modules, it is imperative to fully understand the cause and effect of defects and degradation modes. The objective of this paper is to diagnose the observed degradation in polycrystalline silicon cells, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study poly-Si cells were characterize before and after reverse biasing, the reverse biasing was done to evaluate the cells' susceptibility to leakage currents and hotspots formation. After reverse biasing, some cells were found to exhibit hotspots as confirmed by infrared thermography. The surface morphology of these hotspots re

  2. 77 FR 42504 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of a Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign Versus Malignant Thyroid Lesions AGENCY: National Institutes of Health.../024,845 and foreign equivalents thereof entitled ``Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign...

  3. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  4. Visualization tool for advanced laser system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Gregg A.; Brunson, Richard L.

    2002-06-01

    Simulation development for Laser Weapon Systems design and system trade analyses has progressed to new levels with the advent of object-oriented software development tools and PC processor capabilities. These tools allow rapid visualization of upcoming laser weapon system architectures and the ability to rapidly respond to what-if scenario questions from potential user commands. These simulations can solve very intensive problems in short time periods to investigate the parameter space of a newly emerging weapon system concept, or can address user mission performance for many different scenario engagements. Equally important to the rapid solution of complex numerical problems is the ability to rapidly visualize the results of the simulation, and to effectively interact with visualized output to glean new insights into the complex interactions of a scenario. Boeing has applied these ideas to develop a tool called the Satellite Visualization and Signature Tool (SVST). This Windows application is based upon a series of C++ coded modules that have evolved from several programs at Boeing-SVS. The SVST structure, extensibility, and some recent results of applying the simulation to weapon system concepts and designs will be discussed in this paper.

  5. Perspectives on Advances in Tuberculosis Diagnostics, Drugs, and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schito, Marco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Fletcher, Helen A; McNerney, Ruth; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Bates, Matthew; Kibiki, Gibson; Kapata, Nathan; Corrah, Tumena; Bomanji, Jamshed; Vilaplana, Cris; Johnson, Daniel; Mwaba, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-10-15

    Despite concerted efforts over the past 2 decades at developing new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines with expanding pipelines, tuberculosis remains a global emergency. Several novel diagnostic technologies show promise of better point-of-care rapid tests for tuberculosis including nucleic acid-based amplification tests, imaging, and breath analysis of volatile organic compounds. Advances in new and repurposed drugs for use in multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis have focused on development of several new drug regimens and their evaluation in clinical trials and now influence World Health Organization guidelines. Since the failure of the MVA85A vaccine 2 years ago, there have been no new tuberculosis vaccine candidates entering clinical testing. The current status quo of the lengthy treatment duration and poor treatment outcomes associated with MDR/XDR tuberculosis and with comorbidity of tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus and noncommunicable diseases is unacceptable. New innovations and political and funder commitment for early rapid diagnosis, shortening duration of therapy, improving treatment outcomes, and prevention are urgently required. PMID:26409271

  6. Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The iconic, orange external tank of the space shuttle launch system not only contains the fuel used by the shuttle s main engines during liftoff but also comprises the shuttle s backbone, supporting the space shuttle orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Given the tank s structural importance and the extreme forces (7.8 million pounds of thrust load) and temperatures it encounters during launch, the welds used to construct the tank must be highly reliable. Variable polarity plasma arc welding, developed for manufacturing the external tank and later employed for building the International Space Station, was until 1994 the best process for joining the aluminum alloys used during construction. That year, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers began experimenting with a relatively new welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW), developed in 1991 by The Welding Institute, of Cambridge, England. FSW differs from traditional fusion welding in that it is a solid-state welding technique, using frictional heat and motion to join structural components without actually melting any of the material. The weld is created by a shouldered pin tool that is plunged into the seam of the materials to be joined. The tool traverses the line while rotating at high speeds, generating friction that heats and softens but does not melt the metal. (The heat produced approaches about 80 percent of the metal s melting temperature.) The pin tool s rotation crushes and stirs the plasticized metal, extruding it along the seam as the tool moves forward. The material cools and consolidates, resulting in a weld with superior mechanical properties as compared to those weld properties of fusion welds. The innovative FSW technology promises a number of attractive benefits. Because the welded materials are not melted, many of the undesirables associated with fusion welding porosity, cracking, shrinkage, and distortion of the weld are minimized or avoided. The process is more energy efficient, safe

  7. Review of rapid molecular diagnostic tools for avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular diagnostics tests are commonly used to diagnose avian influenza virus (AIV) because they are sensitive, can be performed rapidly, with high throughput, and at a moderate cost. Molecular diagnostic tests have recently proven themselves to be invaluable in controlling disease outbreaks arou...

  8. Intelligent Software Tools for Advanced Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, C.W.

    2001-04-03

    Feature extraction and evaluation are two procedures common to the development of any pattern recognition application. These features are the primary pieces of information which are used to train the pattern recognition tool, whether that tool is a neural network, a fuzzy logic rulebase, or a genetic algorithm. Careful selection of the features to be used by the pattern recognition tool can significantly streamline the overall development and training of the solution for the pattern recognition application. This report summarizes the development of an integrated, computer-based software package called the Feature Extraction Toolbox (FET), which can be used for the development and deployment of solutions to generic pattern recognition problems. This toolbox integrates a number of software techniques for signal processing, feature extraction and evaluation, and pattern recognition, all under a single, user-friendly development environment. The toolbox has been developed to run on a laptop computer, so that it may be taken to a site and used to develop pattern recognition applications in the field. A prototype version of this toolbox has been completed and is currently being used for applications development on several projects in support of the Department of Energy.

  9. Performance evaluation of computer aided diagnostic tool (CAD) for detection of ultrasonic based liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sriraam, N; Roopa, J; Saranya, M; Dhanalakshmi, M

    2009-08-01

    Recent advances in digital imaging technology have greatly enhanced the interpretation of critical/pathology conditions from the 2-dimensional medical images. This has become realistic due to the existence of the computer aided diagnostic tool. A computer aided diagnostic (CAD) tool generally possesses components like preprocessing, identification/selection of region of interest, extraction of typical features and finally an efficient classification system. This paper enumerates on development of CAD tool for classification of chronic liver disease through the 2-D image acquired from ultrasonic device. Characterization of tissue through qualitative treatment leads to the detection of abnormality which is not viable through qualitative visual inspection by the radiologist. Common liver diseases are the indicators of changes in tissue elasticity. One can show the detection of normal, fatty or malignant condition based on the application of CAD tool thereby, further investigation required by radiologist can be avoided. The proposed work involves an optimal block analysis (64 x 64) of the liver image of actual size 256 x 256 by incorporating Gabor wavelet transform which does the texture classification through automated mode. Statistical features such as gray level mean as well as variance values are estimated after this preprocessing mode. A non-linear back propagation neural network (BPNN) is applied for classifying the normal (vs) fatty and normal (vs) malignant liver which yields a classification accuracy of 96.8%. Further multi classification is also performed and a classification accuracy of 94% is obtained. It can be concluded that the proposed CAD can be used as an expert system to aid the automated diagnosis of liver diseases. PMID:19697693

  10. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  11. [Advance directives, a tool to humanize care].

    PubMed

    Olmari-Ebbing, M; Zumbach, C N; Forest, M I; Rapin, C H

    2000-07-01

    The relationship between the patient and a medical care giver is complex specially as it implies to the human, juridical and practical points of view. It depends on legal and deontological considerations, but also on professional habits. Today, we are confronted to a fundamental modification of this relationship. Professional guidelines exist, but are rarely applied and rarely taught in universities. However, patients are eager to move from a paternalistic relationship to a true partnership, more harmonious and more respectful of individual values ("value based medicine"). Advance directives give us an opportunity to improve our practices and to provide care consistent with the needs and wishes of each patient. PMID:10967645

  12. Biomarkers and diagnostic tools for detection of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Khalilpour, Akbar; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for worldwide chronic bacterial infection in humans affecting approximately half of the world's population. H. pylori is associated with significant morbidity and mortality including gastric cancer. The infection has both direct and indirect impacts on economic and overall well-being of patients; hence, there is a great need for diagnostic markers that could be used in the development of diagnostic kits. Here, we briefly review general aspects of H. pylori infection and the diagnostic biomarkers used in laboratory tests today with a focus on the potential role of microfluidic systems in future immunodiagnosis platforms. PMID:27084783

  13. Quantitative MRI as a diagnostic tool of intervertebral disc matrix composition and integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Fackson; Iatridis, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease has been implicated as a major component of spine pathology. The current major clinical procedures for treating disc degeneration have been disappointing, because of altered spinal mechanics leading to subsequent degeneration at adjacent disc levels. Disc pathology treatment is shifting toward prevention and treatment of underlying etiologic processes at the level of the disc matrix composition and integrity and the biomechanics of the disc. The ability to perform such treatment relies on one’s ability to accurately and objectively assess the state of the matrix and the effectiveness of treatment by a non-invasive technique. In this review, we will summarize our advances in efforts to develop an objective, accurate, non-invasive diagnostic tool (quantitative MRI) in the detection and quantification of matrix composition and integrity and of biomechanical changes in early intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:19005703

  14. Mobile Phones Democratize and Cultivate Next-Generation Imaging, Diagnostics and Measurement Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run e.g., biomedical tests and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally. PMID:24647550

  15. Endoscopy and polyps-diagnostic and therapeutic advances in management

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Scott R; Johnson, Eric K; Champagne, Bradley; Davis, Brad; Lee, Sang; Rivadeneira, David; Ross, Howard; Hayden, Dana A; Maykel, Justin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts aimed at early detection through screening, colon cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with an estimated 51000 deaths during 2013 alone. The goal remains to identify and remove benign neoplastic polyps prior to becoming invasive cancers. Polypoid lesions of the colon vary widely from hyperplastic, hamartomatous and inflammatory to neoplastic adenomatous growths. Although these lesions are all benign, they are common, with up to one-quarter of patients over 60 years old will develop pre-malignant adenomatous polyps. Colonoscopy is the most effective screening tool to detect polyps and colon cancer, although several studies have demonstrated missed polyp rates from 6%-29%, largely due to variations in polyp size. This number can be as high as 40%, even with advanced (> 1 cm) adenomas. Other factors including sub-optimal bowel preparation, experience of the endoscopist, and patient anatomical variations all affect the detection rate. Additional challenges in decision-making exist when dealing with more advanced, and typically larger, polyps that have traditionally required formal resection. In this brief review, we will explore the recent advances in polyp detection and therapeutic options. PMID:23885138

  16. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization has become one of the major forces of change around the globe. Land use transformation, especially urbanization has the most profound influences of human activities because it affects so many of the planet's physical and biological systems. Land use changes directly impact the ability of the earth to continue to provide ecological services to human society and the other occupants of the ecosystems. The urban process gradually degrades and transforms agricultural and natural ecosystems into built environments. The urban environment includes cities, suburbs, peri-urban areas and towns. Urban ecosystems are highly heterogeneous due to the variety of land covers and land purposes. Thus, the choices on managing the extent and arranging the land cover patches (e.g., lawns) assist to shape the emergent structure and function of the urban ecosystems. As a result of ecological conditions and current management status the urban soils show substantial spatial heterogeneity. Whereas, adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems have been demonstrated, one important need for environmental impact assessment have been defined as maintenance of long-term monitoring systems, which can enable to improve monitoring, modelling and assessment of various stressors in agriculture environment. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy across visible-near- short- mid- and long- wave infrared (0.4-14μm) has the potential to meet this demand. Relationships between spectral reflectance and soil properties, such as grain size distribution, moisture, iron oxides, carbonate content, and organic matter, have already been established in many studies (Krishnan et al. 1980, Ben-Dor and Banin 1995, Jarmer et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009). The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic tool for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and other anthropogenic contaminants in urban soil using spectroscopy

  17. Advanced machine tools, loading systems viewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkov, V. I.

    1986-03-01

    The machine-tooling complex built from a revolving lathe and a two-armed robot designed to machine short revolving bodies including parts with curvilinear and threaded surfaces from piece blanks in either small-series or series multiitem production is described. The complex consists of: (1) a model 1V340F30 revolving lathe with a vertical axis of rotation, 8-position revolving head on a cross carriage and an Elektronika NTs-31 on-line control system; (2) a gantry-style two-armed M20-Ts robot with a 20-kilogram (20 x 2) load capacity; and (3) an 8-position indexable blank table, one of whose positions is for initial unloading of finished parts. Subsequently, machined parts are set onto the position into which all of the blanks are unloaded. Complex enclosure allows adjustment and process correction during maintenance and convenient observation of the machining process.

  18. Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.

  19. Technology in radiology: advances in diagnostic imaging & therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Stern, S M

    1993-01-01

    Nearly 100 years from its birth, radiology continues to grow as though still in adolescence. Although some radiologic technologies have matured more than others, new applications and techniques appear regularly in the literature. Radiology has evolved from purely diagnostic devices to interventional technologies. New contrast agents in MRI, X ray and ultrasound enable physicians to make diagnoses and plan therapies with greater precision than ever before. Techniques are less and less invasive. Advances in computer technology have given supercomputer-like power to high-end nuclear medicine and MRI systems. Imaging systems in most modalities are now designed with upgrades in mind instead of "planned obsolescence." Companies routinely upgrade software and other facets of their products, sometimes at no additional charge to existing customers. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will face increasing demands to justify what they do according to patient outcomes and management criteria. Did images make the diagnosis or confirm it? Did the images determine optimal treatment strategies or confirm which strategies might be appropriate? Third-party payers, especially the government, will view radiology in those terms. The diagnostic imaging and therapy systems of today require increasingly sophisticated technical support for maintenance and repair. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will have to determine the most economic and effective ways to guarantee equipment up-time. Borrowing from the automotive industry, some radiology manufacturers have devised transtelephonic software systems to facilitate remote troubleshooting. To ensure their fiscal viability, hospitals continue to acquire new imaging and therapy technologies for competitive and access-to-services reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10129808

  20. Advances in nanocrystallography as a proteomic tool.

    PubMed

    Pechkova, Eugenia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nicolini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the difficulties and hurdles too much often encountered in crystallizing a protein with the conventional techniques, our group has introduced the innovative Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)-based crystallization, as a major advance in the field of both structural and functional proteomics, thus pioneering the emerging field of the so-called nanocrystallography or nanobiocrystallography. This approach uniquely combines protein crystallography and nanotechnologies within an integrated, coherent framework that allows one to obtain highly stable protein crystals and to fully characterize them at a nano- and subnanoscale. A variety of experimental techniques and theoretical/semi-theoretical approaches, ranging from atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, Raman spectroscopy and other spectroscopic methods, microbeam grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering to in silico simulations, bioinformatics, and molecular dynamics, has been exploited in order to study the LB-films and to investigate the kinetics and the main features of LB-grown crystals. When compared to classical hanging-drop crystallization, LB technique appears strikingly superior and yields results comparable with crystallization in microgravity environments. Therefore, the achievement of LB-based crystallography can have a tremendous impact in the field of industrial and clinical/therapeutic applications, opening new perspectives for personalized medicine. These implications are envisaged and discussed in the present contribution. PMID:24985772

  1. Advanced tool kits for EPR security.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B

    2000-11-01

    Responding to the challenge for efficient and high quality health care, the shared care paradigm must be established in health. In that context, information systems such as electronic patient records (EPR) have to meet this paradigm supporting communication and interoperation between the health care establishments (HCE) and health professionals (HP) involved. Due to the sensitivity of personal medical information, this co-operation must be provided in a trustworthy way. To enable different views of HCE and HP ranging from management, doctors, nurses up to systems administrators and IT professionals, a set of models for analysis, design and implementation of secure distributed EPR has been developed and introduced. The approach is based on the popular UML methodology and the component paradigm for open, interoperable systems. Easy to use tool kits deal with both application security services and communication security services but also with the security infrastructure needed. Regarding the requirements for distributed multi-user EPRs, modelling and implementation of policy agreements, authorisation and access control are especially considered. Current developments for a security infrastructure in health care based on cryptographic algorithms as health professional cards (HPC), security services employing digital signatures, and health-related TTP services are discussed. CEN and ISO initiatives for health informatics standards in the context of secure and communicable EPR are especially mentioned. PMID:11154968

  2. Advanced CAN (Controller Area Network) Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, D.J.

    2000-03-17

    The CAN interface cards that are currently in use are PCMCIA based and use a microprocessor and CAN chip that are no longer in production. The long-term support of the SGT CAN interface is of concern due to this issue along with performance inadequacies and technical support. The CAN bus is at the heart of the SGT trailer. If the CAN bus in the SGT trailer cannot be maintained adequately, then the trailer itself cannot be maintained adequately. These concerns led to the need for a CRADA to help develop a new product that would be called the ''Gryphon'' CAN tool. FM and T provided manufacturing expertise along with design criteria to ensure SGT compatibility and long-term support. FM and T also provided resources for software support. Dearborn provided software and hardware design expertise to implement the necessary requirements. Both partners worked around heavy internal workloads to support completion of the project. This CRADA establishes a US source for an item that is very critical to support the SGT project. The Dearborn Group had the same goal to provide a US alternative to German suppliers. The Dearborn Group was also interested in developing a CAN product that has performance characteristics that place the Gryphon in a class by itself. This enhanced product not only meets and exceeds SGT requirements; it has opened up options that were not even considered before the project began. The cost of the product is also less than the European options.

  3. Aptamers as a novel tool for diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Malczyk, Anna Helena; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are capable of binding small molecules, proteins, or nucleotides with high specificity. They show a stable conformation and high binding affinity for their target molecules. There are numerous applications for aptamers in biotechnology, molecular diagnostics and targeted therapy of diseases. Their production is cheap, and they generally display lower immunogenicity than monoclonal antibodies. In the present review, we give an introduction to the preparation of aptamers and provide examples for their use in biotechnology, diagnostics and therapy of diseases. PMID:25637166

  4. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  5. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    -557-4411-5 Trancoso, R., F. Braunschweig, Chambel-Leitão P., Neves, R., Obermann, M. (2009) An advanced modelling tool for simulating complex river systems. Accepted for publication in Journal of Total Environment. Yarrow M., Chambel-Leitão P. (2006) Calibration of the SWAT model to the Aysén basin of the Chilean Patagonia: Challenges and Lessons. Proceedings of the Watershed Management to Meet Water Quality Standards and TMDLS (Total Maximum Daily Load) 10-14 March 2007, San Antonio, Texas 701P0207. Yarrow M., Chambel-Leitão P.. (2007) Simulating Nothfagus forests in the Chilean Patagonia: a test and analysis of tree growth and nutrient cycling in swat. Submited to the Proceedings of the , 4th International SWAT Conference July 2-6 2007. Yarrow, M., Chambel-Leitão P. (2008) Estimation of loads in the Aysén Basin of the Chilean Patagonia: SWAT model and Harp-Nut guidelines. In Perspectives on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in South America R Neves, J Baretta & M Mateus (eds.). IST Press, Lisbon, Portugal. (ISBN: 978-972-8469-74-0)

  6. Recent advances in the molecular diagnostics of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world, representing a major global health issue. Although the incidence of GC is declining, the outcomes for GC patients remain dismal because of the lack of effective biomarkers to detect early GC and predict both recurrence and chemosensitivity. Current tumor markers for GC, including serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, are not ideal due to their relatively low sensitivity and specificity. Recent improvements in molecular techniques are better able to identify aberrant expression of GC-related molecules, including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, and DNA methylation, as novel molecular markers, although the molecular pathogenesis of GC is complicated by tumor heterogeneity. Detection of genetic and epigenetic alterations from gastric tissue or blood samples has diagnostic value in the management of GC. There are high expectations for molecular markers that can be used as new screening tools for early detection of GC as well as for patient stratification towards personalized treatment of GC through prediction of prognosis and drug-sensitivity. In this review, the studies of potential molecular biomarkers for GC that have been reported in the publicly available literature between 2012 and 2015 are reviewed and summarized, and certain highlighted papers are examined. PMID:26379391

  7. Characteristics of a Cognitive Tool That Helps Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Preast, Vanessa A.; Young, Karen M.; Christopher, Mary M.; George, Jeanne W.; Wood, R. Darren; Bender, Holly S.

    2007-01-01

    Three related studies replicated and extended previous work (J.A. Danielson et al. (2003), "Educational Technology Research and Development," 51(3), 63-81) involving the Diagnostic Pathfinder (dP) (previously Problem List Generator [PLG]), a cognitive tool for learning diagnostic problem solving. In studies 1 and 2, groups of 126 and 113…

  8. Space Laboratory on a Table Top: A Next Generative ECLSS design and diagnostic tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan for a comprehensive research and diagnostic tool for aspects of advanced life support systems in space-based laboratories. Specifically it aims to build a high fidelity tabletop model that can be used for the purpose of risk mitigation, failure mode analysis, contamination tracking, and testing reliability. We envision a comprehensive approach involving experimental work coupled with numerical simulation to develop this diagnostic tool. It envisions a 10% scale transparent model of a space platform such as the International Space Station that operates with water or a specific matched index of refraction liquid as the working fluid. This allows the scaling of a 10 ft x 10 ft x 10 ft room with air flow to 1 ft x 1 ft x 1 ft tabletop model with water/liquid flow. Dynamic similitude for this length scale dictates model velocities to be 67% of full-scale and thereby the time scale of the model to represent 15% of the full- scale system; meaning identical processes in the model are completed in 15% of the full- scale-time. The use of an index matching fluid (fluid that matches the refractive index of cast acrylic, the model material) allows making the entire model (with complex internal geometry) transparent and hence conducive to non-intrusive optical diagnostics. So using such a system one can test environment control parameters such as core flows (axial flows), cross flows (from registers and diffusers), potential problem areas such as flow short circuits, inadequate oxygen content, build up of other gases beyond desirable levels, test mixing processes within the system at local nodes or compartments and assess the overall system performance. The system allows quantitative measurements of contaminants introduced in the system and allows testing and optimizing the tracking process and removal of contaminants. The envisaged system will be modular and hence flexible for quick configuration change and subsequent testing. The data

  9. Rapid Diagnostic Algorithms as a Screening Tool for Tuberculosis: An Assessor Blinded Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, Franz; Bruckschwaiger, Harald; Wischenbart, Martin; Parschalk, Bernhard; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Lagler, Heimo; Indra, Alexandra; Graninger, Wolfgang; Winkler, Stefan; Krishna, Sanjeev; Ramharter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background A major obstacle to effectively treat and control tuberculosis is the absence of an accurate, rapid, and low-cost diagnostic tool. A new approach for the screening of patients for tuberculosis is the use of rapid diagnostic classification algorithms. Methods We tested a previously published diagnostic algorithm based on four biomarkers as a screening tool for tuberculosis in a Central European patient population using an assessor-blinded cross-sectional study design. In addition, we developed an improved diagnostic classification algorithm based on a study population at a tertiary hospital in Vienna, Austria, by supervised computational statistics. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the previously published diagnostic algorithm for our patient population consisting of 206 patients was 54% (CI: 47%–61%). An improved model was constructed using inflammation parameters and clinical information. A diagnostic accuracy of 86% (CI: 80%–90%) was demonstrated by 10-fold cross validation. An alternative model relying solely on clinical parameters exhibited a diagnostic accuracy of 85% (CI: 79%–89%). Conclusion Here we show that a rapid diagnostic algorithm based on clinical parameters is only slightly improved by inclusion of inflammation markers in our cohort. Our results also emphasize the need for validation of new diagnostic algorithms in different settings and patient populations. PMID:23185397

  10. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  11. BRACAnalysis CDx as a companion diagnostic tool for Lynparza.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Camille C; Moore, Kathleen N

    2015-01-01

    Lynparza and its companion diagnostic test, BRACAnalysis were approved by the US FDA in December 2014 for recurrent ovarian cancer in women with a germline BRCA mutation. Women with a deleterious BRCA mutation are predisposed to ovarian cancer due to deficient homologous recombination repair. Inhibition of the PARP enzyme forces use of an alternate error-prone pathway for repair; PARP trapping is another mechanism utilized that blocks cellular replication by trapping inactivated PARP onto single-stranded DNA breaks. Although many companion diagnostic kits are already in use in oncology, BRACAnaylsis is unique in several ways including comprehensive BRCA gene germline profiling, availability to all women with ovarian cancer and implications for family members. PMID:26292709

  12. Spectral Line Shapes as a Diagnostic Tool in Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Stamm, R; Capes, H; Demura, A; Godbert-Mouret, L; Koubiti, M; Marandet, Y; Mattioli, M; Rosato, J; Rosmej, F; Fournier, K B

    2006-07-22

    Spectral line shapes and intensities are used for obtaining information on the various regions of magnetic fusion devices. Emission from low principal quantum numbers of hydrogen isotopes is analyzed for understanding the complex recycling mechanism. Lines emitted from high principal quantum numbers of hydrogen and helium are dominated by Stark effect, allowing an electronic density diagnostic in the divertor. Intensities of lines emitted by impurities are fitted for a better knowledge of ion transport in the confined plasma.

  13. A new tool improves diagnostic test performance for transmission em evaluation of axonemal dynein arms.

    PubMed

    Funkhouser, W Keith; Niethammer, Marc; Carson, Johnny L; Burns, Kimberlie A; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Funkhouser, William K

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) by identification of dynein arm loss in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images can be confounded by high background noise due to random electron-dense material within the ciliary matrix, leading to diagnostic uncertainty even for experienced morphologists. The authors developed a novel image analysis tool to average the axonemal peripheral microtubular doublets, thereby increasing microtubular signal and reducing random background noise. In a randomized, double-blinded study that compared two experienced morphologists and three different diagnostic approaches, they found that use of this tool led to improvement in diagnostic TEM test performance. PMID:23957500

  14. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology Program (MAST). Overview and Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology Program (MAST) is a geographical partnership of six of the nation's best two-year colleges located in the six states that have about one-third of the density of metals-related industries in the United States. The purpose of the MAST grant is to develop and implement a national training model to overcome…

  15. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  16. Microfield exposure tool enables advances in EUV lithography development

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-09-07

    With demonstrated resist resolution of 20 nm half pitch, the SEMATECH Berkeley BUV microfield exposure tool continues to push crucial advances in the areas of BUY resists and masks. The ever progressing shrink in computer chip feature sizes has been fueled over the years by a continual reduction in the wavelength of light used to pattern the chips. Recently, this trend has been threatened by unavailability of lens materials suitable for wavelengths shorter than 193 nm. To circumvent this roadblock, a reflective technology utilizing a significantly shorter extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength (13.5 nm) has been under development for the past decade. The dramatic wavelength shrink was required to compensate for optical design limitations intrinsic in mirror-based systems compared to refractive lens systems. With this significant reduction in wavelength comes a variety of new challenges including developing sources of adequate power, photoresists with suitable resolution, sensitivity, and line-edge roughness characteristics, as well as the fabrication of reflection masks with zero defects. While source development can proceed in the absence of available exposure tools, in order for progress to be made in the areas of resists and masks it is crucial to have access to advanced exposure tools with resolutions equal to or better than that expected from initial production tools. These advanced development tools, however, need not be full field tools. Also, implementing such tools at synchrotron facilities allows them to be developed independent of the availability of reliable stand-alone BUY sources. One such tool is the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool (MET). The most unique attribute of the SEMA TECH Berkeley MET is its use of a custom-coherence illuminator made possible by its implementation on a synchrotron beamline. With only conventional illumination and conventional binary masks, the resolution limit of the 0.3-NA optic is approximately 25 nm, however

  17. Endobronchial ultrasound: an unusual diagnostic tool for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sariaydin, Muzaffer; Günay, Sibel; Günay, Ersin; Sarinc Ulasli, Sevinc

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is an emergent and common pulmonary vascular disease. The most common diagnostic method for PTE is computer-aided tomography angiography. Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) is used in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer via transbronchial needle aspiration from mediastinal lymphadenopathies and central masses. Diagnosis of PTE with EBUS is not common, although this technique helps to monitor pulmonary vasculature. The present case, a 60-year-old female patient to whom EBUS was applied because of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, was diagnosed as incidental PTE. PMID:26992367

  18. Guided MHD waves as a coronal diagnostic tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    A description is provided of how fast magnetoacoustic waves are ducted along regions of low Alfven velocity (high density) in the corona, exhibiting a distinctive wave signature which may be used as a diagnostic probe of in situ coronal conditions (magnetic field strength, density inhomogeneity, etc.). Some observational knowledge of the start time of the impulsive wave source, possibly a flare, the start and end times of the generated wave event, and the frequency of the pulsations in that event permits a seismological deduction of the physical properties of the coronal medium in which the wave propagated. With good observations the theory offers a new means of probing the coronal atmosphere.

  19. Time series as a diagnostic tool for EKG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkal, Cahit; Cecen, Aydin

    2007-11-01

    A preliminary analysis of heart rate variability (peak-to-peak intervals based on EKG) will be presented using the tools of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. We show that uncertainty determination of the most commonly used invariant-the correlation dimension- and a proper implementation of time series analysis tools are necessary to differentiate between the healthy and unhealthy state of the heart. We present an example analysis based on normal and atrial fibrillation EKGs and point of some pitfalls that may give rise to misleading conclusions.

  20. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Douglas; Chavira, David; Henfling, Joseph; Hetmaniak, Chris; Huey, David; Jacobson, Ron; King, Dennis; Knudsen, Steve; Mansure, A. J.; Polsky, Yarom

    2009-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the second phase of the Diagnostics While-Drilling (DWD) project in which a high-temperature (HT) version of the phase 1 low-temperature (LT) proof-of-concept (POC) DWD tool was built and tested. Descriptions of the design, fabrication and field testing of the HT tool are provided.

  1. Beyond the Rubric: Think-Alouds as a Diagnostic Assessment Tool for High School Writing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah W.; Llosa, Lorena; Black, Kristin; Trzeszkowski-Giese, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    In order to teach writing effectively, teachers need assessment tools that work for diagnostic purposes--tools that can help them identify students' specific strengths and challenges with writing, as well as generate new ideas for instruction. This study explored what 5 high school teachers (3 ELA and 2 ESL) learned about their students' strengths…

  2. The Development of a Literacy Diagnostic Tool for Maltese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Rachael; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of a Literacy Assessment Battery for the diagnosis of Maltese children with specific learning difficulties. It forms part of a wider research study involving testing of 549 children in Malta as well as standardisation of the tool. Results of the children's performance and psychometric validation go beyond…

  3. Surface Diagnostics in Tribology Technology and Advanced Coatings Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodologies used for surface property measurement of thin films and coatings, lubricants, and materials in the field of tribology. Surface diagnostic techniques include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and tribology examination. Each diagnostic technique provides specific measurement results in its own unique way. In due course it should be possible to coordinate the different pieces of information provided by these diagnostic techniques into a coherent self-consistent description of the surface properties. Examples are given on the nature and character of thin diamond films.

  4. Aptamer-nanoparticle complexes as powerful diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hunho; Ban, Changill

    2016-01-01

    Correct diagnosis and successful therapy are extremely important to enjoy a healthy life when suffering from a disease. To achieve these aims, various cutting-edge technologies have been designed and fabricated to diagnose and treat specific diseases. Among these technologies, aptamer-nanomaterial hybrids have received considerable attention from scientists and doctors because they have numerous advantages over other methods, such as good biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and controllable selectivity. In particular, aptamers, oligonucleic acids or peptides that bind to a specific target molecule, are regarded as outstanding biomolecules. In this review, several screening techniques for aptamers, also called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methods, are introduced, and diagnostic and therapeutic aptamer applications are also presented. Furthermore, we describe diverse aptamer-nanomaterial conjugate designs and their applications for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27151454

  5. Aptamer–nanoparticle complexes as powerful diagnostic and therapeutic tools

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hunho; Ban, Changill

    2016-01-01

    Correct diagnosis and successful therapy are extremely important to enjoy a healthy life when suffering from a disease. To achieve these aims, various cutting-edge technologies have been designed and fabricated to diagnose and treat specific diseases. Among these technologies, aptamer–nanomaterial hybrids have received considerable attention from scientists and doctors because they have numerous advantages over other methods, such as good biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and controllable selectivity. In particular, aptamers, oligonucleic acids or peptides that bind to a specific target molecule, are regarded as outstanding biomolecules. In this review, several screening techniques for aptamers, also called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methods, are introduced, and diagnostic and therapeutic aptamer applications are also presented. Furthermore, we describe diverse aptamer–nanomaterial conjugate designs and their applications for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27151454

  6. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  7. Phages of Listeria offer novel tools for diagnostics and biocontrol

    PubMed Central

    Hagens, Steven; Loessner, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, bacteriophages infecting their hosts have perhaps been best known and even notorious for being a nuisance in dairy-fermentation processes. However, with the rapid progress in molecular microbiology and microbial ecology, a new dawn has risen for phages. This review will provide an overview on possible uses and applications of Listeria phages, including phage-typing, reporter phage for bacterial diagnostics, and use of phage as biocontrol agents for food safety. The use of phage-encoded enzymes such as endolysins for the detection and as antimicrobial agent will also be addressed. Desirable properties of candidate phages for biocontrol will be discussed. While emphasizing the enormous future potential for applications, we will also consider some of the intrinsic limitations dictated by both phage and bacterial ecology. PMID:24782847

  8. A diagnostic tool for malaria based on computer software

    PubMed Central

    Kotepui, Manas; Uthaisar, Kwuntida; Phunphuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the gold standard method for malaria diagnosis is a staining of thick and thin blood film examined by expert laboratorists. It requires well-trained laboratorists, which is a time consuming task, and is un-automated protocol. For this study, Maladiag Software was developed to predict malaria infection in suspected malaria patients. The demographic data of patients, examination for malaria parasites, and complete blood count (CBC) profiles were analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to create the equation for the malaria diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters of the equation were tested on 4,985 samples (703 infected and 4,282 control samples). The equation indicated 81.2% sensitivity and 80.3% specificity for predicting infection of malaria. The positive likelihood and negative likelihood ratio were 4.12 (95% CI = 4.01–4.23) and 0.23 (95% CI = 0.22–0.25), respectively. This parameter also had odds ratios (P value < 0.0001, OR = 17.6, 95% CI = 16.0–19.3). The equation can predict malaria infection after adjust for age, gender, nationality, monocyte (%), platelet count, neutrophil (%), lymphocyte (%), and the RBC count of patients. The diagnostic accuracy was 0.877 (Area under curve, AUC) (95% CI = 0.871–0.883). The system, when used in combination with other clinical and microscopy methods, might improve malaria diagnoses and enhance prompt treatment. PMID:26559606

  9. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  10. Shrinking the lymphatic filariasis map: update on diagnostic tools for mapping and transmission monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, Maria P; Bockarie, Moses John

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), which is highly endemic in 73 countries worldwide, is targeted for elimination by 2020. The strategy for achieving this goal is based on 4 sequential programmatic steps: mapping, Mass drug administration (MDA) implementation, post-MDA surveillance and verification of LF elimination. All 4 stages of the implementation process are dependent on the availability of user friendly and highly sensitive rapid diagnostic tools. By the end of 2012, 59 countries had completed mapping for LF and Eritrea was the only country yet to start the process. Rolling out new diagnostic tools to facilitate the mapping process will enable an accelerated shrinking of the LF map to zero endemic countries by 2020. When the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, diagnostic tools for LF were limited to clinical examination, detection of microfilaria (MF) by microscopy in night blood samples and detection of antibodies to native-antigen preparations. There has been a significant improvement in the traditional LF diagnostic methods in recent years and some new tools are now available. This paper provides an update on the human diagnostic tests available for LF and their current applications as tools in mapping and transmission monitoring. The values of entomological indicators and parasite detection and speciation methods applied to vector populations are also discussed. PMID:25225828

  11. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  12. Facebook: can it be a diagnostic tool for neurologists?

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Manoj K; Sloan, Jeff A; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with acute ischaemic stroke with NIHSS 13. She had right eye ptosis and miosis. She and her husband were not sure if her facial features were different than usual. With her consent, we compared her face with her pictures on Facebook. In the absence of any ptosis or miosis in her pictures, she was diagnosed with acute Horner syndrome. Facebook may be a useful tool for the neurologists to define the timing of facial neurological signs. PMID:22914235

  13. Dyspepsia and celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnostic tools and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Petrarca, Laura; Nenna, Raffaella; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Florio, Matteo; Brighi, Manuela; Pontone, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dyspepsia is up to 40% in population-based study. Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis and it is classified as a chronic abdominal pain-related functional disorder, characterized by the presence of persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, neither relief by defecation, nor association with the onset of a change in stool frequency or form. Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy, with a prevalence around 1% in the general population. Its diagnosis includes a serological screening and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with multiple biopsies. Gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment. CD diagnosis is often delayed in asymptomatic patients or in individuals with less clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies performed coeliac disease screening in patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, showing a biopsy-proved prevalence that ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The typical endoscopic markers of villous atrophy are not sufficiently sensitive, so some endoscopic techniques, such as “water immersion” and confocal endomicroscopy were proposed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and target biopsies. A recent meta-analysis estimated that the prevalence of CD was higher in patients with dyspepsia, but not in a statistically significant way. However this assumption should be confirmed further larger studies. PMID:25332916

  14. Dyspepsia and celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnostic tools and therapy.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Laura; Nenna, Raffaella; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Florio, Matteo; Brighi, Manuela; Pontone, Stefano

    2014-09-26

    The prevalence of dyspepsia is up to 40% in population-based study. Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis and it is classified as a chronic abdominal pain-related functional disorder, characterized by the presence of persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, neither relief by defecation, nor association with the onset of a change in stool frequency or form. Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy, with a prevalence around 1% in the general population. Its diagnosis includes a serological screening and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with multiple biopsies. Gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment. CD diagnosis is often delayed in asymptomatic patients or in individuals with less clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies performed coeliac disease screening in patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, showing a biopsy-proved prevalence that ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The typical endoscopic markers of villous atrophy are not sufficiently sensitive, so some endoscopic techniques, such as "water immersion" and confocal endomicroscopy were proposed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and target biopsies. A recent meta-analysis estimated that the prevalence of CD was higher in patients with dyspepsia, but not in a statistically significant way. However this assumption should be confirmed further larger studies. PMID:25332916

  15. TF-Test Modified: New Diagnostic Tool for Human Enteroparasitosis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Juliana Barboza de; Santos, Bianca Martins Dos; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Suzuki, Celso Tetsuo Nagase; Hoshino Shimizu, Sumie; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Pierucci, Julia Cestari; Matos, Lucas Vinicius Shigaki de; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-07-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is highly prevalent worldwide, being among the main causes of illness and death in humans. Currently, laboratory diagnosis of the intestinal parasites is accomplished through manual technical procedures, mostly developed decades ago, which justifies the development of more sensitive and practical techniques. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop, evaluate, and validate a new parasitological technique referred to as TF-Test Modified, in comparison to three conventional parasitological techniques: TF-Test Conventional; Rugai, Mattos & Brisola; and Helm Test/Kato-Katz. For this realization, we collected stool samples from 457 volunteers located in endemic areas of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, and statistically compared the techniques. Intestinal protozoa and helminths were detected qualitatively in 42.23% (193/457) of the volunteers by TF-Test Modified technique, against 36.76% (168/457) by TF-Test Conventional, 5.03% (23/457) by Helm Test/Kato-Katz, and 4.16% (19/457) by Rugai, Mattos & Brisola. Furthermore, the new technique presented "almost perfect kappa" agreement in all evaluated parameters with 95% (P < 0.05) of estimation. The current study showed that the TF-Test Modified technique can be comprehensively used in the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa and helminths, and its greater diagnostic sensitivity should help improving the quality of laboratory diagnosis, population surveys, and control of intestinal parasites. PMID:25968065

  16. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  17. A Quantitative Tool for Producing DNA-Based Diagnostic Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tom J. Whitaker

    2008-07-11

    The purpose of this project was to develop a precise, quantitative method to analyze oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on an array to enable a systematic approach to quality control issues affecting DNA microarrays. Two types of ODN's were tested; ODN's formed by photolithography and ODN's printed onto microarrays. Initial work in Phase I, performed in conjunction with Affymetrix, Inc. who has a patent on a photolithographic in situ technique for creating DNA arrays, was very promising but did seem to indicate that the atomization process was not complete. Soon after Phase II work was under way, Affymetrix had further developed fluorescent methods and indicated they were no longer interested in our resonance ionization technique. This was communicated to the program manager and it was decided that the project would continue and be focused on printed ODNs. The method being tested is called SIRIS, Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy. SIRIS has been shown to be a highly sensitive, selective, and quantitative tool for atomic species. This project was aimed at determining if an ODN could be labeled in such a way that SIRIS could be used to measure the label and thus provide quantitative measurements of the ODN on an array. One of the largest problems in this study has been developing a method that allows us to know the amount of an ODN on a surface independent of the SIRIS measurement. Even though we could accurately determine the amount of ODN deposited on a surface, the amount that actually attached to the surface is very difficult to measure (hence the need for a quantitative tool). A double-labeling procedure was developed in which 33P and Pt were both used to label ODNs. The radioactive 33P could be measured by a proportional counter that maps the counts in one dimension. This gave a good measurement of the amount of ODN remaining on a surface after immobilization and washing. A second label, Pt, was attached to guanine nucleotides in the ODN. Studies

  18. Acoustic and ultrasonic signals as diagnostic tools for check valves

    SciTech Connect

    Auyang, M.K. )

    1993-05-01

    A typical nuclear plant has between 60 and 115 safety-related check valves ranging from 2 to 30 in. The majority of these valves control water flow. Recent studies done by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) found that many of these safety-related valves were not functioning properly. Typical problems found in these valves included disk flutter, backstop tapping, flow leakage, disk pin and hinge pin wear, or even missing disks. These findings led to INPO's Significant Operating Experience Report (SOER, 1986), and finally, NRC generic letter 8904, which requires that all safety-related check valves in a nuclear plant be regularly monitored. In response to this need, the industry has developed various diagnostic equipment to monitor and test check valves, using technologies ranging from acoustics and ultrasonics to magnetic - even radiography has been considered. Of these, systems that depend on a combination of acoustic and ultrasonic techniques are among the most promising for two reasons: these two technologies supplement each other, making diagnosis of the check valves much more certain than any single technology, and this approach can be made nonintrusive. The nonintrusive feature allows the check valves to be monitored and diagnosed without being disassembled or removed from the piping system. This paper shows that by carefully studying the acoustic and ultrasonic signatures acquired from a check value, either individually or in combination, an individual with the proper training and experience in acoustic and ultrasonic signature analyses can deduce the structural integrity of the check valve with good confidence. Most of the conclusions are derived from controlled experiments in the laboratory where the diagnosis can be verified. Other conclusions were based on test data obtained in the field.

  19. DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS FOR BEAM HALO INVESTIGATION IN SNS LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Blokland, Willem; Liu, Yun; Long, Cary D; Zhukov, Alexander P

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled beam loss is a major concern in the operation of a high intensity hadron linac. A low density cloud of particles with large oscillation amplitudes, so called halo, can form around the dense regular beam core. This halo can be a direct or indirect cause of beam loss. There is experimental evidence of halo growing in the SNS linac and limiting the further reduction of beam loss. A set of tools is being developed for detecting of the halo and investigating its origin and dynamics. The set includes high resolution emittance measurements in the injector, laser based emittance measurements at 1 GeV, and high resolution profile measurements along the linac. We will present our experience with useful measurement techniques and data analysis algorithms.

  20. Advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-06-01

    The global objective of this effort is to develop advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis, and test the products using a model dataset developed under the joint aegis of the United States` Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (EAEG). The goal is to enhance the value to the oil industry of the SEG/EAEG modeling project, carried out with US Department of Energy (DOE) funding in FY` 93-95. The primary objective of the ORNL Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is to spearhead the computational innovations techniques that would enable a revolutionary advance in 3-D seismic analysis. The CESAR effort is carried out in collaboration with world-class domain experts from leading universities, and in close coordination with other national laboratories and oil industry partners.

  1. Evaluation of reliability modeling tools for advanced fault tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Robert; Scheper, Charlotte

    1986-01-01

    The Computer Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) and Automated Reliability Interactice Estimation System (ARIES 82) reliability tools for application to advanced fault tolerance aerospace systems were evaluated. To determine reliability modeling requirements, the evaluation focused on the Draper Laboratories' Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) architecture as an example architecture for fault tolerance aerospace systems. Advantages and limitations were identified for each reliability evaluation tool. The CARE III program was designed primarily for analyzing ultrareliable flight control systems. The ARIES 82 program's primary use was to support university research and teaching. Both CARE III and ARIES 82 were not suited for determining the reliability of complex nodal networks of the type used to interconnect processing sites in the AIPS architecture. It was concluded that ARIES was not suitable for modeling advanced fault tolerant systems. It was further concluded that subject to some limitations (the difficulty in modeling systems with unpowered spare modules, systems where equipment maintenance must be considered, systems where failure depends on the sequence in which faults occurred, and systems where multiple faults greater than a double near coincident faults must be considered), CARE III is best suited for evaluating the reliability of advanced tolerant systems for air transport.

  2. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  3. Advanced tools, multiple missions, flexible organizations, and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Ray A.; Koratkar, Anuradha

    2000-07-01

    In this new era of modern astronomy, observations across multiple wavelengths are often required. This implies understanding many different costly and complex observatories. Yet, the process for translating ideas into proposals is very similar for all of these observatories If we had a new generation of uniform, common tools, writing proposals for the various observatories would be simpler for the observer because the learning curve would not be as steep. As observatory staffs struggle to meet the demands for higher scientific productivity with fewer resources, it is important to remember that another benefit of having such universal tools is that they enable much greater flexibility within an organization. The shifting manpower needs of multiple- instrument support or multiple-mission operations may be more readily met since the expertise is built into the tools. The flexibility of an organization is critical to its ability to change, to plan ahead, and respond to various new opportunities and operating conditions on shorter time scales, and to achieve the goal of maximizing scientific returns. In this paper we will discuss the role of a new generation of tools with relation to multiple missions and observatories. We will also discuss some of the impact of how uniform, consistently familiar software tools can enhance the individual's expertise and the organization's flexibility. Finally, we will discuss the relevance of advanced tools to higher education.

  4. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  5. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    When eutrophication is considered an important process to control it can be accomplished reducing nitrogen and phosphorus losses from both point and nonpoint sources and helping to assess the effectiveness of the pollution reduction strategy. HARP-NUT guidelines (Guidelines on Harmonized Quantification and Reporting Procedures for Nutrients) (Borgvang & Selvik, 2000) are presented by OSPAR as the best common quantification and reporting procedures for calculating the reduction of nutrient inputs. In 2000, OSPAR HARP-NUT guidelines on a trial basis. They were intended to serve as a tool for OSPAR Contracting Parties to report, in a harmonized manner, their different commitments, present or future, with regard to nutrients under the OSPAR Convention, in particular the "Strategy to Combat Eutrophication". HARP-NUT Guidelines (Borgvang and Selvik, 2000; Schoumans, 2003) were developed to quantify and report on the individual sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharges/losses to surface waters (Source Orientated Approach). These results can be compared to nitrogen and phosphorus figures with the total riverine loads measured at downstream monitoring points (Load Orientated Approach), as load reconciliation. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in river systems represents the connecting link between the "Source Orientated Approach" and the "Load Orientated Approach". Both approaches are necessary for verification purposes and both may be needed for providing the information required for the various commitments. Guidelines 2,3,4,5 are mainly concerned with the sources estimation. They present a set of simple calculations that allow the estimation of the origin of loads. Guideline 6 is a particular case where the application of a model is advised, in order to estimate the sources of nutrients from diffuse sources associated with land use/land cover. The model chosen for this was SWAT (Arnold & Fohrer, 2005) model because it is suggested in the guideline 6 and because it

  6. Embedded Data Acquisition Tools for Rotorcraft Diagnostic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagoner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rotorcraft drive trains must withstand enormous pressure while operating continuously in extreme temperature and vibration environments. Captive components, such as planetary and spiral bevel gears, see enormous strain but are not accessible to fixed instrumentation, such as a piezoelectric transducer. Thus, it is difficult to directly monitor components that are most susceptible to damage. This innovation is a self-contained data processing unit within a specialized fixture that installs directly inside the rotating pinion gear in the gearbox. From this location, it detects and transmits high-resolution prognostic data to a fixed transceiver. The sensor is based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and uses innovative circuit designs to capture high-bandwidth data and transmit it wirelessly from inside an operational helicopter transmission. With Ridgetop's advanced MEMS-based sensor, researchers have, for the first time, been able to extract high-resolution acoustic signatures wirelessly from sensors within the transmission that would otherwise be muffled by background gear noises. Ridgetop's innovative instrument will help researchers perform dynamic analysis of gear interaction and develop improved designs for gear components. In addition, data from this instrument can be used to validate new algorithms that detect and predict faults based on external acoustic signatures, for prognostic purposes. The result of this work will be an improvement in safety, performance, and cost for future generations of rotating components.

  7. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  8. Intrapartum sonographic signs: new diagnostic tools in malposition and malrotation.

    PubMed

    Malvasi, Antonio; Giacci, Francesco; Gustapane, Sarah; Sparic, Radmila; Barbera, Antonio; Tinelli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    In the past years, numerous studies have been published on the use of ultrasound during labor, showing this is an effective, accurate and objective tool for the assessment of the fetal head position and station. Literature affirmed that traditional transvaginal digital examination is highly subjective and dependent on the operator's experience. On the contrary, the use of intrapartum suprapubic transabdominal ultrasound can improve accuracy in determination of fetal head position and the precise knowledge of the location of specific fetal head landmarks in relationship to maternal pelvis. Intrapartum ultrasound will assist obstetricians in the diagnosis of normal labor progression, suggesting when medical and or operative intervention should be taken in case of complications. During each fetal head movement, there is a very specific relationship between fetal head landmarks and well-identified maternal structures, so the ultrasound diagnosis is performed step by step. In this review, we summarized the clinical situation of the fetal head in the pelvis and the relative ultrasonographic signs. Moreover, we collected all the ultrasonographic measures to diagnose the fetal head progression and rotations in the birth canal. PMID:26444321

  9. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB[sub 2] and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB[sub 2].

  10. Advanced clinical monitoring: considerations for real-time hemodynamic diagnostics.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, J. M.; Cordova, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to ease staffing burdens and potentially improve patient outcome in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment, we are developing a real-time system to accurately and efficiently diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. The system is being designed to utilize all relevant routinely-monitored physiological data in order to automatically diagnose potentially fatal events. The initial stage of this project involved formulating the overall system design and appropriate methods for real-time data acquisition, data storage, data trending, waveform analysis, and implementing diagnostic rules. Initially, we defined a conceptual analysis of the minimum physiologic data set, and the monitoring time-frames (trends) which would be required to diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. Following that analysis, we used a fuzzy logic diagnostic engine to analyze physiological data during a simulated arrhythmic cardiac arrest (ACA) in order to assess the validity of our diagnostic methodology. We used rate, trend, and morphologic data extracted from the following signals: expired CO2 time-concentration curve (capnogram), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure. The system performed well: The fuzzy logic engine effectively diagnosed the likelihood of ACA from the subtle hemodynamic trends which preceded the complete arrest. As the clinical picture worsened, the fuzzy logic-based system accurately indicated the change in patient condition. Termination of the simulated arrest was rapidly detected by the diagnostic engine. In view of the effectiveness of this fuzzy logic implementation, we plan to develop additional fuzzy logic modules to diagnose other cardiopulmonary emergencies. PMID:7950025

  11. The MDP skull uptake test: A new diagnostic tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Cullum, I.; Lui, D.

    1984-01-01

    An original approach to the measurement of bone turnover is presented. With SPECT, the authors have measured in pgr/ml, the uptake of MDP by the skull in man. The Cleon 710 scanner, ring phantoms and bone biopsies were used for ultimate in vivo/in vitro count recovery correlation and calibration. A normal range for 24 patients was found: 8.5 to 19.5 pgr/ml with a mean of 14. For patients with bony metastases (12), the values were: 22.5 to 50, mean of 30. For 5 patients with osteomalacia, the values were 46 to 68, mean of 62: for 12 patients with hyperparathyroidism, the values were 37 to 48.5, mean of 43. In 3 patients with Pagets disease, the values were 58.5 to 75, with a mean of 65. In 76 patients with metastatic disease to bone, the conventional wholebody bone scan was investigated against the following: 24h wholebody retention of MDP (WBR), skull uptake as described and GFR by Cr-51-DTPA. There is a correlation between GFR and WBR - r=0.67. There is a lesser correlation between GFR and skull uptake - r=0.3. There is no correlation between skull uptake and WBR - r=0.1. The comparison of skull uptake data with normal whole body bone scans leads to a significant proportion of cancer patients with positive skull uptake data. Monostotic disease (especially if metabolic in nature) expresses itself by abnormal skull uptake even if the clinical site of abnormality lies outside the skull. This new technique is ideal as a tool to investigate phosphonate concentration in bone. With it, the authors have shown the effect of specific activity of label on skull uptake, which increases as the specific activity of labelled MDP decreases.

  12. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Monica M.; O'Neil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-02-01

    Forecasting technology capabilities requires a tool and a process for capturing state-of-the-art technology metrics and estimates for future metrics. A decision support tool, known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), contains a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database designed to accomplish this goal. Sections of this database correspond to a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESRT) Program. These sections cover the waterfront of technologies required for human and robotic space exploration. Records in each section include technology performance, operations, and programmatic metrics. Timeframes in the database provide metric values for the state of the art (Timeframe 0) and forecasts for timeframes that correspond to spiral development milestones in NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) development strategy. Collecting and vetting data for the TTB will involve technologists from across the agency, the aerospace industry and academia. Technologists will have opportunities to submit technology metrics and forecasts to the TTB development team. Semi-annual forums will facilitate discussions about the basis of forecast estimates. As the tool and process mature, the TTB will serve as a powerful communication and decision support tool for the ESRT program.

  13. Advances in Optical Fiber-Based Faraday Rotation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; McHale, G B; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    In the past two years, we have used optical fiber-based Faraday Rotation Diagnostics (FRDs) to measure pulsed currents on several dozen capacitively driven and explosively driven pulsed power experiments. We have made simplifications to the necessary hardware for quadrature-encoded polarization analysis, including development of an all-fiber analysis scheme. We have developed a numerical model that is useful for predicting and quantifying deviations from the ideal diagnostic response. We have developed a method of analyzing quadrature-encoded FRD data that is simple to perform and offers numerous advantages over several existing methods. When comparison has been possible, we have seen good agreement with our FRDs and other current sensors.

  14. Reliable and sample saving gene expression analysis approach for diagnostic tool development.

    PubMed

    Port, Matthias; Seidl, Christof; Ruf, Christian G; Riecke, Armin; Meineke, Viktor; Abend, Michael

    2012-08-01

    This work answers the question of whether it is necessary to hybridize individual instead of pooled RNA samples on microarrays for screening gene targets suitable as diagnostic tools for radiation exposure scenarios, while at the same time meeting comparable microarray quality criteria. For developing new clinical diagnostic tools, a two-stage study design was employed in five projects. At first, pooled and not individual RNA samples were hybridized on microarrays for screening purposes. Potential gene candidates were selected based on their fold-change only. This was followed by a validation/quantification step using individual RNA samples and quantitative RT-PCR. Quality criteria from the screening approach with pooled RNA samples were compared with published data from the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium that hybridized each reference RNA sample separately and established quality criteria for microarrays. When comparing both approaches, only insignificant differences for quality criteria such as false positives, sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement were found. However, material, costs, and time were drastically reduced when hybridizing pooled RNA and gene targets applicable for clinical diagnostic purposes could be successfully selected. In search of new diagnostic tools for radiation exposure scenarios, the two stage study design using either pooled or individual RNA samples on microarrays shows comparable quality criteria, but the RNA pooling approach saves unique material, costs, and efforts and successfully selects gene targets that can be used for the desired diagnostic purposes. PMID:22951474

  15. Implementing the K-SADS-PL as a standard diagnostic tool: Effects on clinical diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Matuschek, Tina; Jaeger, Sonia; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Dölling, Katrin; Grunewald, Madlen; Weis, Steffi; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2016-02-28

    Diagnostic interviews are valuable tools for generating reliable and valid psychiatric diagnoses. However, little is known about the diagnostic effects of implementing such an interview into the standard diagnostic procedure of a child psychiatric clinic. Therefore, we reviewed discharge diagnoses of psychiatric patients (age: 8-12 years; combined sample of inpatients and day hospital patients) over two intervals before and after implementing the semi-structured diagnostic interview K-SADS-PL as a diagnostic tool during intake. Each interval was a two year period spanning from 2009-2010 (pre sample; n=177) and from 2012-2013 (post sample; n=132). The number of diagnoses per patient and the co-morbidity rate increased significantly in the post sample. Furthermore, the percentage of children with a nonspecific diagnosis "other mixed disorders of conduct and emotions" (ICD-10: F92.8) decreased significantly after using the K-SADS-PL. Regarding the main diagnostic categories, a significant increase in the number of anxiety disorders and stress-related and somatoform disorders was found in the post sample. The results suggest that implementing a semi-structured interview into the daily routine of child psychiatry may have a substantial impact on discharge diagnoses. Practical implications are discussed and ideas for future research are given. PMID:26724908

  16. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic urban soil are the foundation of the urban green infrastructure, the green net quality is as good as each of its patches. In early days of pedology urban soil has been recognized with respect to contamination and the risks for human health but in study performed since the 70s, the importance of urban soil for the urban ecology became increasingly significant (Gómez-Baggethun and Barton 2013). Urban soils are highly disturbed land that was created by the process of urbanization. The dominant agent in the creation of urban soils is human activity which modifies the natural soil through mixing, filling or by contamination of land surfaces so as to create a layer of urban soil which can be more than 50 cm thick (Pavao-Zuckerman 2008). The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which field spectroscopy methods can be used to extend the knowledge of urban soils features and components. The majority of the studies on urban soils concentrate on identifying and mapping of pollution mostly heavy metals. In this study a top-down analysis is developed - a simple and intuitive spectral feature for detecting the presence of minerals, organic matter and pollutants in mixed soil samples. The developed method uses spectral activity (SA) detection in a structured hierarchical approach to quickly and, more importantly, correctly identify dominant spectral features. The developed method is adopted by multiple in-production tools including continuum removal normalization, guided by polynomial generalization, and spectral-likelihood algorithms: orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) and iterative spectral mixture analysis (ISMA) were compared to feature likelihood methods (Li et al. 2014). Results of the proposed top-down unmixing method suggest that the analysis is made very fast due to the simplified hierarchy which avoids the high-learning curve associated with unmixing algorithms showed that the most abundant components were coarse organic matter 12

  17. Interoperable mesh and geometry tools for advanced petascale simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L; Bauer, A; Fix, B; Kraftcheck, J; Jansen, K; Luo, X; Miller, M; Ollivier-Gooch, C; Shephard, M; Tautges, T; Trease, H

    2007-07-04

    SciDAC applications have a demonstrated need for advanced software tools to manage the complexities associated with sophisticated geometry, mesh, and field manipulation tasks, particularly as computer architectures move toward the petascale. The Center for Interoperable Technologies for Advanced Petascale Simulations (ITAPS) will deliver interoperable and interchangeable mesh, geometry, and field manipulation services that are of direct use to SciDAC applications. The premise of our technology development goal is to provide such services as libraries that can be used with minimal intrusion into application codes. To develop these technologies, we focus on defining a common data model and datastructure neutral interfaces that unify a number of different services such as mesh generation and improvement, front tracking, adaptive mesh refinement, shape optimization, and solution transfer operations. We highlight the use of several ITAPS services in SciDAC applications.

  18. Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor

    2012-05-31

    Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.

  19. Constructing an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Sims, Michael; Podolak, Ester; Mckay, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Scientific model building can be an intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot be easily distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We believe that advanced software techniques can facilitate both the model building and model sharing process. In this paper, we describe a prototype for a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities. Our prototype has been developed in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling, and is being used to construct models of Titan's atmosphere.

  20. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2010-12-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  1. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  2. New advanced netted ground based and topside radio diagnostics for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Krankowski, Andrzej; Morawski, Marek; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2014-05-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  3. Tools for advance directives. American Health Information Management Association.

    PubMed

    Schraffenberger, L A

    1992-02-01

    This issue of the Journal of AHIMA contains a Position Statement on advance directives. Here we have included several "tools" or helpful documents to support your organization's ongoing education regarding advance directives. First, we offer a "Sample Policy and Procedure" addressing the administrative process of advance directives. This sample policy was adapted from a policy shared by Jean Clark, RRA, operations director with Roper Hospital in Charleston, SC, and a director on the AHIMA Board of Directors. Do not automatically accept this policy and procedure for your organization. Instead, the health information management professional could use this sample to write your organization's own, specific policy and procedures that are consistent with your state's law and legal counsel's advice. The second article, "Advance Directives and the New Joint Commission Requirements," compares 1992 Joint Commission standards for Patient Rights and The Patient Self-Determination Act requirements. Selected sections from the Joint Commission chapter on Patient Rights are highlighted and comments added that contrast it with the act. "Common Questions and Answers Related to Advance Directives" is the third tool we offer. These questions and answers may be used for a patient education brochure or staff inservice education program outline. Again, information specific to your own state needs to be added. The fourth tool we offer is miniature "Sample Slides" or overhead transparency copy that can be enlarged and used for a presentation on the basics of advance directives for a community group for staff education. We thank Dee McLane, RRA, director, Medical Information Services at Self Memorial Hospital in Greenwood, SC, who developed these slides for presentations conducted at her hospital. We also thank Jeri Whitworth, RRA, who produced the graphics on these slides. Whitworth is a first year director on the AHIMA Board of Directors this year. Again you can use as is or consider

  4. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  5. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-04-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  6. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  7. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  8. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  9. Point of care diagnostics for sexually transmitted infections: perspectives and advances

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte; Hardick, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) tests are urgently needed to control sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics, so that patients can receive immediate diagnoses and treatment. Current POC assays for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae perform inadequately and require better assays. Diagnostics for Trichomonas vaginalis rely on wet preparation, with some notable advances. Serological POC assays for syphilis can impact resource-poor settings, with many assays available, but only one available in the U.S. HIV POC diagnostics demonstrate the best performance, with excellent assays available. There is a rapid assay for HSV lesion detection; but no POC serological assays are available. Despite the inadequacy of POC assays for treatable bacterial infections, application of technological advances offers the promise of advancing POC diagnostics for all STIs. PMID:24484215

  10. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  11. Recent Advances in Diagnostic Strategies for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an increasing epidemic in Korea, and associated diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is its most common and disabling complication. DPN has an insidious onset and heterogeneous clinical manifestations, making it difficult to detect high-risk patients of DPN. Early diagnosis is recommended and is the key factor for a better prognosis and preventing diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, or disability. However, diagnostic tests for DPN are not clearly established because of the various pathophysiology developing from the nerve injury to clinical manifestations, differences in mechanisms according to the type of diabetes, comorbidities, and the unclear natural history of DPN. Therefore, DPN remains a challenge for physicians to screen, diagnose, follow up, and evaluate for treatment response. In this review, diagnosing DPN using various methods to assess clinical symptoms and/or signs, sensorineural impairment, and nerve conduction studies will be discussed. Clinicians should rely on established modalities and utilize current available testing as complementary to specific clinical situations. PMID:27246283

  12. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  13. Cell-Free DNA as a Diagnostic Tool for Human Parasitic Infections.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, Kosala G; McManus, Donald P

    2016-05-01

    Parasites often cause devastating diseases and represent a significant public health and economic burden. More accurate and convenient diagnostic tools are needed in support of parasite control programmes in endemic regions, and for rapid point-of-care diagnosis in nonendemic areas. The detection of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a relatively new concept that is being applied in the current armamentarium of diagnostics. Here, we review the application of cfDNA detection with nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis and evaluation of different human parasitic infections and highlight the significant benefits of the approach using non-invasive clinical samples. PMID:26847654

  14. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. Wan, B.; Hu, L.; Hu, C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M.; Shi, Y.

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  15. ADVISOR: a systems analysis tool for advanced vehicle modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Hendricks, T.; Johnson, V.; Kelly, K.; Kramer, B.; O'Keefe, M.; Sprik, S.; Wipke, K.

    This paper provides an overview of Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)—the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) ADVISOR written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ADVISOR provides the vehicle engineering community with an easy-to-use, flexible, yet robust and supported analysis package for advanced vehicle modeling. It is primarily used to quantify the fuel economy, the performance, and the emissions of vehicles that use alternative technologies including fuel cells, batteries, electric motors, and internal combustion engines in hybrid (i.e. multiple power sources) configurations. It excels at quantifying the relative change that can be expected due to the implementation of technology compared to a baseline scenario. ADVISOR's capabilities and limitations are presented and the power source models that are included in ADVISOR are discussed. Finally, several applications of the tool are presented to highlight ADVISOR's functionality. The content of this paper is based on a presentation made at the 'Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models' workshop held in Crystal City, Virginia in August 2001.

  16. An Advanced Tool for Control System Design and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, Joachim; Lohmann, Heinz

    2006-07-01

    The detailed engineering for control systems is usually supported by CAD Tools creating the relevant logic diagrams including software parameters and signal cross references. However at this stage of the design an early V and V process for checking out the functional correctness of the design is not available. The article describes the scope and capabilities of an advanced control system design tool which has the embedded capability of a stand-alone simulation of complex logic structures. The tool provides the following features for constructing logic diagrams for control systems: - Drag and Drop construction of logic diagrams using a predefined symbol sets; - Cross reference facility; - Data extraction facility; - Stand-alone simulation for Logic Diagrams featuring: On the fly changes, signal line animation, value boxes and mini trends etc. - Creation and on-line animation of Compound Objects (Handler); - Code Generation Facility for Simulation; - Code Generation Facility for several control systems. The results of the integrated simulation based V and V process can be used further for initial control system configuration and life cycle management as well as for Engineering Test Bed applications and finally in full Scope Replica Simulators for Operator Training. (authors)

  17. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  18. Development of a high-temperature diagnostics-while-drilling tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavira, David J.; Huey, David; Hetmaniak, Chris; Polsky, Yarom; King, Dennis K.; Jacobson, Ronald David; Blankenship, Douglas Alan; Knudsen, Steven Dell; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Mansure, Arthur James

    2009-01-01

    The envisioned benefits of Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD) are based on the principle that high-speed, real-time information from the downhole environment will promote better control of the drilling process. Although in practice a DWD system could provide information related to any aspect of exploration and production of subsurface resources, the current DWD system provides data on drilling dynamics. This particular set of new tools provided by DWD will allow quicker detection of problems, reduce drilling flat-time and facilitate more efficient drilling (drilling optimization) with the overarching result of decreased drilling costs. In addition to providing the driller with an improved, real-time picture of the drilling conditions downhole, data generated from DWD systems provides researchers with valuable, high fidelity data sets necessary for developing and validating enhanced understanding of the drilling process. Toward this end, the availability of DWD creates a synergy with other Sandia Geothermal programs, such as the hard-rock bit program, where the introduction of alternative rock-reduction technologies are contingent on the reduction or elimination of damaging dynamic effects. More detailed descriptions of the rationale for the program and early development efforts are described in more detail by others [SAND2003-2069 and SAND2000-0239]. A first-generation low-temperature (LT) DWD system was fielded in a series of proof-of-concept tests (POC) to validate functionality. Using the LT system, DWD was subsequently used to support a single-laboratory/multiple-partner CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) entitled Advanced Drag Bits for Hard-Rock Drilling. The drag-bit CRADA was established between Sandia and four bit companies, and involved testing of a PDC bit from each company [Wise, et al., 2003, 2004] in the same lithologic interval at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) test facility near Catoosa, OK. In addition, the LT DWD system has

  19. An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-01-31

    Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.

  20. Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lecroq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. Method We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. Results The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook’s section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. Conclusions The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their

  1. Clinical holistic health: advanced tools for holistic medicine.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, May Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    According to holistic medical theory, the patient will heal when old painful moments, the traumatic events of life that are often called "gestalts", are integrated in the present "now". The advanced holistic physician's expanded toolbox has many different tools to induce this healing, some that are more dangerous and potentially traumatic than others. The more intense the therapeutic technique, the more emotional energy will be released and contained in the session, but the higher also is the risk for the therapist to lose control of the session and lose the patient to his or her own dark side. To avoid harming the patient must be the highest priority in holistic existential therapy, making sufficient education and training an issue of highest importance. The concept of "stepping up" the therapy by using more and more "dramatic" methods to get access to repressed emotions and events has led us to a "therapeutic staircase" with ten steps: (1) establishing the relationship; (2) establishing intimacy, trust, and confidentiality; (3) giving support and holding; (4) taking the patient into the process of physical, emotional, and mental healing; (5) social healing of being in the family; (6) spiritual healing--returning to the abstract wholeness of the soul; (7) healing the informational layer of the body; (8) healing the three fundamental dimensions of existence: love, power, and sexuality in a direct way using, among other techniques, "controlled violence" and "acupressure through the vagina"; (9) mind-expanding and consciousness-transformative techniques like psychotropic drugs; and (10) techniques transgressing the patient's borders and, therefore, often traumatizing (for instance, the use of force against the will of the patient). We believe that the systematic use of the staircase will greatly improve the power and efficiency of holistic medicine for the patient and we invite a broad cooperation in scientifically testing the efficiency of the advanced holistic

  2. Advancing Porous Silicon Biosensor Technology for Use in Clinical Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Lisa Marie

    Inexpensive and robust analytical techniques for detecting molecular recognition events are in great demand in healthcare, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Despite vast research in this area, challanges remain to develop practical biomolecular platforms that, meet the rigorous demands of real-world applications. This includes maintaining low-cost devices that are sensitive and specific in complex test specimens, are stable after storage, have short assay time, and possess minimal complexity of instrumentation for readout. Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) material has been identified as an ideal candidate towards achieving these goals and the past decade has seen diverse proof-of-principle studies developing optical-based sensing techniques. In Part 1 of this thesis, the impact of surface chemistry and PSi morphology on detection sensitivity of target molecules is investigated. Initial proof-of-concept that PSi devices facilitate detection of protein in whole blood is demonstrated. This work highlights the importance of material stability and blocking chemistry for sensor use in real world biological samples. In addition, the intrinisic filtering capability of the 3-D PSi morphology is shown as an advantage in complex solutions, such as whole blood. Ultimately, this initial work identified a need to improve detection sensitivity of the PSI biosensor technique to facilitate clinical diagnostic use over relevant target concentration ranges. The second part of this thesis, builds upon sensitivity challenges that are highlighted in the first part of the thesis and development of a surface-bound competitive inhibition immunoassay facilitated improved detection sensitivity of small molecular weight targets (opiates) over a relevant clinical concentration range. In addition, optimization of assay protocol addressed issues of maintaining stability of sensors after storage. Performance of the developed assay (specificity and sensitivity) was then validated in a

  3. The Hα surface brightness — radius plane as a diagnostic tool for photoionized nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, David J.; Bojičić, Ivan S.; Parker, Quentin A.

    2016-07-01

    The Hα surface brightness - radius (SHα-r) relation is a robust distance indicator for planetary nebulae (PNe), further enhanced by different populations of PNe having distinct loci in SHα-r space. Other types of photoionized nebulae also plot in quite distinct regions in the SHa-r plane, allowing its use as a diagnostic tool. In particular, the nova shells and massive star ejecta (MSE) plot on relatively tight loci illustrating their evolutionary sequences. For the MSE, there is potential to develop a distance indicator for these objects, based on their trend in SHα-r space. As high-resolution, narrowband surveys of the nearest galaxies become more commonplace, the SHα-r plane is a potentially useful diagnostic tool to help identify the various ionized nebulae in these systems.

  4. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the

  5. Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

  6. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.0

    2002-06-13

    Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools is a 5-level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c)Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the processmore » of having MEMS fabricated at SNL e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with the software AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. NOTE: THE CUSTOMER MUST PURCHASE HIS/HER OWN COPY OF AutoCAD TO USE WITH THESE FILES.« less

  7. Feasibility of streamlining an interactive Bayesian-based diagnostic support tool designed for clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hao; Botzolakis, Emmanuel; Mohan, Suyash; Bryan, R. N.; Cook, Tessa

    2016-03-01

    In radiology, diagnostic errors occur either through the failure of detection or incorrect interpretation. Errors are estimated to occur in 30-35% of all exams and contribute to 40-54% of medical malpractice litigations. In this work, we focus on reducing incorrect interpretation of known imaging features. Existing literature categorizes cognitive bias leading a radiologist to an incorrect diagnosis despite having correctly recognized the abnormal imaging features: anchoring bias, framing effect, availability bias, and premature closure. Computational methods make a unique contribution, as they do not exhibit the same cognitive biases as a human. Bayesian networks formalize the diagnostic process. They modify pre-test diagnostic probabilities using clinical and imaging features, arriving at a post-test probability for each possible diagnosis. To translate Bayesian networks to clinical practice, we implemented an entirely web-based open-source software tool. In this tool, the radiologist first selects a network of choice (e.g. basal ganglia). Then, large, clearly labeled buttons displaying salient imaging features are displayed on the screen serving both as a checklist and for input. As the radiologist inputs the value of an extracted imaging feature, the conditional probabilities of each possible diagnosis are updated. The software presents its level of diagnostic discrimination using a Pareto distribution chart, updated with each additional imaging feature. Active collaboration with the clinical radiologist is a feasible approach to software design and leads to design decisions closely coupling the complex mathematics of conditional probability in Bayesian networks with practice.

  8. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  9. SDA-based diagnostic and analysis tools for Collider Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshakov, T.B.; Lebrun, P.; Panacek, S.; Papadimitriou, V.; Slaughter, J.; Xiao, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Operating and improving the understanding of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex for the colliding beam experiments requires advanced software methods and tools. The Shot Data Analysis (SDA) has been developed to fulfill this need. Data from the Fermilab Accelerator Complex is stored in a relational database, and is served to programs and users via Web-based tools. Summary tables are systematically generated during and after a store. These tables (the Supertable, the Recomputed Emittances, the Recomputed Intensities and other tables) are discussed here.

  10. Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

  11. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  12. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  13. Advancement in contemporary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, L Dinesh; Karthik, R; Gayathri, N; Sivasudha, T

    2016-04-01

    This review is intended to provide a summary of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapies for rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common form of inflammatory autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology. Bone degradation, cartilage and synovial destruction are three major pathways of RA pathology. Sentinel cells includes dendritic cells, macrophages and mast cells bound with the auto antigens and initiate the inflammation of the joints. Those cells further activates the immune cells on synovial membrane by releasing inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1, 6, 17, etc., Diagnosis of this disease is a combinational approach comprises radiological imaging, blood and serology markers assessment. The treatment of RA still remain inadequate due to the lack of knowledge in disease development. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs and corticosteroid are the commercial drugs to reduce pain, swelling and suppressing several disease factors. Arthroscopy will be an useful method while severe degradation of joint tissues. Gene therapy is a major advancement in RA. Suppressor gene locus of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes were inserted into the affected area to reduce the disease progression. To overcome the issues aroused from those therapies like side effects and expenses, phytocompounds have been investigated and certain compounds are proved for their anti-arthritic potential. Furthermore certain complementary alternative therapies like yoga, acupuncture, massage therapy and tai chi have also been proved for their capability in RA treatment. PMID:27044812

  14. 75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop; request...

  15. Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  16. Tools for the advancement of undergraduate statistics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffner, Andrew Alan

    To keep pace with advances in applied statistics and to maintain literate consumers of quantitative analyses, statistics educators stress the need for change in the classroom (Cobb, 1992; Garfield, 1993, 1995; Moore, 1991a; Snee, 1993; Steinhorst and Keeler, 1995). These authors stress a more concept oriented undergraduate introductory statistics course which emphasizes true understanding over mechanical skills. Drawing on recent educational research, this dissertation attempts to realize this vision by developing tools and pedagogy to assist statistics instructors. This dissertation describes statistical facets, pieces of statistical understanding that are building blocks of knowledge, and discusses DIANA, a World-Wide Web tool for diagnosing facets. Further, I show how facets may be incorporated into course design through the development of benchmark lessons based on the principles of collaborative learning (diSessa and Minstrell, 1995; Cohen, 1994; Reynolds et al., 1995; Bruer, 1993; von Glasersfeld, 1991) and activity based courses (Jones, 1991; Yackel, Cobb and Wood, 1991). To support benchmark lessons and collaborative learning in large classes I describe Virtual Benchmark Instruction, benchmark lessons which take place on a structured hypertext bulletin board using the technology of the World-Wide Web. Finally, I present randomized experiments which suggest that these educational developments are effective in a university introductory statistics course.

  17. Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W.; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  18. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external tomore » Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.« less

  19. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, Victor; Allen, James; Lantz, Jeffery; Priddy, Brian; & Westling, Belinda

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  20. Advancing research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease: the IWG-2 criteria.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Bruno; Feldman, Howard H; Jacova, Claudia; Hampel, Harald; Molinuevo, José Luis; Blennow, Kaj; DeKosky, Steven T; Gauthier, Serge; Selkoe, Dennis; Bateman, Randall; Cappa, Stefano; Crutch, Sebastian; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Fox, Nick C; Galasko, Douglas; Habert, Marie-Odile; Jicha, Gregory A; Nordberg, Agneta; Pasquier, Florence; Rabinovici, Gil; Robert, Philippe; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Sarazin, Marie; Epelbaum, Stéphane; de Souza, Leonardo C; Vellas, Bruno; Visser, Pieter J; Schneider, Lon; Stern, Yaakov; Scheltens, Philip; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2014-06-01

    In the past 8 years, both the International Working Group (IWG) and the US National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association have contributed criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that better define clinical phenotypes and integrate biomarkers into the diagnostic process, covering the full staging of the disease. This Position Paper considers the strengths and limitations of the IWG research diagnostic criteria and proposes advances to improve the diagnostic framework. On the basis of these refinements, the diagnosis of AD can be simplified, requiring the presence of an appropriate clinical AD phenotype (typical or atypical) and a pathophysiological biomarker consistent with the presence of Alzheimer's pathology. We propose that downstream topographical biomarkers of the disease, such as volumetric MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET, might better serve in the measurement and monitoring of the course of disease. This paper also elaborates on the specific diagnostic criteria for atypical forms of AD, for mixed AD, and for the preclinical states of AD. PMID:24849862

  1. Validation of Three Early Ejaculation Diagnostic Tools: A Composite Measure Is Accurate and More Adequate for Diagnosis by Updated Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Patrick; Piha, Juhana; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Materials and Methods Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (Mage = 42.8) and 892 controls (Mage = 33.1 years) from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation). Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1) responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2) responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. Results All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98). A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms – CHEES) consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression) equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance). Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Conclusions All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES) based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three tools, but is

  2. On the Development of a Computer Based Diagnostic Assessment Tool to Help in Teaching and Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Afaq; Al-Mashari, Ahmed; Al-Lawati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based diagnostic tool developed to facilitate the learning process. The developed tool is capable of generating possible error syndromes associated with the answers received. The developed tool simulates the error pattern of the test results and then accordingly models the action plan to help in children's learning…

  3. Imaging and Markers as Novel Diagnostic Tools in Detecting Insignificant Prostate Cancer: A Critical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Nosov, Alexander; Novikov, Roman; Petrov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Recent therapeutic advances for managing low-risk prostate cancer include the active surveillance and focal treatment. However, locating a tumor and detecting its volume by adequate sampling is still problematic. Development of predictive biomarkers guiding individual therapeutic choices remains an ongoing challenge. At the same time, prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging is gaining increasing importance for prostate diagnostics. The high morphological resolution of T2-weighted imaging and functional MRI methods may increase the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostics. Also, recent studies founded an ability of novel biomarkers to identify clinically insignificant prostate cancer, risk of progression, and association with poor differentiation and, therefore, with clinical significance. Probably, the above mentioned methods would improve tumor characterization in terms of its volume, aggressiveness, and focality. In this review, we attempted to evaluate the applications of novel imaging techniques and biomarkers in assessing the significance of the prostate cancer. PMID:27351008

  4. Sonography: the leading diagnostic tool for diseases of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Zengel, P; Schrötzlmair, F; Reichel, C; Paprottka, P; Clevert, D A

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasound examination is the imaging procedure with the best predictive diagnostic capability for the salivary glands. Due to the salivary glands' relatively superficial anatomical location, clear boundary from surrounding tissue and comparatively typical echogenicity, therefore sonography is ideal for diagnosis. In addition, the technical advances in recent years, including higher resolution, color Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, and tissue harmonic have lead to an improvement in diagnostic accuracy of sonography further resulting in an expansion of the range of indications. Sonography allows detection of obstructive salivary gland diseases such as stenosis or sialolithiasis, as well as sialadenosis such as Sjögren syndrome. Ultrasound examination alone is sufficient to diagnose benign tumors. However, in the case of malignant tumors, computer tomography or MRI may be also required, especially to determine the question of infiltration of the skull base. PMID:23768886

  5. Advancing Patient-centered Outcomes in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; McCabe, Aileen M; Meisel, Zachary M; LeBlanc, Annie; Schaffer, Jason T; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Vaughan, William; Merck, Lisa H; Applegate, Kimberly E; Hollander, Judd E; Grudzen, Corita R; Mills, Angela M; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hess, Erik P

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is integral to the evaluation of many emergency department (ED) patients. However, relatively little effort has been devoted to patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) in emergency diagnostic imaging. This article provides background on this topic and the conclusions of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference PCOR work group regarding "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The goal was to determine a prioritized research agenda to establish which outcomes related to emergency diagnostic imaging are most important to patients, caregivers, and other key stakeholders and which methods will most optimally engage patients in the decision to undergo imaging. Case vignettes are used to emphasize these concepts as they relate to a patient's decision to seek care at an ED and the care received there. The authors discuss applicable research methods and approaches such as shared decision-making that could facilitate better integration of patient-centered outcomes and patient-reported outcomes into decisions regarding emergency diagnostic imaging. Finally, based on a modified Delphi process involving members of the PCOR work group, prioritized research questions are proposed to advance the science of patient-centered outcomes in ED diagnostic imaging. PMID:26574729

  6. Development of high-speed and wide-angle visible observation diagnostics on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak using catadioptric optics.

    PubMed

    Yang, J H; Yang, X F; Hu, L Q; Zang, Q; Han, X F; Shao, C Q; Sun, T F; Chen, H; Wang, T F; Li, F J; Hu, A L

    2013-08-01

    A new wide-angle endoscope for visible light observation on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been recently developed. The head section of the optical system is based on a mirror reflection design that is similar to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wide-angle observation diagnostic on the Joint European Torus. However, the optical system design has been simplified and improved. As a result, the global transmittance of the system is as high as 79.6% in the wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm, and the spatial resolution is <5 mm for the full depth of field (4000 mm). The optical system also has a large relative aperture (1:2.4) and can be applied in high-speed camera diagnostics. As an important diagnostic tool, the optical system has been installed on the HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) for its final experimental campaign, and the experiments confirmed that it can be applied to the investigation of transient processes in plasma, such as ELMy eruptions in H-mode, on EAST. PMID:24007102

  7. Development of high-speed and wide-angle visible observation diagnostics on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak using catadioptric optics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. H.; Hu, L. Q.; Zang, Q.; Han, X. F.; Shao, C. Q.; Sun, T. F.; Chen, H.; Wang, T. F.; Li, F. J.; Hu, A. L.; Yang, X. F.

    2013-08-15

    A new wide-angle endoscope for visible light observation on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been recently developed. The head section of the optical system is based on a mirror reflection design that is similar to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wide-angle observation diagnostic on the Joint European Torus. However, the optical system design has been simplified and improved. As a result, the global transmittance of the system is as high as 79.6% in the wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm, and the spatial resolution is <5 mm for the full depth of field (4000 mm). The optical system also has a large relative aperture (1:2.4) and can be applied in high-speed camera diagnostics. As an important diagnostic tool, the optical system has been installed on the HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) for its final experimental campaign, and the experiments confirmed that it can be applied to the investigation of transient processes in plasma, such as ELMy eruptions in H-mode, on EAST.

  8. STS-57 Spacehab-01 Tools and Diagnostics System (TDS) displayed at bench review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Tools and Diagnostics System (TDS) experiment equipment is displayed on a table top during the STS-57 Spacehab-01 (Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) bench review at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility (FEPF) located near JSC. TDS will be stored in Spacehab-01 aft locker AC10 and includes electronic circuit boards, a soldering iron assembly, goggles, a printed circuit board holder, a portable battery charger, and a portable electronic diagnostic equipment package. TDS' sponsor is the Flight Crew Support Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, JSC. It will evaluate microgravity effects on the physics and human factors of soldering, the operation of the battery charger, and the operation of the diagnositic equipment package. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Benny Benavides.

  9. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Gaytán, Brandon D; Vulpe, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds-information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  10. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    PubMed Central

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  11. Recent advances in salivary cancer diagnostics enabled by biosensors and bioelectronics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saswat; Saadat, Darius; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Yongkuk; Choi, Woon-Seop; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2016-07-15

    There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures. Here, we review various cancer biomarkers in saliva and compare the biomarkers efficacy with traditional diagnostics and state-of-the-art bioelectronics. We summarize biomarkers in four major groups: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/microbiota. Representative bioelectronic systems for each group are summarized based on various stages of a cancer. Systematic study of oxidative stress establishes the relationship between macromolecules and cancer biomarkers in saliva. We also introduce the most recent examples of salivary diagnostic electronics based on nanotechnologies that can offer rapid, yet highly accurate detection of biomarkers. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and applications of these technologies. PMID:26946257

  12. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  13. Using Wood’s Light as a Diagnostic Tool for Vaginal Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Fidan, Ulas; Keskin, Ugur; Alanbay, Ibrahim; Karaca, Riza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Wood’s light lamp is a device that emits ultraviolet (UV) light and is a useful diagnostic tool for dermatologic disorders. The change in the thickness of vaginal mucosa, in vaginal atrophy, causes a change in its colour under Wood’s light. We wanted to assess the feasibility of Wood’s light (WL) as a diagnostic tool for vaginal atrophy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from 1 March 2013 to 1 September 2014. We evaluated 45 healthy postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis (study group) and 45 healthy, reproductive-aged women as a control group. All patients underwent WL and routine gynaecological examinations for this study. Results: Ninety patients were selected for this study: 45 postmenopausal women suffering atrophic vaginitis symptoms like vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, vulvar pruritus, and signs like pale, smooth, dry, fragile vaginal epithelium, areas of petechiae, and rash, and 45 healthy reproductive-aged women without vaginal atrophy. Thirty-six of the postmenopausal women’s vaginal mucosa appeared pale royal green under WL indicative of vaginal atrophy. Thirty-nine of reproductive-aged women’s (n: 45) vaginal mucosa were not visualized as pale royal green fluorescent images under the WL. Conclusion: Using Wood’s light to diagnose vaginal atrophy is a new use for the old device and may be a reliable, and cheap tool for diagnosing vaginal atrophy. Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of Wood’s light will be better optimized in further trials. PMID:25738039

  14. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Heidbrink, W W; Wan, B; von Hellermann, M G; Zhu, Y; Gao, W; Wu, C; Li, Y; Fu, J; Lyu, B; Yu, Y; Shi, Y; Ye, M; Hu, L; Hu, C

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented. PMID:25430314

  15. The Resolution Integral – a tool for characterising the performance of diagnostic ultrasound scanners

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Scott; Pye, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how the resolution integral can be used as a tool for characterising the grey-scale imaging of diagnostic ultrasound scanners. The definitions of resolution integral, characteristic resolution and depth of field are discussed in relation to grey-scale imaging performance, together with a method of measuring these parameters using the Edinburgh Pipe Phantom. We show how the characteristic resolution and depth of field can be used to quantify the differences between transducers designed for different applications and how they are useful in identifying and quantifying changes in the performance of individual transducers.

  16. GPLS VME MODULE: A DIAGNOSTIC AND DISPLAY TOOL FOR NSLS MICRO SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    RAMAMOORTHY,S.; SMITH,J.D.

    1999-03-29

    The General Purpose Light Source VME module is an integral part of every front-end micro in the NSLS control system. The board incorporates features such as a video character generator, clock signals, time-of-day clock, a VME bus interrupter and general-purpose digital inputs and outputs. This module serves as a valuable diagnostic and real-time display tool for the micro development as well as for the final operational systems. This paper describes the functions provided by the board for the NSLS micro control monitor software.

  17. Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2004-01-01

    The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  18. STRING 3: An Advanced Groundwater Flow Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Simon; Michel, Isabel; Biedert, Tim; Gräfe, Marius; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The visualization of 3D groundwater flow is a challenging task. Previous versions of our software STRING [1] solely focused on intuitive visualization of complex flow scenarios for non-professional audiences. STRING, developed by Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) and delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany), provides the necessary means for visualization of both 2D and 3D data on planar and curved surfaces. In this contribution we discuss how to extend this approach to a full 3D tool and its challenges in continuation of Michel et al. [2]. This elevates STRING from a post-production to an exploration tool for experts. In STRING moving pathlets provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flows. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow. To capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding is used building on the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Lifting our visualization approach from 2D into 3D provides many new challenges. With the implementation of a seeding strategy for 3D one of the major problems has already been solved (see Schröder et al. [3]). As pathlets only provide an overview of the velocity field other means are required for the visualization of additional flow properties. We suggest the use of Direct Volume Rendering and isosurfaces for scalar features. In this regard we were able to develop an efficient approach for combining the rendering through raytracing of the volume and regular OpenGL geometries. This is achieved through the use of Depth Peeling or A-Buffers for the rendering of transparent geometries. Animation of pathlets requires a strict boundary of the simulation domain. Hence, STRING needs to extract the boundary, even from unstructured data, if it is not provided. In 3D we additionally need a good visualization of the boundary itself. For this the silhouette based on the angle of

  19. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  20. Utility of Discography as a Preoperative Diagnostic Tool for Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Terai, Hidetomi; Dohzono, Sho; Hori, Yusuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative definitive diagnosis of intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is difficult despite the availability of various neuroradiological investigative tools. We present a case of ILDH diagnosed preoperatively by discography and computed tomography-discography (disco-CT).The patient was a 63-year-old man with acute excruciating right leg pain. Discography and disco-CT demonstrated leakage of the contrast medium into the intradural space. Based on these findings, a right L5 nerve root disturbance caused by ILDH was diagnosed. A right L5 hemi-laminectomy and a dorsal durotomy were performed. The herniated disc was carefully dissected and then completely removed. Three months after surgery, the patient had fully recovered. This report highlights the importance of making a definitive diagnosis of ILDH preoperatively for better surgical planning and improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, discography and disco-CT are both useful preoperative diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of ILDH. PMID:27559461

  1. Utility of Discography as a Preoperative Diagnostic Tool for Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomiya; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Terai, Hidetomi; Dohzono, Sho; Hori, Yusuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Preoperative definitive diagnosis of intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is difficult despite the availability of various neuroradiological investigative tools. We present a case of ILDH diagnosed preoperatively by discography and computed tomography-discography (disco-CT).The patient was a 63-year-old man with acute excruciating right leg pain. Discography and disco-CT demonstrated leakage of the contrast medium into the intradural space. Based on these findings, a right L5 nerve root disturbance caused by ILDH was diagnosed. A right L5 hemi-laminectomy and a dorsal durotomy were performed. The herniated disc was carefully dissected and then completely removed. Three months after surgery, the patient had fully recovered. This report highlights the importance of making a definitive diagnosis of ILDH preoperatively for better surgical planning and improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, discography and disco-CT are both useful preoperative diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of ILDH. PMID:27559461

  2. Monitoring of lobectomy in cystic fibrosis with electrical impedance tomography - a new diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Sylvia; Tenbrock, Klaus; Schrading, Simone; Pikkemaat, Robert; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Santos, Susana; Spillner, Jan Wilhelm; Wagner, Norbert; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a radiation-free technique generating cross-sectional images of the lung. EIT visualizes global and regional ventilation by illustrating the distribution of electrical bioimpedance. With an electrode belt around the patient's thorax, rotating injection-couples of a harmless alternating current allow voltage measurement of the remaining electrodes. This enables the reconstruction of a tomogram with highly dynamic changes within ventilation. We report on a female six-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis and complete destruction of the upper and middle lobe of the right lung. Lobectomy, a rare therapeutic option in patients with cystic fibrosis that needs to be considered in cases of severe localized destruction, was performed. We show a pre- and postoperative documentation of static (radiology) and dynamic investigation tools (spirometry) in correlation with EIT as a new non-invasive and radiation-free diagnostic tool for this patient group. PMID:25153206

  3. Characterizing the intrinsic bioremediation potential of 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene using innovative environmental diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Mora, Rebecca; Diguiseppi, William H; Davis, Greg; Sublette, Kerry; Gedalanga, Phillip; Mahendra, Shaily

    2012-09-01

    An intrinsic biodegradation study involving the design and implementation of innovative environmental diagnostic tools was conducted to evaluate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) could be considered as part of the remedial strategy to treat an aerobic aquifer contaminated with 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene (TCE). In this study, advanced molecular biological and stable isotopic tools were applied to confirm in situ intrinsic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane and TCE. Analyses of Bio-Trap® samplers and groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells verified the abundance of bacteria and enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probes (PLFA-SIP) of the microbial community validated the ability for microbial degradation of TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of groundwater samples for TCE resulted in δ(13)C values that indicated likely biodegradation of TCE in three of the four monitoring wells sampled. Results of the MNA evaluation showed that enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane were present, abundant, and active in the aquifer. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence of the occurrence of TCE and 1,4-dioxane biodegradation at the study site, supporting the selection of MNA as part of the final remedy at some point in the future. PMID:22825917

  4. 'What About Swallowing?' Diagnostic Performance of Daily Clinical Practice Compared with the Eating Assessment Tool-10.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Bas Joris; Speyer, Renée; Bülow, Margareta; Kuijpers, Laura Mf

    2016-04-01

    In daily clinical practice, patients are frequently asked about their swallowing as part of the patient-clinician interview. This study compares the diagnostic performance of a single open question 'What about swallowing?' (usual care) with the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) as reference test in screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). 303 outpatients at risk of OD were recruited at three university hospitals: 162 men and 141 women with a mean age of 70 years. All data were retrieved by phone. To identify patients at risk of dysphagia, two different cut-off scores for the EAT-10 total score were retrieved from the literature. The diagnostic performance of the single question was determined by comparing dichotomized answers to the single question (no problems versus difficulties in swallowing) with the EAT-10 as reference test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged between 0.75-0.76, 0.75-0.84, 0.93-0.97 and 0.38-0.43, respectively. Mostly, the results of this exploratory study indicate a sufficient diagnostic performance of the single question in identifying patients who are at risk of dysphagia when using the EAT-10 questionnaire as a reference test. Further research, is, however, necessary to provide additional psychometric data on Functional Health Status (FHS) questionnaires including the single question using either FEES or VFS as gold standard or reference test. PMID:26753926

  5. Laser induced fluorescence as a diagnostic tool integrated into a scanning fiber endoscope for mouse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Christopher M.; Maggio-Price, Lillian; Seibel, Eric J.

    2007-02-01

    Scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) technology has shown promise as a minimally invasive optical imaging tool. To date, it is capable of capturing full-color 500-line images, at 15 Hz frame rate in vivo, as a 1.6 mm diameter endoscope. The SFE uses a singlemode optical fiber actuated at mechanical resonance to scan a light spot over tissue while backscattered or fluorescent light at each pixel is detected in time series using several multimode optical fibers. We are extending the capability of the SFE from a RGB reflectance imaging device to a diagnostic tool by imaging laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in tissue, allowing for correlation of endogenous fluorescence to tissue state. Design of the SFE for diagnostic imaging is guided by a comparison of single point spectra acquired from an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model to tissue histology evaluated by a pathologist. LIF spectra were acquired by illuminating tissue with a 405 nm light source and detecting intrinsic fluorescence with a multimode optical fiber. The IBD model used in this study was mdr1a-/- mice, where IBD was modulated by infection with Helicobacter bilis. IBD lesions in the mouse model ranged from mild to marked hyperplasia and dysplasia, from the distal colon to the cecum. A principle components analysis (PCA) was conducted on single point spectra of control and IBD tissue. PCA allowed for differentiation between healthy and dysplastic tissue, indicating that emission wavelengths from 620 - 650 nm were best able to differentiate diseased tissue and inflammation from normal healthy tissue.

  6. Urethral ultrasonography: A novel diagnostic tool for dysuria following bipolar transurethral plasma kinetic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Chun; Bian, Cui-Dong; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Min; Huang, Jian-Hua; Peng, Bo

    2016-04-29

    Urethral ultrasonography is non-invasive and able to indicate the urethral lumen clearly, as well as the surrounding tissues of the posterior urethra, without contrast agent or X-ray irradiation. In this paper, we evaluate the reliability of urethral ultrasonography in the diagnosis of dysuria following bipolar transurethral plasma kinetic prostatectomy (TUPKP). A total of 120 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients with dysuria undergoing TUPKP were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 72.8 years. All the patients received urethral ultrasonography, urethroscopy and bladder neck urethra stenosis oulectomy. Among the 120 cases, there were 22 cases of bladder neck closure, 20 bladder orifice stricture, 60 urethral stricture, 10 prostate remnants, 2 calculi in prostatic urethra, 4 dysfunction of bladder detrusor muscle and 2 flap of internal urethral orifice. χ2-test was used for the comparison of ultrasonography and urethral cystoscopy in the diagnosis of dysuria following TRPKP, and no significant difference was found between two diagnostic tools (χ 2 = 0.94, P > 0.05). Urethral ultrasonography is a reliable and minimally invasive diagnostic tool for dysuria following TUPKP and is conducive to early treatment of dysuria following prostatectomy. PMID:27163308

  7. In search of a potential diagnostic tool for molecular characterization of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohd; Adnan, Mohd; Khan, Saif; Al-Shammari, Eyad; Mustafa, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic disease and is caused by the parasites Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti), Brugia malayi (B. malayi) and Brugia timori (B. timori). In the present study, Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a bovine filarial parasite has been used. Previously, it has been reported that the S. cervi shares some common proteins and antigenic determinants with that of human filarial parasite. The larval stages of filarial species usually cannot be identified by classical morphology. Hence, molecular characterization allows the identification of the parasites throughout all their developmental stages. The genomic DNA of S. cervi adult were isolated and estimated spectrophotometrically for the quantitative presence of DNA content. Screening of DNA sequences from filarial DNA GenBank and Expressed Sequence Tags (EST's) were performed for homologous sequences and then multiple sequence alignment was executed. The conserved sequences from multiple sequence alignment were used for In Silico primer designing. The successfully designed primers were used further in PCR amplifications. Therefore, in search of a promising diagnostic tool few genes were identified to be conserved in the human and bovine filariasis and these novel primers deigned may help to develop a promising diagnostic tool for identification of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751881

  8. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  9. Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer: Use, Outcomes, Imaging, and Diagnostic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Loeb, Stacy; Epstein, Jonathan I; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a standard management option for men with very low-risk and low-risk prostate cancer, and contemporary data indicate that use of AS is increasing in the United States and abroad. In the favorable-risk population, reports from multiple prospective cohorts indicate a less than 1% likelihood of metastatic disease and prostate cancer-specific mortality over intermediate-term follow-up (median 5 to 6 years). Higher-risk men participating in AS appear to be at increased risk of adverse outcomes, but these populations have not been adequately studied to this point. Although monitoring on AS largely relies on serial prostate biopsy, a procedure associated with significant morbidity, there is a need for improved diagnostic tools for patient selection and monitoring. Revisions from the 2014 International Society of Urologic Pathology consensus conference have yielded a more intuitive reporting system and detailed reporting of low-intermediate grade tumors, which should facilitate the practice of AS. Meanwhile, emerging modalities such as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and tissue-based molecular testing have shown prognostic value in some populations. At this time, however, these instruments have not been sufficiently studied to consider their routine, standardized use in the AS setting. Future studies should seek to identify those platforms most informative in the AS population and propose a strategy by which promising diagnostic tools can be safely and efficiently incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:27249729

  10. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  11. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance. PMID:20517632

  12. A small noncoding RNA signature found in exosomes of GBM patient serum as a diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Manterola, Lorea; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Pérez-Larraya, Jaime Gállego; González-Huarriz, Marisol; Jauregui, Patricia; Tejada, Sonia; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Segura, Victor; Samprón, Nicolás; Barrena, Cristina; Ruiz, Irune; Agirre, Amaia; Ayuso, Ángel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Álvaro; Xipell, Enric; Matheu, Ander; López de Munain, Adolfo; Tuñón, Teresa; Zazpe, Idoya; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Paris, Sophie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Alonso, Marta M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. Methods To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. Results We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. Conclusions Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker. PMID:24435880

  13. Advances in Microfluidic PCR for Point-of-Care Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seungkyung; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Shin; Wang, Tza-Huei; Yang, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Global burdens from existing or emerging infectious diseases emphasize the need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to enhance timely recognition and intervention. Molecular approaches based on PCR methods have made significant inroads by improving detection time and accuracy but are still largely hampered by resource-intensive processing in centralized laboratories, thereby precluding their routine bedside- or field-use. Microfluidic technologies have enabled miniaturization of PCR processes onto a chip device with potential benefits including speed, cost, portability, throughput, and automation. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in microfluidic PCR technologies and discuss practical issues and perspectives related to implementing them into infectious disease diagnostics. PMID:21741465

  14. Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools for Residual Life Estimation in Aging Nuclear Power Plant Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Henager, Charles H.; Dixit, Mukul

    2011-06-23

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors (LWR) is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need, nondestructive methods that are suitable for continuous monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is the ability to estimate remaining useful life (RUL) of components and systems based on condition assessment or degradation information. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel sensors and enhanced data integration techniques. A range of acoustic and electromagnetic measurement methods may be suitable, including acoustic microscopy, eddy current and magnetic Barkhausen emission. Prognostic methods that predict rate of degradation and remaining life based on phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics have been reported by several researchers. However, the challenge of predicting remaining life starting from earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. This paper discusses an assessment of selected diagnostic techniques, and the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms to detection of early degradation and rate of degradation/life prediction. Such measurement and modeling methods are expected to form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches for assessing and monitoring life extension of ageing light water reactors.

  15. Virtual Guidance Ultrasound: A Tool to Obtain Diagnostic Ultrasound for Remote Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caine,Timothy L.; Martin David S.; Matz, Timothy; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts currently acquire ultrasound images on the International Space Station with the assistance of real-time remote guidance from an ultrasound expert in Mission Control. Remote guidance will not be feasible when significant communication delays exist during exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For example, there may be as much as a 20- minute delay in communications between the Earth and Mars. Virtual-guidance, a pre-recorded audio-visual tutorial viewed in real-time, is a viable modality for minimally trained scanners to obtain diagnostically-adequate images of clinically relevant anatomical structures in an autonomous manner. METHODS: Inexperienced ultrasound operators were recruited to perform carotid artery (n = 10) and ophthalmic (n = 9) ultrasound examinations using virtual guidance as their only instructional tool. In the carotid group, each each untrained operator acquired two-dimensional, pulsed, and color Doppler of the carotid artery. In the ophthalmic group, operators acquired representative images of the anterior chamber of the eye, retina, optic nerve, and nerve sheath. Ultrasound image quality was evaluated by independent imaging experts. RESULTS: Eight of the 10 carotid studies were judged to be diagnostically adequate. With one exception the quality of all the ophthalmic images were adequate to excellent. CONCLUSION: Diagnostically-adequate carotid and ophthalmic ultrasound examinations can be obtained by untrained operators with instruction only from an audio/video tutorial viewed in real time while scanning. This form of quick-response-guidance, can be developed for other ultrasound examinations, represents an opportunity to acquire important medical and scientific information for NASA flight surgeons and researchers when trained medical personnel are not present. Further, virtual guidance will allow untrained personnel to autonomously obtain important medical information in remote locations on Earth where communication is

  16. Line and continuum spectroscopy as diagnostic tools for gamma ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, E.P.

    1990-12-01

    We review the theoretical framework of both line and continuum spectra formation in gamma ray bursts. These include the cyclotron features at 10's of keV, redshifted annihilation features at {approximately}400 keV, as well as other potentially detectable nuclear transition lines, atomic x-ray lines, proton cyclotron lines and plasma oscillation lines. By combining the parameters derived from line and continuum modeling we can try to reconstruct the location, geometry and physical conditions of the burst emission region, thereby constraining and discriminating the astrophysical models. Hence spectroscopy with current and future generations of detectors should provide powerful diagnostic tools for gamma ray bursters. 48 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of FTIR spectroscopy as diagnostic tool for colorectal cancer using spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liu; Sun, Xuejun; Chao, Zhang; Zhang, Shiyun; Zheng, Jianbao; Gurung, Rajendra; Du, Junkai; Shi, Jingsen; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhang, Yuanfu; Wu, Jinguang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to confirm FTIR spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for colorectal cancer. 180 freshly removed colorectal samples were collected from 90 patients for spectrum analysis. The ratios of spectral intensity and relative intensity (/I1460) were calculated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher's discriminant analysis (FDA) were applied to distinguish the malignant from normal. The FTIR parameters of colorectal cancer and normal tissues were distinguished due to the contents or configurations of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Related to nitrogen containing, water, protein and nucleic acid were increased significantly in the malignant group. Six parameters were selected as independent factors to perform discriminant functions. The sensitivity for FTIR in diagnosing colorectal cancer was 96.6% by discriminant analysis. Our study demonstrates that FTIR can be a useful technique for detection of colorectal cancer and may be applied in clinical colorectal cancer diagnosis.

  18. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  19. Microarrays as a diagnostic tool in prenatal screening strategies: ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; Macville, Merryn V E; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; van Lith, Jan M M; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2014-02-01

    Genomic microarray analysis is increasingly being applied as a prenatal diagnostic tool. Microarrays enable searching the genome at a higher resolution and with higher sensitivity than conventional karyotyping for identifying clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities. As yet, no clear guidelines exist on whether microarrays should be applied prenatally for all indications or only in selected cases such as ultrasound abnormalities, whether a targeted or genome-wide array should be used, and what these should include exactly. In this paper, we present some ethical considerations on the prenatal use of microarrays. There is a strong consensus, at least in Western countries, that the aim of prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities should be understood as facilitating autonomous reproductive choice for prospective parents. The tests offered should be valid and useful to reach that purpose. Against this background, we address several ethical issues raised by the prenatal application of microarrays. First, we argue that the general distinction between a targeted and a genome-wide microarray needs to be scrutinised. Then we examine whether microarrays are 'suitable tests' to serve either a screening or a diagnostic purpose. Given the wide range of findings possibly generated by microarrays, the question arises whether microarrays actually promote or interfere with autonomous reproductive decision-making. Moreover, if variants of unknown clinical significance are identified, this adds to the burden and complexity of reproductive decision-making. We suggest a qualified use of microarrays in the prenatal context. PMID:24077959

  20. Supramaximal Stimulus Intensity as a Diagnostic Tool in Chronic Demyelinating Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Parker, Vivien; Warman Chardon, Jodi; Mills, Julie; Goldsmith, Claire; Bourque, Pierre R

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The ability to correctly identify chronic demyelinating neuropathy can have important therapeutic and prognostic significance. The stimulus intensity value required to obtain a supramaximal compound muscle action potential amplitude is a commonly acquired data point that has not been formally assessed as a diagnostic tool in routine nerve conduction studies to identify chronic neuropathies. We postulated that this value was significantly elevated in chronic demyelinating neuropathy. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed electrophysiology laboratory records to compare the stimulus intensity values recorded during median and ulnar motor nerve conduction studies. The groups studied included normal controls (n = 42) and the following diagnostic categories: chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) (n = 20), acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDP) (n = 13), Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) type 1 or 4C (n = 15), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (n = 11), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (n = 18). Results. Supramaximal intensities were significantly higher in patients with CMT (median nerve: 43.4 mA) and CIDP (median nerve: 38.9 mA), whereas values similar to normal controls (median nerve: 25.3 mA) were obtained in ALS, CTS, and AIDP. Conclusions. Supramaximal stimulus intensity may be used as an additional criterion to identify the pathophysiology of neuropathy. We postulate that endoneurial hypertrophic changes may increase electrical impedance and thus the threshold of excitation at nodes of Ranvier. PMID:27413732

  1. Supramaximal Stimulus Intensity as a Diagnostic Tool in Chronic Demyelinating Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Vivien; Warman Chardon, Jodi; Mills, Julie; Goldsmith, Claire; Bourque, Pierre R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The ability to correctly identify chronic demyelinating neuropathy can have important therapeutic and prognostic significance. The stimulus intensity value required to obtain a supramaximal compound muscle action potential amplitude is a commonly acquired data point that has not been formally assessed as a diagnostic tool in routine nerve conduction studies to identify chronic neuropathies. We postulated that this value was significantly elevated in chronic demyelinating neuropathy. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed electrophysiology laboratory records to compare the stimulus intensity values recorded during median and ulnar motor nerve conduction studies. The groups studied included normal controls (n = 42) and the following diagnostic categories: chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) (n = 20), acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDP) (n = 13), Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) type 1 or 4C (n = 15), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (n = 11), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (n = 18). Results. Supramaximal intensities were significantly higher in patients with CMT (median nerve: 43.4 mA) and CIDP (median nerve: 38.9 mA), whereas values similar to normal controls (median nerve: 25.3 mA) were obtained in ALS, CTS, and AIDP. Conclusions. Supramaximal stimulus intensity may be used as an additional criterion to identify the pathophysiology of neuropathy. We postulate that endoneurial hypertrophic changes may increase electrical impedance and thus the threshold of excitation at nodes of Ranvier. PMID:27413732

  2. Near Infrared Imaging as a Diagnostic Tool for Detecting Enamel Demineralization: An in vivo Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Seth Adam

    Background and Objectives: For decades there has been an effort to develop alternative optical methods of imaging dental decay utilizing non-ionizing radiation methods. The purpose of this in-vivo study was to demonstrate whether NIR can be used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate dental caries and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of this method with that of conventional methods, including bitewing x-rays and visual inspection. Materials and Methods: 31 test subjects (n=31) from the UCSF orthodontic clinic undergoing orthodontic treatment with planned premolar extractions were recruited. Calibrated examiners performed caries detection examinations using conventional methods: bitewing radiographs and visual inspection. These findings were compared with the results from NIR examinations: transillumination and reflectance. To confirm the results found in the two different detection methods, a gold standard was used. After teeth were extracted, polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography were performed. Results: A total of 87 premolars were used in the study. NIR identified the occlusal lesions with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 77%, whereas, the visual examination had a sensitivity of only 40% and a specifity of 39%. For interproximal lesions halfway to DEJ, specificity remained constant, but sensitivity improved to 100% for NIR and 75% for x-rays. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that NIR is just as effective at detecting enamel interproximal lesions as standard dental x-rays. NIR was more effective at detecting occlusal lesions than visual examination alone. NIR shows promise as an alternative diagnostic tool to the conventional methods of x-rays and visual examination and provides a non-ionizing radiation technique.

  3. Development of advanced diagnostics for characterization of burning droplets in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Subramanian; Buermann, Dale H.; Bachalo, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques currently used for microgravity research are generally not as advanced as those used in earth based gravity experiments. Diagnostic techniques for measuring the instantaneous radial temperature profile (or temperature gradients) within the burning droplet do not exist. Over the past few years, Aerometrics has been researching and developing a rainbow thermometric technique for measuring the droplet temperatures of burning droplets. This technique has recently been integrated with the phase Doppler interferometric technique to yield a diagnostic instrument that can be used to simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and temperature of burning droplets in complex spray flames. Also, the rainbow thermometric technique has been recently integrated with a point-diffraction interferometric technique for measuring the instantaneous gas phase temperature field surrounding a burning droplet. These research programs, apart from being very successful, have also helped us identify other innovative techniques for the characterization of burning droplets. For example, new techniques have been identified for measuring the instantaneous regression rate of burning droplets. Also, there is the possibility of extracting the instantaneous radial temperature distribution or the temperature gradients within a droplet during transient heating. What is important is that these diagnostic techniques have the potential for making use of inexpensive, light-weight, and rugged devices such as diode lasers and linear CCD arrays. As a result, they can be easily packaged for incorporation into microgravity drop-test and flight-test facilities. Furthermore, with the use of linear CCD arrays, data rates as high as 10-100 kHz can be easily achieved. This data rate is orders of magnitude higher than what is currently achievable. In this research and development program, a compact and rugged diagnostic system will be developed that can be used to measure instantaneous fuel

  4. Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Moores, B M; Charnock, P; Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development

  5. Advanced diagnostic approaches and current management of internal disorders of select species (rodents, sugar gliders, hedgehogs).

    PubMed

    Evans, Erika E; Souza, Marcy J

    2010-09-01

    African pygmy and European hedgehogs, sugar gliders, and rodents such as rats, mice, gerbils, hamsters, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are becoming increasingly popular as pets in the United States, and more practitioners are being asked to examine, diagnose, and treat these animals for a bevy of disorders and diseases. Many procedures and techniques used in traditional small and large animal medicine are used for these species, with minor adaptations or considerations. This article examines available diagnostic tools and treatment methodologies for use in hedgehogs, sugar gliders, and selected rodents. PMID:20682430

  6. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Röpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  7. The Development of an Open-Ended Drawing Tool: An Alternative Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Mohamed, Abdi-Rizak; Roehrig, Gillian H.; Wood, Nathan B.; Kern, Anne L.; Schneider, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies in the chemical education literature report students' alternative conceptions in chemistry and the difficulty they present for future learning. In this paper, we review existing diagnostic tools used to uncover students' alternative conceptions in chemistry and suggest that there are two fundamental issues with such instruments,…

  8. Advanced PANIC quick-look tool using Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, José-Miguel; García Segura, Antonio J.; Storz, Clemens; Fried, Josef W.; Fernández, Matilde; Rodríguez Gómez, Julio F.; Terrón, V.; Cárdenas, M. C.

    2012-09-01

    PANIC, the Panoramic Near Infrared Camera, is an instrument for the Calar Alto Observatory currently being integrated in laboratory and whose first light is foreseen for end 2012 or early 2013. We present here how the PANIC Quick-Look tool (PQL) and pipeline (PAPI) are being implemented, using existing rapid programming Python technologies and packages, together with well-known astronomical software suites (Astromatic, IRAF) and parallel processing techniques. We will briefly describe the structure of the PQL tool, whose main characteristics are the use of the SQLite database and PyQt, a Python binding of the GUI toolkit Qt.

  9. Diagnostic Systems Plan for the Advanced Light Source Top-OffUpgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Walter; Chin, Mike; Robin, David; Sannibale, Fernando; Scarvie, Tom; Steier, Christoph

    2005-05-10

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) will soon be upgraded to enable top-off operations [1], in which electrons are quasi-continuously injected to produce constant stored beam current. The upgrade is structured in two phases. First, we will upgrade our injector from 1.5 GeV to 1.9 GeV to allow full energy injection and will start top-off operations. In the second phase, we will upgrade the Booster Ring (BR) with a bunch cleaning system to allow high bunch purity top-off injection. A diagnostics upgrade will be crucial for success in both phases of the top-off project, and our plan for it is described in this paper. New booster ring diagnostics will include updated beam position monitor (BPM) electronics, a tune monitoring system, and a new scraper. Two new synchrotron light monitors and a beam stop will be added to the booster-to-storage ring transfer line (BTS), and all the existing beam current monitors along the accelerator chain will be integrated into a single injection efficiency monitoring application. A dedicated bunch purity monitor will be installed in the storage ring (SR). Together, these diagnostic upgrades will enable smooth commissioning of the full energy injector and a quick transition to high quality top-off operation at the ALS.

  10. The circuit of polychromator for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qing; Hsieh, C L; Zhao, Junyu; Chen, Hui; Li, Fengjuan

    2013-09-01

    The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T(e)) gradient and low electron density (n(e)). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasing stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10. PMID:24089826

  11. The circuit of polychromator for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, Qing; Zhao, Junyu; Chen, Hui; Li, Fengjuan; Hsieh, C. L.

    2013-09-15

    The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T{sub e}) gradient and low electron density (n{sub e}). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasing stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10.

  12. XML based tools for assessing potential impact of advanced technology space validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael R.; Weisbin, Charles

    2004-01-01

    A hierarchical XML database and related analysis tools are being developed by the New Millennium Program to provide guidance on the relative impact, to future NASA missions, of advanced technologies under consideration for developmental funding.

  13. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  14. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  15. ESMValTool (v1.0) - a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, Veronika; Righi, Mattia; Lauer, Axel; Evaldsson, Martin; Wenzel, Sabrina; Jones, Colin; Anav, Alessandro; Andrews, Oliver; Cionni, Irene; Davin, Edouard L.; Deser, Clara; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gleckler, Peter; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Hagemann, Stefan; Juckes, Martin; Kindermann, Stephan; Krasting, John; Kunert, Dominik; Levine, Richard; Loew, Alexander; Mäkelä, Jarmo; Martin, Gill; Mason, Erik; Phillips, Adam S.; Read, Simon; Rio, Catherine; Roehrig, Romain; Senftleben, Daniel; Sterl, Andreas; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; Walton, Jeremy; Wang, Shiyu; Williams, Keith D.

    2016-05-01

    A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth system models (ESMs) has been developed that allows for routine comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor versions or against observations. The priority of the effort so far has been to target specific scientific themes focusing on selected essential climate variables (ECVs), a range of known systematic biases common to ESMs, such as coupled tropical climate variability, monsoons, Southern Ocean processes, continental dry biases, and soil hydrology-climate interactions, as well as atmospheric CO2 budgets, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. The tool is being developed in such a way that additional analyses can easily be added. A set of standard namelists for each scientific topic reproduces specific sets of diagnostics or performance metrics that have demonstrated their importance in ESM evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community effort open to both users and developers encouraging open exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ensemble. This will facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and aims at supporting such activities within CMIP and at individual modelling centres. Ultimately, we envisage running the ESMValTool alongside the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) as part of a more routine evaluation of CMIP model simulations while utilizing observations available in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or provided by the user.

  16. ESMValTool (v1.0) - a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth System Models in CMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, V.; Righi, M.; Evaldsson, M.; Lauer, A.; Wenzel, S.; Jones, C.; Anav, A.; Andrews, O.; Cionni, I.; Davin, E. L.; Deser, C.; Ehbrecht, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Gleckler, P.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.; Hagemann, S.; Juckes, M.; Kindermann, S.; Krasting, J.; Kunert, D.; Levine, R.; Loew, A.; Mäkelä, J.; Martin, G.; Mason, E.; Phillips, A.; Read, S.; Rio, C.; Roehrig, R.; Senftleben, D.; Sterl, A.; van Ulft, L. H.; Walton, J.; Wang, S.; Williams, K. D.

    2015-09-01

    A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth System Models (ESMs) has been developed that allows for routine comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor versions or against observations. The priority of the effort so far has been to target specific scientific themes focusing on selected Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), a range of known systematic biases common to ESMs, such as coupled tropical climate variability, monsoons, Southern Ocean processes, continental dry biases and soil hydrology-climate interactions, as well as atmospheric CO2 budgets, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. The tool is being developed in such a way that additional analyses can easily be added. A set of standard namelists for each scientific topic reproduces specific sets of diagnostics or performance metrics that have demonstrated their importance in ESM evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community effort open to both users and developers encouraging open exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the CMIP ensemble. This will facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and aims at supporting such activities within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and at individual modelling centres. Ultimately, we envisage running the ESMValTool alongside the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) as part of a more routine evaluation of CMIP model simulations while utilizing observations available in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or provided by the user.

  17. Application of advanced laser diagnostics to hypersonic wind tunnels and combustion systems.

    SciTech Connect

    North, Simon W.; Hsu, Andrea G.; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2009-09-01

    This LDRD was a Sandia Fellowship that supported Andrea Hsu's PhD research at Texas A&M University and her work as a visitor at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility. The research project at Texas A&M University is concerned with the experimental characterization of hypersonic (Mach>5) flowfields using experimental diagnostics. This effort is part of a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) and is a collaboration between the Chemistry and Aerospace Engineering departments. Hypersonic flight conditions often lead to a non-thermochemical equilibrium (NTE) state of air, where the timescale of reaching a single (equilibrium) Boltzmann temperature is much longer than the timescale of the flow. Certain molecular modes, such as vibrational modes, may be much more excited than the translational or rotational modes of the molecule, leading to thermal-nonequilibrium. A nontrivial amount of energy is therefore contained within the vibrational mode, and this energy cascades into the flow as thermal energy, affecting flow properties through vibrational-vibrational (V-V) and vibrational-translational (V-T) energy exchanges between the flow species. The research is a fundamental experimental study of these NTE systems and involves the application of advanced laser and optical diagnostics towards hypersonic flowfields. The research is broken down into two main categories: the application and adaptation of existing laser and optical techniques towards characterization of NTE, and the development of new molecular tagging velocimetry techniques which have been demonstrated in an underexpanded jet flowfield, but may be extended towards a variety of flowfields. In addition, Andrea's work at Sandia National Labs involved the application of advanced laser diagnostics to flames and turbulent non-reacting jets. These studies included quench-free planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and mixture fraction measurements via Rayleigh scattering.

  18. Bone biopsy as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, G B

    2004-11-01

    When renal disease develops, mineral and vitamin D homeostasis is disrupted, resulting in diverse modifications in bone cells, bone structure and the rate of bone turnover. In end stage renal failure (ESRF) when patients require chronic maintenance dialysis, nearly all of them have abnormal bone histology known as renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Moreover, survival rates of patients on dialysis have increased because of therapeutic improvement and the resultant increase in duration of dialysis has led to a further rise in renal osteodystrophy. Because metabolic bone disease can produce fractures, bone pain, and deformities late in the course of the disease, prevention and early treatment are essential. Serum PTH and various bone markers are commonly used to assess bone changes in ESRF patients, but the diagnosis of underlying bone disease is still rather uncertain. To date, bone biopsy is the most powerful and informative diagnostic tool to provide precise information on the type and severity of renal osteodystrophy, and on the presence and amount of aluminum and strontium deposited in the bone. Bone biopsy is not only useful in clinical settings but also in research to assess the effects of therapies on bone. Although considered an invasive procedure, bone biopsy has been proven to be safe and free from major complications, but the operator's experience and skill is important in further minimizing morbidity. Alternatives to bone biopsy continue to be sought, but the non-invasive bone markers have not been proven to be sufficient in diagnostic performance related to bone turnover, mineralization process and bone cell abnormality. Hence, transiliac bone biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. PMID:15636048

  19. Geochemical study of black crusts as a diagnostic tool in cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Russa, Mauro F.; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Comite, Valeria; Barca, Donatella; Bonazza, Alessandra; Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2013-12-01

    This contribution focuses on spectrometric analyses carried out on crust samples covering the stone surface of the boundary walls of the Tower of London. The main goal of this research is to investigate the degradation processes related to the environmental impact on cultural heritage. Specifically, the chemical contamination of stone substrate in the Tower of London due to the crust formation was examined through laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This technique allowed us to achieve a complete characterization of the damage layers in terms of trace elements. In addition, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR) were also used for an exhaustive characterization of the examined samples. Results obtained demonstrated that such a geochemical approach represents a powerful diagnostic tool in the study of black crusts, since it represents a reliable indicator of the environmental pollution. The higher concentrations of most heavy metals in black crusts with respect to the underlying stone suggest that crusts were greatly influenced by atmospheric inputs in their formation, mainly represented by mobile combustion sources. In addition, the possibility of analyzing in some samples the portion of altered substrate allowed us to hypothesize that some specific heavy metals tend to migrate from the crust to the unaltered substrate over time, becoming catalysts for the formation of new crust. Therefore, this research focuses on the role of diagnostics in order to plan suitable cleaning and consolidation intervention aimed at a better protection of the monument.

  20. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Chung Sheun Thai, Jeffrey; Raskovic, Desanka; Cesareo, Eleonora; Caccamo, Daniela; Trukhanov, Arseny

    2014-01-01

    Growing numbers of “electromagnetic hypersensitive” (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental “sensitivity-related illnesses” (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered (P < 0.05–0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable—though milder—metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω6/ω3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly (P = 0.003) altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19∗1/∗2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.I. = 1.3–74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers' panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI. PMID:24812443

  1. Construction of an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter; Keller, Richard M.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Sims, Michael H.; Thompson, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific model-building can be a time intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot be distributed easily and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complicated, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We propose to construct a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing, using and sharing models. The proposed tool will include an interactive intelligent graphical interface and a high-level domain-specific modeling language. As a test bed for this research, we propose to develop a software prototype in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling.

  2. Fitting cognitive diagnostic assessment to the Concept Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago Roman, Aidsa Ivette

    A concept inventory (CI) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to evaluate whether a person has an accurate, working knowledge of a specific set of concepts. An important role of CI's is to provide instructors with clues about the pre-conceptions (or misconceptions) their students hold which may be actively interfering with learning. Only a few engineering CI's have been able to be applied successfully in instructional settings, due in part to statistical analysis techniques that are typically applied to the instrument. These techniques include psychometric interpretative techniques such as Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT), which measure the item performance data of the CI's. However, these strategies do not measure students' cognitive abilities (misconceptions). To begin filing this gap, the objective of this study was to determine the applicability of a new statistical method called the Fusion Model to the Concept Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS) among engineering students from various US universities. Specifically, the research question that guided this study was: Can the Fusion Model be appropriately used with the Cognitive Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS) to diagnostically measure students' cognitive understanding of Statics concepts? In this study, the Fusion Model was applied to CATS through a four-phase procedure. Each phase had a specific objective that was tied to the primary research question. The analysis performed resulted in the generation of a Q-matrix that relates a set of cognitive attributes to specific questions. These attributes were determined using the expertise of the author of this study and most importantly the developer of CATS. Results of the study indicated that CATS has high capability to be used as diagnostic assessment, and also identified items (questions) that needed to be revised because they were not able to discriminate between examinees who were masters and non-masters of the specified attributes

  3. The BOUT Project: Validation and Benchmark of BOUT Code and Experimental Diagnostic Tools for Fusion Boundary Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X Q

    2001-08-09

    A boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT is presented. The preliminary encouraging results have been obtained when comparing with probe measurements for a typical Ohmic discharge in CT-7 tokamak. The validation and benchmark of BOUT code and experimental diagnostic tools for fusion boundary plasma turbulence is proposed.

  4. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  5. A Quasi-Universal Nonword Repetition Task as a Diagnostic Tool for Bilingual Children Learning Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerma, Tessel; Chiat, Shula; Leseman, Paul; Timmermeister, Mona; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated a newly developed quasi-universal nonword repetition task (Q-U NWRT) as a diagnostic tool for bilingual children with language impairment (LI) who have Dutch as a 2nd language. The Q-U NWRT was designed to be minimally influenced by knowledge of 1 specific language in contrast to a language-specific NWRT with which it…

  6. New generation of medium wattage metal halide lamps and spectroscopic tools for their diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Tu, J.; Gibson, R.; Steere, T.; Graham, K.; van der Eyden, J.

    2010-11-01

    A new generation of ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps has achieved high efficiencies by implementing new design concepts. The shape of the ceramic burner is optimized to withstand high temperatures with minimal thermal stress. Corrosion processes with the ceramic walls are slowed down via adoption of non-aggressive metal halide chemistry. Light losses over life due to tungsten deposition on the walls are minimized by maintaining a self-cleaning chemical process, known as tungsten cycle. All these advancements have made the new ceramic metal halide lamps comparable to high pressure sodium lamps for luminous efficacy, life, and maintenance while providing white light with high color rendering. Direct replacement of quartz metal halide lamps and systems results in the energy saving from 18 up to 50%. High resolution spectroscopy remains the major non-destructive tool for the ceramic metal halide lamps. Approaches to reliable measurements of relative partial pressures of the arc species are discussed.

  7. An advanced image analysis tool for the quantification and characterization of breast cancer in microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Goudas, Theodosios; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents an advanced image analysis tool for the accurate and fast characterization and quantification of cancer and apoptotic cells in microscopy images. The proposed tool utilizes adaptive thresholding and a Support Vector Machines classifier. The segmentation results are enhanced through a Majority Voting and a Watershed technique, while an object labeling algorithm has been developed for the fast and accurate validation of the recognized cells. Expert pathologists evaluated the tool and the reported results are satisfying and reproducible. PMID:25681102

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging of cervical spinal cord: A quantitative diagnostic tool in cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Toktas, Zafer Orkun; Tanrıkulu, Bahattin; Koban, Orkun; Kilic, Turker; Konya, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique potentially able to evaluate the microscopic structural organization of white matter fibers. Aim: This study aimed to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained by DTI in stenotic versus nonstenotic cervical spinal segments of patients with clinical and neurological evidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 21 patients with CSM but without T2 changes on conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor (DT) images from the stenotic and nonstenotic segments of the subjects were obtained. FA and ADC values were estimated and compared with stenotic versus nonstenotic segments. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test was used [Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 12.0]. Results: In the most stenotic segments, the mean FA value was significantly lower (0.4228 ± 0.1090 vs 0.6884 ± 0.0075, P < 0.001) and the mean ADC value was significantly higher (1.312 ± 0.2405 vs 0.9183 ± 0.1477, P < 0.001) when compared to nonstenotic segments. In addition, there was a negative correlation between FA and ADC values (r = 0.63, P = 0.002). Conclusions: DTI of the cervical spine seems to be a promising novel imaging modality in patients with CSM. Advances in Knowledge: DTI may offer increased diagnostic sensitivity as compared to standard MRI and enables earlier detection of the disease. PMID:27041882

  9. Mitochondrial DNA methylation as a next-generation biomarker and diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Iacobazzi, Vito; Castegna, Alessandra; Infantino, Vittoria; Andria, Generoso

    2013-01-01

    Recent expansion of our knowledge on epigenetic changes strongly suggests that not only nuclear DNA (nDNA), but also mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may be subjected to epigenetic modifications related to disease development, environmental exposure, drug treatment and aging. Thus, mtDNA methylation is attracting increasing attention as a potential biomarker for the detection and diagnosis of diseases and the understanding of cellular behavior in particular conditions. In this paper we review the current advances in mtDNA methylation studies with particular attention to the evidences of mtDNA methylation changes in diseases and physiological conditions so far investigated. Technological advances for the analysis of epigenetic variations are promising tools to provide insights into methylation of mtDNA with similar resolution levels as those reached for nDNA. However, many aspects related to mtDNA methylation are still unclear. More studies are needed to understand whether and how changes in mtDNA methylation patterns, global and gene specific, are associated to diseases or risk factors. PMID:23920043

  10. Advances in molecular imaging: targeted optical contrast agents for cancer diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hellebust, Anne; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades, our understanding of the molecular changes associated with cancer development and progression has advanced greatly. This has led to new cancer therapeutics targeted against specific molecular pathways; such therapies show great promise to reduce mortality, in part by enabling physicians to tailor therapy for patients based on a molecular profile of their tumor. Unfortunately, the tools for definitive cancer diagnosis – light microscopic examination of biopsied tissue stained with nonspecific dyes – remain focused on the analysis of tissue ex vivo. There is an important need for new clinical tools to support the molecular diagnosis of cancer. Optical molecular imaging is emerging as a technique to help meet this need. Targeted, optically active contrast agents can specifically label extra-and intracellular biomarkers of cancer. Optical images can be acquired in real time with high spatial resolution to image-specific molecular targets, while still providing morphologic context. This article reviews recent advances in optical molecular imaging, highlighting the advances in technology required to improve early cancer detection, guide selection of targeted therapy and rapidly evaluate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22385200

  11. Diagnostic tool for early detection of ovarian cancers using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Chad A.; Molpus, Kelly; Brader, Kevin; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    With an overall survival rate of about 35 percent, ovarian cancer claims more than 13,000 women in the US each year. It is estimated that roughly 1 in 70 women will develop ovarian cancer. Current screening techniques are challenged due to cost-effectiveness, variable false-positive results, and the asymptomatic nature of the early stages of ovarian cancer. The predominant screening method for ovarian cancers is transvaginal sonography (TVS). TVS is fairly accomplished at ovarian cancer detection, however it is inefficient in distinguishing between benign and malignant masses. Accurate diagnosis of the ovarian tumor relies on exploratory laparotomy, thus increasing the cost and hazard of false- positive screening methods. Raman spectroscopy has been sued successfully as a diagnostic tool in several organ systems in vitro. These studies have shown that Raman spectroscopy can be used to provide diagnosis of subtle changes in tissue pathology with high accuracy. Based on this success, we have developed a Raman spectroscopic system for application in the ovary. Using this system, the Raman signatures of normal and various types of non-normal human ovarian tissues were characterized in vitro. Raman spectra are being analyzed, and empirical as well as multivariate discriminatory algorithms developed. Based on the result of this study, a strategy for in vivo trials will be planned.

  12. Calibration of laser tomography as a new optical diagnostic tool applied to dosimetric polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwan, R.; Guermeur, F.; Bailly, Y.; Simonin, L.; Svoboda, J.; Makovicka, L.; Martin, E.

    2008-03-01

    Numerous medical applications, as radiotherapy for example, require accurate and reproducible three-dimensional dose measurements with high spatial resolution. A solution of great interest and which has been exploited for many years is the use of dosimetric gels based on different physico-chemical principles, as Fricke's gels or polymer gels. Fricke's gels take advantage of the oxidation of ferrous ions in ferric while polymer gels are the result of the synthesis of polyacrylamide hydrogel from monomer and cross-linking agent. Fricke's gels have particular limitations not encountered with polymer gel dosimeters: the time delay between irradiation and measurement must be reduced in order to limit the diffusion of ferric ions which may remove the spatial dose information. That's why, during the past decade, many compositions of polymer gels have been studied (PAG, MAGIC, …), elaborated and even commercialized (BANG gels). However the gel composition remains of great interest regarding its physical properties. In this work, the authors propose a new optical diagnostic tool more flexible and less expensive in comparison with existing techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Optical-CT. This technique is based on light scattering behaviour occurring in an irradiated polymer gel (note that light scattering in Fricke's gels is very feeble, the latter being essentially absorbant).

  13. The 22 GHz Water Maser Line: A New Diagnostic Tool for Extrasolar Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmovici, Cristiano; Pogrebenko, Sergej; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    The impact of 21 nuclei of Comet Shoemaker-Levy with the atmosphere of Jupiter in July 1994, permitted the detection of the 22 GHz water MASER line for the first time in the Solar System. This emission line was originated by a water cloud released from cometary ices after the explosion of the nuclei in the upper atmosphere. Our measurements have shown that, under particular physical conditions, water MASER emission can be observed from planetary atmospheres. Thus water (and probably other molecules like SiO) MASER emission can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool for planetary search outside the Solar System, since comets are able to deliver huge amounts of water into planetary atmospheres, increasing the probability of life development. We therefore started a search program with the 32m dish of the Medicina Radiotelescope using a 132,000 multichannel spectrometer in order to cover Doppler shifts due to planetary rotation. In this paper we will illustrate the feasibility, the technique used, and the first selected targets for the search within 50 ly.

  14. Creating an automated chiller fault detection and diagnostics tool using a data fault library.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Margaret B; Kreider, Jan F

    2003-07-01

    Reliable, automated detection and diagnosis of abnormal behavior within vapor compression refrigeration cycle (VCRC) equipment is extremely desirable for equipment owners and operators. The specific type of VCRC equipment studied in this paper is a 70-ton helical rotary, air-cooled chiller. The fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool developed as part of this research analyzes chiller operating data and detects faults through recognizing trends or patterns existing within the data. The FDD method incorporates a neural network (NN) classifier to infer the current state given a vector of observables. Therefore the FDD method relies upon the availability of normal and fault empirical data for training purposes and therefore a fault library of empirical data is assembled. This paper presents procedures for conducting sophisticated fault experiments on chillers that simulate air-cooled condenser, refrigerant, and oil related faults. The experimental processes described here are not well documented in literature and therefore will provide the interested reader with a useful guide. In addition, the authors provide evidence, based on both thermodynamics and empirical data analysis, that chiller performance is significantly degraded during fault operation. The chiller's performance degradation is successfully detected and classified by the NN FDD classifier as discussed in the paper's final section. PMID:12858981

  15. Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Diagnostic Tool for Six Sexually Transmitted Infections - Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    GRAD, ALECSANDRA IULIA; VICA, MIHAELA LAURA; MATEI, HOREA VLADI; GRAD, DORU LUCIAN; COMAN, IOAN; TATARU, DUMITRU ALEXANDRU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Sexually transmitted infections are a very frequent and under-diagnosed cause of illness worldwide. A high number of detection methods and a large range of specimens in which sexually transmitted infections can be determined are available at the moment. Polymerase chain reaction performed on first void urine offers the advantage of being non-invasive, self-collectable and has high sensitivity and specificity. We looked to determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Methods Six sexually transmitted infections were determined in the first void urine of 15 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients by polymerase chain reaction. We used “Epicenter MasterPure™ Complete DNA and RNA Purification Kit” for the DNA purification and “Seeplex® STD6 ACE Detection” for the DNA amplification. The results were examined in UV light. Results A number of 5 patients had positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sexually transmitted infections are more frequent in men between 27 and 40 years old. Conclusions Polymerase chain reaction is a good diagnostic tool for sexually transmitted infections because it has a high sensitivity and specificity. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection, followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMID:26528045

  16. Effectiveness of feline body mass index (fBMI) as new diagnostic tool for obesity.

    PubMed

    Kawasumi, Koh; Iwazaki, Eiji; Okada, Yuki; Arai, Toshiro

    2016-02-01

    Feline body mass index (fBMI), BW/PCL, length from top of patella to end of calcaneus, was developed as a new diagnostic tool for obesity in cats. To evaluate the effectiveness of fBMI for obese cats in short-term, 6 cats were induced weight gain by over-feeding with high fat diet and then they were induced weight reduction by restrict-feeding with low fat diet to measure changes in fBMI and plasma metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities. BCS 3 is correlated with fBMI 24.6-32.0, BCS 4 is correlated with fBMI 33.1-37.1 and BCS 5 is correlated with fBMI 29.9-40.3, respectively. On the correlation coefficient analysis by Pearson's method (P < 0.05), positive correlations (r = 0.403) were seen between the fBMI and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. From these findings, fBMI seems to be more sensitive and useful indicator for obesity diagnosis in cats. PMID:27348888

  17. MicroRNAs as a diagnostic tool for heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Weckbach, Ludwig T; Grabmaier, Ulrich; Clauss, Sebastian; Wakili, Reza

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which are directly involved in the regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression. Their biological function represents a repression of protein expression of the targeted messenger-RNA(s). Expression of several miRNAs is somehow tissue-specific or cell-specific and their expression pattern can reflect an underlying pathophysiological condition. Beyond this biological function their role as potential biomarkers has been emerged in the past years. This was based on the fact that miRNAs can be detected in blood samples (serum or plasma) in a surprisingly stable form, by contrast to mRNAs. This fact made miRNAs interesting candidates for biomarkers providing information with respect to a potentially ongoing pathophysiological condition and could thereby have an impact on specific treatment strategies in patients. In this review we try to provide an overview of the potential role of miRNAs as a diagnostic tool in atrial fibrillation and heart failure patients taken different methodological aspects and distinct type of patients into account. PMID:26852213

  18. EEG Synchronization Evaluation: A New Diagnostic Tool for Predicting the Progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ran; Zhan, Xiao-Rong; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Li-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known as a leading cause of dementia in elderly persons. It is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction. AD can disrupt functional connectivity in distributed cortical networks. The S-estimator, which is a measure of multivariate intraregional synchronization, was analyzed in this study. Twenty patients with AD and 20 age-matched controls were tested at baseline and after 1 year to evaluate the potential of synchronization to be a possible marker of AD progression. All the subjects had clinical evaluations and electroencephalography (EEG) at baseline and post 1 year. Hyposynchronization had an important effect in the medial temporal and frontal regions, while there were no significant effects for hypersynchronization. Hypersynchronized clusters changed more slowly with time (P = .067), whereas hyposynchronized clusters changed more quickly (P = .032). Hyposynchronized cluster-averaged S-estimator correlated negatively with progression of AD (r = -0.98769, P = .0103). In conclusion, the present study provides a whole-brain, AD-specific phenotype of temporal coordination in distributed cortical networks, which is an early diagnostic tool for progression of AD. PMID:24590871

  19. A novel diagnostic tool reveals mitochondrial pathology in human diseases and aging

    PubMed Central

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Canugovi, Chandrika; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2013-01-01

    The inherent complex and pleiotropic phenotype of mitochondrial diseases poses a significant diagnostic challenge for clinicians as well as an analytical barrier for scientists. To overcome these obstacles we compiled a novel database, www.mitodb.com, containing the clinical features of primary mitochondrial diseases. Based on this we developed a number of qualitative and quantitative measures, enabling us to determine whether a disorder can be characterized as mitochondrial. These included a clustering algorithm, a disease network, a mitochondrial barcode and two scoring algorithms. Using these tools we detected mitochondrial involvement in a number of diseases not previously recorded as mitochondrial. As a proof of principle Cockayne syndrome, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 (AOA1), spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy 1 (SCAN1) and ataxia-telangiectasia have recently been shown to have mitochondrial dysfunction and those diseases showed strong association with mitochondrial disorders. We next evaluated mitochondrial involvement in aging and detected two distinct categories of accelerated aging disorders, one of them being associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal aging seemed to associate stronger with the mitochondrial diseases than the non-mitochondrial partially supporting a mitochondrial theory of aging. PMID:23524341

  20. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool for Distinguishing between Normal and Malignant Colorectal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Zan; Mo, Lin; Wu, Tong; Tan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis is one of the most important tasks of biomedical research and has become the main objective of medical investigations. The present paper proposed an analytical strategy for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues by combining the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with chemometrics. The successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA) was used to seek a reduced subset of variables/wavenumbers and build a diagnostic model of LDA. For comparison, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on full-spectrum classification was also used as the reference. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for a preliminary analysis. A total of 186 spectra from 20 patients with partial colorectal resection were collected and divided into three subsets for training, optimizing, and testing the model. The results showed that, compared to PLS-DA, SPA-LDA provided more parsimonious model using only three wavenumbers/variables (4065, 4173, and 5758 cm−1) to achieve the sensitivity of 84.6%, 92.3%, and 92.3% for the training, validation, and test sets, respectively, and the specificity of 100% for each subset. It indicated that the combination of NIR spectroscopy and SPA-LDA algorithm can serve as a potential tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues. PMID:25654106

  1. Surface tension in human pathophysiology and its application as a medical diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Azarbayjani, Anahita; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pathological features of disease appear to be quite different. Despite this diversity, the common feature of various disorders underlies physicochemical and biochemical factors such as surface tension. Human biological fluids comprise various proteins and phospholipids which are capable of adsorption at fluid interfaces and play a vital role in the physiological function of human organs. Surface tension of body fluids correlates directly to the development of pathological states. Methods: In this review, the variety of human diseases mediated by the surface tension changes of biological phenomena and the failure of biological fluids to remain in their native state are discussed. Results: Dynamic surface tension measurements of human biological fluids depend on various parameters such as sex, age and changes during pregnancy or certain disease. It is expected that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional information and might become useful in medical practice. Theoretical background on surface tension measurement and surface tension values of reference fluids obtained from healthy and sick patients are depicted. Conclusion: It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis. The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy. We therefore expect that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional useful information in medical practice. PMID:25901295

  2. Large biases in regression-based constituent flux estimates: causes and diagnostic tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented in the literature that, in some cases, widely used regression-based models can produce severely biased estimates of long-term mean river fluxes of various constituents. These models, estimated using sample values of concentration, discharge, and date, are used to compute estimated fluxes for a multiyear period at a daily time step. This study compares results of the LOADEST seven-parameter model, LOADEST five-parameter model, and the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model using subsampling of six very large datasets to better understand this bias problem. This analysis considers sample datasets for dissolved nitrate and total phosphorus. The results show that LOADEST-7 and LOADEST-5, although they often produce very nearly unbiased results, can produce highly biased results. This study identifies three conditions that can give rise to these severe biases: (1) lack of fit of the log of concentration vs. log discharge relationship, (2) substantial differences in the shape of this relationship across seasons, and (3) severely heteroscedastic residuals. The WRTDS model is more resistant to the bias problem than the LOADEST models but is not immune to them. Understanding the causes of the bias problem is crucial to selecting an appropriate method for flux computations. Diagnostic tools for identifying the potential for bias problems are introduced, and strategies for resolving bias problems are described.

  3. System diagnostic builder: a rule-generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1993-03-01

    The system diagnostic builder (SDB) is an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state- of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB uses an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert (SME). Thus, data is captured from the subject system, classified by an expert, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule-bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The rule-bases can be used in any knowledge based system which monitors or controls a physical system or simulation. The SDB has demonstrated the utility of using inductive machine learning technology to generate reliable knowledge bases. In fact, we have discovered that the knowledge captured by the SDB can be used in any number of applications. For example, the knowledge bases captured from the SMS can be used as black box simulations by intelligent computer aided training devices. We can also use the SDB to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production, or oil and gas production. These knowledge bases can be used in automated advisory systems to ensure safety, productivity, and consistency.

  4. A diagnostic tool for basic daily quality assurance of a Tomotherapy Hi*Art machine.

    PubMed

    Van de Vondel, Iwein; Tournel, Koen; Verellen, Dirk; Duchateau, Michael; Lelie, Steven; Storme, Guy

    2009-01-01

    To investigate and evaluate the use of an in-house developed diagnostic software tool using the imaging detector data for a quick daily quality assurance check of the output (dose) and lateral profile (cone) of a tomotherapy Hi*Art system. The Hi*Art treatment system is a radiation therapy machine for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in a helical fashion with an integrated CT scanner used for improved patient positioning before treatment. Since the system was developed specifically for IMRT, flat fields can be obtained by modulating the beam and therefore the flattening filter could be omitted. Because of this, the field has a cone-like profile in both lateral and transversal directions. Patients are treated in a helical fashion with a tight pitch and a constant gantry rotation speed, while modulation is performed by a binary MLC. Consequently dose output per time-unit (dose rate) as well as the shape of the cone-profile are very important for correct patient treatment and should be closely monitored. However, using the company-provided initial tools and conventional dosimetry, this can be a time consuming daily procedure. The aim of this work is to develop a fast, automated method of quality assurance based on the detector signal. A software tool called "tomocheck" running on the operation station has been developed to evaluate the output (dose rate) and the lateral cone profile (energy) of the Hi*Art system, comparing actual output and cone profile with a reference (previously approved against ionization chamber measurements). This is done by using the data of the 640 on-board detector array that are directly retrieved and processed after a specific QA procedure. The detector file consists of the CT detector data and the three monitoring dose chamber readings over a time period of 200 sec. To evaluate the method, the system was benchmarked against ionization chamber measurements and classical IMRT QA methods. Action levels (final status

  5. Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry

  6. CUAHSI's Hydrologic Measurement Facility: Putting Advanced Tools in Scientists' Hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Robinson, D.; Selker, J.; Duncan, J.

    2006-05-01

    Like related environmental sciences, the hydrologic sciences community has been defining environmental observatories and the support components necessary for their successful implementation, such as informatics (cyberinfrastructure) and instrumentation. Unlike programs, such as NEON and OOI, that have been pursuing large-scale capital funding through the Major Research Equipment program of the National Science Foundation, CUAHSI has been pursuing incremental development of observatories that has allowed us to pilot different parts of these support functions, namely Hydrologic Information Systems and a Hydrologic Measurement Facility (HMF), the subject of this paper. The approach has allowed us to gain greater specificity of the requirements for these facilities and their operational challenges. The HMF is developing the foundation to support innovative research across the breadth of the Hydrologic Community, including classic PI-driven projects as well as over 20 grass-roots observatories that have been developing over the past 2 years. HMF is organized around three basic areas: water cycle instrumentation, biogeochemistry and geophysics. Committees have been meeting to determined the most effective manner to deliver instrumentation, whether by special instrumentation packages proposed by host institutions; collaborative agreements with federal agencies; and contributions from industrial partners. These efforts are guided by the results of a community wide survey conducted in Nov-Dec 2005, and a series of ongoing workshops. The survey helped identify the types of equipment that will advance hydrological sciences and are often beyond the capabilities of individual PI's. Respondents to the survey indicated they were keen for HMF to focus on providing supported equipment such as atmospheric profilers like LIDAR, geophysical instrumentation ranging from airborne sensors to ground-penetrating radar, and field-deployed mass spectrophotometers. A recently signed agreement

  7. From bacterial genomics to metagenomics: concept, tools and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pooja; Kumari, Hansi; Kumar, Mukesh; Verma, Mansi; Kumari, Kirti; Malhotra, Shweta; Khurana, Jitendra; Lal, Rup

    2008-06-01

    In the last 20 years, the applications of genomics tools have completely transformed the field of microbial research. This has primarily happened due to revolution in sequencing technologies that have become available today. This review therefore, first describes the discoveries, upgradation and automation of sequencing techniques in a chronological order, followed by a brief discussion on microbial genomics. Some of the recently sequenced bacterial genomes are described to explain how complete genome data is now being used to derive interesting findings. Apart from the genomics of individual microbes, the study of unculturable microbiota from different environments is increasingly gaining importance. The second section is thus dedicated to the concept of metagenomics describing environmental DNA isolation, metagenomic library construction and screening methods to look for novel and potentially important genes, enzymes and biomolecules. It also deals with the pioneering studies in the area of metagenomics that are offering new insights into the previously unappreciated microbial world. PMID:23100712

  8. AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

    2003-02-27

    WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment

  9. Using Wellbore Deformation as a Diagnostic Tool during CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; Moysey, S. M.; Skawski, G. M.; Ebenhack, J.; Smith, J.; Ozan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Well bores always deform in response to injection or recovery of fluid. In extreme cases the deformation is catastrophic and the well can be ruined, but in routine cases the small elastic deformation has the potential to be an important diagnostic tool that improves the efficiency and safety of CO2 sequestration. Including deformation measurements along with the pressure signal during short-term hydraulic well tests will improve estimates of formation properties and heterogeneities, and this will lead to forecasts of injectivity and pressure response to CO2 injection. The feasibility of using wellbore deformation as a diagnostic tool is being evaluated by addressing three primary questions: What is the magnitude and pattern of expected deformation? Can this signal be measured? Can these measurements be interpreted? The first question is being evaluated by developing a series of theoretical analyses that represent wells in various scenarios typical of CO2 sequestration. The conceptual model is that well casing is an elastic tube that is loaded during the well completion process. This external load compresses the casing with a compliance of 10 to 40 microns of radial displacement/MPa load. During injection, the casing moves both radially and axially. Internal fluid pressure causes the casing to bulge, and poroelastic effects in the injection formation unload the casing and cause it to move radially outward. Pressure on adjacent confining units, and interaction with the ground surface cause the casing to stretch longitudinally where it contacts the injection interval, and it can be compressed in the overlying confining units. Radial displacements are on the order of tenths of microns to several microns, and axial strains are 10 microstrain or more, according to simulations. Effects in confining units are particularly interesting because they show a time dependency that results from the vertical propagation of pressure from the injection interval—the casing can be

  10. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  11. Analog integrator for the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research magnetic diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, J. G.; Lee, S. G.; Son, D.; Ga, E. M.

    2007-04-01

    An analog integrator, which automatically compensates an integrating drift, has been developed for the magnetic diagnostics in the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR). The compensation of the drift is done by the analog to digital converter-register-digital to analog converter in the integrator. The integrator will be used in the equilibrium magnetic field measurements by using inductive magnetic sensors during a plasma discharge in the KSTAR machine. Two differential amplifiers are added to the signal path between each magnetic sensor and the integrator in order to improve the performance of the integrator because a long signal cable of 100 m will be used for the measurement in the KSTAR machine. In this work, the characteristics of the integrator with two differential amplifiers are experimentally investigated.

  12. Emittance and Phase Space Exchange for Advanced Beam Manipulation and Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-04-27

    Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between transverse phase space (x,x') and longitudinal phase space (z,{delta}), where x is the transverse position, x' is the transverse divergence, and z and {delta} are relative longitudinal position and energy deviation with respect to the reference particle. Methods to achieve exact phase space exchanges, i.e., mapping x to z, x' to {delta}, z to x, and {delta} to x', are suggested. Schemes to mitigate and completely compensate for the thick-lens effect of the transverse cavity on emittance exchange are studied. Some applications of the phase space exchange for advanced beam manipulation and diagnostics are discussed.

  13. Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wugalter, S.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.

  14. Potential of advanced photoplethysmography sensing for noninvasive vascular diagnostics and early screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Kukulis, Indulis; Fridenberga, Eva; Venckus, Girts

    2002-06-01

    Advanced sensor device for shape analysis of the tissue- reflected mean single period photoplethysmography (SPPPG) signals has been designed and clinically tested. The SPPPG signal shape reveals individual features of the patient's cardio-vascular state. Clinical studies of several patient groups (e.g. diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis obliterans, Raynaud's syndrome) made possible to specify components of the SPPPG signal that are sensitive to the corresponding organic or functional pathologies. Comparison of the right and left arm finger SPPPG signal shapes, for instance, appears to be efficient tool for early screening of unilateral atherosclerosis obliterans.

  15. Scanning magnetoresistive microscopy: An advanced characterization tool for magnetic nanosystems.

    PubMed

    Mitin, D; Grobis, M; Albrecht, M

    2016-02-01

    An advanced scanning magnetoresistive microscopy (SMRM) - a robust magnetic imaging and probing technique - will be presented, which utilizes state-of-the-art recording heads of a hard disk drive as sensors. The spatial resolution of modern tunneling magnetoresistive sensors is nowadays comparable to the more commonly used magnetic force microscopes. Important advantages of SMRM are the ability to detect pure magnetic signals directly proportional to the out-of-plane magnetic stray field, negligible sensor stray fields, and the ability to apply local bipolar magnetic field pulses up to 10 kOe with bandwidths from DC up to 1 GHz. Moreover, the SMRM can be further equipped with a heating stage and external magnetic field units. The performance of this method and corresponding best practices are demonstrated by presenting various examples, including a temperature dependent recording study on hard magnetic L1(0) FeCuPt thin films, imaging of magnetic vortex states in an in-plane magnetic field, and their controlled manipulation by applying local field pulses. PMID:26931856

  16. Scanning magnetoresistive microscopy: An advanced characterization tool for magnetic nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, D.; Grobis, M.; Albrecht, M.

    2016-02-01

    An advanced scanning magnetoresistive microscopy (SMRM) — a robust magnetic imaging and probing technique — will be presented, which utilizes state-of-the-art recording heads of a hard disk drive as sensors. The spatial resolution of modern tunneling magnetoresistive sensors is nowadays comparable to the more commonly used magnetic force microscopes. Important advantages of SMRM are the ability to detect pure magnetic signals directly proportional to the out-of-plane magnetic stray field, negligible sensor stray fields, and the ability to apply local bipolar magnetic field pulses up to 10 kOe with bandwidths from DC up to 1 GHz. Moreover, the SMRM can be further equipped with a heating stage and external magnetic field units. The performance of this method and corresponding best practices are demonstrated by presenting various examples, including a temperature dependent recording study on hard magnetic L10 FeCuPt thin films, imaging of magnetic vortex states in an in-plane magnetic field, and their controlled manipulation by applying local field pulses.

  17. DNA-designed avian IgY antibodies: novel tools for research, diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cova, Lucyna

    2005-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated, using the duck Hepatitis B virus (DHBV) model, closely related to human HBV, that following DNA immunization of breeding ducks with a plasmid encoding the targeted protein, specific and biologically active IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulines) are vertically transmitted from their serum into the egg yolk from which they can be extracted and purified. Thus an egg can be considered as a small "factory" for antibody production, since about 60-100 mg of purified IgY can be obtained from each egg yolk of a DNA-immunized duck. One of the major advantages of this new method of "DNA-designed" IgY antibodies is their production via immunization with a gene vector that expresses a corresponding antibody in situ in the cells of an avian host. Therefore this approach allows direct generation of antibodies from plasmid DNA and avoids the costly and tedious preparation of purified antigens required for conventional antibody production. In addition, duck IgY are of remarkable high affinity, avidity and are highly neutralizing. Moreover, the epitope pattern of IgY generated by DNA immunization of ducks is closely related to that observed in viral infection. Such duck IgY are also of particular value as immunodiagnostic tools, since they do not cross-react serologically with mammalian immunoglobulins and complement. Because IgY are resistant to the gastric barrier, the recently described DNA-designed IgY specific to H. pylori Urease B can be of particular interest for passive immunotherapy of gastrointestinal tract infections. Another interesting application is the recent generation in our laboratory of DNA-designed IgY antibodies specific to HBsAg mutants. These antibodies are currently being used to design new diagnostic assay for detection of HBV mutants that are undetectable by actual tests. Moreover, this approach allowing a quick and inexpensive production of a new generation of antibodies will provide pertinent tools to link the fields of genomics

  18. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405

  19. How Special Are Dark Gamma-Ray Burst: A Diagnostic Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rod, Evert; Wiers, Ralph A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaper, Lex; Kaneko, Yuki; Kaper, Lex

    2005-01-01

    We present here a comprehensive study of the optical/near-infrared (IR) upper limits for gamma-ray bursts that have an X-ray afterglow. We have extrapolated the X-ray afterglows to optical wavelengths based on the physics of the fireball blast wave model and compared these results with optical upper limits for a large sample of bursts. We find a small set of only three bursts out of a sample of 20 for which the upper limits are not compatible with their X-ray afterglow properties within the context of any blast wave model. This sparse sample does not allow us to conclusively determine the cause of this optical/near-IR deficit. Extinction in the host galaxy is a likely cause, but high redshifts and different afterglow mechanisms might also explain the deficit in some cases. We note that the three bursts appear to have higher than average gamma-my peak fluxes. In a magnitude versus time diagram the bursts are separated from the majority of bursts with a detected optical/near-IR afterglow. However, two gamma- ray bursts with an optical afterglow (one of which is highly reddened) also fall in this region with dark bursts, making it likely that dark bursts are at the faint end of the set of optically detected bursts, and therefore the dark bursts likely form a continuum with the bursts with a detected optical afterglow. Our work provides a useful diagnostic tool for follow-up observations for potentially dark bursts; applied to the events detected with the Swift satellite, it will significantly increase our sample of truly dark bursts and shed light upon their nature. Subject headings: dust, extinction - gamma rays: bursts Online material: machine-readable tables

  20. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management. PMID:27225553

  1. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  2. Feasibility of α-fetoprotein as a diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dae Geon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kang, Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woong; Bae, Si Hyun; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Paik, Yong Han; Lee, June Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of α-fetoprotein (AFP) as a diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Korean patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of HCC and cirrhosis patients at three hospitals. For each HCC patient, a cirrhosis patient matched for age, sex, etiology, and Child-Pugh classification was selected by simple random sampling. The performance of AFP in the diagnosis of HCC was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: A total of 732 patients with HCC or cirrhosis were selected for each case and the control groups. The mean age was 54 years, and 72.4% of patients were male. The mean serum AFP levels in the HCC group and cirrhosis group were 3,315.6 and 117.2 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for all HCC patients was 0.757. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of AFP was 50.55%, 87.70%, and 80.43%, respectively, at a cut-off of 20 ng/mL; 37.70%, 95.90%, and 90.20%, respectively, at a cut-off of 100 ng/mL, and 30.05%, 97.27%, and 91.67%, respectively, at a cut-off of 200 ng/mL. A cut-off of 100 ng/mL was more sensitive than one of 200 ng/mL with equivalent specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusions: The cut-off AFP value for early-stage HCC was 17.4 ng/mL. Our study cautiously suggests that AFP has a role in the diagnosis of HCC, and that the appropriate value of AFP for the diagnosis of HCC may be 100 ng/mL rather than 200 ng/mL. PMID:26767857

  3. Bedside tomographic scintigraphy: a diagnostic tool in intensive care and the emergency room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bone, Dianna; Persson, Mikael; Ribbe, Tommy; Dale, Susanne

    2001-09-01

    Scintigraphic tomography (SPECT) with a gamma camera is an established tool for the diagnosis of disturbances in perfusion of the myocardium. The technique has been shown to be useful in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, SPECT is not widely used for seriously ill patients due to the need to transport the patient to the gamma camera system. In order to make tomography available by the bedside, a form of limited view angle tomography, Ectomography, has been implemented on a mobile gamma camera system. Projection data are acquired by rotating a slant hole collimator in front of the stationary detector and therefore, the head gantry is simple and easily transported. The mobile system is completely self-contained providing acquisition, reconstruction and bedside display. System sensitivity can be increased by using a segmented collimator, making it possible to present reconstructed sections for diagnosis less than 10 min after the start of acquisition. At present, reconstruction is performed with 2D filtered back projection. A comparative study of patients with suspected coronary artery disease has shown that Ectomography and SPECT yield similar diagnostic information. In an experimental study, in which a coronary artery was occluded, it has been possible to use Ectomography to define myocardial area at risk and final infarct size. Myocardial imaging has been performed in the intensive care unit and a pilot study has demonstrated that brain scans can also be performed. Bedside tomographic scintigraphy has been shown to be feasible and studies can be performed without moving the patient. The method should provide, therefore, an alternative to SPECT in intensive care and the emergency room.

  4. Teaching Advanced Data Analysis Tools to High School Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, David V.; Herring, Julie; Hintz, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    A major barrier to becoming an astronomer is learning how to analyze astronomical data, such as using photometry to compare the brightness of stars. Most fledgling astronomers learn observation, data reduction, and analysis skills through an upper division college class. If the same skills could be taught in an introductory high school astronomy class, then more students would have an opportunity to do authentic science earlier, with implications for how many choose to become astronomers. Several software tools have been developed that can analyze astronomical data ranging from fairly straightforward (AstroImageJ and DS9) to very complex (IRAF and DAOphot). During the summer of 2014, a study was undertaken at Brigham Young University through a Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program to evaluate the effectiveness and ease-of-use of these four software packages. Standard tasks tested included creating a false-color IR image using WISE data in DS9, Adobe Photoshop, and The Gimp; a multi-aperture analyses of variable stars over time using AstroImageJ; creating Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of stars using photometry at multiple wavelengths in AstroImageJ and DS9; and color-magnitude and hydrogen alpha index diagrams for open star clusters using IRAF and DAOphot. Tutorials were then written and combined with screen captures to teach high school astronomy students at Walden School of Liberal Arts in Provo, UT how to perform these same tasks. They analyzed image data using the four software packages, imported it into Microsoft Excel, and created charts using images from BYU's 36-inch telescope at their West Mountain Observatory. The students' attempts to complete these tasks were observed, mentoring was provided, and the students then reported on their experience through a self-reflection essay and concept test. Results indicate that high school astronomy students can successfully complete professional-level astronomy data analyses when given detailed

  5. Advances in Coupling of Kinetics and Molecular Scale Tools to Shed Light on Soil Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-02

    Biogeochemical processes in soils such as sorption, precipitation, and redox play critical roles in the cycling and fate of nutrients, metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in soil and water environments. Advanced analytical tools enable soil scientists to track these processes in real-time and at the molecular scale. Our review focuses on recent research that has employed state-of-the-art molecular scale spectroscopy, coupled with kinetics, to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient and metal(loid) reactivity and speciation in soils. We found that by coupling kinetics with advanced molecular and nano-scale tools major advances have been made in elucidating important soil chemical processes including sorption, precipitation, dissolution, and redox of metal(loids) and nutrients. Such advances will aid in better predicting the fate and mobility of nutrients and contaminants in soils and water and enhance environmental and agricultural sustainability.

  6. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  7. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  8. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    function, manload and demand of air flow. Field control inspections were performed partly from the inside and partly from the outside of the building. Microbial activities were investigated by traditional measurements of the emissions and contamination of indoor air, and by ocular inspections and laboratory tests of building materials. Despite the fact that the building studied has a complicated composition of surface materials, including glass, wood, steel and concrete panels, it was possible to indirectly indicate surface anomalies, related to microbial deterioration of organic materials, through mold and rot activities, due to in-exfiltration of humid air, causing moisture problems within the construction. The result from this case-study shows that thermography can become an important diagnostic tool in order to detect and map sick-house-syndromes. The project is to be continued.

  9. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  10. Development of Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis Tool (SAE 2013-01-0808)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the Greenhouse gas emissions and fuel efficiency from light-duty vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator, which is cap...

  11. Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This Fact Sheet provides a brief description of postearthquake tools and products provided by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) through the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. The focus is on products specifically aimed at providing situational awareness in the period immediately following significant earthquake events.

  12. The Evolution of Advanced Molecular Diagnostics for the Detection and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maureen H; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant advancements in the methods used for detecting and characterizing Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common cause of respiratory illness and community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. The repertoire of available molecular diagnostics has greatly expanded from nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) that encompass a variety of chemistries used for detection, to more sophisticated characterizing methods such as multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), single nucleotide polymorphism typing, and numerous macrolide susceptibility profiling methods, among others. These many molecular-based approaches have been developed and employed to continually increase the level of discrimination and characterization in order to better understand the epidemiology and biology of M. pneumoniae. This review will summarize recent molecular techniques and procedures and lend perspective to how each has enhanced the current understanding of this organism and will emphasize how Next Generation Sequencing may serve as a resource for researchers to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the genomic complexities of this insidious pathogen. PMID:27014191

  13. The Evolution of Advanced Molecular Diagnostics for the Detection and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant advancements in the methods used for detecting and characterizing Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common cause of respiratory illness and community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. The repertoire of available molecular diagnostics has greatly expanded from nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) that encompass a variety of chemistries used for detection, to more sophisticated characterizing methods such as multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), single nucleotide polymorphism typing, and numerous macrolide susceptibility profiling methods, among others. These many molecular-based approaches have been developed and employed to continually increase the level of discrimination and characterization in order to better understand the epidemiology and biology of M. pneumoniae. This review will summarize recent molecular techniques and procedures and lend perspective to how each has enhanced the current understanding of this organism and will emphasize how Next Generation Sequencing may serve as a resource for researchers to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the genomic complexities of this insidious pathogen. PMID:27014191

  14. Advances in the Treatment of Aortic Valve Disease: is it Time for Companion Diagnostics?

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review Aortic valve disease (AVD) is a growing public health problem, and the pathogenesis underlying AVD is complex. The lack of durable bioprostheses and pharmacologic therapies remain central needs in care. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent clinical studies that impact the care of children with AVD and to explore ongoing translational research efforts. Recent findings Clinical studies have evaluated the durability of bioprosthetics and surgical strategies, tested statins during early disease, and identified new predictive biomarkers. Large animal models have demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel bioprosthetic scaffold. Mouse models of latent AVD have advanced our ability to elucidate natural history and perform preclinical studies that test new treatments in the context of early disease. Summary Current priorities for AVD patients include identifying new pharmacologic treatments and developing durable bioprostheses. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed that bridge pediatric and adult programs, bring together different types of expertise and leverage network and consortium resources. As our understanding of the underlying complex genetics is better defined, companion diagnostics may transform future clinical trials and ultimately improve the care of patients with AVD by promoting personalized medicine and early intervention. PMID:25089943

  15. Advances in associated-particle neutron probe diagnostics for substance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Dickerman, Charles E.; Frey, Manfred

    1995-09-01

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) shows potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles can yield a separate course tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. Generally, no collimators or radiation shielding are needed. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Most recently, inspection applications have been investigated for radioactive waste characterization, presence of cocaine in propane tanks, and uranium and plutonium smuggling. Based on lessons learned with the present APSTNG system, an advanced APSTNG tube (along with improved high voltage supply and control units) is being designed and fabricated that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  16. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, Y. B.; Wan, B. N.; Lan, H.; Liu, Y. L.; Wei, J.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Wang, H. Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhao, J. L.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.; Lin, X.; Li, X. L.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

  17. Advances in associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe diagnostics for substance detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; Frey, M.

    1995-07-01

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) shows potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. Generally no collimators or radiation shielding are needed. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Most recently, inspection applications have been investigated for radioactive waste characterization, presence of cocaine in propane tanks, and uranium and plutonium smuggling. Based on lessons learned with the present APSTNG system, an advanced APSTNG tube (along with improved high voltage supply and control units) is being designed and fabricated that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  18. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Xu, G S; Tritz, K; Zhu, Y B; Wan, B N; Lan, H; Liu, Y L; Wei, J; Zhang, W; Hu, G H; Wang, H Q; Duan, Y M; Zhao, J L; Wang, L; Liu, S C; Ye, Y; Li, J; Lin, X; Li, X L

    2015-12-01

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks. PMID:26724032

  19. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Lan, H.; Liu, Y. L.; Wei, J.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Wang, H. Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhao, J. L.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.; Lin, X.; Li, X. L.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2015-12-15

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

  20. Application of advanced millimeter/far-infrared sources to collective Thomson scattering plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboinikow, P.; Cohn, D.R.; Temkin, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced millimeter/far infrared sources to substantially improve the effectiveness of collective Thomson scattering plasma diagnostics is discussed. Gyrotrons, CO/sub 2/ lasers and far infrared lasers which are optically pumped with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation can now provide important new capabilities in terms of combined high peak power and high average power, fine frequency tunability and a wide range of operating frequencies. Their capabilities can improve the signal to noise ratio and make possible time dependent scattering measurements. Both thermal level scattering used for determination of ion temperature and low level non-thermal measurements used for the investigation of plasma turbulence and wave phenomena are considered. Rapidly pulsed gyrotrons, CO/sub 2/, and optically pumped lasers can provide a range of combinations of high peak power and high energy during a given time interval. The use of this high peak power - high energy trade off capability to maximize signal to noise ratios is discussed. Dramatic reduction in stray light, using fine frequency source tunability and gas absorption cell technology, is also discussed.

  1. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  2. Structural studies of Helix aspersa agglutinin complexed with GalNAc: A lectin that serves as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J; Bujacz, Anna; Mak, Paweł; Potempa, Barbara; Niedziela, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    Lectins belong to a differentiated group of proteins known to possess sugar-binding properties. Due to this fact, they are interesting research targets in medical diagnostics. Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) is a lectin that recognizes the epitopes containing α-d-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), which is present at the surface of metastatic cancer cells. Although several reports have already described the use of HAA as a diagnostic tool, this protein was not characterized on the molecular level. Here, we present for the first time the structural information about lectin isolated from mucus of Helix aspersa (garden snail). The amino acid sequence of this agglutinin was determined by Edman degradation and tertiary as well as quaternary structure by X-ray crystallography. The high resolution crystal structure (1.38Å) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis provide the detailed information about a large part of the HAA natural glycan chain. The topology of the GalNAc binding cleft and interaction with lectin are very well defined in the structure and fully confirmed by STD HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Together, this provides structural clues regarding HAA specificity and opens possibilities to rational modifications of this important diagnostic tool. PMID:26416237

  3. Protein electrophoresis as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in raptor medicine.

    PubMed

    Tatum, L M; Zaias, J; Mealey, B K; Cray, C; Bossart, G D

    2000-12-01

    Plasma proteins of 139 healthy adult birds of prey from 10 species were separated by electrophoresis to characterize and document normal reference ranges and species-specific electrophoretic patternsand to evaluate the value of this technique for health screening, disease diagnosis, and prognostic indication. Species studied included bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owl (Tyto alba), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), Harris' hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), Stellar's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), barred owl (Strix varia), screech owl (Otus asio), and black vulture (Coragyps atratus). Several clinical cases show the diagnostic/therapeutic value of protein electrophoresis in raptors. This study establishes species-specific reference ranges for several birds of prey and discusses the benefit of electrophoresis as a diagnostic technique in health screens, as a diagnostic aid in conjunction with other tests, and as a prognostic indicator in clinical evaluation of raptors. PMID:11428396

  4. "Light-tagged" bacteriophage as a diagnostic tool for the detection of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Schofield, David; Bull, Carolee T; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv alisalensis, the causal agent of bacterial blight of crucifers is essential for managing this disease. A phage-based diagnostic assay was developed that detects and identifies P. cannabina pv alisalensis from cultures and diseased plant specimens. A recombinant "light-tagged" reporter phage was generated by integrating the luxAB genes into the P. cannabina pv alisalensis phage PBSPCA1 genome. PBSPCA1::luxAB is viable, stable and detects P. cannabina pv alisalensis within minutes and with high sensitivity by conferring a bioluminescent signal. Detection is dependent on cell viability since cells treated with a bactericidal disinfectant are unable to elicit a signal. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv alisalensis from diseased plant specimens indicating the potential of the diagnostic for disease identification. The reporter phage displays promise for the rapid and specific diagnostic detection of cultivated isolates, and infected plant specimens. PMID:22990589

  5. Does Radar Technology Support the Diagnosis of Pneumothorax? PneumoScan—A Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tool

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, T.; Conze, M.; Albers, C. E.; Leidel, B. A.; Levy, P.; Kleber, C.; De Moya, M.; Exadaktylos, A.; Stoupis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A nonrecognized pneumothorax (PTX) may become a life-threatening tension PTX. A reliable point-of-care diagnostic tool could help in reduce this risk. For this purpose, we investigated the feasibility of the use of the PneumoScan, an innovative device based on micropower impulse radar (MIR). Patients and Methods. addition to a standard diagnostic protocol including clinical examination, chest X-ray (CXR), and computed tomography (CT), 24 consecutive patients with chest trauma underwent PneumoScan testing in the shock trauma room to exclude a PTX. Results. The application of the PneumoScan was simple, quick, and reliable without functional disorder. Clinical examination and CXR each revealed one and PneumoScan three out of altogether four PTXs (sensitivity 75%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 95%). The undetected PTX did not require intervention. Conclusion. The PneumoScan as a point-of-care device offers additional diagnostic value in patient management following chest trauma. Further studies with more patients have to be performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the device. PMID:24187624

  6. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    PubMed

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future. PMID:26701310

  7. From beginners to trained users: an advanced tool to guide experimenters in basic applied fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingand, Philippe B.; Lerner, Dan A.

    1993-05-01

    UPY-F is a software dedicated to solving various queries issued by end-users of spectrofluorimeters when they come across a problem in the course of an experiment. The main goal is to provide a diagnostic for the nonpertinent use of a spectrofluorimeter. Many artifacts may induce the operator into trouble and except for experts, the simple manipulation of the controls of a fluorimeter results in effects not always fully appreciated. The solution retained is an association between a powerful hypermedia tool and an expert system. A straight expert system offers a number of well-known advantages. But it is not well accepted by the user due to the many moves between the spectrofluorimeter and the diagnostic tool. In our hypermedia tool, knowledge can be displayed by the means of visual concepts through which one can browse, and navigate. The user still perceives his problem as a whole, which may not be the case with a straight expert system. We demonstrate typical situations in which an event will trigger a chain reasoning leading to the debugging of the problem. The system is not only meant to help a beginner but can conform itself to guide a well trained experimenter. We think that its functionalities and user-friendly interface are very attractive and open new vistas in the way future users may be trained, whether they work in research labs or industrial settings, as it could namely cut down on the time spent for their training.

  8. The Career Assessment Diagnostic Inventory: A New Career Indecision Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal-Brown, Sherry A.; Thompson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Career Assessment Diagnostic Inventory evaluates six career indecision factors: family conflict, emotional independence, decision-making anxiety, identity development, career information, and career self-efficacy. Factor analysis and convergent validity results of scores of 539 students supported the instrument's validity. (SK)

  9. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  10. A new molecular diagnostic tool for quantitatively detecting and genotyping “Candidatus Liberibacter species”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new molecular diagnostic method was developed for quantitative detection of “Candidatus Liberibacter” species associated with citrus Huanglongbing (“Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”, “Ca. Liberibacter africanus” and “Ca. Liberibacter americanus”) and potato zebra chip disorder (“Ca. Liberibacter solana...

  11. Performance of a diagnostic system (Iliad) as a tool for quality assurance.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, L. M.; Warner, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Quality Assurance improves health care through detection of quality problems and feedback to the care giver. Current review procedures employed by the Peer Review Organizations (PROs), however, appear to underdetect quality problems, particularly those arising from diagnostic errors. We studied the use of an expert diagnostic system, Iliad, to detect quality problems arising from diagnostic errors. 100 cases were selected from among those Medicare cases reviewed by the Utah PRO (UPRO) and which contained diagnoses recognized by Iliad. Iliad flagged 28 cases out of the 100 as containing diagnostic errors, and a gold standard physician review confirmed quality problems in 17 cases (60.7%). The UPRO review found 28 cases with quality problems, mostly treatment and documentation errors. The quality problems detected by Iliad appeared to be more serious than those detected by the UPRO review. Among the six cases with quality problems detected by both the UPRO and Iliad review, there was none for which the same quality problem was detected by the two procedures. The two review procedures were therefore complementary. PMID:1807567

  12. Performance of a diagnostic system (Iliad) as a tool for quality assurance.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, L. M.; Warner, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Quality Assurance improves health care through detection of quality problems and feedback to the care giver. Current review procedures employed by the Peer Review Organizations (PROs), however, appear to under-detect quality problems, particularly those arising from diagnostic errors. We studied the use of an expert diagnostic system, Iliad, to detect quality problems arising from diagnostic errors. 100 cases were selected from among those Medicare cases reviewed by the Utah PRO (UPRO) and which contained diagnoses recognized by Iliad. Iliad flagged 28 cases out of the 100 as containing diagnostic errors, and a gold standard physician review confirmed quality problems in 17 cases (60.7%). The UPRO review found 28 cases with quality problems, mostly treatment and documentation errors. The quality problems detected by Iliad appeared to be more serious than those detected by the UPRO review. Among the six cases with quality problems detected by both the UPRO and Iliad review, there was none for which the same quality problem was detected by the two procedures. The two review procedures were therefore complementary. PMID:1807563

  13. "Light-tagged" bacteriophage as a diagnostic tool for the detection of phytopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, the causeal agent of bacterial blight of crucifers is essential for managing this disease. A phage-based diagnostic assay was developed that detected and identify P. cannabina pv. alisalensis from cultures and diseased plant spec...

  14. Novel calibration tools and validation concepts for microarray-based platforms used in molecular diagnostics and food safety control.

    PubMed

    Brunner, C; Hoffmann, K; Thiele, T; Schedler, U; Jehle, H; Resch-Genger, U

    2015-04-01

    Commercial platforms consisting of ready-to-use microarrays printed with target-specific DNA probes, a microarray scanner, and software for data analysis are available for different applications in medical diagnostics and food analysis, detecting, e.g., viral and bacteriological DNA sequences. The transfer of these tools from basic research to routine analysis, their broad acceptance in regulated areas, and their use in medical practice requires suitable calibration tools for regular control of instrument performance in addition to internal assay controls. Here, we present the development of a novel assay-adapted calibration slide for a commercialized DNA-based assay platform, consisting of precisely arranged fluorescent areas of various intensities obtained by incorporating different concentrations of a "green" dye and a "red" dye in a polymer matrix. These dyes present "Cy3" and "Cy5" analogues with improved photostability, chosen based upon their spectroscopic properties closely matching those of common labels for the green and red channel of microarray scanners. This simple tool allows to efficiently and regularly assess and control the performance of the microarray scanner provided with the biochip platform and to compare different scanners. It will be eventually used as fluorescence intensity scale for referencing of assays results and to enhance the overall comparability of diagnostic tests. PMID:25616702

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia in the era of precision medicine: recent advances in diagnostic classification and risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous myeloid malignancy that occurs more commonly in adults, and has an increasing incidence, most likely due to increasing age. Precise diagnostic classification of AML requires clinical and pathologic information, the latter including morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Risk stratification in AML requires cytogenetics evaluation as the most important predictor, with genetic mutations providing additional necessary information. AML with normal cytogenetics comprises about 40%-50% of all AML, and has been intensively investigated. The currently used 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms has been proposed to be updated in 2016, also to include an update on the classification of AML, due to the continuously increasing application of genomic techniques that have led to major advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of AML. The purpose of this review is to describe some of these recent major advances in the diagnostic classification and risk stratification of AML. PMID:27144061

  16. The diagnostic-therapeutic process. Workflow analysis and risk management with IT tools.

    PubMed

    Iadanza, E; Gaudio, F; Marini, F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the impact of an Information Technology (IT) tool on clinical risk management and Adverse Drug Events prevention in patient care. In this study we propose the workflow analysis and the application of Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) as potential tools to assess the effectiveness of a specific IT tool in mitigating clinical risk. The study is made up of two different parts: the first one shows the decomposition and representation of the workflow of hospital departments using standardized tools from Project Management. The next phase shows the application of FMECA to the workflow, in order to identify critical issues and evaluate the risk reduction obtained using a specific IT tool, compared to the use of current resources. PMID:24110799

  17. Pediatric Sleep Questionnaires as Diagnostic or Epidemiological Tools: A Review of Currently Available Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    An extensive list of published and unpublished instruments used to investigate or evaluate sleep issues in children was collected and assessed based on the fundamental operational principles of instrument development (11 steps). Of all the available tools identified, only a few were validated and standardized using appropriate psychometric criteria. In fact, only 2 fulfill all desirable criteria and approximately 11 instruments seem to adhere to most of the psychometric tool development requirements, and were therefore assessed in greater detail. Notwithstanding, in the rapidly developing scientific world of pediatric sleep, there are too many tools being used that have not undergone careful and methodical psychometric evaluation, and as such may be fraught with biased or invalid findings. It is hoped that this initial effort in categorizing and assessing available tools for pediatric sleep will serve as recognition of the relatively early developmental stage of our field, and provide the necessary impetus for future tool development using multicentered approaches and adequate methodologies. PMID:20934896

  18. The potential role of dedicated 3D breast CT as a diagnostic tool: Review and early clinical examples

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Avice M.; Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is the gold standard in routine screening for the detection of breast cancer in the general population. However limitations in sensitivity, particularly in dense breasts, has motivated the development of alternative imaging techniques such as digital breast tomosynthesis, whole breast ultrasound, breast specific gamma imaging, and more recently dedicated breast computed tomography or “breast CT”. Virtually all diagnostic work-ups of asymptomatic nonpalpable findings arise from screening mammography. In most cases, diagnostic mammography and ultrasound are sufficient for diagnosis, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) playing an occasional role. Digital breast tomosynthesis, a limited-angle tomographic technique, is increasingly being used for screening. Dedicated breast CT has full three-dimensional (3D) capability with near-isotropic resolution, which could potentially improve diagnostic accuracy. In current dedicated breast CT clinical prototypes, 300-500 low-dose projections are acquired in a circular trajectory around the breast using a flat panel detector, followed by image reconstruction to provide the 3D breast volume. The average glandular dose to the breast from breast CT can range from as little as a two-view screening mammogram to approximately that of a diagnostic mammography examination. Breast CT displays 3D images of the internal structures of the breast; therefore, evaluation of suspicious features like microcalcifications, masses, and asymmetries can be made in multiple anatomical planes from a single scan. The potential role of breast CT for diagnostic imaging is illustrated here through clinical examples such as imaging soft tissue abnormalities and microcalcifications. The potential for breast CT to serve as an imaging tool for extent of disease evaluation and for monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy response is also illustrated. PMID:25199995

  19. The potential role of dedicated 3D breast CT as a diagnostic tool: review and early clinical examples.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Avice M; Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is the gold standard in routine screening for the detection of breast cancer in the general population. However, limitations in sensitivity, particularly in dense breasts, has motivated the development of alternative imaging techniques such as digital breast tomosynthesis, whole breast ultrasound, breast-specific gamma imaging, and more recently dedicated breast computed tomography or "breast CT". Virtually all diagnostic work-ups of asymptomatic nonpalpable findings arise from screening mammography. In most cases, diagnostic mammography and ultrasound are sufficient for diagnosis, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) playing an occasional role. Digital breast tomosynthesis, a limited-angle tomographic technique, is increasingly being used for screening. Dedicated breast CT has full three-dimensional (3D) capability with near-isotropic resolution, which could potentially improve diagnostic accuracy. In current dedicated breast CT clinical prototypes, 300-500 low-dose projections are acquired in a circular trajectory around the breast using a flat panel detector, followed by image reconstruction to provide the 3D breast volume. The average glandular dose to the breast from breast CT can range from as little as a two-view screening mammogram to approximately that of a diagnostic mammography examination. Breast CT displays 3D images of the internal structures of the breast; therefore, evaluation of suspicious features like microcalcifications, masses, and asymmetries can be made in multiple anatomical planes from a single scan. The potential role of breast CT for diagnostic imaging is illustrated here through clinical examples such as imaging soft tissue abnormalities and microcalcifications. The potential for breast CT to serve as an imaging tool for extent of disease evaluation and for monitoring neo-adjuvant chemotherapy response is also illustrated. PMID:25199995

  20. X-ray Diffraction and Multi-Frame Phase Contrast Imaging Diagnostics for IMPULSE at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Adam; Carlson, Carl; Young, Jason; Curtis, Alden; Jensen, Brian; Ramos, Kyle; Yeager, John; Montgomery, David; Fezza, Kamel

    2013-07-08

    The diagnostic needs of any dynamic loading platform present unique technical challenges that must be addressed in order to accurately measure in situ material properties in an extreme environment. The IMPULSE platform (IMPact system for Ultrafast Synchrotron Experiments) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is no exception and, in fact, may be more challenging, as the imaging diagnostics must be synchronized to both the experiment and the 60 ps wide x-ray bunches produced at APS. The technical challenges of time-resolved x-ray diffraction imaging and high-resolution multi-frame phase contrast imaging (PCI) are described in this paper. Example data from recent IMPULSE experiments are shown to illustrate the advances and evolution of these diagnostics with a focus on comparing the performance of two intensified CCD cameras and their suitability for multi-frame PCI. The continued development of these diagnostics is fundamentally important to IMPULSE and many other loading platforms and will benefit future facilities such as the Dynamic Compression Sector at APS and MaRIE at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  1. The Role of Metabolomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Vlassis, Nikos; Hiller, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces the emerging field of metabolomics and its application in the context of cancer biomarker research. Taking advantage of modern high-throughput technologies, and enhanced computational power, metabolomics has a high potential for cancer biomarker identification and the development of diagnostic tools. This chapter describes current metabolomics technologies used in cancer research, starting with metabolomics sample preparation, elaborating on current analytical methodologies for metabolomics measurement and introducing existing software for data analysis. The last part of this chapter deals with the statistical analysis of very large metabolomics datasets and their relevance for cancer biomarker identification. PMID:26530359

  2. Community Detection Algorithms as a Diagnostic Tool for SDSS Dataset Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleson, John Taylor

    2015-01-01

    We explore methods for identifying similar groups of objects in large astronomical datasets, where those similarities are not trivial to determine using standard methods to identify groups or trends. We focus on the use of graph theory to identify network communities of objects, drawing on its wide usage in the biological and social sciences, specifically the k-clique and cluster modularity diagnostics. As a test case, we apply these diagnostics to the SDSS BOSS QSO catalogue, which we categorize based on their MgII and CIV equivalent widths. We find approximately 12 communities, which are moderately robust against choice of algorithm and do not appear to be consistent with a random distribution. We briefly discuss some implications of these results.

  3. [Dogs as a diagnostic tool--utopian dream or unexploited possibility?].

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    The dog's sense of smell has been estimated to be as much as 100 000 times more sensitive than that of man. While the dog's sense of smell is utilized by various authorities, medical exploitation of dogs is scarce. A disorder causes in the body metabolic changes, which could possibly be detected by using trained dogs. Promising studies have been published in recent years about the use of diagnostic dogs in identifying cancers or antibiotic-associated diarrhea, for example. PMID:27522829

  4. Conceptualization of category-oriented likelihood ratio: a useful tool for clinical diagnostic reasoning

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the diagnostic reasoning process medical students and novice physicians need to be made aware of the diagnostic values of the clinical findings (including history, signs, and symptoms) to make an appropriate diagnostic decision. Diagnostic reasoning has been understood in light of two paradigms on clinical reasoning: problem solving and decision making. They advocate the reasoning strategies used by expert physicians and the statistical models of reasoning, respectively. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) applies decision theory to the clinical diagnosis, which can be a challenging topic in medical education. This theoretical article tries to compare evidence-based diagnosis with expert-based strategies in clinical diagnosis and also defines a novel concept of category-oriented likelihood ratio (LR) to propose a new model combining both aforementioned methods. Discussion Evidence-based medicine advocates the use of quantitative evidence to estimate the probability of diseases more accurately and objectively; however, the published evidence for a given diagnosis cannot practically be utilized in primary care, especially if the patient is complaining of a nonspecific problem such as abdominal pain that could have a long list of differential diagnoses. In this case, expert physicians examine the key clinical findings that could differentiate between broader categories of diseases such as organic and non-organic disease categories to shorten the list of differential diagnoses. To approach nonspecific problems, not only do the experts revise the probability estimate of specific diseases, but also they revise the probability estimate of the categories of diseases by using the available clinical findings. Summary To make this approach analytical and objective, we need to know how much more likely it is for a key clinical finding to be present in patients with one of the diseases of a specific category versus those with a disease not included in that category. In

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLS AND HARDWARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    OVERLY, TIMOTHY G.; PARK, GYUHAE; FARRAR, CHARLES R.

    2007-02-09

    This paper presents a piezoelectric sensor diagnostic and validation procedure that performs in -situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) sensor/actuator arrays used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The validation of the proper function of a sensor/actuator array during operation, is a critical component to a complete and robust SHM system, especially with the large number of active sensors typically involved. The method of this technique used to obtain the health of the PZT transducers is to track their capacitive value, this value manifests in the imaginary part of measured electrical admittance. Degradation of the mechanical/electric properties of a PZT sensor/actuator as well as bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure can be identified with the proposed procedure. However, it was found that temperature variations and changes in sensor boundary conditions manifest themselves in similar ways in the measured electrical admittances. Therefore, they examined the effects of temperature variation and sensor boundary conditions on the sensor diagnostic process. The objective of this study is to quantify and classify several key characteristics of temperature change and to develop efficient signal processing techniques to account for those variations in the sensor diagnostis process. In addition, they developed hardware capable of making the necessary measurements to perform the sensor diagnostics and to make impedance-based SHM measurements. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  6. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  7. The ANAM lacks utility as a diagnostic or screening tool for concussion more than 10 days following injury.

    PubMed

    Coldren, Rodney L; Russell, Michael L; Parish, Robert V; Dretsch, Michael; Kelly, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Congress has mandated that the Department of Defense perform screening for concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, on all service members redeploying from Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the retrospective diagnosis of concussion is complicated by the subjective nature of the complaints, overlap of symptoms with other conditions, and the normally rapid recovery of neurocognitive function following a concussive event. One diagnostic and screening test in current use by the Department of Defense is the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM). A team of researchers deployed to Iraq between January and April 2009 to test the validity of the ANAM for the diagnosis of concussion in the combat environment. Performance by concussed participants on all six ANAM subtests was compared with that of controls. The ANAM appears to have no utility as an individual diagnostic or population screening tool for the detection of neurocognitive dysfunction from a single, uncomplicated concussion when administered 10 or more days following injury. Further studies are required to determine the modalities providing optimal sensitivity and specificity for use as diagnostic or screening tests beyond the first 72-hour acute postinjury period. PMID:22360064

  8. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging of the lower limbs: valuable diagnostic tool in the investigation of childhood neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kana, Veronika; Kellenberger, Christian J; Rushing, Elisabeth Jane; Klein, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Children presenting with neuromuscular symptoms are subject to exhaustive investigations. As it is noninvasive, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important diagnostic tool in children, yet its impact has so far been mainly studied in small groups of genetically defined diseases, where specific MRI patterns are known. To assess the contribution of muscle MRI of the lower limbs in a diverse cohort of patients, we reviewed the diagnostic findings in 39 patients with a suspected neuromuscular disorder that underwent muscle MRI (28/39), biopsy (26/39), or both (18/39). MRI was performed without sedation in 26 of 28 patients at a mean age of 10 years (range, 1-27 years). In 10 of 28 cases (35%), MRI significantly contributed to the final diagnosis, and in 7 of 28 cases (25%), muscle MRI directly instructed genetic testing. These cases included Bethlem myopathy, laminopathy, calpainopathy, and RYR1-related myopathies. Muscle MRI serves as a valuable additional tool to guide diagnosis in suspected neuromuscular disorders in children, especially in cases with nonspecific biopsy findings. PMID:25025777

  9. Critical Pitfalls in the use of BRAF Mutation as a Diagnostic Tool in Thyroid Nodules: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Ragazzi, Moira; Zini, Michele; Giordano, Davide; Nicoli, Davide; Piana, Simonetta

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the primary tool for the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation analysis is employed as an ancillary tool in indeterminate cases, as recommended by the American Thyroid Association management guidelines. Hereby, we report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented an 8-mm-size, ill-defined, left thyroid nodule. FNA resulted "suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma". BRAF mutation status was analyzed, and somatic BRAF (V600E) mutation identified. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. At histological examination, the nodule was composed of Langerhans cells, admixed with many eosinophils. A final diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid was made. Our case emphasizes the critical diagnostic pitfalls due to the use of BRAF (V600E) mutation analysis in thyroid FNA. Notably, BRAF (V600E) mutation is common in melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, brain tumors, hairy cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, and histiocytoses. Therefore, in cases of indeterminate FNA with unclassifiable atypical cells BRAF (V600E) mutated, the possibility of a localization of hystiocytosis or a secondary thyroid malignancy should be taken into account. PMID:26782803

  10. Use of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Species Responsible for Snakebite in Nepal: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Kuch, Ulrich; Höde, Patrick; Bruhse, Laura; Pandey, Deb P.; Ghimire, Anup; Chappuis, François; Alirol, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite is an important medical emergency in rural Nepal. Correct identification of the biting species is crucial for clinicians to choose appropriate treatment and anticipate complications. This is particularly important for neurotoxic envenoming which, depending on the snake species involved, may not respond to available antivenoms. Adequate species identification tools are lacking. This study used a combination of morphological and molecular approaches (PCR-aided DNA sequencing from swabs of bite sites) to determine the contribution of venomous and non-venomous species to the snakebite burden in southern Nepal. Out of 749 patients admitted with a history of snakebite to one of three study centres, the biting species could be identified in 194 (25.9%). Out of these, 87 had been bitten by a venomous snake, most commonly the Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja; n = 42) and the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus; n = 22). When both morphological identification and PCR/sequencing results were available, a 100% agreement was noted. The probability of a positive PCR result was significantly lower among patients who had used inadequate “first aid” measures (e.g. tourniquets or local application of remedies). This study is the first to report the use of forensic genetics methods for snake species identification in a prospective clinical study. If high diagnostic accuracy is confirmed in larger cohorts, this method will be a very useful reference diagnostic tool for epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. PMID:27105074

  11. Use of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Species Responsible for Snakebite in Nepal: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Kuch, Ulrich; Höde, Patrick; Bruhse, Laura; Pandey, Deb P; Ghimire, Anup; Chappuis, François; Alirol, Emilie

    2016-04-01

    Snakebite is an important medical emergency in rural Nepal. Correct identification of the biting species is crucial for clinicians to choose appropriate treatment and anticipate complications. This is particularly important for neurotoxic envenoming which, depending on the snake species involved, may not respond to available antivenoms. Adequate species identification tools are lacking. This study used a combination of morphological and molecular approaches (PCR-aided DNA sequencing from swabs of bite sites) to determine the contribution of venomous and non-venomous species to the snakebite burden in southern Nepal. Out of 749 patients admitted with a history of snakebite to one of three study centres, the biting species could be identified in 194 (25.9%). Out of these, 87 had been bitten by a venomous snake, most commonly the Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja; n = 42) and the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus; n = 22). When both morphological identification and PCR/sequencing results were available, a 100% agreement was noted. The probability of a positive PCR result was significantly lower among patients who had used inadequate "first aid" measures (e.g. tourniquets or local application of remedies). This study is the first to report the use of forensic genetics methods for snake species identification in a prospective clinical study. If high diagnostic accuracy is confirmed in larger cohorts, this method will be a very useful reference diagnostic tool for epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. PMID:27105074

  12. Newcastle disease: progress and gaps in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Afonso, C L; Miller, P J

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious disease of birds that can have severe economic consequences for poultry producers, including a serious impact on the international trade of poultry and eggs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates are also called avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 isolates, but only infection with virulent NDV (vNDV) causes the disease. Virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) isolates are distributed worldwide and have a high capacity to mutate, allowing the development of multiple vNDV genotypes evolving simultaneously at different locations. Large gaps in existing knowledge in the areas of epidemiology and evolution limit the possibilities to control the disease. Recurrent infection of poultry and wild birds allows the maintenance of a reservoir for the viruses; however, the role of wild birds and poultry in vNDV evolution is largely unknown. In the area of diagnostics, the performance of fast and accurate diagnostics methods is often affected by the evolution of viral genomes. Therefore, there is a need for the validation of multiple recently developed experimental tests and a need to develop additional fast and inexpensive diagnostic tests to be used in the field. In the area of vaccination, the development of inexpensive thermostable NDV vaccines and the development of vaccines capable of preventing viral replication are the highest priorities for endemic countries. In countries considered free of vNDV the development of low- cost vaccines that produce minimal vaccine reactions to prevent decreased productivity are higher priorities. Worldwide, better strategies that replace the culling of infected birds are needed to control outbreaks. PMID:23689887

  13. SU-E-J-17: A Study of Accelerator-Induced Cerenkov Radiation as a Beam Diagnostic and Dosimetry Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, F; Tosh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate accelerator-induced Cerenkov radiation imaging as a possible beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Methods: Cerenkov emission produced by clinical accelerator beams in a water phantom was imaged using a camera system comprised of a high-sensitivity thermoelectrically-cooled CCD camera coupled to a large aperture (f/0.75) objective lens with 16:1 magnification. This large format lens allows a significant amount of the available Cerenkov light to be collected and focused onto the CCD camera to form the image. Preliminary images, obtained with 6 MV photon beams, used an unshielded camera mounted horizontally with the beam normal to the water surface, and confirmed the detection of Cerenkov radiation. Several improvements were subsequently made including the addition of radiation shielding around the camera, and altering of the beam and camera angles to give a more favorable geometry for Cerenkov light collection. A detailed study was then undertaken over a range of electron and photon beam energies and dose rates to investigate the possibility of using this technique for beam diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: A series of images were obtained at a fixed dose rate over a range of electron energies from 6 to 20 MeV. The location of maximum intensity was found to vary linearly with the energy of the beam. A linear relationship was also found between the light observed from a fixed point on the central axis and the dose rate for both photon and electron beams. Conclusion: We have found that the analysis of images of beam-induced Cerenkov light in a water phantom has potential for use as a beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Our future goals include the calibration of the light output in terms of radiation dose and development of a tomographic system for 3D Cerenkov imaging in water phantoms and other media.

  14. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  15. A contactless microwave-based diagnostic tool for high repetition rate laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braggio, C.; Borghesani, A. F.

    2014-02-15

    We report on a novel electro-optic device for the diagnostics of high repetition rate laser systems. It is composed of a microwave receiver and of a second order nonlinear crystal, whose irradiation with a train of short laser pulses produces a time-dependent polarization in the crystal itself as a consequence of optical rectification. This process gives rise to the emission of microwave radiation that is detected by a receiver and is analyzed to infer the repetition rate and intensity of the pulses. We believe that this new method may overcome some of the limitations of photodetection techniques.

  16. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  17. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B.; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry. PMID:22163581

  18. Incomplete Kawasaki disease: The usefulness of BCG reactivation as a diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Suliman, Omer S.M.; Abdelnasser, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an extremely rare condition in infants younger than 3 months old. Cardiovascular complications are unfortunately most common in young infants and it is in this age group, incomplete Kawasaki disease (IKD) is more frequently reported. Because IKD is a diagnostic dilemma, any sign that could help early diagnosis, such as BCG reactivation is useful. Here we report on an infant less than 3 months old with IKD wherein, BCG reactivation helped us in making the diagnosis. In this article, we highlight the usefulness of this sign for early diagnosis of IKD, especially in countries where BCG vaccination is still part of the immunization schedule.

  19. L-Shell Spectroscopy of Au as a Temperature Diagnostic Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Trabert, E; Hansen, S B; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Widmann, K; Chung, H K

    2008-03-27

    In order to develop plasma diagnostic for reduced-size hot hohlraums under laser irradiation, they have studied the L-shell emission from highly charged gold ions in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap. The resolving power necessary to identify emission features from individual charge states in a picket fence pattern has been estimated, and the observed radiation features have been compared with atomic structure calculations. They find that the strong 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features are particularly useful in determining the charge state distribution and average ion charge , which are strongly sensitive to the electron temperature.

  20. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    PubMed

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict. PMID:10557482

  1. TRTViewer: Monitoring and Diagnostic Tool for the TRT Detector of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Tikhomirov, V. O.

    TRTViewer is the dedicated software tool for monitoring of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) performance at dif- ferent electronics levels: individual channels, readout chips or electronic boards. It can use several sources of input information - from direct DAQ stream or raw data files to ROOT files with processed analysis histograms. Using TRTViewer one can quickly estimate the TRT operational parameters - occupancy, efficiency, timing, reveal problematic regions with noisy, dead or inefficient channels, check calibration uniformity, etc. This tool is widely used by shifters in ATLAS Control Room and also by TRT experts during electronics installation, tuning, operation control and express-offline data analysis.

  2. Quantitative Electroencephalography as a Diagnostic Tool for Alzheimer's Dementia in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Lise Cronberg; Sabers, Anne; Kjaer, Troels W.; Musaeus, Christian; Nielsen, Martin N.; Nielsen, Anne-Grete; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability is complex due to great inter-individual variability in cognitive function prior to dementia and a lack of standardized instruments. Studies have indicated that quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) results may be used as a diagnostic marker for dementia. The aim of this study was to examine the value of qEEG in the diagnostic evaluation of dementia in patients with Down syndrome (DS). Method The study included 21 patients with DS and mild-to-moderate dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (DS-AD) and 16 age-matched adults with DS without cognitive deterioration assessed by the informant-based Dementia Screening Questionnaire in Intellectual Disability (DSQIID). Conventional EEG was performed and analysed quantitatively using fast Fourier transformation. Outcomes were centroid frequency, peak frequency, absolute power, and relative power. Results In several regions of the brain, a significant decrease in the theta-1 band (4-7 Hz) was identified for the centroid frequency. A significant negative correlation was demonstrated between the mean of the centroid frequency of the theta-1 band and the total DSQIID score. Conclusion We found that qEEG can detect a significant decrease in centroid frequency in a sample of patients with DS-AD as compared to a sample of adults with DS and no cognitive deterioration. PMID:26628899

  3. Quantified light-induced fluorescence, review of a diagnostic tool in prevention of oral disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Higham, Susan M.; Smith, Philip W.; van Daelen, Catherina J.; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2009-05-01

    Diagnostic methods for the use in preventive dentistry are being developed continuously. Few of these find their way into general practice. Although the general trend in medicine is to focus on disease prevention and early diagnostics, in dentistry this is still not the case. Nevertheless, in dental research some of these methods seem to be promising for near future use by the general dental professional. In this paper an overview is given of a method called quantitative light-induced fluorescence or (QLF) in which visible and harmless light excites the teeth in the patient's mouth to produce fluorescent images, which can be stored on disk and computer analyzed. White spots (early dental caries) are detected and quantified as well as bacterial metabolites on and in the teeth. An overview of research to validate the technique and modeling to further the understanding of the technique by Monte Carlo simulation is given and it is shown that the fluorescence phenomena can be described by the simulation model in a qualitative way. A model describing the visibility of red fluorescence from within the dental tissue is added, as this was still lacking in current literature. An overview is given of the clinical images made with the system and of the extensive research which has been done. The QLF™ technology has been shown to be of importance when used in clinical trials with respect to the testing of toothpastes and preventive treatments. It is expected that the QLF™ technology will soon find its way into the general dental practice.

  4. Is intrapartum fetal blood sampling a gold standard diagnostic tool for fetal distress?

    PubMed

    Mahendru, Amita A; Lees, Christoph C

    2011-06-01

    Developed in 1960s, cardiotocography is a screening test and fetal blood sampling (FBS) is an adjunctive, diagnostic technique to detect fetal hypoxia. A fetal blood sample pH value of less than 7.20 has a higher specificity than a pathological CTG to predict low Apgar score at 1 min. Though with a pathological CTG and despite a normal FBS pH value the risk of delivering a hypoxic infant is 30-50%, FBS has assumed considerable importance in purportedly reducing unnecessary obstetric intervention. The evidence for this is weak: the use of FBS with CTG has been shown to reduce operative vaginal deliveries though not Caesarean sections due to fetal distress. There is no difference in the umbilical artery pH at delivery with the use of intermittent FBS with CTG compared to CTG alone. FBS is an invasive procedure: obtaining an adequate blood sample is often difficult and the pH results are affected by handling of the sample, aerobic contamination and processing. Validation of intrapartum FBS requires that the pH and other values obtained are compared to a 'gold standard' technique. Although FBS has been compared to other tests such as scalp lactate, pulse oximetry, fetal ECG waveform analysis, and central haemodynamics in labouring rhesus monkeys, none of these can be considered as 'gold standard'. In the light of the existing evidence, the role of intrapartum FBS as a gold standard diagnostic technique is unproven. PMID:21300427

  5. Central Nervous System Involvement in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostic Tools, Prophylaxis, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; De Santis, Giovanna; Di Veroli, Ambra; Ditto, Concetta; Nasso, Daniela; Postorino, Massimiliano; Refrigeri, Marco; Attrotto, Cristina; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement is associated with a very poor prognosis. The diagnostic assessment of this condition relies on the use of neuroradiology, conventional cytology (CC) and flow cytometry (FCM). Among these approaches, which is the gold standard it is still a matter of debate. Neuroradiology and CC have a limited sensitivity with a higher rate of false negative results. FCM demonstrated a superior sensitivity over CC, particularly when low levels of CNS infiltrating cells are present. Although prospective studies of a large series of patients are still awaited, a positive finding by FCM appears to anticipate an adverse outcome even if CC shows no infiltration. Current strategies for adult ALL CNS-directed prophylaxis or therapy involve systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation therapy. An early and frequent intrathecal injection of cytostatic combined with systemic chemotherapy is the most effective strategy to reduce the frequency of CNS involvement. In patients with CNS overt ALL, at diagnosis or upon relapse, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered. This review discusses risk factors, diagnostic techniques for identification of CNS infiltration and modalities of prophylaxis and therapy to manage it. PMID:25408861

  6. Advanced gradient-index lens design tools to maximize system performance and reduce SWaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sawyer D.; Nagar, Jogender; Brocker, Donovan E.; Easum, John A.; Turpin, Jeremiah P.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-05-01

    GRadient-INdex (GRIN) lenses have long been of interest due to their potential for providing levels of performance unachievable with traditional homogeneous lenses. While historically limited by a lack of suitable materials, rapid advancements in manufacturing techniques, including 3D printing, have recently kindled a renewed interest in GRIN optics. Further increasing the desire for GRIN devices has been the advent of Transformation Optics (TO), which provides the mathematical framework for representing the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in a given geometry by "transforming" it to an alternative, usually more desirable, geometry through an appropriate mapping of the constituent material parameters. Using TO, aspherical lenses can be transformed to simpler spherical and flat geometries or even rotationally-asymmetric shapes which result in true 3D GRIN profiles. Meanwhile, there is a critical lack of suitable design tools which can effectively evaluate the optical wave propagation through 3D GRIN profiles produced by TO. Current modeling software packages for optical lens systems also lack advanced multi-objective global optimization capability which allows the user to explicitly view the trade-offs between all design objectives such as focus quality, FOV, ▵nand focal drift due to chromatic aberrations. When coupled with advanced design methodologies such as TO, wavefront matching (WFM), and analytical achromatic GRIN theory, these tools provide a powerful framework for maximizing SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) reduction in GRIN-enabled optical systems. We provide an overview of our advanced GRIN design tools and examples which minimize the presence of mono- and polychromatic aberrations in the context of reducing SWaP.

  7. New Diagnostic Tools for Detecting Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and other Arboviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outbreak of West Nile virus in the United Sates and the recent outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in East Africa have highlighted the need for validated early detection tools for arthropod-borne animal diseases. The Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) has been inv...

  8. New Diagnostic Aides for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Laura K.; Harris, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Detection of melanoma at an early stage is crucial to improving survival rates in melanoma. Accurate diagnosis by current techniques including dermatoscopy remains difficult, and new tools are needed to improve our diagnostic abilities. This article discusses recent advances in diagnostic techniques including confocal scanning laser microscopy, MelaFind, Siascopy, noninvasive genomic detection, as well as other future possibilities to aid in diagnosing melanoma. Advantages and barriers to implementation of the various technologies are discussed as well. PMID:22800557

  9. Evaluation of implant sonication as a diagnostic tool in implant-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Lehner, Burkhard; Burckhardt, Irene; Zimmermann, Stefan; Hänsch, Gertrud M; Ewerbeck, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Infections of implants pose a severe problem in the field of orthopedic surgery, because they can cause bone degradation with subsequent loosening of the implant. The discrimination between septic implant loosening and aseptic loosening can be a challenge, and hence novel diagnostic methods have been introduced to improve the detection of bacteria. Because a major problem is their firm adherence to implants due to biofilm formation, sonication has been introduced, followed by identification of bacteria by culture or genetic methods. In this study, we compared the results obtained after sonication pretreatment with those of microbiological testing of tissue samples and histopathological evaluation of the same tissue. Furthermore, we related the results obtained following sonication to the clinical diagnosis of septic or aseptic implant loosening, respectively. Sonication of explanted devices also enhances the likelihood of detecting bacterial growth in patients who were considered "aseptic" based on the clinical evaluation. PMID:25199070

  10. Wave launching as a diagnostic tool to investigate plasma turbulence (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, H. Y. W.; Bengtson, R. D.; Li, G. X.; Richards, B.; Uckan, T.; Uglum, J.; Wootton, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental scheme to extend the investigation of plasma turbulence has been implemented. It involves driving waves into the plasma to modify the statistical properties of the fluctuations; the dynamical balance of the turbulence is perturbed via the injection of waves at selected spectral regions. New analysis techniques based on conditional sampling and high order correlation are developed for studying the wave launching and the wave-wave coupling processes. Experimental results from TEXT-U tokamak show that the launched waves interact with the intrinsic fluctuations both linearly and nonlinearly. The attainment of driven nonlinearity is necessary for this diagnostic scheme to work. It is also the key to an active modification and control of edge turbulence in tokamaks.

  11. Synthetic glycolipid-like constructs as tools for glycobiology research, diagnostics, and as potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Korchagina, E Y; Henry, S M

    2015-07-01

    Function-spacer-lipid (FSL) constructs are amphiphilic molecules that are able to disperse in water and then self-assemble into cell membranes or onto solid surfaces. Modification of a biological or non-biological surface is very easy and achieved by simple contact of the surface with an appropriately buffered solution containing one or more FSLs. When the functional head group of the FSL is a glycan, glycan modified surfaces can be rapidly formed. Once cells, viruses, or solid surfaces are FSL modified with either simple or complex glycans, they can be used in vitro and/or in vivo to measure interactions with cells, viruses, antibodies, and lectins. FSLs have already been used in a variety of techniques including antibody specificity mapping, antibody/toxin neutralization, diagnostic assays, immune system manipulation, and animal modeling of transfusion reactions. FSLs offer the easiest and fastest method available to achieve a glycan-modified surface. PMID:26542000

  12. Tandem repeat markers as novel diagnostic tools for high resolution fingerprinting of Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis are extremely diverse both genotypically and in terms of their induced phenotypes in invertebrate hosts. Despite extensive molecular characterisation of Wolbachia diversity, little is known about the actual genomic diversity within or between closely related strains that group tightly on the basis of existing gene marker systems, including Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). There is an urgent need for higher resolution fingerprinting markers of Wolbachia for studies of population genetics, horizontal transmission and experimental evolution. Results The genome of the wMel Wolbachia strain that infects Drosophila melanogaster contains inter- and intragenic tandem repeats that may evolve through expansion or contraction. We identified hypervariable regions in wMel, including intergenic Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs), and genes encoding ankyrin (ANK) repeat domains. We amplified these markers from 14 related Wolbachia strains belonging to supergroup A and were successful in differentiating size polymorphic alleles. Because of their tandemly repeated structure and length polymorphism, the markers can be used in a PCR-diagnostic multilocus typing approach, analogous to the Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) established for many other bacteria and organisms. The isolated markers are highly specific for supergroup A and not informative for other supergroups. However, in silico analysis of completed genomes from other supergroups revealed the presence of tandem repeats that are variable and could therefore be useful for typing target strains. Conclusions Wolbachia genomes contain inter- and intragenic tandem repeats that evolve through expansion or contraction. A selection of polymorphic tandem repeats is a novel and useful PCR diagnostic extension to the existing MLST typing system of Wolbachia, as it allows rapid and inexpensive high-throughput fingerprinting of closely related strains for

  13. Comparison of diagnostic tools for the detection of aspergillosis in blood samples of experimentally infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Van Waeyenberghe, L; Cray, C; Gross, M; Usleber, E; Pasmans, F; Martel, A; Lierz, M

    2014-12-01

    Antemortem diagnosis of avian aspergillosis is very challenging. Diagnostic assays using blood samples would aid in an early and more definitive diagnosis. In the current study, detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies, Aspergillus antigen, and Aspergillus toxin (fumigaclavine A), protein electrophoresis and measurement of acute-phase protein concentrations were performed on serum of 18 adult and plasma of 21 juvenile gyr-saker hybrid falcons (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug). Adult (n = 15) and juvenile (n = 18) falcons were experimentally inoculated with different dosages of the same strain of Aspergillus fumigatus and an additional three falcons from each age group were used as uninfected control animals. Blood samples were collected prior to inoculation and at 28 days postinoculation. Of the 33 inoculated falcons, 16 demonstrated clinical signs (vomiting, greenish urates, dyspnea, ruffled feathers) commonly associated with aspergillosis and in 14 falcons necropsy revealed aspergillosis granulomas confirmed by mycology and histopathology. Positive galactomannan results were rare, with only 3/15 positive samples from adult falcons and none in the juvenile birds. Most of the inoculated falcons showed an increase of serum amyloid A (66.7%) and haptoglobin (70.4%), but fumigaclavine A was not detected in the blood from any of the experimental animals. Elevated antibody indices were detected in 96.7% of the inoculated birds, but also in 66.7% of the controls. Significant decreases in albumin:globulin ratio were obvious in 81.5% of the inoculated birds, including 100% of the birds with granulomas. Blood from falcons with granulomas demonstrated significantly increased concentration values of alpha 2 and β globulins, decreased percentages of prealbumin and albumin, and increased percentages of alpha 2 and β globulins compared to inoculated falcons without granulomas. In conclusion, acute-phase proteins and the electrophoretic profile of birds challenged with A

  14. Selective suppression of carrier-driven photochemical etching: Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Biefeld, R.M.; Klem, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Carrier-driven photochemical etching of semiconductors can be selectively suppressed by altering the near-surface region to enhance carrier recombination, thereby reducing the supply of carriers that drive the surface etching reaction. Two methods for enhancing recombination and decreasing the etch rate at a given phonon flux include ion implantation and localized Zn diffusion. Raman spectroscopy can be employed to determine whether sufficient alterations of electronic properties has occurred to suppress etching. Carrier-driven photochemical reactions, which require direct participation of free carriers for the chemical reaction to proceed, can be selectively suppressed by increasing the minority carrier recombination rate, thereby reducing the supply of carriers that drive the surface etching reaction. Two methods for enhancing recombination and decreasing the etching quantum yield, which is the number of atoms removed per incident photon, include ion implantation and localized Zn diffusion. For ion implantation, recombination- promoting defect concentrations depend on ion species, fluence, and annealing both during and after the implantation process. Other recombination processes related to carrier scattering from ionized impurities from in-diffusion of dopants or following implant activation can control etching. Raman spectroscopy can be employed to detect changes in electronic properties that correlate with etching suppression. Changes that occur in the LO-phonon lineshape, such as those associated with phonon confinement and ionized impurity scattering, can be diagnostic of the carrier-driven etching behavior following a specific treatment. We have demonstrated two applications of Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic for suppression of the carrier-driven photochemical etching of GaAs. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  16. Five levels of PACS modularity: integrating 3D and other advanced visualization tools.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kenneth C; Filice, Ross W; Philbin, James F; Siegel, Eliot L; Nagy, Paul G

    2011-12-01

    The current array of PACS products and 3D visualization tools presents a wide range of options for applying advanced visualization methods in clinical radiology. The emergence of server-based rendering techniques creates new opportunities for raising the level of clinical image review. However, best-of-breed implementations of core PACS technology, volumetric image navigation, and application-specific 3D packages will, in general, be supplied by different vendors. Integration issues should be carefully considered before deploying such systems. This work presents a classification scheme describing five tiers of PACS modularity and integration with advanced visualization tools, with the goals of characterizing current options for such integration, providing an approach for evaluating such systems, and discussing possible future architectures. These five levels of increasing PACS modularity begin with what was until recently the dominant model for integrating advanced visualization into the clinical radiologist's workflow, consisting of a dedicated stand-alone post-processing workstation in the reading room. Introduction of context-sharing, thin clients using server-based rendering, archive integration, and user-level application hosting at successive levels of the hierarchy lead to a modularized imaging architecture, which promotes user interface integration, resource efficiency, system performance, supportability, and flexibility. These technical factors and system metrics are discussed in the context of the proposed five-level classification scheme. PMID:21301923

  17. Digital blood pressure after local cooling as a diagnostic tool in traumatic vasospastic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ekenvall, L; Lindblad, L E

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of digital blood pressure before and after local cooling was performed in 10 men with traumatic vasospastic disease (TVD), 10 men who worked with vibrating tools but had no symptoms in arms or hands, and 10 men who had never worked with vibrating tools. The reduction in finger systolic pressure was significantly larger in the group with TVD than in either of the reference groups (p less than 0.001). There was no difference between the two reference groups. Nine of the 10 patients with TVD had a larger reduction in their finger systolic pressure after local cooling than anyone in either control group. The effects of two different room temperatures (17 degrees C and 23 degrees C) were evaluated. At the higher temperature the overlap between patients with TVD and controls was greater. The method described seems a feasible way to obtain an objective verification of TVD. PMID:7138798

  18. Recovery Act: Advanced Interaction, Computation, and Visualization Tools for Sustainable Building Design

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Donald P.; Hencey, Brandon M.

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.

  19. Anatomic pathology of hepatocellular carcinoma: histopathology using classic and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Meredith E; Brunt, Elizabeth M

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma can be diagnosed on a needle biopsy of the liver; however, uncertainty may arise because of the inherent complexity of liver histology. This article aims to provide practicing pathologists with tools for the approach to mass-directed liver biopsies clinically concerning for hepatocellular carcinoma. The examination of routine hematoxylin-eosin stains and the use of ancillary histochemical and immunohistochemical stains are discussed. Sections reviewing liver carcinoma with biphenotypic differentiation and the challenge of dysplastic nodules are included. PMID:25921661

  20. "Virtual microscopy" and the internet as telepathology consultation tools: diagnostic accuracy in evaluating melanocytic skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Okada, D H; Binder, S W; Felten, C L; Strauss, J S; Marchevsky, A M

    1999-12-01

    The Internet offers a widely available, inexpensive tool for telepathology consultations. It allows the transfer of image and text files through electronic mail (e-mail) or file transfer protocols (FTP), using a variety of microcomputer platforms. We studied the use of the Internet and "virtual microscopy" tools for the diagnosis of 35 skin biopsies, including a variety of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Digitized images from these lesions were obtained at 40x and 100x optical magnification, using a high resolution digital camera (Microlumina, Leaf Systems, Southborough, MA), a light microscope with a phototube adapter and a microcomputer with a Pentium 166 MHz microprocessor. Two to four images of each case were arranged on a "canvas" to represent the majority or an entire biopsy level, using Photoshop software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA). The images were compressed using Joint Photographers Expert Group (JPEG) format. The images were then viewed on a computer video monitor in a manner that closely resembles light microscopy, including scrolling by using the "hand tool" of Photoshop and changing magnification digitally up to 4 times without visible image degradation. The image files, ranging in size from 700 kilobytes to 2.1 megabytes (average 1.6 megabytes) were attached to e-mail messages that contained clinical information, using standard Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) protocols and sent through the Internet, for interpretation by a dermatopathologist. The consultant could open the images from the e-mail message, using Microsoft Outlook Express (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) and Photoshop software, scroll them, change magnification and render a diagnosis in a manner that closely simulates light microscopy. One hundred percent concordance was obtained between the telepathology and traditional hematoxylin and eosin slide diagnoses. The Internet and relatively inexpensive "virtual microscopy" tools offer a novel technology for

  1. Data handling at EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor II) for advanced diagnostics and control work

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, R.W.; Schorzman, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Improved control and diagnostics systems are being developed for nuclear and other applications. The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Division of Argonne National Laboratory has embarked on a project to upgrade the EBR-II control and data handling systems. The nature of the work at EBR-II requires that reactor plant data be readily available for experimenters, and that the plant control systems be flexible to accommodate testing and development needs. In addition, operational concerns require that improved operator interfaces and computerized diagnostics be included in the reactor plant control system. The EBR-II systems have been upgraded to incorporate new data handling computers, new digital plant process controllers, and new displays and diagnostics are being developed and tested for permanent use. In addition, improved engineering surveillance will be possible with the new systems.

  2. Place of diagnostic tools in the identification of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Decroix, V; Pluquet, E; Choquet, M; Ammenouche, N; Castelain, S; Guiheneuf, R

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens is a rare but potentially lethal pathogen. We report a case of A. succiniciproducens bloodstream infection in a 55-year-old man hospitalized for pelvic trauma. The strain was identified by 16sRNA sequencing after several failures of identification by MALDI-TOF MS. The strain was susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics and ciprofloxacin, but resistant to macrolides and clindamycin. Identification tools must be improved to enhance our knowledge on this rare pathogen and to define optimal therapy. PMID:26899447

  3. A Manually Operated, Advance Off-Stylet Insertion Tool for Minimally Invasive Cochlear Implantation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kratchman, Louis B.; Schurzig, Daniel; McRackan, Theodore R.; Balachandran, Ramya; Noble, Jack H.; Webster, Robert J.; Labadie, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The current technique for cochlear implantation (CI) surgery requires a mastoidectomy to gain access to the cochlea for electrode array insertion. It has been shown that microstereotactic frames can enable an image-guided, minimally invasive approach to CI surgery called percutaneous cochlear implantation (PCI) that uses a single drill hole for electrode array insertion, avoiding a more invasive mastoidectomy. Current clinical methods for electrode array insertion are not compatible with PCI surgery because they require a mastoidectomy to access the cochlea; thus, we have developed a manually operated electrode array insertion tool that can be deployed through a PCI drill hole. The tool can be adjusted using a preoperative CT scan for accurate execution of the advance off-stylet (AOS) insertion technique and requires less skill to operate than is currently required to implant electrode arrays. We performed three cadaver insertion experiments using the AOS technique and determined that all insertions were successful using CT and microdissection. PMID:22851233

  4. Advanced computational tools for optimization and uncertainty quantification of carbon capture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Ng, Brenda; Eslick, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing, demonstrating, and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools. One significant computational tool is FOQUS, a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity, which enables basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to rapidly synthesize and optimize a process and determine the level of uncertainty associated with the resulting process. The overall approach of CCSI is described with a more detailed discussion of FOQUS and its application to carbon capture systems.

  5. Proposal for constructing an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Sims, Michael H.; Podolak, Esther; Mckay, Christopher P.; Thompson, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific model building can be a time intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We believe that advanced software techniques can facilitate both the model building and model sharing process. We propose to construct a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing and using models. The proposed tool will include an interactive intelligent graphical interface and a high level, domain specific, modeling language. As a testbed for this research, we propose development of a software prototype in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling.

  6. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Z. Q.; Chen, Z. J.; Xie, X. F.; Peng, X. Y.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, X.; Fan, T. S.; Chen, J. X.; Li, X. Q. E-mail: guohuizhang@pku.edu.cn; Zhang, G. H. E-mail: guohuizhang@pku.edu.cn; Xia, Z. W.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.

    2014-11-15

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  7. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z Q; Chen, Z J; Xie, X F; Peng, X Y; Hu, Z M; Du, T F; Ge, L J; Zhang, X; Yuan, X; Xia, Z W; Hu, L Q; Zhong, G Q; Lin, S Y; Wan, B N; Fan, T S; Chen, J X; Li, X Q; Zhang, G H

    2014-11-01

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G. PMID:25430242

  8. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. Q.; Chen, Z. J.; Xie, X. F.; Peng, X. Y.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, X.; Xia, Z. W.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.; Fan, T. S.; Chen, J. X.; Li, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.

    2014-11-01

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  9. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  10. Point-of-care Diagnostic Tools to Detect Circulating MicroRNAS as Biomarkers of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Luis

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs or miRNAs are a form of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of 19–22 nucleotides in length in their mature form. miRNAs are transcribed in the nucleus of all cells from large precursors, many of which have several kilobases in length. Originally identified as intracellular modulators of protein synthesis via posttranscriptional gene silencing, more recently it has been found that miRNAs can travel in extracellular human fluids inside specialized vesicles known as exosomes. We will be referring to this miRNAs as circulating microRNAs. More interestingly, the miRNA content inside exosomes changes during pathological events. In the present review we analyze the literature about circulating miRNAs and their possible use as biomarkers. Furthermore, we explore their future in point-of-care (POC) diagnostics and provide an example of a portable POC apparatus useful in the detection of circulating miRNAs. PMID:24858962

  11. High-Content Movement Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool in C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Peter; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Krevitt, Leah; Amaral, Luis; Morimoto, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases manifest themselves through a loss of motor control and give us information about the underlying disease. This loss of coordination is observed in humans and in the model organisms used to study neurodegeneration. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is an extensive genetic library of strains that lack functional neuronal signaling pathways and expressing proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. While most of these strains have decrease motility or cause paralysis, relatively few have been screened to look for more subtle changes in motor control such as stiffness, twitching, or other changes in behavior. we use high-resolution position and posture data to automatically analyze the movement of worms from different genetic backgrounds and characterize 14 movement characteristics. By creating a quantitative mapping between the movement characterization and an online database of gene annotation, gene expression, and anatomy, we aim to predict a likely set of cellular and molecular disruptions. This work provides a proof of concept for the use of detailed movement analysis to uncover novel disruptions in certain motor control processes. Knowledge of the molecular origin of these disruptions provided by our understanding of C. elegans genetics and physiology could lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disease.

  12. Relapsing Polychondritis: an Update on Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, Diagnostic Tools, and Therapeutic Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Antonio; Sota, Jurgen; Rigante, Donato; Lopalco, Giuseppe; Molinaro, Francesco; Messina, Mario; Iannone, Florenzo; Cantarini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare multisystemic disease widely accepted as a complex autoimmune disorder affecting proteoglycan-rich structures and cartilaginous tissues, especially the auricular pinna, cartilage of the nose, tracheobronchial tree, eyes, and heart's connective components. The clinical spectrum may vary from intermittent inflammatory episodes leading to unesthetic structural deformities to life-threatening cardiopulmonary manifestations, such as airway collapse and valvular regurgitation. The frequent association with other rheumatologic and hematologic disorders has been extensively reported over time, contributing to define its complexity at a diagnostic and also therapeutic level. Diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis is mainly based on clinical clues, while laboratory data have only a supportive contribution. Conversely, radiology is showing a relevant role in estimating the rate of systemic involvement as well as disease activity. The present review is aimed at providing an update on scientific data reported during the last 3 years about relapsing polychondritis in terms of pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and new treatment options. PMID:26711694

  13. Raman spectroscopy: a diagnostic tool for detection of early malignant changes in the larynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Stavroulaki, Pelagia; Kendall, Catherine A.; Birchall, Martin; Barr, Hugh

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of laryngeal cancer has risen progressively over the last 25 years. Early diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions of the larynx is vital to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In the larynx, it has long been recognized that histological evidence of maturation abnormality is associated with a higher risk of transformation to malignancy. Currently, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the clinician to ascertain the level of abnormality present without removing a biopsy sample and sending it for histopathological analysis. Inherent risks with this technique include damage to vocal chords and loss of speech quality as well as possible selection of unrepresentative biopsy samples. Raman spectroscopy, incorporated into an endoscopic system, has the potential to provide a real-time, non-invasive diagnostic technique able to detect biochemical changes that accompany abnormal pathology. Likely outcomes would be improved biopsy targeting and patient management by providing immediate result of tissue pathology. This paper demonstrates the capacity of near IR Raman spectroscopy combine with statistical data analysis techniques to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and cancerous laryngeal tissue.

  14. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic tools for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Tian-Fu; Wang, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Conventional biomarkers exhibit poor performance in the surveillance, diagnosis, and prognosis of HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and protein translation, and they play critical roles in cell growth, differentiation, and the development of various types of cancers, including HCC. Recent evidence revealed the role of miRNAs as potential novel and ideal biomarkers for HCC. miRNAs are released to extracellular spaces, and they are extremely stable in bodily fluids, including serum or plasma, where they are packaged into various microparticles or associated with RNA-binding proteins. Numerous studies have demonstrated that circulating miRNAs have potential applications as minimally invasive biomarkers for HCC diagnosis and prognosis. The present review highlights current understanding of miRNA biogenesis and the origins and types of circulating miRNAs. We summarize recent progress in the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for HCC. We also discuss the challenges and perspectives of the clinical utility of circulating miRNAs in HCC. PMID:26379392

  15. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  16. Laryngeal Measurements and Diagnostic Tools for Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Verónica; Navarro, Sandra M.; Alvarez, Andrés E.; Villafañe, Mercedes; Miranda, Ana; Spaans, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of laryngeal height, lung function, and diagnostic questionnaires for screening and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 233 people aged between 40 and 75 years. Measured variables were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, tobacco use, maximum laryngeal height, and spirometry, and we administered a COPD questionnaire and the Lung Function Questionnaire. RESULTS For laryngeal height, we found a positive likelihood ratio of 5.21, and for the Lung Function Questionnaire, we found a negative likelihood ratio of 0.10. Combining a maximum laryngeal height of ≤4 cm with Lung Function Questionnaire findings of ≤18 yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 29.06, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.26. CONCLUSIONS The intrinsic validity of the lung function questionnaire makes it useful for screening. Combining Lung Function Questionnaire results and laryngeal height can help confirm or dismiss COPD. PMID:25583892

  17. Gene dosage methods as diagnostic tools for the identification of chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gouas, L; Goumy, C; Véronèse, L; Tchirkov, A; Vago, P

    2008-09-01

    Cytogenetics is the part of genetics that deals with chromosomes, particularly with numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities, and their implications in congenital or acquired genetic disorders. Standard karyotyping, successfully used for the last 50 years in investigating the chromosome etiology in patients with infertility, fetal abnormalities and congenital disorders, is constrained by the limits of microscopic resolution and is not suited for the detection of subtle chromosome abnormalities. The ability to detect submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements that lead to copy-number changes has escalated progressively in recent years with the advent of molecular cytogenetic techniques. Here, we review various gene dosage methods such as FISH, PCR-based approaches (MLPA, QF-PCR, QMPSF and real time PCR), CGH and array-CGH, that can be used for the identification and delineation of copy-number changes for diagnostic purposes. Besides comparing their relative strength and weakness, we will discuss the impact that these detection methods have on our understanding of copy number variations in the human genome and their implications in genetic counseling. PMID:18513889

  18. Metabolic Signature Profiling as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool in Pediatric Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Izabella; Orikiiriza, Judy; Karlsson, Elisabeth; Nelson, Maria; Bonde, Mari; Kyamanwa, Patrick; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Sven; Trygg, Johan; Normark, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accuracy in malaria diagnosis and staging is vital to reduce mortality and post infectious sequelae. In this study, we present a metabolomics approach to diagnostic staging of malaria infection, specifically Plasmodium falciparum infection in children. Methods. A group of 421 patients between 6 months and 6 years of age with mild and severe states of malaria with age-matched controls were included in the study, 107, 192, and 122, individuals, respectively. A multivariate design was used as basis for representative selection of 20 patients in each category. Patient plasma was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and a full metabolite profile was produced from each patient. In addition, a proof-of-concept model was tested in a Plasmodium berghei in vivo model where metabolic profiles were discernible over time of infection. Results. A 2-component principal component analysis revealed that the patients could be separated into disease categories according to metabolite profiles, independently of any clinical information. Furthermore, 2 subgroups could be identified in the mild malaria cohort who we believe represent patients with divergent prognoses. Conclusions. Metabolite signature profiling could be used both for decision support in disease staging and prognostication. PMID:26110164

  19. RT-PCR is a more accurate diagnostic tool for detection of BCR-ABL rearrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnbauer, B.A.; Allen, A.P.; McGrath, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    Detection of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) or genomic Southern hybridization for clonal gene rearrangement (GSH-R) has provided very specific identification of BCR-ABL gene rearrangement. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is diagnostic for patterns of BCR-ABL expression which are undetected by GSH-R and/or Ph1 and provides increased sensitivity both at diagnosis and in detection of minimal residual leukemia. Fifty-three specimens (of 150 tested from 119 consecutive leukemia patients) were RT-PCR positive for BCR-ABL gene expression confirmed by hybridization of PCR products with b{sub 3}a{sub 2}, b{sub 2}a{sub 2}, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} junction-specific oligonucleotides. In 6 cases of CML with GSH-R{sup {minus}}at diagnosis, RT-PCR provided specific BCR-ABL identification. Deletion of BCR regions, low mitotic index, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} expression caused failure to detect GSH-R or Ph1 translocation.

  20. The challenge of Clostridium difficile infection: Overview of clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Postma, Nynke; Kiers, Dorien; Pickkers, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The most important infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis is Clostridium difficile, which is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus. In this overview we will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients presenting with suspected or proven C. difficile infection (CDI). The clinical spectrum varies from asymptomatic C. difficile carriers to fulminant colitis with multi-organ failure. The onset of symptoms is usually within 2 weeks after initiation of antibiotic treatment. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical symptoms and either a positive stool test for C. difficile toxins or endoscopic or histological findings of pseudomembranous colitis. There is no indication for treatment of asymptomatic carriers, but patients with proven CDI should be treated. Treatment consists of cessation of the provoking antibiotic treatment, secondary prevention by infection control strategies, and treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin. Treatment of recurring CDI, severe infection, the need for surgery, and novel alternative potential treatment strategies will be discussed. The concurrent increase in multiresistant colonisation and increasing numbers of asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile will lead to an increase of the situation in which patients with severe infections, treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, will develop concurrent severe CDI. We will discuss possible therapy strategies for these patients. PMID:26612229

  1. Pyrene-functionalized oligonucleotides and locked nucleic acids (LNAs): Tools for fundamental research, diagnostics, and materials science†

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Michael E.; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrene-functionalized oligonucleotides (PFOs) are increasingly explored as tools in fundamental research, diagnostics and materials science. Their popularity is linked to the ability of pyrenes to function as polarity-sensitive and quenchable fluorophores, excimer-generating units, aromatic stacking moieties and nucleic acid duplex intercalators. These characteristics have motivated development of PFOs for detection of complementary DNA/RNA targets, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and generation of π-arrays on nucleic acid scaffolds. This Review will highlight the physical properties and applications of PFOs that are likely to provide high degree of positional control of the chromophore in nucleic acid complexes. Particular emphasis will be placed on pyrene-functionalized Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) since these materials display distinctive properties such as large fluorescence quantum yields, efficient discrimination of SNPs, and recognition of mixed-sequence double stranded DNA. PMID:21487621

  2. Circulating microparticles bearing Fibrin associated with whole-body 18FDG-PET: diagnostic tools to detect paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica.

    PubMed

    Mege, Diane; Cammilleri, Serge; Mundler, Olivier; Dignat-George, Françoise; Dubois, Christophe; Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Guis, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), a chronic inflammatory rheumatism, can be the expression of a paraneoplastic syndrome. The same clinical symptoms are frequently observed at the early stage of the benign and malignant forms. Here, our aim was to develop diagnostic tools to differentiate paraneoplastic PMR from essential PMR. We combined an 18FDG-PET and detection of circulating procoagulant microparticles (MPs), such as fibrin positive (FibMPs), by flow cytometry. Two patients with PMR and a similar profile were selected. In the two patients, the 18FDG-PET revealed a hypermetabolic focus. However, the concentrations of fibrin+/annexin+ microparticles detected were (10 times higher in one of the two patients, who was later found to have breast cancer. The association of 18FDG-PET and the detection of microparticle fibrin positives by flow cytometry allows separating essential PMR (hypermetabolism by 18FDG-PET, low FibMPs) from paraneoplastic PMR. PMID:27324631

  3. Optical property measurements as a diagnostic tool for control of materials processing in space and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Weber, J. K. Richard; Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    A new method is described, including results, to measure, control, and follow containerless processing in ground based levitators. This technique enables instantaneous optical property measurements from a transient solid or liquid surface concurrent with true temperature measurement. This was used successfully as a diagnostic tool to follow processing of Al, Si, and Ti during electromagnetic levitation. Experiments on Al show the disappearance of the oxide (emittance 0.33) at ca. 1300 C leaving a liquid surface with an emittance of 0.06. Electromagnetic levitation of silicon shows a liquid with a constant emittance (0.2) but with a solid whose emittance decreases very rapidly with increasing temperature. Consequently, the processing of materials at high temperatures can be controlled quite well through the control of surface optical properties.

  4. System Diagnostic Builder - A rule generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation. [applied to Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph; Burke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the System Diagnostic Builder (SDB), an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state-of-the-art AI technologies. The SDB employs an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert. Thus, data are captured from the subject system, classified, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The knowledge bases captured from the Shuttle Mission Simulator can be used as black box simulations by the Intelligent Computer Aided Training devices. The SDB can also be used to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production or oil and gas production.

  5. Novel molecular diagnostic tools for malaria elimination: a review of options from the point of view of high-throughput and applicability in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Britton, Sumudu; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James S

    2016-01-01

    As malaria transmission continues to decrease, an increasing number of countries will enter pre-elimination and elimination. To interrupt transmission, changes in control strategies are likely to require more accurate identification of all carriers of Plasmodium parasites, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, using diagnostic tools that are highly sensitive, high throughput and with fast turnaround times preferably performed in local health service settings. Currently available immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid diagnostic tests and field microscopy are unlikely to consistently detect infections at parasite densities less than 100 parasites/µL making them insufficiently sensitive for detecting all carriers. Molecular diagnostic platforms, such as PCR and LAMP, are currently available in reference laboratories, but at a cost both financially and in turnaround time. This review describes the recent progress in developing molecular diagnostic tools in terms of their capacity for high throughput and potential for performance in non-reference laboratories for malaria elimination. PMID:26879936

  6. In-situ diagnostic tools for hydrogen transfer leak characterization in PEM fuel cell stacks part II: Operational applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumand, Amir M.; Homayouni, Hooman; DeVaal, Jake; Golnaraghi, Farid; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic tool for in-situ characterization of the rate and distribution of hydrogen transfer leaks in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. The method is based on reducing the air flow rate from a high to low value at a fixed current, while maintaining an anode overpressure. At high air flow rates, the reduction in air flow results in lower oxygen concentration in the cathode and therefore reduction in cell voltages. Once the air flow rate in each cell reaches a low value at which the cell oxygen-starves, the voltage of the corresponding cell drops to zero. However, oxygen starvation results from two processes: 1) the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction which produces current; and 2) the chemical reaction between oxygen and the crossed over hydrogen. In this work, a diagnostic technique has been developed that accounts for the effect of the electrochemical reaction on cell voltage to identify the hydrogen leak rate and number of leaky cells in a fuel cell stack. This technique is suitable for leak characterization during fuel cell operation, as it only requires stack air flow and voltage measurements, which are readily available in an operational fuel cell system.

  7. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  8. An Analysis of Energy Savings Possible Through Advances in Automotive Tooling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-12-03

    The use of lightweight and highly formable advanced materials in automobile and truck manufacturing has the potential to save fuel. Advances in tooling technology would promote the use of these materials. This report describes an energy savings analysis performed to approximate the potential fuel savings and consequential carbon-emission reductions that would be possible because of advances in tooling in the manufacturing of, in particular, non-powertrain components of passenger cars and heavy trucks. Separate energy analyses are performed for cars and heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are considered to be Class 7 and 8 trucks (trucks rated over 26,000 lbs gross vehicle weight). A critical input to the analysis is a set of estimates of the percentage reductions in weight and drag that could be achieved by the implementation of advanced materials, as a consequence of improved tooling technology, which were obtained by surveying tooling industry experts who attended a DOE Workshop, Tooling Technology for Low-Volume Vehicle Production, held in Seattle and Detroit in October and November 2003. The analysis is also based on 2001 fuel consumption totals and on energy-audit component proportions of fuel use due to drag, rolling resistance, and braking. The consumption proportions are assumed constant over time, but an allowance is made for fleet growth. The savings for a particular component is then the product of total fuel consumption, the percentage reduction of the component, and the energy audit component proportion. Fuel savings estimates for trucks also account for weight-limited versus volume-limited operations. Energy savings are assumed to be of two types: (1) direct energy savings incurred through reduced forces that must be overcome to move the vehicle or to slow it down in braking. and (2) indirect energy savings through reductions in the required engine power, the production and transmission of which incur thermodynamic losses, internal friction, and other

  9. Radio frequency diagnostics on board of Cubesat as a tool for planetary Space Weather monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Morawski, M.; Szewczyk, T.

    2014-04-01

    CubeSat pico-satellite standard was developed recently to allow easy access to space for projects with limited funds. Due to relatively cheap yet professional development process, CubeSats have also great educational impact. This allows the students to learn about all crucial aspects of space engineering and project management. Since all the basic steps for developing CubeSat are similar to those performed on bigger satellites (i.e. designing, testing, operating in space), this gives possibility to develop all the necessary skills and experience for future work at space industries. Space Research Center, together with its collaborators from University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn and others, would like to design and build double unit CubeSat as an opportunity to perform scientific experiments in space together with technological demonstrators of subsystems. In order to monitor the Earth's and planetary space environment and obtain a much more complete picture of magnetosphere and ionosphere coupling and particularly waves-particle interaction in this system than those available hitherto new mission of clustered Cubesat mission can be propose. Moreover to enhance our understanding of the rich plasma physical processes that drive the Solar Terrestrial space environment, we need to increase our ability to perform multi-point measurements by means of different sensors. Therefore, new technologies radio frequency radio analyser RFA instrument will gave the possibility for diagnostics 3D electric field component (spectra and wave forms) with extremely high time resolution. Additional technological challenges regarding size, computational power and energy constraints are imposed by the design of CubeSat.

  10. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic tool in lower respiratory tract infections and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Polzin, A; Pletz, M; Erbes, R; Raffenberg, M; Mauch, H; Wagner, S; Arndt, G; Lode, H

    2003-06-01

    The diagnostic significance of procalcitonin concentrations in lower respiratory tract infections and tuberculosis is not known. A prospective analysis was, therefore, performed in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and tuberculosis and their procalcitonin levels compared with those of patients with noninfectious lung diseases (controls). In addition, standard inflammatory parameter data were collected. A prospective clinical study was performed with four different groups of patients and a control group that consisted of patients with noninfectious lung diseases. A total of 129 patients were included: 25 with HAP, 26 CAP, 26 AECB, 27 tuberculosis, and 25 controls. C-reactive protein level, blood cell counts and procalcitonin concentration were evaluated on the first day after onset of clinical and inflammatory symptoms prior to treatment. The median procalcitonin concentrations in HAP, CAP, AECB and tuberculosis were not elevated in relation to the cut-off level of 0.5 ng x mL(-1). In the HAP group, in four of five patients who subsequently died, procalcitonin concentrations of >0.5 ng x mL(-1) were found. In acute lower respiratory infections, such as HAP, CAP and AECB, significantly elevated levels were found in comparison to the control group, but below the usual cut-off level. No differences were observed between tuberculosis and the control group. Relative to the current cut-off level of 0.5 ng x mL(-1), procalcitonin concentration is not a useful parameter for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections. However, compared to the control group, there were significantly elevated levels in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis below the current cut-off level, which should be further investigated. PMID:12797485

  11. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ2 with respect to α , and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software.

  12. Potential application of miRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang-Hao; Ji, Jun-Tao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disease typified by end-stage fibrosis. This disease can also increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The associated diagnosis, pain and other complications further add to the burden of disease management. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in identifying miRNAs and their physiological functions, including mRNA repression and protein expression control. Given the extensive effort made on miRNA research, a close correlation has been discovered between certain types of miRNAs and disease progression, particularly for tissue fibrosis. Designing miRNA-related tools for disease diagnosis and therapeutic treatments presents a novel and potential research frontier. In the current review, we discuss various miRNAs closely interacting with CP, as well as the possible development of targeted miRNA therapies in managing this disease. PMID:26149296

  13. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria: new diagnostic tools, biomarkers, and therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Praveen K.; Satpathi, Sanghamitra; Behera, Prativa K.; Mishra, Saroj K.; Mohanty, Sanjib; Wassmer, Samuel Crocodile

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is a severe neuropathological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It results in high mortality and post-recovery neuro-cognitive disorders in children, even after appropriate treatment with effective anti-parasitic drugs. While the complete landscape of the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria still remains to be elucidated, numerous innovative approaches have been developed in recent years in order to improve the early detection of this neurological syndrome and, subsequently, the clinical care of affected patients. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of cerebral malaria pathogenesis, compile the array of new biomarkers and tools available for diagnosis and research, and describe the emerging therapeutic approaches to tackle this pathology effectively. PMID:26579500

  14. Detection of collagen by second harmonic microscopy as a diagnostic tool for liver fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Maruth; Kable, Eleanor P. W.; Braet, Filip; Wang, X. M.; Gorrell, M. D.; Cox, Guy

    2006-02-01

    Liver fibrosis has many causes, including hepatitis C, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen. The deposition of these proteins results in impaired liver function caused by distortion of the hepatic architecture by fibrous scar tissue. The unique triple helix structure of collagen and high level of crystallinity make it very efficient for generating second harmonic signals. In this study we have set out to see if second harmonic imaging of collagen can be used as a non-biased quantitative tool for classification of fibrosis levels in liver biopsies and if it can detect early fibrosis formation not detected by current methods.

  15. Novel Diagnostic and Monitoring Tools in Stroke: an Individualized Patient-Centered Precision Medicine Approach.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Sulette; Swanepoel, Albe; Bester, Janette; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-05-01

    Central to the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke are the normally protective processes of platelet adhesion and activation. Experimental evidence has shown that the ligand-receptor interactions in ischaemic stroke represent a thrombo-inflammatory cascade, which presents research opportunities into new treatment. However, as anti-platelet drugs have the potential to cause severe side effects in ischaemic stroke patients (as well as other vascular disease patients), it is important to carefully monitor the risk of bleeding and risk of thrombus in patients receiving treatment. Because thrombo-embolic ischaemic stroke is a major health issue, we suggest that the answer to adequate treatment is based on an individualized patient-centered approach, inline with the latest NIH precision medicine approach. A combination of viscoelastic methodologies may be used in a personalized patient-centered regime, including thromboelastography (TEG®) and the lesser used scanning electron microscopy approach (SEM). Thromboelastography provides a dynamic measure of clot formation, strength, and lysis, whereas SEM is a visual structural tool to study patient fibrin structure in great detail. Therefore, we consider the evidence for TEG® and SEM as unique means to confirm stroke diagnosis, screen at-risk patients, and monitor treatment efficacy. Here we argue that the current approach to stroke treatment needs to be restructured and new innovative thought patterns need to be applied, as even approved therapies require close patient monitoring to determine efficacy, match treatment regimens to each patient's individual needs, and assess the risk of dangerous adverse effects. TEG® and SEM have the potential to be a useful tool and could potentially alter the clinical approach to managing ischaemic stroke. As envisaged in the NIH precision medicine approach, this will involve a number of role players and innovative new research ideas, with benefits that will ultimately only be realized in a

  16. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  17. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  18. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of DAPI-stained nuclei as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection and classification of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yahav, Gilad; Hirshberg, Abraham; Salomon, Ophira; Amariglio, Ninette; Trakhtenbrot, Luba; Fixler, Dror

    2016-07-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) are the most common type of leukaemia in adults and children, respectively. Today, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the standard for detecting chromosomal aberrations that reflect adverse and favorable outcome. This study revealed a new, simple, and fast diagnostic tool to detect pathological cells by measuring and imaging the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) using FLT imaging microscopy (FLIM) of the peripheral blood (PB) cells of B-CLL samples that were labeled with the DNA binder, DAPI. The FLT of DAPI in healthy individuals was found to be 2.66 ± 0.12 ns. In contrast, PB cells of B-CLL and BM cells of B-ALL patients were characterized by a specific group distribution of the FLT values. The FLT of DAPI was divided into four subgroups, relative to 2.66 ns: short+, normal, prolonged, and prolonged+. These alterations could be related to different chromatin arrangements of B-CLL and B-ALL interphase nuclei. Notably, extremely long FLT of nuclear DAPI correlate with the presence of extra chromosome 12, while moderate increases compared to normal characterize the deletion of p53. Such correlations potentially enable a FLT-based rapid automatic diagnosis and classification of B-CLL even when the frequency of genetic and chromosomal abnormalities is low. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27315046

  19. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF{sub 2} radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Röpcke, J.; Helden, J. H. van; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.

    2015-01-19

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF{sub 2} radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF{sub 2} radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm{sup −1}. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν{sub 3} fundamental band of CF{sub 2} with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF{sub 2} radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  20. Diagnostic tools for assessment of urinary dysfunction in MS patients without urinary disturbances.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, A; Mutta, E; Bianchi, F; Bonavita, S; Buttari, F; Caramma, A; Cavarretta, R; Centonze, D; Coghe, G C; Coniglio, G; Del Carro, U; Ferrò, M T; Marrosu, M G; Patti, F; Rovaris, M; Sparaco, M; Simone, I; Tortorella, C; Bergamaschi, R

    2016-03-01

    Many guidelines are available for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but no agreement exists on the best approach for subjects without LUTSs. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether LUTSs can be detected in MS patients asymptomatic for urinary dysfunction, comparing three different tools [measure of post-void residual volume (PRV), bladder diary (BD), a focused questionnaire (IPSS)], and whether disability, disease duration and signs of pyramidal involvement are linked to their subclinical presence. 178 MS patients (118 women) have been included (mean age 41.2 years, mean disease duration 11.3 years, mean EDSS 2.2), and tested with the above-mentioned tools. PRV was abnormal in 14 subjects (7.8 %), associated to abnormal findings at IPSS in 3 cases, at BD in 2 cases, at both in 1. BD was abnormal in 37 subjects (20.8 %), with concomitant abnormal PRV in 2, abnormal IPSS in 10 cases, abnormal IPSS and BD in 1. IPSS was ≥ 9 in 43 subjects (24.1 %). At least one test was abnormal in 76 patients (42.7 %): 1 in 57 patients (32.0 %), 2 in 17 (9.5 %), and 3 tests in 2 (1.1 %). Patients with at least one abnormal urinary variable, compared to patients without urinary abnormalities, had a more frequent pyramidal involvement (69.5 vs. 16.8 %, χ (2) = 48.6, p < 0.00001), a more frequent occurrence of EDSS ≥2 (83.1 vs. 23.5 %, χ (2) = 56.9, p < 0.00001), and a longer disease duration (15.7 ± 7.3 vs. 9.1 ± 7.1, t = 5.7, p < 0.00001). Asymptomatic LUTS were frequent but none of the tests used permitted to better identify asymptomatic patients. PMID:26613723

  1. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke. PMID:26682073

  2. Third Harmonic Generation microscopy as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of microglia BV-2 and breast cancer cells activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavgiotaki, E.; Filippidis, G.; Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.; Markomanolaki, H.; Kalognomou, M.; Agelaki, S.; Georgoulias, V.; Athanassakis, I.

    2015-07-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging techniques have created new opportunities of research in the biomedical field. Specifically, Third Harmonic Generation (THG) seems to be a suitable noninvasive imaging tool for the delineation and quantification of biological structures at the microscopic level. The aim of this study was to extract information as to the activation state of different cell types by using the THG imaging microscopy as a diagnostic tool. BV-2 microglia cell line was used as a representative biological model enabling the study of resting and activated state of the cells linked to various pathological conditions. Third Harmonic Generation (THG) and Two Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) measurements were simultaneously collected from stained breast cancer cells, by employing a single homemade experimental apparatus and it was shown that high THG signals mostly arise from lipid bodies. Continuously, BV-2 microglia cells were examined with or without activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in order to discriminate between control and activated cells based on the quantification of THG signals. Statistically quantification was accomplished in both mean area and mean intensity values of THG. The values for mean total area and mean THG intensity values have been increased in activated versus the non-activated cells. Similar studies of quantification are underway in breast cancer cells for the exact discrimination on different cell lines. Furthermore, laser polarization dependence of SHG and THG signal in unstained biological samples is investigated.

  3. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  4. Virtual Human: a diagnostic tool for human studies and health effects in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterly, Clay E.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Eckerman, Keith; Knee, Helmut E.; Maston, Mike; McNeilly, Greg; Munro, John; Munro, Nancy B.; Toedte, Ross; Van Hoy, Blake; Ward, Richard C.

    1998-05-01

    The virtual human will be a research/simulation environment having an integrated system of biophysical models, data, and advanced computational algorithms. It will have a Web-based interface for easy, rapid access from several points of entry. The virtual human will serve as a platform for national and international users from governments, academia and industry to investigate the widest range of human biological and physical response to stimuli, be they biological, chemical, or physical. This effort will go far beyond the modeling of anatomy to incorporate refined computational models of whole-body processes, using mechanical and electrical tissue properties, and biology from physiology to biochemical information. The platform will respond mechanistically to varied and potentially iterative stimuli that can be visualized multi- dimensionally. This effort is in the formative stage of a several-year process that will lead to a program that is of similar proportion to the human genome, but will be much more computationally intensive. The main purpose of this paper is to communicate our early ideas about the philosophic basis of the program, to identify some of the applications for which the virtual human would be used, to elicit comments, and to provide a basis to identify prospective collaborators.

  5. Development and validation of a comprehensive genomic diagnostic tool for myeloid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    McKerrell, Thomas; Moreno, Thaidy; Ponstingl, Hannes; Bolli, Niccolo; Dias, João M. L.; Tischler, German; Colonna, Vincenza; Manasse, Bridget; Bench, Anthony; Bloxham, David; Herman, Bram; Fletcher, Danielle; Park, Naomi; Quail, Michael A.; Manes, Nicla; Hodkinson, Clare; Baxter, Joanna; Sierra, Jorge; Foukaneli, Theodora; Warren, Alan J.; Chi, Jianxiang; Costeas, Paul; Rad, Roland; Huntly, Brian; Grove, Carolyn; Ning, Zemin; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Varela, Ignacio; Scott, Mike; Nomdedeu, Josep; Mustonen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of hematologic malignancies relies on multidisciplinary workflows involving morphology, flow cytometry, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analyses. Advances in cancer genomics have identified numerous recurrent mutations with clear prognostic and/or therapeutic significance to different cancers. In myeloid malignancies, there is a clinical imperative to test for such mutations in mainstream diagnosis; however, progress toward this has been slow and piecemeal. Here we describe Karyogene, an integrated targeted resequencing/analytical platform that detects nucleotide substitutions, insertions/deletions, chromosomal translocations, copy number abnormalities, and zygosity changes in a single assay. We validate the approach against 62 acute myeloid leukemia, 50 myelodysplastic syndrome, and 40 blood DNA samples from individuals without evidence of clonal blood disorders. We demonstrate robust detection of sequence changes in 49 genes, including difficult-to-detect mutations such as FLT3 internal-tandem and mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) partial-tandem duplications, and clinically significant chromosomal rearrangements including MLL translocations to known and unknown partners, identifying the novel fusion gene MLL-DIAPH2 in the process. Additionally, we identify most significant chromosomal gains and losses, and several copy neutral loss-of-heterozygosity mutations at a genome-wide level, including previously unreported changes such as homozygosity for DNMT3A R882 mutations. Karyogene represents a dependable genomic diagnosis platform for translational research and for the clinical management of myeloid malignancies, which can be readily adapted for use in other cancers. PMID:27121471

  6. Development and validation of a comprehensive genomic diagnostic tool for myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    McKerrell, Thomas; Moreno, Thaidy; Ponstingl, Hannes; Bolli, Niccolo; Dias, João M L; Tischler, German; Colonna, Vincenza; Manasse, Bridget; Bench, Anthony; Bloxham, David; Herman, Bram; Fletcher, Danielle; Park, Naomi; Quail, Michael A; Manes, Nicla; Hodkinson, Clare; Baxter, Joanna; Sierra, Jorge; Foukaneli, Theodora; Warren, Alan J; Chi, Jianxiang; Costeas, Paul; Rad, Roland; Huntly, Brian; Grove, Carolyn; Ning, Zemin; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Varela, Ignacio; Scott, Mike; Nomdedeu, Josep; Mustonen, Ville; Vassiliou, George S

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of hematologic malignancies relies on multidisciplinary workflows involving morphology, flow cytometry, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analyses. Advances in cancer genomics have identified numerous recurrent mutations with clear prognostic and/or therapeutic significance to different cancers. In myeloid malignancies, there is a clinical imperative to test for such mutations in mainstream diagnosis; however, progress toward this has been slow and piecemeal. Here we describe Karyogene, an integrated targeted resequencing/analytical platform that detects nucleotide substitutions, insertions/deletions, chromosomal translocations, copy number abnormalities, and zygosity changes in a single assay. We validate the approach against 62 acute myeloid leukemia, 50 myelodysplastic syndrome, and 40 blood DNA samples from individuals without evidence of clonal blood disorders. We demonstrate robust detection of sequence changes in 49 genes, including difficult-to-detect mutations such as FLT3 internal-tandem and mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) partial-tandem duplications, and clinically significant chromosomal rearrangements including MLL translocations to known and unknown partners, identifying the novel fusion gene MLL-DIAPH2 in the process. Additionally, we identify most significant chromosomal gains and losses, and several copy neutral loss-of-heterozygosity mutations at a genome-wide level, including previously unreported changes such as homozygosity for DNMT3A R882 mutations. Karyogene represents a dependable genomic diagnosis platform for translational research and for the clinical management of myeloid malignancies, which can be readily adapted for use in other cancers. PMID:27121471

  7. Advances in X-ray Computed Tomography Diagnostics of Ballistic Impact Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Joseph M.; Brannon, Rebecca M.

    2007-12-01

    With the relatively recent introduction of quantitative and volumetric X-ray computed tomography (XCT) applied to ballistic impact damage diagnostics, significant inroads have been made in expanding our knowledge base of the morphological variants of physical impact damage. Yet, the current state of the art in computational and simulation modeling of terminal ballistic performance remains predominantly focused on the penetration phenomenon, without detailed consideration of the physical characteristics of actual impact damage. Similarly, armor ceramic material improvements appear more focused on penetration resistance than on improved intrinsic damage tolerance and damage resistance. Basically, these approaches minimize our understanding of the potential influence that impact damage may play in the mitigation or prevention of ballistic penetration. Examples of current capabilities of XCT characterization, quantification, and visualization of complex impact damage variants are demonstrated and discussed for impacted ceramic and metallic terminal ballistic target materials. Potential benefits of incorporating such impact damage diagnostics in future ballistic computational modeling are also briefly discussed.

  8. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin F A; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies. PMID:23144717

  9. BeeDoctor, a Versatile MLPA-Based Diagnostic Tool for Screening Bee Viruses

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y.; Moritz, Robin F. A.; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called “BeeDoctor”, was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. “BeeDoctor” is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. “BeeDoctor” was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the “BeeDoctor”, virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies. PMID:23144717

  10. Anti-Müllerian hormone as a diagnostic tool for ovarian remnant syndrome in bitches.

    PubMed

    Turna Yilmaz, Özge; Toydemir, Tuğba Seval Fatma; Kirsan, Ismail; Gunay Ucmak, Zeynep; Caliskan Karacam, Esra

    2015-09-01

    Ovariohysterectomy is a surgical procedure performed for sterilization. If part or all of an ovary remains after the surgical procedure, ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) occurs. After revascularization of the remaining ovarian tissue, the sexual cycle of bitches and queens continues. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurement for the diagnosis of ORS in bitches. Forty-six female dogs were divided into four groups: the prepubertal, unspayed, spayed, and ORS groups. The serum AMH, progesterone, and estradiol concentrations of the bitches in all groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The stage in the sexual cycle of each bitch was determined based on vaginal cytology findings and serum estradiol and progesterone levels. The mean serum AMH concentration of the unspayed bitches (4.26 ± 0.82 ng/ml) was similar to that of the bitches with ORS (4.40 ± 1.09 ng/ml). However, the difference between the mean serum AMH level of the bitches with ORS and the spayed bitches (0.28 ± 0.09 ng/ml) was significant. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that the serum AMH level is substantially lower in spayed than in both intact bitches and bitches with ORS. According to this result, measurement of the serum AMH level is a useful tool for diagnosis of ORS in bitches. PMID:26099303

  11. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  12. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  13. Direct Blood Dry LAMP: A Rapid, Stable, and Easy Diagnostic Tool for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Kajino, Kiichi; Hachaambwa, Lottie; Namangala, Boniface; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid and sensitive tool used for the diagnosis of a variety of infectious diseases. One of the advantages of this method over the polymerase chain reaction is that DNA amplification occurs at a constant temperature, usually between 60–65°C; therefore, expensive devices are unnecessary for this step. However, LAMP still requires complicated sample preparation steps and a well-equipped laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible results, which limits its use in resource-poor laboratories in most developing countries. In this study, we made several substantial modifications to the technique to carry out on-site diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in remote areas using LAMP. The first essential improvement was that LAMP reagents were dried and stabilized in a single tube by incorporating trehalose as a cryoprotectant to prolong shelf life at ambient temperature. The second technical improvement was achieved by simplifying the sample preparation step so that DNA or RNA could be amplified directly from detergent-lysed blood samples. With these modifications, diagnosis of HAT in local clinics or villages in endemic areas becomes a reality, which could greatly impact on the application of diagnosis not only for HAT but also for other tropical diseases. PMID:25769046

  14. Diagnostic tool for red blood cell membrane disorders: Assessment of a new generation ektacytometer.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Lydie; Suner, Ludovic; Galimand, Julie; Bonnel, Amandine; Pascreau, Tiffany; Couque, Nathalie; Fenneteau, Odile; Mohandas, Narla

    2016-01-01

    Inherited red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorders, such as hereditary spherocytosis, elliptocytosis and hereditary ovalocytosis, result from mutations in genes encoding various RBC membrane and skeletal proteins. The RBC membrane, a composite structure composed of a lipid bilayer linked to a spectrin/actin-based membrane skeleton, confers upon the RBC unique features of deformability and mechanical stability. The disease severity is primarily dependent on the extent of membrane surface area loss. RBC membrane disorders can be readily diagnosed by various laboratory approaches that include RBC cytology, flow cytometry, ektacytometry, electrophoresis of RBC membrane proteins and genetics. The reference technique for diagnosis of RBC membrane disorders is the osmotic gradient ektacytometry. However, in spite of its recognition as the reference technique, this technique is rarely used as a routine diagnosis tool for RBC membrane disorders due to its limited availability. This may soon change as a new generation of ektacytometer has been recently engineered. In this review, we describe the workflow of the samples shipped to our Hematology laboratory for RBC membrane disorder analysis and the data obtained for a large cohort of French patients presenting with RBC membrane disorders using a newly available version of the ektacytomer. PMID:26603718

  15. Transcranial sonography in movement disorders: an interesting tool for diagnostic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sanzaro, E; Iemolo, F

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial sonography has become an important tool for the diagnosis of various movement disorders. In most patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, a markedly hyperechogenic substantia nigra (SN) was detected on at least one side. We have highlighted the sonographic features that might help the differential diagnosis of PD and other movement disorders. Our investigation involved 30 patients (age 45-85 years) with idiopathic Parkinson disease, 2 multiple system atrophy, 3 progressive supranuclear palsy and 2 patients with restless legs syndrome. In accordance with several previous studies, we detected hyperechogenicity of the SN by TCS in 90 % of patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. Subjects with a marked severity disease had a larger extent of the hyperechogenic SN signal. All progressive supranuclear palsy patients had an enlarged third ventricle and, in two cases, we observed the presence of hyperechoic areas in the lentiform nucleus. This last ultrasonographic feature was also seen in our patients with multiple system atrophy. TCS abnormalities of the SN, midbrain raphe and basal ganglia are characteristics of several movement and affective disorders. These features are less easily detected by other techniques, such as CT and MRI, which enable the exclusion of structural lesions, such as tumours and multi-infarct disease, because the physical principle differs from other imaging methods. PMID:26650802

  16. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-01-01

    Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science. Observation and quantification of the Earth surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of Critical Zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and ecosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", extending from the groundwater to the vegetation canopy. Lidar holds promise as a transdisciplinary CZ research tool by simultaneously allowing for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological data. Researchers are just beginning to utilize lidar datasets to answer synergistic questions in CZ science, such as how landforms and soils develop in space and time as a function of the local climate, biota, hydrologic properties, and lithology. This review's objective is to demonstrate the transformative potential of lidar by critically assessing both challenges and opportunities for transdisciplinary lidar applications. A review of 147 peer-reviewed studies utilizing lidar showed that 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % have an interdisciplinary focus. We find that using lidar to its full potential will require numerous advances across CZ applications, including new and more powerful open-source processing tools, exploiting new lidar acquisition technologies, and improved integration with physically-based models and complementary in situ and remote-sensing observations. We provide a five-year vision to utilize and advocate for the expanded use of lidar datasets to benefit CZ science applications.

  17. Invited review DNA copy number changes as diagnostic tools for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Bowcock, Anne M

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer usually presents as advanced stage disease and there is a need for early diagnosis so that appropriate treatments can be provided prior to tumour progression. Copy number variation is frequently detected in tumours and can contribute to tumour progression. This is because regions harbouring DNA imbalance can contain genes encoding critical proteins whose altered dosage contributes to the neoplastic process. Three copy number variations (CNVs) from chromosomes 3p26-p11.1 (loss), 3q26.2-29 (gain) and 6q25.3-24.3 (loss) have previously been described in individuals presenting with endobronchial squamous metaplasia. These CNVs were predictors of cancer diagnosed within 44 months with 97% accuracy. An evaluation of this CNV-based classifier with an independent set of 12 samples (10 men and 2 women), each with a carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma at the same site at follow-up demonstrated 92% prediction accuracy. The negative predictive value of this classifier was 89%. The gain at 3q26.2-q29 contributed the most to the classification, being present in virtually all lesions. This region harbours the PIK3CA gene and evaluation of the number of copies of this gene gave very similar results to those from array comparative genomic hybridisation. This type of test can be performed on sputum or bronchial brushings. Larger cohorts now need to be examined to confirm this finding and to possibly refine the regions of CNV. This type of approach paves the way for future molecular analyses to assist in selecting subjects with endobronchial squamous metaplastic or dysplastic lesions who might benefit from more aggressive therapeutic intervention or surveillance. PMID:24188925

  18. Current and future diagnostic tools for traumatic brain injury: CT, conventional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Brody, David L; Mac Donald, Christine L; Shimony, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Brain imaging plays a key role in the assessment of traumatic brain injury. In this review, we present our perspectives on the use of computed tomography (CT), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and newer advanced modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging. Specifically, we address assessment for immediately life-threatening intracranial lesions (noncontrast head CT), assessment of progression of intracranial lesions (noncontrast head CT), documenting intracranial abnormalities for medicolegal reasons (conventional MRI with blood-sensitive sequences), presurgical planning for post-traumatic epilepsy (high spatial resolution conventional MRI), early prognostic decision making (conventional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging), prognostic assessment for rehabilitative planning (conventional MRI and possibly diffusion tensor imaging in the future), stratification of subjects and pharmacodynamic tracking of targeted therapies in clinical trials (specific MRI sequences or positron emission tomography (PET) ligands, e.g., diffusion tensor imaging for traumatic axonal injury). We would like to emphasize that all of these methods, especially the newer research approaches, require careful radiologic-pathologic validation for optimal interpretation. We have taken this approach in a mouse model of pericontusional traumatic axonal injury. We found that the extent of reduction in the diffusion tensor imaging parameter relative anisotropy directly correlated with the number of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-stained axonal varicosities (r(2)=0.81, p<0.0001, n=20 injured mice). Interestingly, however, the least severe contusional injuries did not result in APP-stained axonal varicosities, but did cause reduction in relative anisotropy. Clearly, both the imaging assessments and the pathologic assessments will require iterative refinement. PMID:25702222

  19. Development of Experimental and Computational Aeroacoustic Tools for Advanced Liner Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Nark, Douglas N.; Parrott, Tony L.; Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic liners in aircraft engine nacelles suppress radiated noise. Therefore, as air travel increases, increasingly sophisticated tools are needed to maximize noise suppression. During the last 30 years, NASA has invested significant effort in development of experimental and computational acoustic liner evaluation tools. The Curved Duct Test Rig is a 152-mm by 381- mm curved duct that supports liner evaluation at Mach numbers up to 0.3 and source SPLs up to 140 dB, in the presence of user-selected modes. The Grazing Flow Impedance Tube is a 51- mm by 63-mm duct currently being fabricated to operate at Mach numbers up to 0.6 with source SPLs up to at least 140 dB, and will replace the existing 51-mm by 51-mm duct. Together, these test rigs allow evaluation of advanced acoustic liners over a range of conditions representative of those observed in aircraft engine nacelles. Data acquired with these test ducts are processed using three aeroacoustic propagation codes. Two are based on finite element solutions to convected Helmholtz and linearized Euler equations. The third is based on a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation. The current status of these computational tools and their associated usage with the Langley test rigs is provided.

  20. Fluorescence: a diagnostic tool for the detection of stress in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Corp, Lawrence A.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Green vegetation when excited by specific wavelengths of light dissipates a portion of the absorbed energy as light emissions in the form of fluorescence in several broad areas of the spectrum. Currently, leaf level fluoresence emissions have been broken down into five primary regions, namely; ultraviolet (UV), blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR). The optimal excitation wavelengths for each of these bands was verified for healthy soybean leaves through the use of the EEM. Intact vegetation when excited at 280 nm emits substantial fluorescence in two bands; the first centered near 335 nm, and the second centered near 440 nm. UV band fluorescence from vegetation treated with varying levels of nitrogen decreases relative to the blur fluorescence as a function of total protein concentration. These studies indicate that in vivo UV band fluorescence can be utilized as a non-destructive tool to remotely sense variations in protein concentration due to nitrogen fertilization level. It has been well established that this fluorescence emission originates from proteins contain aromatic amino acids. The majority of plant proteins contain these amino acids and as a result have the potential to fluorescence in the region of the spectrum discussed here. Pure ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in aqueous solution exhibited intense UV fluorescence characteristics with excitation and emission distributions similar to those of intact vegetation. Due to its high concentration we believe this protein contributes to the UV band fluorescence emanating from the intact leaf. The red and NIR fluorescence emissions can be excited within the broad wavelength region from 250 to 675 nm with excitation maxima at 430 nm, 470 nm, 600 nm, and 660 nm. The ratio of red to NIR fluorescence excitation spectra produces a ratio spectrum which exhibits striking similarities to the action spectrum of photosynthesis. The relative differences between these two emission bands depend on the wavelength

  1. Immunoassay for ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor: a new tool for postmortem diagnostics of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rainio, Juha; Kultti, Johanna; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Tuomi, Heidi; Ahola, Sanna; Karhunen, Pekka J; Helander, Anders; Niemelä, Onni

    2013-03-10

    Although excessive alcohol consumption plays a major role in fatal events, the role of alcohol use as a possible contributing factor at the time of death is not easy to establish due to lack of suitable biomarkers for postmortem analyses. We used an immunological approach to measure ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations from vitreous humor (VH) and serum from 58 individuals representing a forensic autopsy population of cases with either a well-documented history of excessive alcohol use (n=37) or cases without such history (n=21), according to medical and police records and blood alcohol determinations (BAC). The immunoassay was based on the Microgenics DRI-EtG EIA reagents applied on an automated Abbott Architect c8000 clinical chemistry analyzer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) was used as a reference method. At a cut-off of 0.3mg/l for VH-EtG, the immunoassay correctly identified 92% of the cases with a history of excessive alcohol use, whereas the BAC was positive (cut-off 10mg/dl) in 68% of the cases. A significant correlation emerged between VH-EtG and serum EtG (r=0.77, p<0.001) and between VH-EtG and BAC (r=0.62, p<0.001), although VH-EtG was frequently elevated also in cases with no detectable BAC. The EtG immunoassay showed a strong correlation with the LC-MS/MS reference method (r=0.94, p<0.001) and there was 100% agreement in the frequency of marker positive and negative findings between the immunoassay EtG results and the LC-MS/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. The present data indicate that the immunoassay for VH-EtG is a useful forensic tool for screening of antemortem alcohol use. PMID:23415594

  2. Co-Development of Diagnostic Vectors to Support Targeted Therapies and Theranostics: Essential Tools in Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Nicholas C.; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Albone, Earl; Grasso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Novel technologies are being developed to improve patient therapy through the identification of targets and surrogate molecular signatures that can help direct appropriate treatment regimens for efficacy and drug safety. This is particularly the case in oncology whereby patient tumor and biofluids are routinely isolated and analyzed for genetic, immunohistochemical, and/or soluble markers to determine if a predictive biomarker signature (i.e., mutated gene product, differentially expressed protein, altered cell surface antigen, etc.) exists as a means for selecting optimal treatment. These biomarkers may be drug-specific targets and/or differentially expressed nucleic acids, proteins, or cell lineage profiles that can directly affect the patient’s disease tissue or immune response to a therapeutic regimen. Improvements in diagnostics that can prescreen predictive response biomarker profiles will continue to optimize the ability to enhance patient therapy via molecularly defined disease-specific treatment. Conversely, patients lacking predictive response biomarkers will no longer needlessly be exposed to drugs that are unlikely to provide clinical benefit, thereby enabling patients to pursue other therapeutic options and lowering overall healthcare costs by avoiding futile treatment. While patient molecular profiling offers a powerful tool to direct treatment options, the difficulty in identifying disease-specific targets or predictive biomarker signatures that stratify a significant fraction within a disease indication remains challenging. A goal for drug developers is to identify and implement new strategies that can rapidly enable the development of beneficial disease-specific therapies for broad patient-specific targeting without the need of tedious predictive biomarker discovery and validation efforts, currently a bottleneck for development timelines. Successful strategies may gain an advantage by employing repurposed, less-expensive existing agents while

  3. An Epidemiological Survey of Cachexia in Advanced Cancer Patients and Analysis on Its Diagnostic and Treatment Status.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Quan, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Shiying

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an international consensus diagnostic criterion for cancer cachexia was proposed. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of cachexia in patients with advanced cancer and to assess the current status of the diagnosis and management of cancer cachexia. A total of 390 patients with advanced cancer were included. There were 140 patients with cachexia and the prevalence was 35.9%. The prevalence was highest in pancreatic cancer (88.9%), followed by gastric cancer (76.5%) and esophageal cancer (52.9%). Sixty-three patients with cancer cachexia have CT scans available for muscle mass evaluation and 98.4% were sarcopenic. Cachectic patients have a significantly lower overall quality of life and a higher symptom burden. According to oncology physicians, only 33 patients were considered to have cancer cachexia. The false negative rate amounted to 76.4%. The positive rate was related to the body mass index and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of the patients. There were few types of pharmacological approaches for cancer cachexia and more than half of cachectic patients did not receive any anticachexia treatment. These results indicate that the prevalence of cachexia in advanced cancer patients was high. However, cancer cachexia was rarely recognized and clinical management for cancer cachexia was very inadequate. PMID:26317149

  4. Advanced Launch Technology Life Cycle Analysis Using the Architectural Comparison Tool (ACT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle technology impact comparisons for nanolauncher technology concepts were performed using an Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) prototype. Examined are cost drivers and whether technology investments can dramatically affect the life cycle characteristics. Primary among the selected applications was the prospect of improving nanolauncher systems. As a result, findings and conclusions are documented for ways of creating more productive and affordable nanolauncher systems; e.g., an Express Lane-Flex Lane concept is forwarded, and the beneficial effect of incorporating advanced integrated avionics is explored. Also, a Functional Systems Breakdown Structure (F-SBS) was developed to derive consistent definitions of the flight and ground systems for both system performance and life cycle analysis. Further, a comprehensive catalog of ground segment functions was created.

  5. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  6. Community-based participatory research as a tool to advance environmental health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    O'Fallon, Liam R; Dearry, Allen

    2002-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a rapid proliferation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. CBPR methodology presents an alternative to traditional population-based biomedical research practices by encouraging active and equal partnerships between community members and academic investigators. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the premier biomedical research facility for environmental health, is a leader in promoting the use of CBPR in instances where community-university partnerships serve to advance our understanding of environmentally related disease. In this article, the authors highlight six key principles of CBPR and describe how these principles are met within specific NIEHS-supported research investigations. These projects demonstrate that community-based participatory research can be an effective tool to enhance our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of disorders having an environmental etiology, reduce adverse health outcomes through innovative intervention strategies and policy change, and address the environmental health concerns of community residents. PMID:11929724

  7. Integrated performance and dependability analysis using the advanced design environment prototype tool ADEPT

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, R.; Rahman, A.; Johnson, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Design Environment Prototype Tool (ADEPT) is an evolving integrated design environment which supports both performance and dependability analysis. ADEPT models are constructed using a collection of predefined library elements, called ADEPT modules. Each ADEPT module has an unambiguous mathematical definition in the form of a Colored Petri Net (CPN) and a corresponding Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) description. As a result, both simulation-based and analytical approaches for analysis can be employed. The focus of this paper is on dependability modeling and analysis using ADEPT. We present the simulation based approach to dependability analysis using ADEPT and an approach to integrating ADEPT and the Reliability Estimation System Testbed (REST) engine developed at NASA. We also present analytical techniques to extract the dependability characteristics of a system from the CPN definitions of the modules, in order to generate alternate models such as Markov models and fault trees.

  8. Heavy ion beam probe advances from the first installation of the diagnostic on an RFP (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P. J.

    2012-10-15

    Heavy ion beam probes have been installed on a variety of toroidal devices, but the first and only application on a reversed field pinch is the diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Simultaneous measurements of spatially localized equilibrium potential and fluctuations of density and potential, previously inaccessible in the core of the reversed field pinch (RFP), are now attainable. These measurements reflect the unique strength of the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) diagnostic. They will help determine the characteristics and evolution of electrostatic fluctuations and their role in transport, and determine the relation of the interior electric field and flows. Many aspects of the RFP present original challenges to HIBP operation and inference of plasma quantities. The magnetic field contributes to a number of the issues: the comparable magnitudes of the toroidal and poloidal fields and edge reversal result in highly three-dimensional beam trajectories; partial generation of the magnetic field by plasma current cause it and hence the beam trajectories to vary with time; and temporal topology and amplitude changes are common. Associated complications include strong ultraviolet radiation and elevated particle losses that can alter functionality of the electrostatic systems and generate noise on the detectors. These complexities have necessitated the development of new operation and data analysis techniques: the implementation of primary and secondary beamlines, adoption of alternative beam steering methods, development of higher precision electrostatic system models, refinement of trajectory calculations and sample volume modeling, establishment of stray particle and noise reduction methods, and formulation of alternative data analysis techniques. These innovative methods and the knowledge gained with this system are likely to translate to future HIBP operation on large scale stellarators and tokamaks.

  9. Proposing "the burns suite" as a novel simulation tool for advancing the delivery of burns education.

    PubMed

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. We explored this concept in a burns scenario in a novel, low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment (referred to as distributed simulation). This contextualized simulation/distributed simulation combination was named "The Burns Suite" (TBS). A pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was selected after high trainee demand. It was designed on Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns principles and refined using expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. TBS contained "realism" props, briefed nurses, and a simulated patient. Novices and experts were recruited. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's α was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twelve participants completed TBS scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.6 and 4.5, respectively; range, 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed that participants felt 1) the experience was "real" and they were "able to behave as if in a real resuscitation environment," and 2) TBS "addressed what Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns didn't" (including the efficacy of incorporating nontechnical skills). TBS provides a novel, effective simulation tool to significantly advance the delivery of burns education. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize simulation training. This low-cost approach also has major implications for surgical education, particularly during increasing financial austerity. Alternative scenarios and/or procedures can be recreated within TBS, providing a diverse educational immersive simulation experience. PMID:23877145

  10. Arabic version of the Major Depression Inventory as a diagnostic tool: reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, M H; Fawzi, M M; Abu-Hindi, W

    2012-04-01

    The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a brief questionnaire to assess the presence of a depressive disorder. We prepared an Arabic version of the MDI and tested its reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity as a diagnostic tool of major depressive disorder. A group of 50 Egyptian outpatients with major depressive disorder (assessed clinically and with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders) were compared with 50 healthy controls using the MDI-A, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STA.). Cronbach a was 0.91 and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99). Scores on the MDI-A strongly correlated with BDI scores (r = 0.81) but insignificantly correlated with STAI scores. Using the MDI scoring algorithm, the sensitivity was 88.4% and specificity 78.9%. We conclude that the MDI-A has an excellent reliability and an acceptable concurrent and discriminant validity. PMID:22768690

  11. Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are currently no reliable markers of acute domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) for California sea lions. We investigated whether patterns of serum peptides could diagnose acute DAT. Serum peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from 107 sea lions (acute DAT n = 34; non-DAT n = 73). Artificial neural networks (ANN) were trained using MALDI-TOF data. Individual peaks and neural networks were qualified using an independent test set (n = 20). Results No single peak was a good classifier of acute DAT, and ANN models were the best predictors of acute DAT. Performance measures for a single median ANN were: sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 60%; positive predictive value, 71%; negative predictive value, 100%. When 101 ANNs were combined and allowed to vote for the outcome, the performance measures were: sensitivity, 30%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 59%. Conclusions These results suggest that MALDI-TOF peptide profiling and neural networks can perform either as a highly sensitive (100% negative predictive value) or a highly specific (100% positive predictive value) diagnostic tool for acute DAT. This also suggests that machine learning directed by populations of predictive models offer the ability to modulate the predictive effort into a specific type of error. PMID:22429742

  12. The Role of Epigenomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a key role in cancer development. Genetics alone cannot explain sporadic cancer and cancer development in individuals with no family history or a weak family history of cancer. Epigenetics provides a mechanism to explain the development of cancer in such situations. Alterations in epigenetic profiling may provide important insights into the etiology and natural history of cancer. Because several epigenetic changes occur before histopathological changes, they can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment. Many cancers may remain asymptomatic until relatively late stages; in managing the disease, efforts should be focused on early detection, accurate prediction of disease progression, and frequent monitoring. This chapter describes epigenetic biomarkers as they are expressed during cancer development and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Based on epigenomic information, biomarkers have been identified that may serve as diagnostic tools; some such biomarkers also may be useful in identifying individuals who will respond to therapy and survive longer. The importance of analytical and clinical validation of biomarkers is discussed, along with challenges and opportunities in this field. PMID:26530360

  13. Carbon isotope discrimination as a diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis in C3-C4 intermediate species

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The presence and activity of the C4 cycle in C3-C4 intermediate species have proven difficult to analyze, especially when such activity is low. This study proposes a strategy to detect C4 activity and estimate its contribution to overall photosynthesis in intermediate plants, by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) coupled to gas exchange systems to simultaneously measure the CO2 responses of CO2 assimilation (A) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) under low O2 partial pressure. Mathematical models of C3-C4 photosynthesis and Δ are then fitted concurrently to both responses using the same set of constants. This strategy was applied to the intermediate species Flaveria floridana and F. brownii, and to F. pringlei and F. bidentis as C3 and C4 controls, respectively. Our results support the presence of a functional C4 cycle in F. floridana, that can fix 12–21% of carbon. In F. brownii, 75–100% of carbon is fixed via the C4 cycle, and the contribution of mesophyll Rubisco to overall carbon assimilation increases with CO2 partial pressure in both intermediate plants. Combined gas exchange and Δ measurement and modeling is a powerful diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis. PMID:26862154

  14. A potential new diagnostic tool to aid DNA analysis from heat compromised bone using colorimetry: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Jamie D; Ringrose, Trevor J; Dicken, Anthony; Williams, Anna; Bennett, Phil

    2015-03-01

    Extracting viable DNA from many forensic sample types can be very challenging, as environmental conditions may be far from optimal with regard to DNA preservation. Consequently, skeletal tissue can often be an invaluable source of DNA. The bone matrix provides a hardened material that encapsulates DNA, acting as a barrier to environmental insults that would otherwise be detrimental to its integrity. However, like all forensic samples, DNA in bone can still become degraded in extreme conditions, such as intense heat. Extracting DNA from bone can be laborious and time-consuming. Thus, a lot of time and money can be wasted processing samples that do not ultimately yield viable DNA. We describe the use of colorimetry as a novel diagnostic tool that can assist DNA analysis from heat-treated bone. This study focuses on characterizing changes in the material and physical properties of heated bone, and their correlation with digitally measured color variation. The results demonstrate that the color of bone, which serves as an indicator of the chemical processes that have occurred, can be correlated with the success or failure of subsequent DNA amplification. PMID:25753998

  15. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  16. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment. PMID:27582591

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a diagnostic tool in patients with suspected stroke or traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Sonja; Lott, Carsten; Ostermeyer, M.; Hennes, Hans-Juergen

    2001-10-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a diagnostic tool in patients with suspected stroke or brain injury S. Goldberg, C. Lott, M. Ostermeyer, H.-J. Hennes Absorption of Near-Infrared (NIR) light in the brain is mainly caused by hemoglobin. Superficial intracranial hematoma with a higher concentration of hemoglobin causes a higher absorption in NIRS. The existence of hemorrhage can be demonstrated by the difference of optical density, comparing identical measuring points at both hemispheres of the brain: absorption of NIR light is greater at the side of the hemorrhage, causing less reflection in NIRS. In a prospective, blinded study, 100 patients who were scheduled for CCT-scan for brain injury or symptoms of stroke have been measured by NIRS. The measurement results were proved by the CCT-diagnosis. A sensitivity of the NIR measurement of 65% and a specificity of 87% was achieved including all patients with any pathology, whereas the subgroup of 58 patients with suspected superficial hematoma and without other pathology showed pathologic findings by NIRS in all of 16 patients indicating superficial bleeding by CCT, pathology could be excluded by NIRS and CCT in 41 patients, one false positive and no false negative result. The results (sensitivity 98%, specificity 100%) support the hypothesis that NIRS is a reliable device for the detection of superficial intracranial hematoma.

  18. Carbon isotope discrimination as a diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis in C3-C4 intermediate species.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    The presence and activity of the C4 cycle in C3-C4 intermediate species have proven difficult to analyze, especially when such activity is low. This study proposes a strategy to detect C4 activity and estimate its contribution to overall photosynthesis in intermediate plants, by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) coupled to gas exchange systems to simultaneously measure the CO2 responses of CO2 assimilation (A) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) under low O2 partial pressure. Mathematical models of C3-C4 photosynthesis and Δ are then fitted concurrently to both responses using the same set of constants. This strategy was applied to the intermediate species Flaveria floridana and F. brownii, and to F. pringlei and F. bidentis as C3 and C4 controls, respectively. Our results support the presence of a functional C4 cycle in F. floridana, that can fix 12-21% of carbon. In F. brownii, 75-100% of carbon is fixed via the C4 cycle, and the contribution of mesophyll Rubisco to overall carbon assimilation increases with CO2 partial pressure in both intermediate plants. Combined gas exchange and Δ measurement and modeling is a powerful diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis. PMID:26862154

  19. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients' improvement after treatment. PMID:27582591

  20. Application of nanotechnology in miniaturized systems and its use for advanced analytics and diagnostics - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Sandetskaya, Natalia; Allelein, Susann; Kuhlmeier, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    A combination of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems and nanoscale structures allows for the creation of novel miniaturized devices, which broaden the boundaries of the diagnostic approaches. Some materials possess unique properties at the nanolevel, which are different from those in bulk materials. In the last few years these properties became a focus of interest for many researchers, as well as methods of production, design and operation of the nanoobjects. Intensive research and development work resulted in numerous inventions exploiting nanotechnology in miniaturized systems. Modern technical and laboratory equipment allows for the precise control of such devices, making them suitable for sensitive and accurate detection of the analytes. The current review highlights recent patents in the field of nanotechnology in microdevices, applicable for medical, environmental or food analysis. The paper covers the structural and functional basis of such systems and describes specific embodiments in three principal branches: application of nanoparticles, nanofluidics, and nanosensors in the miniaturized systems for advanced analytics and diagnostics. This overview is an update of an earlier review article. PMID:24365338

  1. Rapid point of care diagnostic tests for viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections--needs, advances, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Enne, Virve I; Kidd, Mike; Drosten, Christian; Breuer, Judy; Muller, Marcel A; Hui, David; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Al-Hakeem, Rafaat; Gray, Gregory; Gautret, Philippe; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A; Gant, Vanya

    2014-11-01

    Respiratory tract infections rank second as causes of adult and paediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Respiratory tract infections are caused by many different bacteria (including mycobacteria) and viruses, and rapid detection of pathogens in individual cases is crucial in achieving the best clinical management, public health surveillance, and control outcomes. Further challenges in improving management outcomes for respiratory tract infections exist: rapid identification of drug resistant pathogens; more widespread surveillance of infections, locally and internationally; and global responses to infections with pandemic potential. Developments in genome amplification have led to the discovery of several new respiratory pathogens, and sensitive PCR methods for the diagnostic work-up of these are available. Advances in technology have allowed for development of single and multiplexed PCR techniques that provide rapid detection of respiratory viruses in clinical specimens. Microarray-based multiplexing and nucleic-acid-based deep-sequencing methods allow simultaneous detection of pathogen nucleic acid and multiple antibiotic resistance, providing further hope in revolutionising rapid point of care respiratory tract infection diagnostics. PMID:25189349

  2. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B. A.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-06-01

    Observation and quantification of the Earth's surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of critical zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", which extends from the top of unweathered bedrock to the top of the vegetation canopy. Fundamental to CZ science is the development of transdisciplinary theories and tools that transcend disciplines and inform other's work, capture new levels of complexity, and create new intellectual outcomes and spaces. Researchers are just beginning to use lidar data sets to answer synergistic, transdisciplinary questions in CZ science, such as how CZ processes co-evolve over long timescales and interact over shorter timescales to create thresholds, shifts in states and fluxes of water, energy, and carbon. The objective of this review is to elucidate the transformative potential of lidar for CZ science to simultaneously allow for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological processes. A review of 147 peer-reviewed lidar studies highlights a lack of lidar applications for CZ studies as 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % had an interdisciplinary focus. A handful of exemplar transdisciplinary studies demonstrate lidar data sets that are well-integrated with other observations can lead to fundamental advances in CZ science, such as identification of feedbacks between hydrological and ecological processes over hillslope scales and the synergistic co-evolution of landscape-scale CZ structure due to interactions amongst carbon, energy, and water cycles

  3. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Han, H. W.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Orozco, D.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, a D-T neutron source and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The ion accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products through acceleration of D ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. The D-T neutron source generates up to 6 × 108 neutrons/s. The two x-ray generators produce spectra with peak energies of 35 keV and 225 keV and maximum dose rates of 0.5 Gy/min and 12 Gy/min, respectively. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  4. Some Recent Advances of Ultrasonic Diagnostic Methods Applied to Materials and Structures (Including Biological Ones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    This paper gives an overview of some recent advances of ultrasonic methods applied to materials and structures (including biological ones), exploring typical applications of these emerging inspection technologies to civil engineering and medicine. In confirmation of this trend, some results of an experimental research carried out involving both destructive and non-destructive testing methods for the evaluation of structural performance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures are discussed in terms of reliability. As a result, Ultrasonic testing can usefully supplement coring thus permitting less expensive and more representative evaluation of the concrete strength throughout the whole structure under examination.

  5. Neutrophil CD64 expression: a reliable diagnostic marker of infection in advanced cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Comolli, Giuditta; Torchio, Martina; Lenta, Elisa; Franceschetti, Benvenuto; Chiesa, Antonella; Calarota, Sandra A; Baldanti, Fausto; Scudeller, Luigia; Marone, Piero; Danova, Marco; Marco, Danova

    2015-07-01

    Infection and sepsis are major health problems in cancer patients. There is a need for the identification and validation of biomarkers to improve their early diagnosis and treatment. Emerging evidence showed that neutrophil CD64 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for systemic infection and sepsis in critically ill patients with various diseases but data on patients bearing solid tumors are still lacking. Using a dedicated flow cytometric assay we evaluated neutrophil CD64 expression in patients with advanced cancer without active infections to verify if it could be utilized as a reliable biomarker of early infections also in oncologic patients. PMID:26147145

  6. Advanced Imaging and Diagnostic Methods in the Assessment of Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Joly, Joanna M; Bittner, Vera

    2016-09-01

    Although differences diminish with age, outcomes are overall worse for women compared to men who present with suspected acute coronary syndrome. The reasons for this discrepancy are multifactorial, including sex-related differences in atherosclerosis biology and fluid dynamics, as well as a premature conclusion by providers that chest pain must be noncardiac in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. In this review of existing literature, we explore the diverse differential diagnosis in this unique set of patients. Especially in women with persistent symptoms, absence of occlusive disease should prompt consideration for subangiographic plaque disruption, epicardial or microvascular endothelial dysfunction, transient neurohormonal imbalance predisposing to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or spontaneous coronary artery dissection, underlying systemic inflammatory conditions, thromboembolic disease, myocarditis, and sequelae of congenital heart disease. As always, a thorough history and attentive physical exam will help guide further work-up, which in many cases may warrant noninvasive imaging, such as contrast-enhanced echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography, with their respective means of measuring myocardial perfusion and myocardial tissue pathology. Lastly, intracoronary imaging such as intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography and invasive diagnostic methods such as coronary reactivity testing continue to add to our understanding that what appear to be atypical presentations of ischemic heart disease in women may in fact be typical presentations of pathologic cousin entities that remain incompletely defined. PMID:27443380

  7. Advanced fusion diagnostics. Final technical report, July 15, 1991--July 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, K.G.

    1993-07-14

    Key among various issues of ignited plasmas is understanding the physics of energy transfer between thermal plasma particles and magnetically confined, highly energetic charged ions in a tokamak device. The superthermal particles are products of fusion reactions. The efficiency of energy transfer by collisions, from charged fusion products (e.g., {alpha}-particles) to plasma ions, grossly determines whether or not plasma conditions are self-sustaining without recourse to auxiliary heating. Furthermore, should energy transfer (efficiency be poor, and substantial auxiliary heating power is required to maintain reacting conditions within the plasma, economics may preclude commercial viability of fusion reactors. The required charged fusion product information is contained in the energy distribution function of these particles. Knowledge of temporal variations of the superthermal particle energy distribution function could be used by a fusion reactor control system to balance plasma conditions between thermal runaway and a modicum of fusion product energy transfer. Therefore, diagnostics providing data on the dynamical transfer of alpha-particle and other charged fusion product energy to the plasma ions are essential elements for a fusion reactor control system to insure that proper plasma conditions are maintained. The objective of this work is to assess if spectral analysis of rf radiation emitted by charged fusion products confined in a magnetized plasma, called ion cyclotron emission (ICE), can reveal the vital data of the distribution function of the superthermal particles.

  8. Update in salivary gland cytopathology: Recent molecular advances and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Faquin, William C

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are notorious for their extraordinary diversity and for the morphological overlap that exists between many of these entities. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a well-established role in the evaluation of patients with a salivary gland lesion, helping to guide clinical management. However, salivary gland FNAB has several limitations and does not allow for a specific diagnosis in some cases. For these reasons, salivary gland FNAB is considered one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. Over the last decade, new salivary gland entities have been recognized, enlarging SGT diversity and complexity even more. In addition, a subset of SGT, including common entities such as pleomorphic adenoma and uncommon new entities such as mammary analog secretory carcinoma, have been characterized cytogenetically by the presence of specific translocations. The molecular consequences of these translocations and their potential prognostic and therapeutic values are not yet well characterized. However, these translocations and their resulting fusion oncogenes and oncoproteins can be used as diagnostic clues in salivary gland FNAB material in order to overcome the limitations of cytomorphological evaluation alone. In this review, we focus on SGTs currently known to harbor translocations and fusion genes, including uncommon and recently recognized entities, and discuss their potential application to salivary gland FNAB. PMID:25613003

  9. Cone beam computed tomography imaging as a primary diagnostic tool for computer-guided surgery and CAD-CAM interim removable and fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Charette, Jyme R; Goldberg, Jack; Harris, Bryan T; Morton, Dean; Llop, Daniel R; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a digital workflow using cone beam computed tomography imaging as the primary diagnostic tool in the virtual planning of the computer-guided surgery and fabrication of a maxillary interim complete removable dental prosthesis and mandibular interim implant-supported complete fixed dental prosthesis with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology. Diagnostic impressions (conventional or digital) and casts are unnecessary in this proposed digital workflow, providing clinicians with an alternative treatment in the indicated clinical scenario. PMID:27086108

  10. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Molinaro, Marilisa; Ameri, Pietro; Marone, Giancarlo; Petretta, Mario; Abete, Pasquale; Di Lisa, Fabio; De Placido, Sabino; Bonaduce, Domenico; Tocchetti, Carlo G.

    2015-01-01

    Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and heart failure (HF). The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF) is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure. PMID:26583088

  11. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  12. A Simple Tool to Predict ESRD Within 1 Year in Elderly Patients with Advanced CKD

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E.; Goswami, Puja; Azem, Reem; Babineau, Denise C.; Rahman, Mahboob

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in older patients; currently, no tools are available to predict the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within 1 year. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a model to predict the 1 year risk for ESRD in elderly subjects with advanced CKD. DESIGN Retrospective study SETTING Veterans Affairs Medical Center PARTICIPANTS Patients over 65 years of age with CKD with an estimated (eGFR) less than 30mL/min/1.73m2. MEASUREMENTS The outcome was ESRD within 1 year of the index eGFR. Cox regression was used to develop a predictive model (VA risk score) which was validated in a separate cohort. RESULTS Of the 1,866 patients in the developmental cohort, 77 developed ESRD. Risk factors for ESRD in the final model were age, congestive heart failure, systolic blood pressure, eGFR, potassium, and albumin. In the validation cohort, the C index for the VA risk score was 0.823. The risk for developing ESRD at 1 year from lowest to highest tertile was 0.08%, 2.7%, and 11.3% (P<0.001). The C-index for the recently published Tangri model in the validation cohort was 0.780. CONCLUSION A new model using commonly available clinical measures shows excellent ability to predict the onset of ESRD within the next year in elderly subjects. Additionally, the Tangri model had very good predictive ability. Patients and physicians can use these risk models to inform decisions regarding preparation for renal replacement therapy in patients with advanced CKD. PMID:23617782

  13. Development, Implementation and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High Temperature Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the final report to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the research project entitled Development, Implementation, and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High-Temperature Composites. The research supporting this initiative has been conducted by Dr. Brett A. Bednarcyk, a Senior Scientist at OM in Brookpark, Ohio from the period of August 1998 to March 2005. Most of the work summarized herein involved development, implementation, and application of enhancements and new capabilities for NASA GRC's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package. When the project began, this software was at a low TRL (3-4) and at release version 2.0. Due to this project, the TRL of MAC/GMC has been raised to 7 and two new versions (3.0 and 4.0) have been released. The most important accomplishments with respect to MAC/GMC are: (1) A multi-scale framework has been built around the software, enabling coupled design and analysis from the global structure scale down to the micro fiber-matrix scale; (2) The software has been expanded to analyze smart materials; (3) State-of-the-art micromechanics theories have been implemented and validated within the code; (4) The damage, failure, and lifing capabilities of the code have been expanded from a very limited state to a vast degree of functionality and utility; and (5) The user flexibility of the code has been significantly enhanced. MAC/GMC is now the premier code for design and analysis of advanced composite and smart materials. It is a candidate for the 2005 NASA Software of the Year Award. The work completed over the course of the project is summarized below on a year by year basis. All publications resulting from the project are listed at the end of this report.

  14. Advanced REACH Tool: development and application of the substance emission potential modifying factor.

    PubMed

    van Tongeren, Martie; Fransman, Wouter; Spankie, Sally; Tischer, Martin; Brouwer, Derk; Schinkel, Jody; Cherrie, John W; Tielemans, Erik

    2011-11-01

    The Advanced REACH Tool (ART) is an exposure assessment tool that combines mechanistically modelled inhalation exposure estimates with available exposure data using a Bayesian approach. The mechanistic model is based on nine independent principal modifying factors (MF). One of these MF is the substance emission potential, which addresses the intrinsic substance properties as determinants of the emission from a source. This paper describes the current knowledge and evidence on intrinsic characteristics of solids and liquids that determine the potential for their release into workplace air. The principal factor determining the release of aerosols from handling or processing powdered, granular, or pelletized materials is the dustiness of the material, as well as the weight fraction of the substance of interest in the powder and the moisture content. The partial vapour pressure is the main intrinsic factor determining the substance emission potential for emission of vapours. For generation of mist, the substance emission potential is determined by the viscosity of the liquid as well as the weight fraction of the substance of interest in the liquid. Within ART release of vapours is considered for substances with a partial vapour pressure at the process temperature of 10 Pa or more, while mist formation is considered for substances with a vapour pressure ≤ 10 Pa. Relative multipliers are assigned for most of the intrinsic factors, with the exception of the weight fraction and the vapour pressure, which is applied as a continuous variable in the estimation of the substance emission potential. Currently, estimation of substance emission potential is not available for fumes, fibres, and gases. The substance emission potential takes account of the latest thinking on emissions of dusts, mists, and vapours and in our view provides a good balance between theory and pragmatism. Expanding the knowledge base on substance emission potential will improve the predictive power of

  15. Monitoring of seismic time-series with advanced parallel computational tools and complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kechaidou, M.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Scordilis, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Earthquakes have been in the focus of human and research interest for several centuries due to their catastrophic effect to the everyday life as they occur almost all over the world demonstrating a hard to be modelled unpredictable behaviour. On the other hand, their monitoring with more or less technological updated instruments has been almost continuous and thanks to this fact several mathematical models have been presented and proposed so far to describe possible connections and patterns found in the resulting seismological time-series. Especially, in Greece, one of the most seismically active territories on earth, detailed instrumental seismological data are available from the beginning of the past century providing the researchers with valuable and differential knowledge about the seismicity levels all over the country. Considering available powerful parallel computational tools, such as Cellular Automata, these data can be further successfully analysed and, most important, modelled to provide possible connections between different parameters of the under study seismic time-series. More specifically, Cellular Automata have been proven very effective to compose and model nonlinear complex systems resulting in the advancement of several corresponding models as possible analogues of earthquake fault dynamics. In this work preliminary results of modelling of the seismic time-series with the help of Cellular Automata so as to compose and develop the corresponding complex networks are presented. The proposed methodology will be able to reveal under condition hidden relations as found in the examined time-series and to distinguish the intrinsic time-series characteristics in an effort to transform the examined time-series to complex networks and graphically represent their evolvement in the time-space. Consequently, based on the presented results, the proposed model will eventually serve as a possible efficient flexible computational tool to provide a generic

  16. Multispectral imaging techniques observing the dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations as diagnostic tool for diseased tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Noordmands, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissue oxygenation imaging is a promising diagnostics tool to study the changes and dynamics of tissue perfusion reflecting pathologic and/or physiologic conditions of tissue. In clinical settings, imaging of local oxygenation or blood perfusion variations can be useful for e.g. detection of skin cancer, detection of early inflammation, effectiveness of peripheral nerve block anesthesia, study of the process of wound healing or localization of the cerebral area causing an epileptic attack. In this study, two oxygenation imaging methods based on multi-spectral techniques were evaluated: one system consisting of a CCD camera in combination with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (420 - 730 nm or 650-1100 nm) and a broad band (white) light source, while the second system was a CCD camera in combination with a tunable multispectral LED light source (450-890nm). By collecting narrowband images at selected wavelengths, concentration changes of the different chromophores at the surface of the tissue (e.g. dO2Hb, dHHb and dtHb) can be calculated using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Two analyzing methods were used to calculate the concentration changes this to reduce the errors caused by movement of the tissue. In vivo measurements were obtained during skin oxygen changes induced by temporary arm clamping to validate the methods and algorithms. Functional information from the tissue surface was collected, in non-contact mode, by imaging the hemodynamic and oxygenation changes just below that surface. Both multi-spectral imaging techniques show promising results for detecting dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations. The algorithms need to be optimized and image acquisition and processing needs to be developed top real time for practical clinical applications.

  17. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Diagnostic and Dispositional Tool after Mild-Moderate Blast Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Olga; Schaefer, Michele L; Wester, Brock; Lee, Yi-Chien; Boggs, Nathan; Conner, Howard A; Merkle, Andrew C; Fricke, Stanley T; Albanese, Chris; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosive munitions, known as blast TBI, is the signature injury in recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Diagnostic evaluation of TBI, including blast TBI, is based on clinical history, symptoms, and neuropsychological testing, all of which can result in misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of this condition, particularly in the case of TBI of mild-to-moderate severity. Prognosis is currently determined by TBI severity, recurrence, and type of pathology, and also may be influenced by promptness of clinical intervention when more effective treatments become available. An important task is prevention of repetitive TBI, particularly when the patient is still symptomatic. For these reasons, the establishment of quantitative biological markers can serve to improve diagnosis and preventative or therapeutic management. In this study, we used a shock-tube model of blast TBI to determine whether manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can serve as a tool to accurately and quantitatively diagnose mild-to-moderate blast TBI. Mice were subjected to a 30 psig blast and administered a single dose of MnCl2 intraperitoneally. Longitudinal T1-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 14 and 28 days revealed a marked signal enhancement in the brain of mice exposed to blast, compared with sham controls, at nearly all time-points. Interestingly, when mice were protected with a polycarbonate body shield during blast exposure, the marked increase in contrast was prevented. We conclude that manganese uptake can serve as a quantitative biomarker for TBI and that MEMRI is a minimally-invasive quantitative approach that can aid in the accurate diagnosis and management of blast TBI. In addition, the prevention of the increased uptake of manganese by body protection strongly suggests that the exposure of an individual to blast risk could benefit from the design of improved body armor. PMID:26414591

  18. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Hussain Huang, Hua Wei Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  19. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  20. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces