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Sample records for advanced diagnostic ultrasound

  1. Synergistic advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizzi, Frederic L.

    2003-04-01

    Significant advances are more fully exploiting ultrasound's potential for noninvasive diagnosis and treatment. Therapeutic systems employ intense focused beams to thermally kill cancer cells in, e.g., prostate; to stop bleeding; and to treat specific diseases (e.g., glaucoma). Diagnostic ultrasound techniques can quantitatively image an increasingly broad spectrum of physical tissue attributes. An exciting aspect of this progress is the emerging synergy between these modalities. Advanced diagnostic techniques may contribute at several stages in therapy. For example, treatment planning for small ocular tumors uses 50-MHz, 3-D ultrasonic images with 0.05-mm resolution. Thermal simulations employ these images to evaluate desired and undesired effects using exposure stategies with specially designed treatment beams. Therapy beam positioning can use diagnostic elastography to sense tissue motion induced by radiation pressure from high-intensity treatment beams. Therapy monitoring can sense lesion formation using elastography motion sensing (to detect the increased stiffness in lesions); harmonic imaging (to sense altered nonlinear properties); and spectrum analysis images (depicting changes in the sizes, concentration, and configuration of sub-resolution structures.) Experience from these applications will greatly expand the knowledge of acoustic phenomena in living tissues and should lead to further advances in medical ultrasound.

  2. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  3. Diagnostic Ophthalmic Ultrasound for Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cynthia J; Prager, Thomas C; Cheng, Han; Gombos, Dan; Tang, Rosa A; Schiffman, Jade S

    2015-08-01

    Ophthalmic ultrasound is an invaluable tool that provides quick and noninvasive evaluation of the eye and the orbit. It not only allows the clinicians to view structures that may not be visible with routine ophthalmic equipment or neuroimaging techniques but also provides unique diagnostic information in various ophthalmic conditions. In this article, the basic principles of ophthalmic ultrasound and examination techniques are discussed. Its clinical application is illustrated through a variety of ocular pathologic abnormalities (eg, narrow angles, ciliary body tumor, detached retina, choroidal melanoma, and papilledema).

  4. [Ultrasound diagnostics in ophthalmology (standardized echography): part 2: diseases of the orbit - ultrasound biomicroscopy diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Hasenfratz, G; Mardin, C

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound diagnostics have been one of the most important noninvasive supplementary diagnostic procedures in ophthalmology for many decades and are indispensable for many intraocular and orbital diseases. When the echography examination and analysis of the echograms obtained are correctly carried out, ultrasound diagnostics are characterized by a high measure of specificity and sensitivity.

  5. Ultrasound microscope: the new field in ultrasound diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novyc'kyy, Victor V.; Lushchyk, Ulyana B.

    2001-06-01

    A device which is a new stage in the development of medical equipment has been developed. The device works as an ultrasound microscope in vivo and provides 4 up to 32 colored histological image. It gives possibility to estimate tissue acoustic density with the help of 4 up to 32 gradation coloring different tissues and enables tissue microcirculation visualization. With the help of the device a doctor can objectify fatty hepatitis and cirrhosis, edema of different organs and tissues as well as microcirculation in organs and tissues (e.g. muscles, myocard and bone system). New promising applications of ultrasound systems in diagnostics and for choosing individual treatment tactics, with pathogenesis being taken into account, may be developed with the help of the device.

  6. Errors and mistakes in breast ultrasound diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Wiesław; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Migda, Bartosz

    2012-09-01

    Sonomammography is often the first additional examination performed in the diagnostics of breast diseases. The development of ultrasound imaging techniques, particularly the introduction of high frequency transducers, matrix transducers, harmonic imaging and finally, elastography, influenced the improvement of breast disease diagnostics. Nevertheless, as in each imaging method, there are errors and mistakes resulting from the technical limitations of the method, breast anatomy (fibrous remodeling), insufficient sensitivity and, in particular, specificity. Errors in breast ultrasound diagnostics can be divided into impossible to be avoided and potentially possible to be reduced. In this article the most frequently made errors in ultrasound have been presented, including the ones caused by the presence of artifacts resulting from volumetric averaging in the near and far field, artifacts in cysts or in dilated lactiferous ducts (reverberations, comet tail artifacts, lateral beam artifacts), improper setting of general enhancement or time gain curve or range. Errors dependent on the examiner, resulting in the wrong BIRADS-usg classification, are divided into negative and positive errors. The sources of these errors have been listed. The methods of minimization of the number of errors made have been discussed, including the ones related to the appropriate examination technique, taking into account data from case history and the use of the greatest possible number of additional options such as: harmonic imaging, color and power Doppler and elastography. In the article examples of errors resulting from the technical conditions of the method have been presented, and those dependent on the examiner which are related to the great diversity and variation of ultrasound images of pathological breast lesions.

  7. Signal processing in ultrasound. [for diagnostic medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Croissette, D. H.; Gammell, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Signal is the term used to denote the characteristic in the time or frequency domain of the probing energy of the system. Processing of this signal in diagnostic ultrasound occurs as the signal travels through the ultrasonic and electrical sections of the apparatus. The paper discusses current signal processing methods, postreception processing, display devices, real-time imaging, and quantitative measurements in noninvasive cardiology. The possibility of using deconvolution in a single transducer system is examined, and some future developments using digital techniques are outlined.

  8. Diagnostic Flow Metering using Ultrasound Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sejong; Yoon, Byung-Ro; Lee, Kwang-Bock; Paik, Jong-Seung

    2010-06-01

    Flow meters, which are used for transferring water or crude oil through pipelines, require well-defined flow conditions for accurate flow rate monitoring. Even though all the installation conditions for the flow meters are satisfied, there could be unexpected flow disturbances, such as abrupt increase of upstream pressure, affecting on the performance of flow meters. To investigate any differences between measured and actual flow rates, flow velocity profiles inside the pipeline must be known. Ultrasound tomography is a means of reconstructing flow profiles from line-averaged velocities by Radon transformation. Diagnostic parameters are then extracted from the reconstructed flow profiles to give information whether the flow conditions are appropriate for accurate flow metering. In the present study, flow profiles downstream of a mass flow meter and a butterfly valve are reconstructed. Flow diagnostic parameters are defined using statistical moments such as mean value, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. The measured diagnostic parameters in the above-mentioned flow conditions are compared with those of fully-developed laminar and turbulent flow profiles to validate their usefulness.

  9. [Ultrasound diagnostics of upper urinary tract calculi].

    PubMed

    Belyĭ, L E

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to ultrasonography of the upper urinary tract in patients with nephrolithiasis. Ultrasonographic semiotics of urolithiasis, the ability of unlrasonography to detect nephrolithiasis, and methods of the optimization of these diagnostic techniques in patients with upper urinary tract calculi are covered. The author discusses difficulties that may be faced while differentiating between nephrolithiasis and such conditions as spongious kidney, nephrocalcinosis, calcification of renal papillae, cysts, tumors, and vascular walls, as well as other kinds of renal calcification, associated with ultrasonographic acoustic path phenomenon. The advantages and disadvantages of ultrasonography in cases of X-ray urolithiasis are evaluated in the paper. The article describes hardships in ultrasound visualization of ureteral calculi causing acute upper urinary tract obstruction, and the ways of getting over them.

  10. Recent technological advancements in breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is becoming increasingly common as an imaging tool for the detection and characterization of breast tumors. This paper provides an overview of recent technological advancements, especially those that may have an impact in clinical applications in the field of breast ultrasound in the near future. These advancements include close to 100% fractional bandwidth high frequency (5-18MHz) 2D and 3D arrays, automated breast imaging systems to minimize the operator dependence and advanced processing techniques, such as those used for detection of microcalcifications. In addition, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations that are expected to further enhance the clinical importance of ultrasound based breast tumor screening are briefly reviewed. These techniques have shown initial promise in clinical trials and may translate to more comprehensive clinical adoption in the future.

  11. Recent technological advancements in breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is becoming increasingly common as an imaging tool for the detection and characterization of breast tumors. This paper provides an overview of recent technological advancements, especially those that may have an impact in clinical applications in the field of breast ultrasound in the near future. These advancements include close to 100% fractional bandwidth high frequency (5-18MHz) 2D and 3D arrays, automated breast imaging systems to minimize the operator dependence and advanced processing techniques, such as those used for detection of microcalcifications. In addition, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations that are expected to further enhance the clinical importance of ultrasound based breast tumor screening are briefly reviewed. These techniques have shown initial promise in clinical trials and may translate to more comprehensive clinical adoption in the future. PMID:27179143

  12. The Role of Diagnostic Ultrasound in Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Miskin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasound has important uses in each trimester of pregnancy. This article outlines what information can be gained from ultrasound in each trimester, and which conditions can be detected by it. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21301563

  13. Diagnostic Emergency Ultrasound: Assessment Techniques In The Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Joshua; Nelson, Bret P

    2016-01-01

    Emergency ultrasound is performed at the point of care to answer focused clinical questions in a rapid manner. Over the last 20 years, the use of this technique has grown rapidly, and it has become a core requirement in many emergency medicine residencies and in some pediatric emergency medicine fellowships. The use of emergency ultrasound in the pediatric setting is increasing due to the lack of ionizing radiation with these studies, as compared to computed tomography. Utilizing diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department can allow clinicians to arrive at a diagnosis at the bedside rather than sending the patient out of the department for another study. This issue focuses on common indications for diagnostic ultrasound, as found in the pediatric literature or extrapolated from adult literature where pediatric evidence is scarce. Limitations, current trends, controversies, and future directions of diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department are also discussed.

  14. Advances in Molecular Imaging with Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Ryan; Dayton, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has long demonstrated utility in the study and measurement of anatomic features and noninvasive observation of blood flow. Within the last decade, advances in molecular biology and contrast agents have allowed researchers to use ultrasound to detect changes in the expression of molecular markers on the vascular endothelium and other intravascular targets. This new technology, referred to as ultrasonic molecular imaging, is still in its infancy. However, in preclinical studies, ultrasonic molecular imaging has shown promise in assessing angiogenesis, inflammation, and thrombus. In this review, we discuss recent advances in microbubble-type contrast agent development, ultrasound technology, and signal processing strategies that have the potential to substantially improve the capabilities and utility of ultrasonic molecular imaging. PMID:20487678

  15. Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements - towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Linder, Hans; Malo, Markus K H; Liukkonen, Jukka; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Overlying soft tissues attenuate ultrasound backscattered from bone, complicating diagnostics of osteoporosis at the most important fracture sites. Dual-frequency ultrasound technique (DFUS) has been proposed to solve this problem through determination of thickness and composition of overlying soft tissue. This study applies DFUS technique for the first time with a phased-array transducer to investigate if the thickness of two interfering layers (oil and water) can be accurately determined in a variety of configurations. Results indicate that DFUS may be used with phased-array ultrasound systems, making them a suitable combination to consider in future development of clinical in vivo ultrasound methodologies. PMID:27187271

  16. Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements - towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Linder, Hans; Malo, Markus K H; Liukkonen, Jukka; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Overlying soft tissues attenuate ultrasound backscattered from bone, complicating diagnostics of osteoporosis at the most important fracture sites. Dual-frequency ultrasound technique (DFUS) has been proposed to solve this problem through determination of thickness and composition of overlying soft tissue. This study applies DFUS technique for the first time with a phased-array transducer to investigate if the thickness of two interfering layers (oil and water) can be accurately determined in a variety of configurations. Results indicate that DFUS may be used with phased-array ultrasound systems, making them a suitable combination to consider in future development of clinical in vivo ultrasound methodologies.

  17. Role of diagnostic ultrasound in the assessment of musculoskeletal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    The wide availability and recent improvement in technology coupled with portability, low cost and safety makes ultrasound the first choice imaging investigation for the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases. Diagnostic use of ultrasound findings is greatly enhanced by knowledge of the clinical presentation. Conversely, ultrasound skills with its prerequisite anatomical knowledge make the clinical diagnosis more precise and reduce uncertainty in the choice of therapy. Therefore, it is essential for rheumatologists to acquire ultrasonography skills in order to improve patient care. Ultrasound examination provides an excellent opportunity for patient education and to explain the rationale for therapy. This review summarizes the indications for musculoskeletal ultrasound and describes its role in diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. PMID:23024711

  18. Uncertainty evaluation of dead zone of diagnostic ultrasound equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, R. M.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Braz, D. S.; Petrella, L. I.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a model for evaluating measurement uncertainty of a feature used in the assessment of ultrasound images: dead zone. The dead zone was measured by two technicians of the INMETRO's Laboratory of Ultrasound using a phantom and following the standard IEC/TS 61390. The uncertainty model was proposed based on the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. For the tested equipment, results indicate a dead zone of 1.01 mm, and based on the proposed model, the expanded uncertainty was 0.17 mm. The proposed uncertainty model contributes as a novel way for metrological evaluation of diagnostic imaging by ultrasound.

  19. Advanced diagnostics for reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Baganoff, D.; Bowman, C. T.; Byer, R. L.; Cantwell, B. J.

    1983-11-01

    Progress is reported for the third year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas are: (1) fiber optic absorption/fluorescence probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visable and infrared laser sources; (2) wavelength modulation spectroscopy, using rapid-scanning ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources, for measurements of species, temperature and absorption lineshapes, (3) quantitative flow visualization, including temporally and spatially resolved species measurements in a plane, using laser-induced fluorescence; (4) multiple-point velocity visualization; (5) plasma diagnostics, utilizing planar laser-induced fluorescence and wavelength modulation techniques; (6) diagnostic techniques for thermionic converter plasmas; (7) application of advanced diagnostic techniques for studies of turbulent reacting flows; (8) development of measurement techniques and a novel facility for investigations of droplet evaporation in turbulent flows; (9) holographic display techniques for 3-D visualization of flowfield data; (10) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) for temperature and velocity measurements in a supersonic jet; and (11) computed absorption tomography system for species measurements in a plane.

  20. Advanced diagnostic methods in avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popyack, Leonard Joseph, Jr.

    Advanced diagnostic systems facilitate further enhancement of reliability and safety of modern aircraft. Unlike classical reliability analyses, addressing specific classes of systems or devices, this research is aimed at the development of methods for assessment of the individual reliability characteristics of particular system components subjected to their unique histories of operational conditions and exposure to adverse environmental factors. Individual reliability characteristics are crucial for the implementation of the most efficient maintenance practice of flight-critical system components, known as "condition-based maintenance." The dissertation presents hardware and software aspects of a computer-based system, Time-Stress Monitoring Device, developed to record, store, and analyze raw data characterizing operational and environmental conditions and performance of electro-mechanical flight control system components and aircraft electronics (avionics). Availability of this data facilitates formulation and solution of such diagnostic problems as estimation of the probability of failure and life expectancy of particular components, failure detection, identification, and prediction. Statistical aspects of system diagnostics are considered. Particular diagnostic procedures utilizing cluster analysis, Bayes' technique, and regression analysis are formulated. Laboratory and simulation experiment that verify the obtained results are provided.

  1. High-Accuracy Ultrasound Contrast Agent Detection Method for Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koichi; Noro, Kazumasa; Yanagisawa, Yukari; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Shiga, Kiyoto; Kodama, Tetsuya; Aoki, Takafumi

    2015-12-01

    An accurate method for detecting contrast agents using diagnostic ultrasound imaging systems is proposed. Contrast agents, such as microbubbles, passing through a blood vessel during ultrasound imaging are detected as blinking signals in the temporal axis, because their intensity value is constantly in motion. Ultrasound contrast agents are detected by evaluating the intensity variation of a pixel in the temporal axis. Conventional methods are based on simple subtraction of ultrasound images to detect ultrasound contrast agents. Even if the subject moves only slightly, a conventional detection method will introduce significant error. In contrast, the proposed technique employs spatiotemporal analysis of the pixel intensity variation over several frames. Experiments visualizing blood vessels in the mouse tail illustrated that the proposed method performs efficiently compared with conventional approaches. We also report that the new technique is useful for observing temporal changes in microvessel density in subiliac lymph nodes containing tumors. The results are compared with those of contrast-enhanced computed tomography.

  2. Heating of fetal bone by diagnostic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doody, Claire

    Most pregnant women in the Western world undergo an ultrasound examination and so it is important to ensure that exposure of the embryo or fetus does not produce unwanted effects. It is known that ultrasound can heat tissue, especially bone, and so this thesis explores the degree to which fetal bone might be heated during a pulsed Doppler examination. This is done both by carrying out measurements and by developing computer models. Thermal measurements on human fetal thoracic vertebrae of gestational age ranging from 14 to 39 weeks are reported. The bone samples were insonated in vitro with an ultrasound beam which had power and intensity values typical of those from a clinical scanner operating in pulsed Doppler mode. Temperature rises ranging from 0.6°C to 1.8°C were observed after five minutes, with approximately 75% of the temperature rise occurring in the first minute. Two approaches to computer modelling are described. These are the heated disc technique, which is commonly used to model the temperature rise generated by an ultrasound beam, and finite element modelling, a more general approach used to obtain solutions to differential equations. The degree to which our limited knowledge of the properties of fetal tissue affect our ability to make accurate predictions of in vivo heating is explored. It is shown that the present uncertainty in the value of the thermal conductivity and attenuation coefficient of fetal bone can lead to significant uncertainty in predictions of heating. The degree to which the simplifications inherent in the heated disc model affect the results will also be discussed. The results from the models are compared with the experimental measurements in order to estimate the attenuation coefficient of the bone.

  3. Errors and mistakes in ultrasound diagnostics of the thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Jędrzejowski, Maciej; Jakubowski, Wiesław; Trzebińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland permits to evaluate its size, echogenicity, margins, and stroma. An abnormal ultrasound image of the thyroid, accompanied by other diagnostic investigations, facilitates therapeutic decision-making. The ultrasound image of a normal thyroid gland does not change substantially with patient's age. Nevertheless, erroneous impressions in thyroid imaging reports are sometimes encountered. These are due to diagnostic pitfalls which cannot be prevented by either the continuing development of the imaging equipment, or the growing experience and skill of the practitioners. Our article discusses the most common mistakes encountered in US diagnostics of the thyroid, the elimination of which should improve the quality of both the ultrasound examination itself and its interpretation. We have outlined errors resulting from a faulty examination technique, the similarity of the neighboring anatomical structures, and anomalies present in the proximity of the thyroid gland. We have also pointed out the reasons for inaccurate assessment of a thyroid lesion image, such as having no access to clinical data or not taking them into account, as well as faulty qualification for a fine needle aspiration biopsy. We have presented guidelines aimed at limiting the number of misdiagnoses in thyroid diseases, and provided sonograms exemplifying diagnostic mistakes. PMID:26672970

  4. Diagnostic ultrasound in the assessment of patients with incompetent cervix.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G; Pendleton, H J; Nichol, B; Wittmann, B K

    1984-03-01

    Twenty-five pregnant women with suspected cervical incompetence were assessed by serial ultrasound. A dilating internal os was documented in one patient, incompetence was ruled out in two, and a 'slipping suture' was demonstrated in another; the remaining patients were subjected to cerclage on the basis of their history alone. Patients in whom the diagnosis of cervical incompetence is indefinite should have a diagnostic ultrasound scan to visualize the cervix for length, opening of the canal and integrity of the internal os. Selective ultrasonography may be beneficial in both the diagnosis and treatment of cervical incompetence. PMID:6704347

  5. Virtual Guidance Ultrasound: A Tool to Obtain Diagnostic Ultrasound for Remote Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caine,Timothy L.; Martin David S.; Matz, Timothy; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts currently acquire ultrasound images on the International Space Station with the assistance of real-time remote guidance from an ultrasound expert in Mission Control. Remote guidance will not be feasible when significant communication delays exist during exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For example, there may be as much as a 20- minute delay in communications between the Earth and Mars. Virtual-guidance, a pre-recorded audio-visual tutorial viewed in real-time, is a viable modality for minimally trained scanners to obtain diagnostically-adequate images of clinically relevant anatomical structures in an autonomous manner. METHODS: Inexperienced ultrasound operators were recruited to perform carotid artery (n = 10) and ophthalmic (n = 9) ultrasound examinations using virtual guidance as their only instructional tool. In the carotid group, each each untrained operator acquired two-dimensional, pulsed, and color Doppler of the carotid artery. In the ophthalmic group, operators acquired representative images of the anterior chamber of the eye, retina, optic nerve, and nerve sheath. Ultrasound image quality was evaluated by independent imaging experts. RESULTS: Eight of the 10 carotid studies were judged to be diagnostically adequate. With one exception the quality of all the ophthalmic images were adequate to excellent. CONCLUSION: Diagnostically-adequate carotid and ophthalmic ultrasound examinations can be obtained by untrained operators with instruction only from an audio/video tutorial viewed in real time while scanning. This form of quick-response-guidance, can be developed for other ultrasound examinations, represents an opportunity to acquire important medical and scientific information for NASA flight surgeons and researchers when trained medical personnel are not present. Further, virtual guidance will allow untrained personnel to autonomously obtain important medical information in remote locations on Earth where communication is

  6. [The application of ultrasound for diagnostics of middle ear pathologies].

    PubMed

    Kunel'skaia, N L; Garov, E V; Zagorskaia, E E; Sheremet, A S; Baĭbakova, E V; Kudeeva, Ia Iu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to summarize the results of the application of ultrasound tests for differential diagnostics of various diseases and lesions affecting the middle ear. Almost 7.000 threshold and suprathreshold studies were carried out in the patients presenting with various forms of sensorineural impairment of hearing. The ultrasound investigations were conducted with the use of the EKHOTEST-02 apparatus (Giperion, Moscow). The results of determination of threshold hearing sensitivity to ultrasound and lateralization of its threshold and suprathreshold values suggest their significance for the detection of even such a minimal disturbance in the cochlear function as the phenomenon of accelerated increase in loudness and the associated enhancement of the severity of the damage to the peripheral sensory system.

  7. Comparison of Thermal Safety Practice Guidelines for Diagnostic Ultrasound Exposures.

    PubMed

    Harris, Gerald R; Church, Charles C; Dalecki, Diane; Ziskin, Marvin C; Bagley, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the historical evolution of various practice guidelines designed to minimize the possibility of thermal injury during a diagnostic ultrasound examination, including those published by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, British Medical Ultrasound Society and Health Canada. The guidelines for prenatal/neonatal examinations are in general agreement, but significant differences were found for postnatal exposures. We propose sets of thermal index versus exposure time for these examination categories below which there is reasonable assurance that an examination can be conducted without risk of producing an adverse thermal effect under any scanning conditions. If it is necessary to exceed these guidelines, the occurrence of an adverse thermal event is still unlikely in most situations because of mitigating factors such as transducer movement and perfusion, but the general principle of "as low as reasonably achievable" should be followed. Some limitations of the biological effects studies underpinning the guidelines also are discussed briefly.

  8. Bone Composition Diagnostics: Photoacoustics Versus Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lifeng; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas; Tan, Joel W. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) backscatter from bones depends on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the interrogated bone. On the other hand, photoacoustics (PA) is sensitive to optical properties of tissue and can detect composition variation. Therefore, PA can provide complementary information about bone health and integrity. In this work, a comparative study of US backscattering and PA back-propagating signals from animal trabecular bones was performed. Both methods were applied using a linear frequency modulation chirp and matched filtering. A 2.2 MHz ultrasonic transducer was employed to detect both signals. The use of the frequency domain facilitates spectral analysis. The variation of signals shows that in addition to sensitivity to mineral changes, PA exhibits sensitivity to changes in the organic part of the bone. It is, therefore, concluded that the combination of both modalities can provide complementary detailed information on bone health than either method separately. In addition, comparison of PA and US depthwise images shows the higher penetration of US. Surface scan images exhibit very weak correlation between US and PA which could be caused by the different signal generation origins in mechanical versus optical properties, respectively.

  9. Direct effect of diagnostic ultrasound on genetically interesting molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S.; Domokos, G.; Koevesi-Domokos, S.; Milano, F.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasound is a non-ionizing radiation and at typical intensities used in diagnostic sonography, macroscopic damage to tissues is negligible. Some recent experiments, however, provided evidence for possible genetic damage caused by relatively low-intensity ultrasound irradiation. Although the implications of such experiments concerning possible genetic damage caused by low intensity ultrasound irradiation are not yet completely understood, the very existence of such results raises an important theoretical question. Is it possible that a non-ionizing radiation can cause significant changes in the structure of a typical DNA molecule. Several mechanisms exist which are responsible for such changes including: (1) structural changes in the molecule due to sound absorption from a high harmonic of the repetition frequency of a pulsed ultrasound radiation; (2) structural changes due to multi-phonon absorption from low harmonics of the repetition frequency; and (3) break-up of the molecule as a consequence of the excitation of collective vibrations. The calculations presented suggest that, should damage to DNA in vitro caused by low-intensity ultrasound be confirmed beyond reasonable doubt, such catastrophic changes in the structure of DNA molecules are more likely to arise as a result of their collective modes rather than from a localizable breakup of some hydrogen bonds. (ERB)

  10. Review of Quantitative Ultrasound: Envelope Statistics and Backscatter Coefficient Imaging and Contributions to Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Michael L; Mamou, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Conventional medical imaging technologies, including ultrasound, have continued to improve over the years. For example, in oncology, medical imaging is characterized by high sensitivity, i.e., the ability to detect anomalous tissue features, but the ability to classify these tissue features from images often lacks specificity. As a result, a large number of biopsies of tissues with suspicious image findings are performed each year with a vast majority of these biopsies resulting in a negative finding. To improve specificity of cancer imaging, quantitative imaging techniques can play an important role. Conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging is mainly qualitative in nature. However, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging can provide specific numbers related to tissue features that can increase the specificity of image findings leading to improvements in diagnostic ultrasound. QUS imaging can encompass a wide variety of techniques including spectral-based parameterization, elastography, shear wave imaging, flow estimation, and envelope statistics. Currently, spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics are not available on most conventional clinical ultrasound machines. However, in recent years, QUS techniques involving spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics have demonstrated success in many applications, providing additional diagnostic capabilities. Spectral-based techniques include the estimation of the backscatter coefficient (BSC), estimation of attenuation, and estimation of scatterer properties such as the correlation length associated with an effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and the effective acoustic concentration (EAC) of scatterers. Envelope statistics include the estimation of the number density of scatterers and quantification of coherent to incoherent signals produced from the tissue. Challenges for clinical application include correctly accounting for attenuation effects and transmission losses and implementation of QUS on

  11. [Ultrasound diagnostics in ophthalmology (standardized echography): part 1: principles and diseases of the eyeball].

    PubMed

    Hasenfratz, G; Mardin, C

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound diagnostics has been one of the most important additional diagnostic non-invasive techniques in ophthalmology for many decades and is essential for many intraocular and orbital diseases. When echographic investigations and analysis of the echograms obtained are correctly carried out, ultrasound diagnostics demonstrates a high degree of specificity and sensitivity.

  12. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered. PMID:25053938

  13. Thyroid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

  14. An introduction to the use of diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sweet, E M; Arneil, G C

    1975-10-01

    This article is meant to serve as a simple introduction to diagnostic ultrasound, explaining the nature of sonar and the basic equipment for its production and use. A scans, B scans, time-position scans, and Doppler-shift techniques are described, with some examples of the clinical applications of each. Some recent innovations such as scan conversion to improve gray scaling and electrocardiographically triggered cardiac sector scans are mentioned. The limitations of the technique are indicated, with measures that can be adopted to reduce them. The safety of the procedure is emphasized, with its freedom from the known biological effects of ionizing radiation.

  15. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  16. Diagnostic imaging advances in murine models of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Markus; Lenz, Philipp; Mücke, Marcus M; Gohar, Faekah; Willeke, Peter; Domagk, Dirk; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic-remittent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract still evoking challenging clinical diagnostic and therapeutic situations. Murine models of experimental colitis are a vital component of research into human IBD concerning questions of its complex pathogenesis or the evaluation of potential new drugs. To monitor the course of colitis, to the present day, classical parameters like histological tissue alterations or analysis of mucosal cytokine/chemokine expression often require euthanasia of animals. Recent advances mean revolutionary non-invasive imaging techniques for in vivo murine colitis diagnostics are increasingly available. These novel and emerging imaging techniques not only allow direct visualization of intestinal inflammation, but also enable molecular imaging and targeting of specific alterations of the inflamed murine mucosa. For the first time, in vivo imaging techniques allow for longitudinal examinations and evaluation of intra-individual therapeutic response. This review discusses the latest developments in the different fields of ultrasound, molecularly targeted contrast agent ultrasound, fluorescence endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy as well as tomographic imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and fluorescence-mediated tomography, discussing their individual limitations and potential future diagnostic applications in the management of human patients with IBD. PMID:26811642

  17. Destruction thresholds of echogenic liposomes with clinical diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise A B; Porter, Tyrone M; Martinez, Janet; Huang, Shaoling; MacDonald, Robert C; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2007-05-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) are submicron-sized phospholipid vesicles that contain both gas and fluid. With antibody conjugation and drug incorporation, these liposomes can be used as novel targeted diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound contrast agents. The utility of liposomes for contrast depends upon their stability in an acoustic field, whereas the use of liposomes for drug delivery requires the liberation of encapsulated gas and drug payload at the desired treatment site. The objective of this study was twofold: (1) to characterize the stability of liposome echogenicity after reconstitution and (2) to quantitate the acoustic destruction thresholds of liposomes as a function of peak rarefactional pressure (P(r)), pulse duration (PD) and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The liposomes were insonified in an anechoic sample chamber using a Philips HDI 5000 diagnostic ultrasound scanner with a L12-5 linear array. Liposome stability was evaluated with 6.9-MHz fundamental and 4.5-MHz harmonic B-mode pulses at various P(r) at a fixed PRF. Liposome destruction thresholds were determined using 6.0-MHz Doppler pulses, by varying the PD with a fixed PRF of 1.25 kHz and by varying the PRF with a fixed PD of 3.33 micros. Videos or freeze-captured images were acquired during each insonation experiment and analyzed for echogenicity in a fixed region of interest as a function of time. An initial increase in echogenicity was observed for fundamental and harmonic B-mode imaging pulses. The threshold for acoustically driven diffusion of gas out of the liposomes using 6.0-MHz Doppler pulses was weakly dependent upon PRF and PD. The rapid fragmentation thresholds, however, were highly dependent upon PRF and PD. The quantification of acoustic destruction thresholds of ELIP is an important first step in their development as diagnostic and drug delivery agents.

  18. Diagnostic ultrasound and telemedicine utilization in the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Stewart, Brent K.; Kushmerick, Martin J.; Langer, Steve G.; Schmiedl, Udo P.; Winter, Thomas C.; Conley, Kevin E.; Jubrias, Sharon A.

    1999-01-01

    Clinical diagnostic ultrasound (US) is experiencing an expanding role that is well suited to application on the International Space Station (ISS). Diagnostic US can be used to reduce the risks associated with long duration human space flight by providing a non-invasive tool with head-to-toe diagnostic capability in both biomedical research and crew health care. General health care of the astronauts will be diagnosed with US, e.g., kidney stones, gall bladder disease, appendicitis, etc. Initial studies will focus on detection of ``ureteral jets'' in the bladder. This is a non-invasive test to rule out obstructive uropathy from kidney stones with minimal requirements for crew training. Biomedical research experiments, focusing on the effects of the microgravity environment, will be performed using both the HHU and the HDI 5000. US will be used to evaluate bone density and muscle mass in this environment. Prolonged or emergency EVAs may occur with the ISS. The hand-held ultrasound unit (HHU) and its telemedicine capability will be used in EVA settings to monitor events such as decompression sickness (DCS) microbubble formation in the cardiovascular system. There will be telemetry links between the HHU and the ATL/Lockheed Martin rack mounted HDI 5000 in the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF), as well as between the HRF and medical expertise on the ground. These links will provide the ISS with both real-time and store-and-forward telemedicine capabilities. The HHU can also be used with the existing telemedicine instrument pack (TIP).

  19. Performance of Bedside Diagnostic Ultrasound in an Ebola Isolation Unit: The Emory University Hospital Experience

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Courtney C.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Kandiah, Prem; Klopman, Matthew A.; Ribner, Bruce S.; Tridandapani, Srini

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals with Ebola virus disease, a contagious and potentially lethal infection, are now being treated in specialized units in the United States. We describe Emory University's initial experience, current operating procedures, and ongoing planning with diagnostic ultrasound in the isolation unit. CONCLUSION Ultrasound use has been limited to date. Future planning considerations include deciding what types of ultrasound studies will be performed, which personnel will acquire the images, and which ultrasound machine will be used. PMID:25730332

  20. Diagnostic Advances in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Barley, Kevin; Chari, Ajai

    2016-04-01

    There have been several advances in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) in recent years. Serum free light chains have improved the ability to diagnose light chain MM; however, there are still difficulties in the serologic diagnosis of MM in some cases, particularly IgA MM. A novel heavy/light chain assay is able to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in these cases. Free light chains may also improve the diagnosis of extramedullary disease in difficult cases such as disease involving the central nervous system, pleura, or ascites. Advances in imaging such as whole body low-dose computed tomography (CT) whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have improved sensitivity in identifying lytic bone lesions, which would enable earlier treatment, and monitoring of osseous disease particularly in non- or oligosecretory disease. New techniques such as fused PET/MRI may further enhance the diagnosis of both bone lesions and extramedullary disease.

  1. Robert Apfel's contribution to clinical diagnostic ultrasound: The mechanical index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2001-05-01

    The mechanical index, MI, resulted from theoretical considerations of the short-pulse acoustic threshold for inertial cavitation in water populated with microbubbles of all sizes [R. E. Apfel and C. K. Holland, Ultrasound Med Biol. 17, 179-185 (1991)]. In this review, the onset of cavitation will be discussed with reference to Robert Apfel's legacy of theoretical and experimental data. The questions arise: Can the utility of the MI be extended to situations in which the threshold MI is exceeded, thereby allowing for some estimate of the quantification of a potential bioeffect due to microcavitation? Also, can the MI be extended to situations in which pulses are, unlike the original formulation, not short? Is there a theoretical or semi-empirical basis for the MI threshold below which cavitation is unlikely? Can the MI be used to predict gas contrast agent destruction? The possible consequences of gas body activation associated with aerated lung tissue, intestinal gas pockets or encapsulated gas contrast agents represent specific instances of cavitation considerations relevant to clinical practice. Monitoring the real-time display of the MI (mandated by the FDA) helps clinicians evaluate and minimize the potential risks in the use of diagnostic ultrasound instrumentation. [Research supported by National Institutes of Health Grant R29 HL58761.

  2. Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Wapner, Ronald J; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The past few years have seen extraordinary advances in prenatal genetic practice led by 2 major technological advances; next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma to noninvasively identify fetal chromosome abnormalities, and microarray analysis of chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid samples, resulting in increased cytogenetic resolution. Noninvasive prenatal screening of cell-free DNA has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 superior to all previous screening approaches with slightly lower performance for other common aneuploidies. These tests have rapidly captured an increasing market share, with substantial reductions in the number of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis performed suggesting that physicians and patients regard such screening approaches as an equivalent replacement for diagnostic testing. Simultaneously, many clinical programs have noted significant decreases in patient counseling. In 2012 the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded a blinded comparison of karyotype with the emerging technology of array comparative genomic hybridization showing that in patients with a normal karyotype, 2.5% had a clinically relevant microdeletion or duplication identified. In pregnancies with an ultrasound-detected structural anomaly, 6% had an incremental finding, and of those with a normal scan, 1.6% had a copy number variant. For patients of any age with a normal ultrasound and karyotype, the chance of a pathogenic copy number variant is greater than 1%, similar to the age-related risk of aneuploidy in the fetus of a 38 year old. This risk is 4-fold higher than the risk of trisomy 21 in a woman younger than 30 years and 5- to 10-fold higher than the present accepted risk of a diagnostic procedure. Based on this, we contend that every patient, regardless of her age, be educated about these risks and offered the opportunity to have a diagnostic procedure with

  3. Ultrasound-enhanced transdermal delivery: recent advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Oberli, Matthias A; Schoellhammer, Carl M; Langer, Robert; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a formidable diffusion barrier that restricts passive diffusion to small (<500 Da) lipophilic molecules. Methods used to permeabilize this barrier for the purpose of drug delivery are maturing as an alternative to oral drug delivery and hypodermic injections. Ultrasound can reversibly and non-invasively permeabilize the diffusion barrier posed by the skin. This review discusses the mechanisms of ultrasound-permeability enhancement, and presents technological innovations in equipment miniaturization and recent advances in permeabilization capabilities. Additionally, potentially exciting applications, including protein delivery, vaccination, gene therapy and sensing of blood analytes, are discussed. Finally, the future challenges and opportunities associated with the use of ultrasound are discussed. It is stressed that developing ultrasound for suitable applications is key to ensure commercial success. PMID:25287389

  4. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  5. Recent advances in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takahiro; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Taiki; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive modality for sampling of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as pulmonary lesions adjacent to the airway. Guidelines for staging of lung cancer suggest that EBUS-TBNA should be considered the best first test of nodal staging for radiologically abnormal lymph nodes that are accessible by this approach. The application of EBUS-TBNA in pulmonary medicine and thoracic oncology is expanding with its role in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, lymphoma, and tuberculosis. Especially for patients with early-stage sarcoidosis with adenopathy and minimal changes in the lung parenchyma, EBUS-TBNA has a significantly higher diagnostic yield compared to the conventional bronchoscopic modalities. Multidirectional analysis of samples obtained by EBUS-TBNA has allowed assessment of lymphoma and molecular analysis in lung cancer. Histological evaluation with immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and chromosome analysis can be performed if good-quality samples can be obtained. Molecular analyses such as identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene detection now are being performed routinely with good sampling. One of the advantages of EBUS-TBNA is the ability to perform repeat procedures in a minimally invasive way. Restaging of the mediastinum after induction therapy can be done safely and with ease compared to repeat surgical procedures. With improvement in molecular analysis technology, comprehensive gene expression analysis will become important in the management of patients with lung cancer. Further advances in EBUS technology and needles for tissue sampling likely will help bronchoscopists to acquire ideal tissue. PMID:27424821

  6. Multifeature analysis of an ultrasound quantitative diagnostic index for classifying nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yin-Yin; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Lee, Ming-Ju; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chen, Jin-De; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease related to metabolic syndrome. This study applied an integrated analysis based on texture, backscattering, and attenuation features in ultrasound imaging with the aim of assessing the severity of NAFLD. Ultrasound radiofrequency data obtained from 394 clinical cases were analyzed to extract three texture features (autocorrelation, sum average, and sum variance), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the slope of the center-frequency downshift (CFDS slope). The texture, SNR, and CFDS slope were combined to produce a quantitative diagnostic index (QDI) that ranged from 0 to 6. We trained the QDI using training data and then applied it to test data to assess its utility. In training data, the areas (AUCs) under the receiver operating characteristic curves for NAFLD and severe NAFLD were 0.81 and 0.84, respectively. In test data, the AUCs were 0.73 and 0.81 for NAFLD and severe NAFLD, respectively. The QDI was able to distinguish severe NAFLD and a normal liver from mild NAFLD, and it was significantly correlated with metabolic factors. This study explored the potential of using the QDI to supply information on different physical characteristics of liver tissues for advancing the ability to grade NAFLD. PMID:27734972

  7. Enhanced cytotoxic effect of cisplatin using diagnostic ultrasound and microbubbles in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Noboru; Nakamura, Kensuke; Murakami, Masahiro; Lim, Sue Yee; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has accomplished drug and gene delivery by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD). However, the efficacy of delivery is still relatively low. Therefore, we optimized conditions of UTMD using diagnostic ultrasound and ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles. Canine thyroid adenocarcinoma cells were cultured in a 96-well plate. After addition of cisplatin and Sonazoid®, the plate was inverted to raise microbubbles near cells and incubated. Cells were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound using a linear probe operated in the contrast harmonic imaging mode. The center frequency was 2.5 MHz with a mechanical index of 1.33 and a frame rate of 48 frames/sec. Cytotoxic effect of cisplatin was evaluated 24h after exposure using trypan blue dye exclusion test. We optimized incubation duration, cisplatin concentration, and the relationship between microbubble concentration and exposure duration. The optimum enhancement was observed at incubation duration of 5min, cisplatin concentration of 1 μg/ml, and microbubble concentration of 2.4 × 105 microbubbles/ml. Exposure duration did not influence the enhancement at the microbubble concentration of 2.4 × 105 microbubbles/ml. Our results suggest that relative low concentrations of drug and microbubbles with short exposure duration might be sufficient for drug delivery by UTMD using diagnostic ultrasound.

  8. Noninvasive Characterization of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Using Textural Analysis of Quantitative Ultrasound Parametric Images

    PubMed Central

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The identification of tumor pathologic characteristics is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning but currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, we investigated a noninvasive quantitative ultrasound method for the characterization of breast tumors in terms of their histologic grade, which can be used with clinical diagnostic ultrasound data. METHODS: Tumors of 57 locally advanced breast cancer patients were analyzed as part of this study. Seven quantitative ultrasound parameters were determined from each tumor region from the radiofrequency data, including mid-band fit, spectral slope, 0-MHz intercept, scatterer spacing, attenuation coefficient estimate, average scatterer diameter, and average acoustic concentration. Parametric maps were generated corresponding to the region of interest, from which four textural features, including contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation, were determined as further tumor characterization parameters. Data were examined on the basis of tumor subtypes based on histologic grade (grade I versus grade II to III). RESULTS: Linear discriminant analysis of the means of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 79%. On the other hand, the linear combination of the texture features of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 82%. Finally, when both the means and textures of the parametric maps were combined, the best classification accuracy was obtained (86%). CONCLUSIONS: Textural characteristics of quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provided discriminant information about different types of breast tumors. The use of texture features significantly improved the results of ultrasonic tumor characterization compared to conventional mean values. Thus, this study suggests that texture-based quantitative ultrasound analysis of in vivo breast tumors can provide complementary diagnostic information about tumor histologic characteristics

  9. Diagnostic imaging in head and neck disease: current applications of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Scheible, F W; Leopold, G R

    1978-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become firmly established as a key imaging modality in obstetrics and gynecology. Its role in abdominal and retroperitoneal disease is also well known and continues to expand. Although usage of ultrasound in the head and neck had its beginnings many years ago, the advent of newer high-resolution transducers has allowed for further investigation of diseases in this area. Of particular interest are the thyroid gland and the extracranial carotid arteries. This review summarizes the current utility of gray-scale and real-time ultrasound in evaluating head and neck disease, and discusses potential future applications of the modality.

  10. Dependence of thresholds for pulmonary capillary hemorrhage on diagnostic ultrasound frequency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary ultrasound examination has become routine for diagnosis in many clinical and point-of-care medical settings. However, the phenomenon of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) induction during diagnostic ultrasound imaging presents a poorly understood risk factor. PCH was observed in anesthetized rats exposed to 1.5-, 4.5- and 12.0-MHz diagnostic ultrasound to investigate the frequency dependence of PCH thresholds. PCH was detected in the ultrasound images as growing comet tail artifacts and was assessed using photographs of the surface of excised lungs. Previous photographs acquired after exposure to 7.6-MHz diagnostic ultrasound were included for analysis. In addition, at each frequency we measured dosimetric parameters, including peak rarefactional pressure amplitude and spatial peak, pulse average intensity attenuated by rat chest wall samples. Peak rarefactional pressure amplitude thresholds determined at each frequency, based on the proportion of PCH in groups of five rats, were 1.03 ± 0.02, 1.28 ± 0.14, 1.18 ± 0.12 and 1.36 ± 0.15 MPa at 1.5, 4.5, 7.6 and 12.0 MHz, respectively. Although the PCH lesions decreased in size with increasing ultrasonic frequency, owing to the smaller beam widths and scan lengths, the peak rarefactional pressure amplitude thresholds remained approximately constant. This dependence was different from that of the mechanical index, which indicates a need for a specific dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound.

  11. Advanced Ultrasound-Guided Interventions for Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Peck, Evan; Jelsing, Elena; Onishi, Kentaro

    2016-08-01

    Tendinopathy is increasingly recognized as an important cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability. Tendinopathy is thought to be principally a degenerative process, rather than inflammatory as was traditionally believed. Consequently, traditional tendinopathy treatments focused solely on decreasing inflammation have often been ineffective or even harmful. The advancement of ultrasonography as for guidance of outpatient musculoskeletal procedures has facilitated the development of novel percutaneous procedures for the treatment of tendinopathy, mostly by using mechanical intervention to stimulate regeneration. Several of these techniques, including percutaneous needle tenotomy, percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy, high-volume injection, and percutaneous needle scraping, are reviewed in this article. PMID:27468675

  12. Acoustic Radiation Force Elasticity Imaging in Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joshua R.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods has been the focus of intense research activity since the mid-1990s. In characterizing the mechanical properties of soft tissues, these techniques image an entirely new subset of tissue properties that cannot be derived with conventional ultrasound techniques. Clinically, tissue elasticity is known to be associated with pathological condition and with the ability to image these features in vivo, elasticity imaging methods may prove to be invaluable tools for the diagnosis and/or monitoring of disease. This review focuses on ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods that generate an acoustic radiation force to induce tissue displacements. These methods can be performed non-invasively during routine exams to provide either qualitative or quantitative metrics of tissue elasticity. A brief overview of soft tissue mechanics relevant to elasticity imaging is provided, including a derivation of acoustic radiation force, and an overview of the various acoustic radiation force elasticity imaging methods. PMID:23549529

  13. A narrative review of new trends in the diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: diagnostic ultrasound imaging and biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Srbely, John Z; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Grosman-Rimon, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain encountered by primary healthcare practitioners on a daily basis. It is generally accepted amongst the broad profile of healthcare practitioners treating MPS that the presence of discrete, palpable and tender nodules within the muscle, known as myofascial trigger points (MTrP), is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MPS. Manual palpation is currently the most common technique used to detect MTrP, however, previous research has shown that the reliability of manual palpation for detecting MTrP is poor, and in our opinion unacceptably poor, leading to inconsistent diagnosis of MPS and poor patient outcomes. There are currently no objective accepted diagnostic criteria for the clinical detection of MTrP, nor are there standardized diagnostic criteria for MPS. Two promising areas of research with potential for enhancing the diagnosis of MPS include the use of diagnostic ultrasound and biomarkers. Further research is needed to advance the development of composite diagnostic criteria employing ultrasound imaging, biomarker assessments and physical assessment to enhance the accuracy and objectivity of MTrP detection and diagnosis of chronic MPS disorder. PMID:27713577

  14. Ultrasound Metrology in Mexico: a round robin test for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezola Luna, R.; López Sánchez, A. L.; Elías Juárez, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary statistical results from an on-going imaging medical ultrasound study, of particular relevance for gynecology and obstetrics areas. Its scope is twofold, firstly to compile the medical ultrasound infrastructure available in cities of Queretaro-Mexico, and second to promote the use of traceable measurement standards as a key aspect to assure quality of ultrasound examinations performed by medical specialists. The experimental methodology is based on a round robin test using an ultrasound phantom for medical imaging. The physician, using its own ultrasound machine, couplant and facilities, measures the size and depth of a set of pre-defined reflecting and absorbing targets of the reference phantom, which simulate human illnesses. Measurements performed give the medical specialist an objective feedback regarding some performance characteristics of their ultrasound examination systems, such as measurement system accuracy, dead zone, axial resolution, depth of penetration and anechoic targets detection. By the end of March 2010, 66 entities with medical ultrasound facilities, from both public and private institutions, have performed measurements. A network of medical ultrasound calibration laboratories in Mexico, with traceability to The International System of Units via national measurement standards, may indeed contribute to reduce measurement deviations and thus attain better diagnostics.

  15. Training in Diagnostic Ultrasound: Essentials, Principles, and Standards. Report of a WHO Study Group. Technical Report Series 875.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This report defines the essential training and skills necessary for the effective employment of diagnostic ultrasound in different health care settings. It reviews the present situation in ultrasonography and the trends in the utilization of diagnostic ultrasound in clinical practice. The report also examines worldwide practice with respect to…

  16. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  17. Single crystal piezoelectric composites for advanced NDT ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Snook, Kevin; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Geng, Xuecang

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the design, fabrication and characterization of PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy composites are reported for NDT ultrasound transducers. Specifically, 1-3 PMN-PT/epoxy composites with center frequencies of 5 MHz - 40 MHz were designed and fabricated using either the dice-and-fill method or a photolithography based micromachining process. The measured electromechanical coefficients for composites with frequency of 5 MHz - 15 MHz were about 0.78-0.83, and the coupling coefficients for composites with frequencies of 25 MHz- 40 MHz were about 0.71-0.72. The dielectric loss remains low (< 0.05). These properties hold promise for advanced NDT ultrasound applications.

  18. Diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Peng, Hongling; Zhao, Xia

    2015-04-01

    This meta-analysis is the first study aimed at assessing the overall diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for ovarian cancer. PubMed, Embase and Medline databases were systematically searched for relevant articles published up to June 2014. Data were pooled to yield summary sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio and receiver operating characteristic curves using Meta-Disc Version 1.4 software. Ten independent studies with 579 ovarian tumors were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio statistics were 0.89 (0.83-0.94), 0.91 (0.88-0.93) and 91.70 (41.41-203.05), respectively, and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9619 (standard error: 0.0125), all indicating that contrast-enhanced ultrasound has high diagnostic accuracy in differentiation of malignant from benign ovarian tumors.

  19. Unilateral Opening of Rat Blood-Brain Barrier Assisted by Diagnostic Ultrasound Targeted Microbubbles Destruction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yali; Cui, Hai; Zhu, Qiong; Hua, Xing; Xia, Hongmei; Tan, Kaibin; Gao, Yunhua; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key obstacle that prevents the medication from blood to the brain. Microbubble-enhanced cavitation by focused ultrasound can open the BBB and proves to be valuable in the brain drug delivery. The study aimed to explore the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of unilateral opening of BBB using diagnostic ultrasound targeted microbubbles destruction in rats. Methods. A transtemporal bone irradiation of diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous injection of lipid-coated microbubbles were performed at unilateral hemisphere. Pathological changes were monitored. Evans Blue extravasation grades, extraction from brain tissue, and fluorescence optical density were quantified. Lanthanum nitrate was traced by transmission electron microscopy. Results. After diagnostic ultrasound mediated microbubbles destruction, Evans Blue extravasation and fluorescence integrated optical density were significantly higher in the irradiated hemisphere than the contralateral side (all p < 0.01). Erythrocytes extravasations were demonstrated in the ultrasound-exposed hemisphere (4 ± 1, grade 2) while being invisible in the control side. Lanthanum nitrate tracers leaked through interendothelial cleft and spread to the nerve fiber existed in the irradiation side. Conclusions. Transtemporal bone irradiation under DUS mediated microbubble destruction provides us with a more accessible, safer, and higher selective BBB opening approach in rats, which is advantageous in brain targeted drugs delivery. PMID:27579317

  20. Unilateral Opening of Rat Blood-Brain Barrier Assisted by Diagnostic Ultrasound Targeted Microbubbles Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hai; Zhu, Qiong; Hua, Xing; Xia, Hongmei; Tan, Kaibin; Gao, Yunhua; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key obstacle that prevents the medication from blood to the brain. Microbubble-enhanced cavitation by focused ultrasound can open the BBB and proves to be valuable in the brain drug delivery. The study aimed to explore the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of unilateral opening of BBB using diagnostic ultrasound targeted microbubbles destruction in rats. Methods. A transtemporal bone irradiation of diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous injection of lipid-coated microbubbles were performed at unilateral hemisphere. Pathological changes were monitored. Evans Blue extravasation grades, extraction from brain tissue, and fluorescence optical density were quantified. Lanthanum nitrate was traced by transmission electron microscopy. Results. After diagnostic ultrasound mediated microbubbles destruction, Evans Blue extravasation and fluorescence integrated optical density were significantly higher in the irradiated hemisphere than the contralateral side (all p < 0.01). Erythrocytes extravasations were demonstrated in the ultrasound-exposed hemisphere (4 ± 1, grade 2) while being invisible in the control side. Lanthanum nitrate tracers leaked through interendothelial cleft and spread to the nerve fiber existed in the irradiation side. Conclusions. Transtemporal bone irradiation under DUS mediated microbubble destruction provides us with a more accessible, safer, and higher selective BBB opening approach in rats, which is advantageous in brain targeted drugs delivery. PMID:27579317

  1. [How should anesthesiologists perform ultrasound examinations? Diagnostic use of ultrasound in emergency and intensive care and medicine].

    PubMed

    Maecken, T; Zinke, H; Zenz, M; Grau, T

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging has attained great significance as a tool for diagnostics in emergency and intensive care medicine. The major advantages of this technique are its instantaneous bedside availability and the possibility to perform repeatable examinations. These advantages are based on recent developments, such as portable ultrasound devices offering excellent imaging quality as well as a quick-start-function. Ultrasound imaging in critically ill patients is frequently performed under pressure of time depending on the current acute physical state. All standard examinations in echocardiography, vascular, abdominal and thoracic ultrasound scanning can be applied in these patients. Based on the clinical scenario the duration of examinations may vary from seconds during cardiopulmonary resuscitations to time-consuming repeated scanning. The transition from basic to subject-specific detailed examinations is flowing and has to be adjusted to local conditions. In the field of emergency and intensive care medicine the technique used is whole-body sonography. The goal is to classify the patient's present physical state and to define a targeted therapeutic approach. The characteristics of whole-body sonography are similar to the field of anesthesiology which is an interdisciplinary one. Currently, these characteristics deserve more attention in training in sonography.

  2. Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

    This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

  3. Visualizing and Measuring the Temperature Field Produced by Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound Using Thermography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachutka, J.; Grec, P.; Mornstein, V.; Caruana, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    The heating of tissues by diagnostic ultrasound can pose a significant hazard particularly in the imaging of the unborn child. The demonstration of the temperature field in tissue is therefore an important objective in the teaching of biomedical physics to healthcare professionals. The temperature field in a soft tissue model was made visible and…

  4. Prenatal Sex Selection and Missing Girls in China: Evidence from the Diffusion of Diagnostic Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuyu; Li, Hongbin; Meng, Lingsheng

    2013-01-01

    How much of the increase in sex ratio (male to female) at birth since the early 1980s in China is attributed to increased prenatal sex selection? This question is addressed by exploiting the differential introduction of diagnostic ultrasound in the country during the 1980s, which significantly reduced the cost of prenatal sex selection. We…

  5. Technology in radiology: advances in diagnostic imaging & therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Stern, S M

    1993-01-01

    Nearly 100 years from its birth, radiology continues to grow as though still in adolescence. Although some radiologic technologies have matured more than others, new applications and techniques appear regularly in the literature. Radiology has evolved from purely diagnostic devices to interventional technologies. New contrast agents in MRI, X ray and ultrasound enable physicians to make diagnoses and plan therapies with greater precision than ever before. Techniques are less and less invasive. Advances in computer technology have given supercomputer-like power to high-end nuclear medicine and MRI systems. Imaging systems in most modalities are now designed with upgrades in mind instead of "planned obsolescence." Companies routinely upgrade software and other facets of their products, sometimes at no additional charge to existing customers. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will face increasing demands to justify what they do according to patient outcomes and management criteria. Did images make the diagnosis or confirm it? Did the images determine optimal treatment strategies or confirm which strategies might be appropriate? Third-party payers, especially the government, will view radiology in those terms. The diagnostic imaging and therapy systems of today require increasingly sophisticated technical support for maintenance and repair. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will have to determine the most economic and effective ways to guarantee equipment up-time. Borrowing from the automotive industry, some radiology manufacturers have devised transtelephonic software systems to facilitate remote troubleshooting. To ensure their fiscal viability, hospitals continue to acquire new imaging and therapy technologies for competitive and access-to-services reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10129808

  6. Ultrasound for Distal Forearm Fracture: A Systematic Review and Diagnostic Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Douma-den Hamer, Djoke; Blanker, Marco H.; Edens, Mireille A.; Buijteweg, Lonneke N.; Boomsma, Martijn F.; van Helden, Sven H.; Mauritz, Gert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for detecting distal forearm fractures. Methods A systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis was performed according to the PRISMA statement. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2015. All prospective studies of the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound versus radiography as the reference standard were included. We excluded studies with a retrospective design and those with evidence of verification bias. We assessed the methodological quality of the included studies with the QUADAS-2 tool. We performed a meta-analysis of studies evaluating ultrasound to calculate the pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) using a bivariate model with random effects. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis were used to examine the effect of methodological differences and other study characteristics. Results Out of 867 publications we included 16 studies with 1,204 patients and 641 fractures. The pooled test characteristics for ultrasound were: sensitivity 97% (CI95% 93–99%), specificity 95% (CI95% 89–98%), positive likelihood ratio (LR) 20.0 (8.5–47.2) and negative LR 0.03 (0.01–0.08). The corresponding pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 667 (142–3,133). Apparent differences were shown for method of viewing, with the 6-view method showing higher specificity, positive LR, and DOR, compared to the 4-view method. Conclusion The present meta-analysis showed that ultrasound has a high accuracy for the diagnosis of distal forearm fractures in children when used by proper viewing method. Based on this, ultrasound should be considered a reliable alternative, which has the advantages of being radiation free. PMID:27196439

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound for the characterization and staging of rectal cancer. Current state of the method. Technological advances and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gersak, Mariana M; Badea, Radu; Graur, Florin; Hajja, Nadim Al; Furcea, Luminita; Dudea, Sorin M

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is the most accurate type of examination for the assessment of rectal tumors. Over the years, the method has advanced from gray-scale examination to intravenous contrast media administration and to different types of elastography. The multimodal approach of tumors (transrectal, transvaginal) is adapted to each case. 3D ultrasound is useful for spatial representation and precise measurement of tumor formations, using CT/MR image reconstruction; color elastography is useful for tumor characterization and staging; endoscopic ultrasound using intravenous contrast agents can help study the amount of contrast agent targeted at the level of the tumor formations and contrast wash-in/wash-out time, based on the curves displayed on the device. The transvaginal approach often allows better visualization of the tumor than the transrectal approach. Performing the procedure with the rectal ampulla distended with contrast agent may be seen as an optimization of the examination methodology. All these aspects are additional methods for gray-scale endoscopic ultrasound, capable of increasing diagnostic accuracy. This paper aims at reviewing the progress of transrectal and transvaginal ultrasound, generically called endoscopic ultrasound, for rectal tumor diagnosis and staging, with emphasis on the current state of the method and its development trends.

  8. Diagnostic ultrasound tooth imaging using fractional Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Harput, Sevan; Evans, Tony; Bubb, Nigel; Freear, Steven

    2011-10-01

    An ultrasound contact imaging method is proposed to measure the enamel thickness in the human tooth. A delay-line transducer with a working frequency of 15 MHz is chosen to achieve a minimum resolvable distance of 400 μm in human enamel. To confirm the contact between the tooth and the transducer, a verification technique based on the phase shift upon reflection is used. Because of the high attenuation in human teeth, linear frequency-modulated chirp excitation and pulse compression are exploited to increase the penetration depth and improve the SNR. Preliminary measurements show that the enamel-dentin boundary creates numerous internal reflections, which cause the applied chirp signals to interfere arbitrarily. In this work, the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is employed for the first time in dental imaging to separate chirp signals overlapping in both time and frequency domains. The overlapped chirps are compressed using the FrFT and matched filter techniques. Micro-computed tomography is used for validation of the ultrasound measurements for both techniques. For a human molar, the thickness of the enamel layer is measured with an average error of 5.5% after compressing with the FrFT and 13.4% after compressing with the matched filter based on the average speed of sound in human teeth.

  9. Diagnostic performance of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia: a bivariate meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qian-Jing; Shen, Yong-Chun; Jia, Liu-Qun; Guo, Shu-Jin; Long, Hong-Yu; Pang, Cai-Shuang; Yang, Ting; Wen, Fu-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Pneumonia is a common disease with both high morbidity and mortality, the diagnosis of pneumonia remains a clinical challenge. Many studies have been conducted to identify the usefulness of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia, but with inconsistent and inconclusive results. The present study aimed to establish the overall diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound in diagnosing pneumonia. Methods: Based on a comprehensive search of the Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane database, we identified out-come data from all articles estimating diagnostic accuracy with lung ultrasound for pneumonia. Quality was assessed with the Quality Assessment for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Results from different studies were pooled using a bivariate meta-analysis. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the overall performance of lung ultrasound-based assays. Results: Nine studies containing 1080 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The summary estimates for lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia in the studies included were as follows: sensitivity, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93-0.99); specificity, 0.94 (95% CI: 0.85-0.98); DOR, 507.99 (95% CI: 128.11-2014.34); positive likelihood ratio, 15.62 (95% CI: 6.31-38.68); negative likelihood ratio, 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01-0.08); The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00). Conclusion: Lung ultrasound is a capable of diagnosing pneumonia with high accuracy and is a promising attractive alternative to chest radiography and thoracic CT scan. PMID:24482696

  10. The Dependence of Thresholds for Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage on Diagnostic Ultrasound Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary ultrasound examination has become routine for diagnosis in many clinical and point-of-care medical settings. However, the phenomenon of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) induction during diagnostic ultrasound imaging presents a poorly understood risk factor. PCH was observed for 1.5 MHz, 4.5 MHz and 12.0 MHz diagnostic ultrasound of anesthetized rats to investigate the frequency dependence of PCH thresholds. PCH was detected in the ultrasound images as growing comet tail artifacts, and assessed using photographs of the surface of excised lungs. Previous photographs acquired with 7.6 MHz diagnostic ultrasound were also included for analysis. In addition, dosimetric parameters were measured at each frequency, including peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes (PRPA) and spatial peak pulse-average (SPPA) intensities attenuated by rat chest-wall samples. PRPA thresholds were determined at each frequency, based on the proportion of PCH occurrence in groups of 5 rats, and were 1.03 ± 0.02 MPa, 1.28 ± 0.14 MPa, 1.18 ± 0.12 MPa and 1.36 ± 0.15 MPa at 1.5, 4.5, 7.6 and 12.0 MHz, respectively. Although the PCH lesions decreased in size with increasing ultrasonic frequency, owing to the smaller beam widths and scan lengths, the PRPA thresholds remained approximately constant. This dependence was different from that of the Mechanical Index, which indicates a need for a specific dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound. PMID:25746909

  11. Contrast agents for diagnostic ultrasound: development and evaluation of polymer-coated microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, M A; Schrope, B; Shen, P

    1990-11-01

    Although the concept of an ultrasound contrast agent dates from Gramiak's work in 1968 in which indocyanine green was injected into the ascending aorta and heart, no universally accepted contrast agent for ultrasound now exists. This is primarily due to problems with stability, size and/or toxicity of the agents which have been investigated. Development of an effective ultrasound contrast agent would be highly significant for the health care industry, since it would greatly expand the scope of ultrasound (a noninvasive and safe procedure) as a diagnostic technique. While encapsulated gas bubbles offer particular advantages in stability over hand-agitated systems, they frequently present problems with size. Capsules larger than 10 microns in diameter become entrapped in the capillary bed of the lung. This paper describes the use of ionotropic gelation of the naturally occurring polysaccharide, alginate, for microencapsulation of air. Two procedures have been investigated. A novel jet head has been developed which allows co-extrusion of a solution of sodium alginate and air to produce nascent microencapsulated air bubbles which fall into a hardening solution of calcium ions. A second method employs ultrasound to introduce cavitation-induced bubbles into the alginate before capsule formation by spraying. Power spectra of these preparations demonstrate echogenicity (that is strong scatter of the incident ultrasound wave back to the emitting transducer, which also acts as a receiver), with resonant peaks that are a function of capsule size and wall characteristics. PMID:2090309

  12. Treatment of acute intravascular thrombi with diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Lof, John; Everbach, Carr; He, Anming; Bennett, Richard M; Matsunaga, Terry; Johanning, Jason; Porter, Thomas R

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether high mechanical index (MI) impulses from diagnostic ultrasound (DUS) could dissolve intravascular thrombi using intravenous microbubbles. Using a canine model, DUS was applied during a continuous intravenous infusion of microbubbles. Completely thrombosed grafts were assigned to 2 treatment regimens: low-MI (<0.5-MI) ultrasound alone; or intermittent high-MI impulses (1.9-MI) guided by low-MI ultrasound (contrast pulse sequencing). A 20-MHz cavitation detector was placed confocal to the ultrasound transducer to make intravascular cavitation measurements in 1 dog. Intravascular cavitational activity was detected when an MI of >0.5 was applied. In grafts treated with intermittent high-MI ultrasound, angiographic success was 71% at 30 min and 79% at 45 min, compared with 20% and 30% at these times in the low-MI ultrasound alone group (p < 0.05). We conclude that a commercially available DUS transducer can successfully recanalize acute intravascular thrombi during a continuous microbubble infusion. PMID:19580735

  13. Choledocholithiasis diagnostics - endoscopic ultrasound or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

    PubMed

    Leszczyszyn, Jarosław

    2014-06-01

    It is estimated that 3.4% of patients qualified for cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis have a coexisting choledocholithiasis. For decades, endoscopic ascending retrograde cholangiopancreatography has been the golden diagnostic standard in cases of suspected choledocholithiasis. The method is associated with a relatively high rate of complications, including acute pancreatitis, the incidence of which is estimated to range between 0.74% and 1.86%. The mechanism of this ERCP-induced complication is not fully understood, although factors increasing the risk of acute pancreatitis, such as sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, previous acute pancreatitis, narrow bile ducts or difficult catheterization of Vater's ampulla are known. It has been suggested to discontinue the diagnostic endoscopic retrograde ascending cholangiopancreatography and replace it with endoscopic ultrasonography due to possible and potentially dangerous complications. Endoscopic ultrasonography has sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 95% regardless of gallstone diameter, as opposed to magnetic resonance cholangiography. However, both of these parameters depend on the experience of the performing physician. The use of endoscopic ultrasonography allows to limit the number of performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures by more than 2/3. Ascending endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography combined with an endoscopic incision into the Vater's ampulla followed by a mechanical evacuation of stone deposits from the ducts still remains a golden standard in the treatment of choledocholithiasis. Despite some limitations such as potentially increased treatment costs as well as the necessity of the procedure to be performed by a surgeon experienced in both endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography as well as endoscopic ultrasonography, the diagnostic endoscopic ultrasonography followed by a simultaneous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography aimed at gallstone removal is

  14. Advances in Diagnostic Assays for Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Stephen D

    2015-08-07

    Approximately one-third of the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) remains undiagnosed each year and the vast majority of cases of multidrug-resistant TB remain undetected. Many countries still place heavy reliance on outdated technologies that are blunt and ineffective tools for controlling this epidemic. However, during the past 10 years, there has been substantial progress within the TB diagnostics developmental pipeline. Old technologies have been reviewed and improved and new technologies have been developed and evaluated and are now being implemented. This review summarizes these developments and describes the currently available diagnostic tools. Consideration is given to the requirements of future diagnostic tests and how these should be evaluated not only with regard to their diagnostic accuracy and operational feasibility, but ultimately in terms of whether they impact clinical outcomes cost effectively, especially for those most in need.

  15. Correlation of diagnostic ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in scrotal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Kaplan, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of scrotal ultrasound imaging (SU) and radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) in 43 patients (pts), age: 16-75. Twenty-two of them complained of scrotal pain; 18 had a scrotal mass; and 4 had a history of trauma. The final diagnoses were conformed by surgery (n = 21) and long-term follow-up (n = 22) and included 4 late phase and 1 early testicular torsion (TT), 11 acute epididymitis (AE), 4 subacute epididymitis (SE), 5 malignant tumors, 3 testicular atrophy, 2 intratesticular hematomas, 10 hydroceles or other cystic lesions, and miscellaneous. In pts with scrotal pain, 3/4 with late phase TT were correctly diagnosed, while one pt with early TT and 11/15 with AE or SE were not diagnosed by SU. All of them were correctly diagnosed with RSI except one with scrotal cyst. SU was able to separate cystic masses (n = 10) from solid masses (n = 6), but cannot separate malignant from benign lesions. SU was excellent in detecting 19 hydroceles and 2 intratesticular hematomas, while 3 lesions < 1 cm. were not seen in RSI. The authors concluded that SU is useful in pts with scrotal mass to separate solid from cystic lesions. However, SU is unable to differentiate the acute epididymitis from early testicular torsion. In pts with acute scrotal pain, SU is not helpful and RSI should still be the first study performed.

  16. Advanced Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop and implement technologies that address advanced combustion diagnostics and rapid Btu measurements of fuels. These are the fundamental weaknesses associated with the combustion processes of a furnace.

  17. Summary of the British Thoracic Society guidelines for advanced diagnostic and therapeutic flexible bronchoscopy in adults.

    PubMed

    Du Rand, I A; Barber, P V; Goldring, J; Lewis, R A; Mandal, S; Munavvar, M; Rintoul, R C; Shah, P L; Singh, S; Slade, M G; Woolley, A

    2011-11-01

    This new guideline covers the rapidly advancing field of interventional bronchoscopy using flexible bronchoscopy. It includes the use of more complex diagnostic procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound, interventions for the relief of central airway obstruction due to malignancy and the recent development of endobronchial therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The guideline aims to help all those who undertake flexible bronchoscopy to understand more about this important area. It also aims to inform respiratory physicians and other specialists dealing with lung cancer of the procedures possible in the management and palliation of central airway obstruction. The guideline covers transbronchial needle aspiration and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, electrocautery/diathermy, argon plasma coagulation and thermal laser, cryotherapy, cryoextraction, photodynamic therapy, brachytherapy, tracheobronchial stenting, electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy, endobronchial valves for emphysema and bronchial thermoplasty for asthma.

  18. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  19. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two- ... sound waves and appear dark or black. An ultrasound can supply vital information about a mother's pregnancy ...

  20. Diagnostic ultrasound at MACH 20: retroperitoneal and pelvic imaging in space.

    PubMed

    Jones, J A; Sargsyan, A E; Barr, Y R; Melton, S; Hamilton, D R; Dulchavsky, S A; Whitson, P A

    2009-07-01

    An operationally available diagnostic imaging capability augments spaceflight medical support by facilitating the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of medical or surgical conditions, by improving medical outcomes and, thereby, by lowering medical mission impacts and the probability of crew evacuation due to medical causes. Microgravity-related physiological changes occurring during spaceflight can affect the genitourinary system and potentially cause conditions such as urinary retention or nephrolithiasis for which ultrasonography (U/S) would be a useful diagnostic tool. This study describes the first genitourinary ultrasound examination conducted in space, and evaluates image quality, frame rate, resolution requirements, real-time remote guidance of nonphysician crew medical officers and evaluation of on-orbit tools that can augment image acquisition. A nonphysician crew medical officer (CMO) astronaut, with minimal training in U/S, performed a self-examination of the genitourinary system onboard the International Space Station, using a Philips/ATL Model HDI-5000 ultrasound imaging unit located in the International Space Station Human Research Facility. The CMO was remotely guided by voice commands from experienced, earth-based sonographers stationed in Mission Control Center in Houston. The crewmember, with guidance, was able to acquire all of the target images. Real-time and still U/S images received at Mission Control Center in Houston were of sufficient quality for the images to be diagnostic for multiple potential genitourinary applications. Microgravity-based ultrasound imaging can provide diagnostic quality images of the retroperitoneum and pelvis, offering improved diagnosis and treatment for onboard medical contingencies. Successful completion of complex sonographic examinations can be obtained even with minimally trained nonphysician ultrasound operators, with the assistance of ground-based real-time guidance.

  1. Effect of Watermarking on Diagnostic Preservation of Atherosclerotic Ultrasound Video in Stroke Telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Dey, Nilanjan; Bose, Soumyo; Das, Achintya; Chaudhuri, Sheli Sinha; Saba, Luca; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-04-01

    Embedding of diagnostic and health care information requires secure encryption and watermarking. This research paper presents a comprehensive study for the behavior of some well established watermarking algorithms in frequency domain for the preservation of stroke-based diagnostic parameters. Two different sets of watermarking algorithms namely: two correlation-based (binary logo hiding) and two singular value decomposition (SVD)-based (gray logo hiding) watermarking algorithms are used for embedding ownership logo. The diagnostic parameters in atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound video are namely: (a) bulb identification and recognition which consists of identifying the bulb edge points in far and near carotid walls; (b) carotid bulb diameter; and (c) carotid lumen thickness all along the carotid artery. The tested data set consists of carotid atherosclerotic movies taken under IRB protocol from University of Indiana Hospital, USA-AtheroPoint™ (Roseville, CA, USA) joint pilot study. ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis was performed on the bulb detection process that showed an accuracy and sensitivity of 100 % each, respectively. The diagnostic preservation (DPsystem) for SVD-based approach was above 99 % with PSNR (Peak signal-to-noise ratio) above 41, ensuring the retention of diagnostic parameter devalorization as an effect of watermarking. Thus, the fully automated proposed system proved to be an efficient method for watermarking the atherosclerotic ultrasound video for stroke application.

  2. Ultrasound techniques in the evaluation of the mediastinum, part 2: mediastinal lymph node anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques, clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Christian; Annema, Jouke Tabe; Clementsen, Paul; Cui, Xin-Wu; Borst, Mathias Maximilian; Dietrich, Christoph Frank

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained importance in pulmonary medicine over the last decades including conventional transcutaneous ultrasound (TUS), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) staging affects the management of patients with both operable and inoperable lung cancer (e.g., surgery vs. combined chemoradiation therapy). Tissue sampling is often indicated for accurate nodal staging. Recent international lung cancer staging guidelines clearly state that endosonography should be the initial tissue sampling test over surgical staging. Mediastinal nodes can be sampled from the airways [endobronchial ultrasound combined with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)] or the esophagus [endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)]. EBUS and EUS have a complementary diagnostic yield and in combination virtually all MLNs can be biopsied. Additionally endosonography has an excellent yield in assessing granulomas in patients suspected of sarcoidosis. The aim of this review in two integrative parts is to discuss the current role and future perspectives of all ultrasound techniques available for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinal staging of lung cancer. A specific emphasis will be on learning mediastinal endosonography. Part 1 deals with an introduction into ultrasound techniques, MLN anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques and part 2 with the clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography.

  3. Advancing the research agenda for diagnostic error reduction.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Laura; Schiff, Gordon D; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an underemphasised and understudied area of patient safety research. We briefly summarise the methods that have been used to conduct research on epidemiology, contributing factors and interventions related to diagnostic error and outline directions for future research. Research methods that have studied epidemiology of diagnostic error provide some estimate on diagnostic error rates. However, there appears to be a large variability in the reported rates due to the heterogeneity of definitions and study methods used. Thus, future methods should focus on obtaining more precise estimates in different settings of care. This would lay the foundation for measuring error rates over time to evaluate improvements. Research methods have studied contributing factors for diagnostic error in both naturalistic and experimental settings. Both approaches have revealed important and complementary information. Newer conceptual models from outside healthcare are needed to advance the depth and rigour of analysis of systems and cognitive insights of causes of error. While the literature has suggested many potentially fruitful interventions for reducing diagnostic errors, most have not been systematically evaluated and/or widely implemented in practice. Research is needed to study promising intervention areas such as enhanced patient involvement in diagnosis, improving diagnosis through the use of electronic tools and identification and reduction of specific diagnostic process 'pitfalls' (eg, failure to conduct appropriate diagnostic evaluation of a breast lump after a 'normal' mammogram). The last decade of research on diagnostic error has made promising steps and laid a foundation for more rigorous methods to advance the field.

  4. Displacement analysis of diagnostic ultrasound backscatter: A methodology for characterizing, modeling, and monitoring high intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Gavriel; Kaczkowski, Peter J.; Brayman, Andrew A.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is critical for widespread clinical use. Pulse-echo diagnostic ultrasound (DU) is known to exhibit temperature sensitivity through relative changes in time-of-flight between two sets of radio frequency (RF) backscatter measurements, one acquired before and one after therapy. These relative displacements, combined with knowledge of the exposure protocol, material properties, heat transfer, and measurement noise statistics, provide a natural framework for estimating the administered heating, and thereby therapy. The proposed method, termed displacement analysis, identifies the relative displacements using linearly independent displacement patterns, or modes, each induced by a particular time-varying heating applied during the exposure interval. These heating modes are themselves linearly independent. This relationship implies that a linear combination of displacement modes aligning the DU measurements is the response to an identical linear combination of heating modes, providing the heating estimate. Furthermore, the accuracy of coefficient estimates in this approximation is determined a priori, characterizing heating, thermal dose, and temperature estimates for any given protocol. Predicted performance is validated using simulations and experiments in alginate gel phantoms. Evidence for a spatially distributed interaction between temperature and time-of-flight changes is presented. PMID:20649206

  5. Diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for mediastinal staging in lung cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Bussy, Sebastián; Labarca, Gonzalo; Canals, Sofia; Caviedes, Iván; Folch, Erik; Majid, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive diagnostic test with a high diagnostic yield for suspicious central pulmonary lesions and for mediastinal lymph node staging. The main objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging in patients with suspected lung cancer. METHODS: Prospective study of patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis. Patients ≥ 18 years of age were recruited between July of 2010 and August of 2013. We recorded demographic variables, radiological characteristics provided by axial CT of the chest, location of the lesion in the mediastinum as per the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification, and definitive diagnostic result (EBUS with a diagnostic biopsy or a definitive diagnostic method). RESULTS: Our analysis included 354 biopsies, from 145 patients. Of those 145 patients, 54.48% were male. The mean age was 63.75 years. The mean lymph node size was 15.03 mm, and 90 lymph nodes were smaller than 10.0 mm. The EBUS-TBNA method showed a sensitivity of 91.17%, a specificity of 100.0%, and a negative predictive value of 92.9%. The most common histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: EBUS-TBNA is a diagnostic tool that yields satisfactory results in the staging of neoplastic mediastinal lesions. PMID:26176519

  6. [Ultrasound artifacts and their diagnostic significance in internal medicine and gastroenterology - Part 1: B-mode artifacts].

    PubMed

    Tuma, J; Jenssen, C; Möller, K; Cui, X W; Kinkel, H; Uebel, S; Dietrich, C F

    2016-05-01

    Artifacts in ultrasonographic diagnostics are a result of the physical properties of the ultrasound waves and are caused by interaction of the ultrasound waves with biological structures and tissues and with foreign bodies. On the one hand, they may be distracting and may lead to misdiagnosis. On the other hand, they may be diagnostically helpful. Ultrasound imaging suffers from artifacts, because in reality, parameters assumed to be constant values, such as sound speed, sound rectilinear propagation, attenuation, etc., are often different from the actual parameters. Moreover, inadequate device settings may cause artifacts. Profound knowledge of the causes, avoidance, and interpretation of artifacts is a necessary precondition for correct clinical appraisal of ultrasound images. Part 1 of this review comments on the physics of artifacts and describes the most important B-mode artifacts. Pitfalls, as well as diagnostic chances resulting from B-mode artifacts, are discussed.

  7. [Ultrasound artifacts and their diagnostic significance in internal medicine and gastroenterology - Part 1: B-mode artifacts].

    PubMed

    Tuma, J; Jenssen, C; Möller, K; Cui, X W; Kinkel, H; Uebel, S; Dietrich, C F

    2016-05-01

    Artifacts in ultrasonographic diagnostics are a result of the physical properties of the ultrasound waves and are caused by interaction of the ultrasound waves with biological structures and tissues and with foreign bodies. On the one hand, they may be distracting and may lead to misdiagnosis. On the other hand, they may be diagnostically helpful. Ultrasound imaging suffers from artifacts, because in reality, parameters assumed to be constant values, such as sound speed, sound rectilinear propagation, attenuation, etc., are often different from the actual parameters. Moreover, inadequate device settings may cause artifacts. Profound knowledge of the causes, avoidance, and interpretation of artifacts is a necessary precondition for correct clinical appraisal of ultrasound images. Part 1 of this review comments on the physics of artifacts and describes the most important B-mode artifacts. Pitfalls, as well as diagnostic chances resulting from B-mode artifacts, are discussed. PMID:27171335

  8. Diagnostic ultrasound estimates of muscle mass and muscle quality discriminate between women with and without sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Catheeja; Zabal, Johannah; Hernandez, Haniel J.; Woletz, Paula; Manning, Heather; Teixeira, Carla; DiPietro, Loretta; Blackman, Marc R.; Harris-Love, Michael O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Age-related changes in muscle mass and muscle tissue composition contribute to diminished strength in older adults. The objectives of this study are to examine if an assessment method using mobile diagnostic ultrasound augments well-known determinants of lean body mass (LBM) to aid sarcopenia staging, and if a sonographic measure of muscle quality is associated with muscle performance. Methods: Twenty community-dwelling female subjects participated in the study (age = 43.4 ± 20.9 years; BMI: 23.8, interquartile range: 8.5). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and diagnostic ultrasound morphometry were used to estimate LBM. Muscle tissue quality was estimated via the echogenicity using grayscale histogram analysis. Peak force was measured with grip dynamometry and scaled for body size. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were used to determine the association of the predictor variables with appendicular lean mass (aLM/ht2), and examine the relationship between scaled peak force values and muscle echogenicity. The sarcopenia LBM cut point value of 6.75 kg/m2 determined participant assignment into the Normal LBM and Low LBM subgroups. Results: The selected LBM predictor variables were body mass index (BMI), ultrasound morphometry, and age. Although BMI exhibited a significant positive relationship with aLM/ht2 (adj. R2 = 0.61, p < 0.001), the strength of association improved with the addition of ultrasound morphometry and age as predictor variables (adj. R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001). Scaled peak force was associated with age and echogenicity (adj. R2 = 0.53, p < 0.001), but not LBM. The Low LBM subgroup of women (n = 10) had higher scaled peak force, lower BMI, and lower echogenicity values in comparison to the Normal LBM subgroup (n = 10; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Diagnostic ultrasound morphometry values are associated with LBM, and improve the BMI predictive model for aLM/ht2 in women. In addition, ultrasound proxy measures of muscle quality are more

  9. Diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasound, radiography and computed tomography for gender determination in four species of lizards.

    PubMed

    Di Ianni, Francesco; Volta, Antonella; Pelizzone, Igor; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gender determination is frequently requested by reptile breeders, especially for species with poor or absent sexual dimorphism. The aims of the current study were to describe techniques and diagnostic sensitivities of ultrasound, radiography, and computed tomography for gender determination (identification of hemipenes) in four species of lizards. Nineteen lizards of known sex, belonging to four different species (Pogona vitticeps, Uromastyx aegyptia, Tiliqua scincoides, Gerrhosaurus major) were prospectively enrolled. With informed owner consent, ultrasound, noncontrast CT, contrast radiography, and contrast CT (with contrast medium administered into the cloaca) were performed in conscious animals. Imaging studies were reviewed by three different operators, each unaware of the gender of the animals and of the results of the other techniques. The lizard was classified as a male when hemipenes were identified. Nineteen lizards were included in the study, 10 females and nine males. The hemipenes were seen on ultrasound in only two male lizards, and appeared as oval hypoechoic structures. Radiographically, hemipenes filled with contrast medium appeared as spindle-shaped opacities. Noncontrast CT identified hemipenes in only two lizards, and these appeared as spindle-shaped kinked structures with hyperattenuating content consistent with smegma. Hemipenes were correctly identified in all nine males using contrast CT (accuracy of 100%). Accuracy of contrast radiography was excellent (94.7%). Accuracy of ultrasound and of noncontrast CT was poor (64.3% and 63.1%, respectively). Findings from the current study supported the use of contrast CT or contrast radiography for gender determination in lizards.

  10. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  11. Genetics, diagnostics and therapeutic advances in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Rinella, Mary E.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, NAFLD was confirmed as the fastest growing aetiology for hepatocellular cancer in the USA. However, 2014 also saw progress in our understanding of the heritability and pathogenesis of NAFLD, and an important clinical trial targeting the farnesoid X receptor pathway has illustrated advances in developing a pharmacological therapy. PMID:25560844

  12. Impact of Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration on Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoscopy in Patients with Mediastinal Lymph Node Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Osinka, K; Zielińska-Krawczyk, M; Korczyński, P; Górnicka, B; Krenke, R

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) had an enormous impact on the current advancement in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate the added value of EBUS-TBNA to routine diagnostic bronchoscopy performed in patients with mediastinal lymph node enlargement and (2) to identify factors that affect the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA. We retrospectively analyzed 712 EBUS-TBNA procedures out of the 4081 bronchoscopies performed in the years 2009-2014. The number of EBUS-TBNA procedures increased from 61 (8.8 % of all bronchoscopies) in 2009 to 160 (21.4 %) in 2014. In 625 (87.8 %) patients adequate cytological material was obtained. Based on cytological examination of EBUS-TBNA aspirates, specific diagnosis was made in 367 (51.5 %) patients. The forceps biopsy of endobronchial lesions provided specific diagnosis in only 204 (28.6 %) patients. The percentage of patients with EBUS-TBNA based diagnosis increased steadily from 34.4 % in 2009 to 65.0 % in 2014 (p < 0.0001). The median lymph node diameter in patients with positive EBUS-TBNA findings was 20 (IQR 15-30) mm and was significantly larger than that in patients with negative EBUS-TBNA results (15 (IQR 10-20) mm, p = 0.0001). The highest diagnostic yield (78.5 %) was found in patients with lymph node dimension between 31 mm and 40 mm. We conclude that EBUS-TBNA is a valuable diagnostic method in an unselected group of patients with mediastinal lymph node enlargement. The percentage of positive EBUS-TBNA diagnoses is related to lymph node dimensions. The overall efficacy of EBUS-TBNA improves with increasing years of experience. PMID:26987324

  13. Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

  14. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nieciecki, Michał; Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated.

  15. Advances in ultrasound imaging for congenital malformations during early gestation

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, William F.; Jolley, Jennifer A.; Simpson, Lynn L.

    2015-01-01

    With refinement in ultrasound technology, detection of fetal structural abnormalities has improved and there have been detailed reports of the natural history and expected outcomes for many anomalies. The ability to either reassure a high-risk woman with normal intrauterine images or offer comprehensive counseling and offer options in cases of strongly suspected lethal or major malformations has shifted prenatal diagnoses to the earliest possible gestational age. When indicated, scans in early gestation are valuable in accurate gestational dating. Stricter sonographic criteria for early nonviability guard against unnecessary intervention. Most birth defects are without known risk factors, and detection of certain malformations is possible in the late first trimester. The best time for a standard complete fetal and placental scan is 18–20 weeks. In addition, certain soft anatomic markers provide clues to chromosomal aneuploidy risk. Maternal obesity and multifetal pregnancies are now more common and further limit early gestation visibility. Other advanced imaging techniques during early gestation in select cases of suspected malformations include fetal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25820190

  16. Advances in paper-based point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Wang, ShuQi; Wang, Lin; Li, Fei; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-04-15

    Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been widely used in well-equipped laboratories. However, they are not affordable or accessible in resource-limited settings due to the lack of basic infrastructure and/or trained operators. Paper-based diagnostic technologies are affordable, user-friendly, rapid, robust, and scalable for manufacturing, thus holding great potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to resource-limited settings. In this review, we present the working principles and reaction mechanism of paper-based diagnostics, including dipstick assays, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), as well as the selection of substrates and fabrication methods. Further, we report the advances in improving detection sensitivity, quantification readout, procedure simplification and multi-functionalization of paper-based diagnostics, and discuss the disadvantages of paper-based diagnostics. We envision that miniaturized and integrated paper-based diagnostic devices with the sample-in-answer-out capability will meet the diverse requirements for diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the POC.

  17. Advances in diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Andrew J; Hirano, Ikuo

    2010-08-14

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) contributes substantially to morbidity and to costs in the United States health care system. The burden of this disease has resulted in attempts at improving diagnosis and characterizing patients. Numerous research and technical advances have enhanced our understanding of both the utility and limitations of a variety of diagnostic modalities. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in GERD diagnostic testing and to discuss their implications for use in clinical practice. Topics addressed include esophageal pH monitoring, impedance testing, symptom association analyses, narrow-band imaging, and histopathology. PMID:20698036

  18. Conditionally Increased Acoustic Pressures in Nonfetal Diagnostic Ultrasound Examinations Without Contrast Agents: A Preliminary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Kathryn R; Church, Charles C; Harris, Gerald; Wear, Keith A; Bailey, Michael R; Carson, Paul L; Jiang, Hui; Sandstrom, Kurt L; Szabo, Thomas L; Ziskin, Marvin C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical index (MI) has been used by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1992 for regulatory decisions regarding the acoustic output of diagnostic ultrasound equipment. Its formula is based on predictions of acoustic cavitation under specific conditions. Since its implementation over 2 decades ago, new imaging modes have been developed that employ unique beam sequences exploiting higher-order acoustic phenomena, and, concurrently, studies of the bioeffects of ultrasound under a range of imaging scenarios have been conducted. In 2012, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Technical Standards Committee convened a working group of its Output Standards Subcommittee to examine and report on the potential risks and benefits of the use of conditionally increased acoustic pressures (CIP) under specific diagnostic imaging scenarios. The term "conditionally" is included to indicate that CIP would be considered on a per-patient basis for the duration required to obtain the necessary diagnostic information. This document is a result of that effort. In summary, a fundamental assumption in the MI calculation is the presence of a preexisting gas body. For tissues not known to contain preexisting gas bodies, based on theoretical predications and experimentally reported cavitation thresholds, we find this assumption to be invalid. We thus conclude that exceeding the recommended maximum MI level given in the FDA guidance could be warranted without concern for increased risk of cavitation in these tissues. However, there is limited literature assessing the potential clinical benefit of exceeding the MI guidelines in these tissues. The report proposes a 3-tiered approach for CIP that follows the model for employing elevated output in magnetic resonance imaging and concludes with summary recommendations to facilitate Institutional Review Board (IRB)-monitored clinical studies investigating CIP in specific tissues.

  19. Conditionally Increased Acoustic Pressures in Nonfetal Diagnostic Ultrasound Examinations Without Contrast Agents: A Preliminary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Church, Charles C.; Harris, Gerald; Wear, Keith A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Carson, Paul L.; Jiang, Hui; Sandstrom, Kurt L.; Szabo, Thomas L.; Ziskin, Marvin C.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical index (MI) has been used by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1992 for regulatory decisions regarding the acoustic output of diagnostic ultrasound equipment. Its formula is based on predictions of acoustic cavitation under specific conditions. Since its implementation over 2 decades ago, new imaging modes have been developed that employ unique beam sequences exploiting higher-order acoustic phenomena, and, concurrently, studies of the bioeffects of ultrasound under a range of imaging scenarios have been conducted. In 2012, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Technical Standards Committee convened a working group of its Output Standards Subcommittee to examine and report on the potential risks and benefits of the use of conditionally increased acoustic pressures (CIP) under specific diagnostic imaging scenarios. The term “conditionally” is included to indicate that CIP would be considered on a per-patient basis for the duration required to obtain the necessary diagnostic information. This document is a result of that effort. In summary, a fundamental assumption in the MI calculation is the presence of a preexisting gas body. For tissues not known to contain preexisting gas bodies, based on theoretical predications and experimentally reported cavitation thresholds, we find this assumption to be invalid. We thus conclude that exceeding the recommended maximum MI level given in the FDA guidance could be warranted without concern for increased risk of cavitation in these tissues. However, there is limited literature assessing the potential clinical benefit of exceeding the MI guidelines in these tissues. The report proposes a 3-tiered approach for CIP that follows the model for employing elevated output in magnetic resonance imaging and concludes with summary recommendations to facilitate Institutional Review Board (IRB)-monitored clinical studies investigating CIP in specific tissues. PMID:26112617

  20. Conditionally Increased Acoustic Pressures in Nonfetal Diagnostic Ultrasound Examinations Without Contrast Agents: A Preliminary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Kathryn R; Church, Charles C; Harris, Gerald; Wear, Keith A; Bailey, Michael R; Carson, Paul L; Jiang, Hui; Sandstrom, Kurt L; Szabo, Thomas L; Ziskin, Marvin C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical index (MI) has been used by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1992 for regulatory decisions regarding the acoustic output of diagnostic ultrasound equipment. Its formula is based on predictions of acoustic cavitation under specific conditions. Since its implementation over 2 decades ago, new imaging modes have been developed that employ unique beam sequences exploiting higher-order acoustic phenomena, and, concurrently, studies of the bioeffects of ultrasound under a range of imaging scenarios have been conducted. In 2012, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Technical Standards Committee convened a working group of its Output Standards Subcommittee to examine and report on the potential risks and benefits of the use of conditionally increased acoustic pressures (CIP) under specific diagnostic imaging scenarios. The term "conditionally" is included to indicate that CIP would be considered on a per-patient basis for the duration required to obtain the necessary diagnostic information. This document is a result of that effort. In summary, a fundamental assumption in the MI calculation is the presence of a preexisting gas body. For tissues not known to contain preexisting gas bodies, based on theoretical predications and experimentally reported cavitation thresholds, we find this assumption to be invalid. We thus conclude that exceeding the recommended maximum MI level given in the FDA guidance could be warranted without concern for increased risk of cavitation in these tissues. However, there is limited literature assessing the potential clinical benefit of exceeding the MI guidelines in these tissues. The report proposes a 3-tiered approach for CIP that follows the model for employing elevated output in magnetic resonance imaging and concludes with summary recommendations to facilitate Institutional Review Board (IRB)-monitored clinical studies investigating CIP in specific tissues. PMID:26112617

  1. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  2. Development in Diagnostics Application to Control Advanced Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Y.

    2008-03-12

    For continuous operation expected in DEMO, all the plasma current must be non-inductively driven, with self-generated neoclassical bootstrap current being maximized. The control of such steady state high performance tokamak plasma (so-called 'Advanced Tokamak Plasma') is a challenge because of the strong coupling between the current density, the pressure profile and MHD stability. In considering diagnostic needs for the advanced tokamak research, diagnostics for MHD are the most fundamental, since discharges which violate the MHD stability criteria either disrupt or have significantly reduced confinement. This report deals with the development in diagnostic application to control advanced tokamak plasma, with emphasized on recent progress in active feedback control of the current profile and the pressure profile under DEMO-relevant high bootstrap-current fraction. In addition, issues in application of the present-day actuators and diagnostics for the advanced control to DEMO will be briefly addressed, where port space for the advanced control may be limited so as to keep sufficient tritium breeding ratio (TBR)

  3. Advances in three-dimensional diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    ter Haar Romeny, B M; Zuiderveld, K J; Van Waes, P F; Van Walsum, T; Van Der Weijden, R; Weickert, J; Stokking, R; Wink, O; Kalitzin, S; Maintz, T; Zonneveld, F; Viergever, M A

    1998-10-01

    The maturity of current 3D rendering software in combination with recent developments in computer vision techniques enable an exciting range of applications for the visualisation, measurement and interactive manipulation of volumetric data, relevant both for diagnostic imaging and for anatomy. This paper reviews recent work in this area from the Image Sciences Institute at Utrecht University. The processes that yield a useful visual presentation are sequential. After acquisition and before any visualisation, an essential step is to prepare the data properly: this field is known as 'image processing' or 'computer vision' in analogy with the processing in human vision. Examples will be discussed of modern image enhancement and denoising techniques, and the complex process of automatically finding the objects or regions of interest, i.e. segmentation. One of the newer and promising methodologies for image analysis is based on a mathematical analysis of the human (cortical) visual processing: multiscale image analysis. After preprocessing the 3D rendering can be acquired by simulating the 'ray casting' in the computer. New possibilities are presented, such as the integrated visualisation in one image of (accurately registered) datasets of the same patient acquired in different modality scanners. Other examples include colour coding of functional data such as SPECT brain perfusion or functional magnetic resonance (MR) data and even metric data such as skull thickness on the rendered 3D anatomy from MR or computed tomography (CT). Optimal use and perception of 3D visualisation in radiology requires fast display and truly interactive manipulation facilities. Modern and increasingly cheaper workstations ( < $10000) allow this to be a reality. It is now possible to manipulate 3D images of 256 at 15 frames per second interactively, placing virtual reality within reach. The possibilities of modern workstations become increasingly more sophisticated and versatile. Examples

  4. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  5. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Misuri, Alessio

    2002-06-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  6. [INITIAL RESULTS OF DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATION OF ENDOBRONCHIAL ULTRASOUND IN CLINICAL HOSPITAL DUBRAVA].

    PubMed

    Zivković, Nevenka Piskac; Ostović, Karmen Trutin; Bosnjak, Danica; Tudorić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) enables visualization of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as, in case of clinical indication, its transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Simultaneous application of color doppler gives the additional prospects to investigate the blood vessels. The primary indication for EBUS is radiographic finding of mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes enlargement as well as the staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this article we present the initial results of application of this valuable diagnostic procedure performed at the Department for pulmonary diseases in Clinical hospital Dubrava in Zagreb. According to its high sensitivity and specificity, and being safe and well tolerated, EBUS-TBNA was positioned as basic diagnostic procedure in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. PMID:27290812

  7. Development of distance accuracy measurement program for quality control of diagnostic ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yon-Min; Kim, Moon-Chan; Han, Dong-Kyoon; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Evaluating the performance of a diagnostic ultrasound system is important. Above all, establishing standards for such evaluations in an objective and systematic way is critical. However, quality control is currently measured based on subjective judgment of an observer. Against this background, this study intended to suggest quantified and objective data that would enable inter-observer variation to be overcome. Five radiological technologists used an ATS-539 multi-purpose ultrasound phantom to conduct measurements in the predetermined method. A digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard image was obtained in an ultrasound system by using a self-developed software to measure the accuracy of the distance before the 95% confidence interval was calculated. In order to examine the accuracy of the distance in longitudinal and transverse measurements, we conducted t-tests to evaluate the significance for the results of quality control that was performed manually for the past one year and for the results of quality control that was performed by using software with the same equipment. For the longitudinal and the transverse measurements, the 95% confidence intervals were 100.96-101.29 mm and 83.18-84.26 mm, respectively. The computerized longitudinal measurement showed no significant difference from the manual measurement ( p > 0.05). The results of measurements using of software showed a higher reproducibility.

  8. The usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnostics of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saied, Fadhil; Włodkowska-Korytkowska, Monika; Maślińska, Maria; Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Kunisz, Wojciech; Smorawińska, Patrycja; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2013-06-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune exocrinopathy which manifests itself with dryness of the eyes and the oral cavity. These symptoms comprise a so-called sicca syndrome (xerostomia and xerophthalmia). Two forms of this disease may be distinguished: primary Sjögren's syndrome which affects salivary glands and secondary Sjögren's syndrome with other autoimmune diseases present such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus or systemic scleroderma. The diagnosis is based on the classification criteria established in 2002 by a group of American and European scientists (American-European Consensus Group), which involve the interview and physical examination as well as serological, histopathological and radiological tests. Most of these examinations show some limitations such as invasiveness, expensiveness or limited accessibility. The latest research suggests that ultrasound examination may appear promising in the diagnostics of the main salivary glands: submandibular and parotid glands. It is an accessible and relatively cheap examination with high sensitivity and specificity values which are comparable to those obtained via conventional means used in the diagnostics of this disease, i.e. biopsy of the minor salivary glands, sialography and scintigraphy, as well as superior to those obtained in sialometry and Schirmer's test. Additionally, ultrasonography correlates with the results of magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, a number of authors claim that US examination should be included in the classification criteria of Sjögren's syndrome. The aim of this article is to present the diagnostic capacity of the US examination in Sjögren's syndrome using the current ultrasound classification systems based on the grey-scale, Doppler and contrast-enhanced examinations. The latest research confirms that the most valuable diagnostic criterion in Sjögren's syndrome is the heterogeneity of the glandular parenchyma. The outcome of the examination greatly

  9. Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Semi-Quantitative Knee Ultrasound and Knee Radiography with MRI: Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Podlipská, Jana; Guermazi, Ali; Lehenkari, Petri; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Roemer, Frank W.; Arokoski, Jari P.; Kaukinen, Päivi; Liukkonen, Esa; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Nieminen, Miika T.; Tervonen, Osmo; Koski, Juhani M.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative musculoskeletal disease highly prevalent in aging societies worldwide. Traditionally, knee OA is diagnosed using conventional radiography. However, structural changes of articular cartilage or menisci cannot be directly evaluated using this method. On the other hand, ultrasound is a promising tool able to provide direct information on soft tissue degeneration. The aim of our study was to systematically determine the site-specific diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative ultrasound grading of knee femoral articular cartilage, osteophytes and meniscal extrusion, and of radiographic assessment of joint space narrowing and osteophytes, using MRI as a reference standard. Eighty asymptomatic and 79 symptomatic subjects with mean age of 57.7 years were included in the study. Ultrasound performed best in the assessment of femoral medial and lateral osteophytes, and medial meniscal extrusion. In comparison to radiography, ultrasound performed better or at least equally well in identification of tibio-femoral osteophytes, medial meniscal extrusion and medial femoral cartilage morphological degeneration. Ultrasound provides relevant additional diagnostic information on tissue-specific morphological changes not depicted by conventional radiography. Consequently, the use of ultrasound as a complementary imaging tool along with radiography may enable more accurate and cost-effective diagnostics of knee osteoarthritis at the primary healthcare level. PMID:26926836

  10. Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Semi-Quantitative Knee Ultrasound and Knee Radiography with MRI: Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis Study.

    PubMed

    Podlipská, Jana; Guermazi, Ali; Lehenkari, Petri; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Roemer, Frank W; Arokoski, Jari P; Kaukinen, Päivi; Liukkonen, Esa; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Nieminen, Miika T; Tervonen, Osmo; Koski, Juhani M; Saarakkala, Simo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative musculoskeletal disease highly prevalent in aging societies worldwide. Traditionally, knee OA is diagnosed using conventional radiography. However, structural changes of articular cartilage or menisci cannot be directly evaluated using this method. On the other hand, ultrasound is a promising tool able to provide direct information on soft tissue degeneration. The aim of our study was to systematically determine the site-specific diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative ultrasound grading of knee femoral articular cartilage, osteophytes and meniscal extrusion, and of radiographic assessment of joint space narrowing and osteophytes, using MRI as a reference standard. Eighty asymptomatic and 79 symptomatic subjects with mean age of 57.7 years were included in the study. Ultrasound performed best in the assessment of femoral medial and lateral osteophytes, and medial meniscal extrusion. In comparison to radiography, ultrasound performed better or at least equally well in identification of tibio-femoral osteophytes, medial meniscal extrusion and medial femoral cartilage morphological degeneration. Ultrasound provides relevant additional diagnostic information on tissue-specific morphological changes not depicted by conventional radiography. Consequently, the use of ultrasound as a complementary imaging tool along with radiography may enable more accurate and cost-effective diagnostics of knee osteoarthritis at the primary healthcare level. PMID:26926836

  11. The role of diagnostic ultrasound as a new diagnostic aid in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Siva Subramaniyam; Aravind, Ramraj Jayabalan; Kavin, Thangavelu

    2012-01-01

    Only very few studies have been done in the past to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of ultrasonography in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This study, though in an embryonic stage, has been done to bring this technique to limelight and to put forth the importance of its use and limitations in the branch of oral surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate and study the characteristic pattern of the oral tissues on gray scale ultrasonography and to assess the practical applicability of this new diagnostic technique in diagnosing various tissue pathologies in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:23066231

  12. [Ultrasound artifacts and their diagnostic significance in internal medicine and gastroenterology - part 2: color and spectral Doppler artifacts].

    PubMed

    Jenssen, C; Tuma, J; Möller, K; Cui, X W; Kinkel, H; Uebel, S; Dietrich, C F

    2016-06-01

    Artifacts in ultrasonographic diagnostics are a result of the physical properties of the ultrasound waves and are caused by interaction of the ultrasound waves with biological structures and tissues of the body and with foreign materials. On the one hand, they may be diagnostically helpful. On the other hand, they may be distracting and may lead to misdiagnosis. Profound knowledge of the causes, avoidance, and interpretation of artifacts is a necessary precondition for correct clinical appraisal of ultrasound images. Part 1 of this review commented on the physics of artifacts and described the most important B-mode artifacts. Part 2 focuses on the clinically relevant artifacts in Doppler and color-coded duplex sonography. Problems and pitfalls of interpretation arising from artifacts, as well as the diagnostic use of Doppler and colour-coded duplex sonography, are discussed.

  13. [Ultrasound artifacts and their diagnostic significance in internal medicine and gastroenterology - part 2: color and spectral Doppler artifacts].

    PubMed

    Jenssen, C; Tuma, J; Möller, K; Cui, X W; Kinkel, H; Uebel, S; Dietrich, C F

    2016-06-01

    Artifacts in ultrasonographic diagnostics are a result of the physical properties of the ultrasound waves and are caused by interaction of the ultrasound waves with biological structures and tissues of the body and with foreign materials. On the one hand, they may be diagnostically helpful. On the other hand, they may be distracting and may lead to misdiagnosis. Profound knowledge of the causes, avoidance, and interpretation of artifacts is a necessary precondition for correct clinical appraisal of ultrasound images. Part 1 of this review commented on the physics of artifacts and described the most important B-mode artifacts. Part 2 focuses on the clinically relevant artifacts in Doppler and color-coded duplex sonography. Problems and pitfalls of interpretation arising from artifacts, as well as the diagnostic use of Doppler and colour-coded duplex sonography, are discussed. PMID:27284933

  14. Advances in endoscopic ultrasound imaging of colorectal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cârțână, Elena Tatiana; Gheonea, Dan Ionuț; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    The development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has had a significant impact for patients with digestive diseases, enabling enhanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with most of the available evidence focusing on upper gastrointestinal (GI) and pancreatico-biliary diseases. For the lower GI tract the main application of EUS has been in staging rectal cancer, as a complementary technique to other cross-sectional imaging methods. EUS can provide highly accurate in-depth assessments of tumour infiltration, performing best in the diagnosis of early rectal tumours. In the light of recent developments other EUS applications for colorectal diseases have been also envisaged and are currently under investigation, including beyond-rectum tumour staging by means of the newly developed forward-viewing radial array echoendoscope. Due to its high resolution, EUS might be also regarded as an ideal method for the evaluation of subepithelial lesions. Their differential diagnosis is possible by imaging the originating wall layer and the associated echostructure, and cytological and histological confirmation can be obtained through EUS-guided fine needle aspiration or trucut biopsy. However, reports on the use of EUS in colorectal subepithelial lesions are currently limited. EUS allows detailed examination of perirectal and perianal complications in Crohn's disease and, as a safe and less expensive investigation, can be used to monitor therapeutic response of fistulae, which seems to improve outcomes and reduce the need for additional surgery. Furthermore, EUS image enhancement techniques, such as the use of contrast agents or elastography, have recently been evaluated for colorectal indications as well. Possible applications of contrast enhancement include the assessment of tumour angiogenesis in colorectal cancer, the monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease based on quantification of bowel wall vascularization, and differentiating between benign and

  15. Formulation and acoustic studies of a new phase-shift agent for diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paul S; Luois, Samantha; Dayton, Paul A; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2011-09-01

    Recent efforts in the area of acoustic droplet vaporization with the objective of designing extravascular ultrasound contrast agents has led to the development of stabilized, lipid-encapsulated nanodroplets of the highly volatile compound decafluorobutane (DFB). We developed two methods of generating DFB droplets, the first of which involves condensing DFB gas (boiling point from -1.1 to -2 °C) followed by extrusion with a lipid formulation in HEPES buffer. Acoustic droplet vaporization of micrometer-sized lipid-coated droplets at diagnostic ultrasound frequencies and mechanical indices were confirmed optically. In our second formulation methodology, we demonstrate the formulation of submicrometer-sized lipid-coated nanodroplets based upon condensation of preformed microbubbles containing DFB. The droplets are routinely in the 200-300 nm range and yield microbubbles on the order of 1-5 μm once vaporized, consistent with ideal gas law expansion predictions. The simple and effective nature of this methodology allows for the development of a variety of different formulations that can be used for imaging, drug and gene delivery, and therapy. This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate both a method of generating ADV agents by microbubble condensation and formulation of primarily submicrometer droplets of decafluorobutane that remain stable at physiological temperatures. Finally, activation of DFB nanodroplets is demonstrated using pressures within the FDA guidelines for diagnostic imaging, which may minimize the potential for bioeffects in humans. This methodology offers a new means of developing extravascular contrast agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21744860

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, PE; Wootton, A.; Gorini, G.; Sindoni, E.; Batani, D.

    2003-02-01

    This book is a collection of papers, written by specialists in the field, on advanced topics of nuclear fusion diagnostics. The 78 contributions were originally presented at the International Conference on Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Fusion held at Villa Monastero, Italy in September 2001. Both magnetically confined and inertial fusion programmes are quite extensively covered, with more emphasis given to the former scheme. In the case of magnetic confinement, since the present international programme is strongly focused on next-step devices, particular attention is devoted to techniques and technologies viable in an environment with strong neutron fluxes. Indeed, in the first section, the various methods are considered in the perspective of performing the measurements of the relevant parameters in conditions approaching a burning plasma, mainly in the Tokamak configuration. The most demanding requirements, like the implications of the use of tritium and radiation resistance, are reviewed and the most challenging open issues, which require further research and development, are also clearly mentioned. The following three sections are devoted to some of the most recent developments in plasma diagnostics, which are grouped according to the following classification: `Neutron and particle diagnostics', `Optical and x-ray diagnostics' and `Interferometry, Polarimetry and Thomson Scattering'. In these chapters, several of the most recent results are given, covering measurements taken on the most advanced experiments around the world. Here the developments described deal more with the requirements imposed by the physical issues to be studied. They are therefore more focused on the approaches adopted to increase the spatial and time resolution of the diagnostics, on some methods to improve the characterisation of the turbulence and on fast particles. Good coverage is given to neutron diagnostics, which are assuming increasing relevance as the plasma

  17. Filterscope diagnostic system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z. W.; Gao, W.; Chen, Y. J.; Wu, C. R.; Zhang, L.; Huang, J.; Chang, J. F.; Yao, X. J.; Gao, W.; Zhang, P. F.; Jin, Z.; Hou, Y. M.; Guo, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    A filterscope diagnostic system has been mounted to observe the line emission and visible bremsstrahlung emission from plasma on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak during the 2014 campaign. By this diagnostic system, multiple wavelengths including Dα (656.1 nm), Dγ (433.9 nm), He ii (468.5 nm), Li i (670.8 nm), Li ii (548.3 nm), C iii (465.0 nm), O ii (441.5 nm), Mo i (386.4 nm), W i (400.9 nm), and visible bremsstrahlung radiation (538.0 nm) are monitored with corresponding wavelength filters. All these multi-channel signals are digitized at up to 200 kHz simultaneously. This diagnostic plays a crucial role in studying edge localized modes and H-mode plasmas, due to the high temporal resolution and spatial resolution that have been designed into it.

  18. The Role of Anthropomorphic Phantoms in Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging for Disease Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, L. M.; King, D. M.; Browne, J. E.

    2009-04-19

    An anthropomorhic phantom is an object that can mimic a region of the human anatomy. Anthropomorphic phantoms have a variety of roles in diagnostic ultrasound. These roles include quality assurance testing of ultrasound machines, calibration and testing of new imaging techniques, training of sonographers, and--most importantly--use as a tool to obtain a better understanding of disease progression in the relevant anatomy. To be anthropomorphic a phantom must accurately mimic the body in terms of its ultrasonic and mechanical properties, as well as anatomically. The acoustic properties are speed of sound, attenuation, and backscatter. The mechanical properties are elasticity and density. Phantoms are constructed from tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs). TMMs are prepared from a variety of ingredients, such as gelatine, agar, safflower oil, and glass beads. These ingredients are then boiled and cooled under controlled conditions to produce a solid TMM. To determine if the TMM has the correct acoustic properties, acoustic measurements are performed using a scanning acoustic macroscope. Mechanical measurements are also performed to test the elasticity and density properties. TMMs with the correct properties are subsequently put through a series of moulding procedures to produce the anthropomorphic phantom.

  19. The Role of Anthropomorphic Phantoms in Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging for Disease Characterization (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, L. M.; King, D. M.; Browne, J. E.

    2009-04-01

    An anthropomorhic phantom is an object that can mimic a region of the human anatomy. Anthropomorphic phantoms have a variety of roles in diagnostic ultrasound. These roles include quality assurance testing of ultrasound machines, calibration and testing of new imaging techniques, training of sonographers, and-most importantly-use as a tool to obtain a better understanding of disease progression in the relevant anatomy. To be anthropomorphic a phantom must accurately mimic the body in terms of its ultrasonic and mechanical properties, as well as anatomically. The acoustic properties are speed of sound, attenuation, and backscatter. The mechanical properties are elasticity and density. Phantoms are constructed from tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs). TMMs are prepared from a variety of ingredients, such as gelatine, agar, safflower oil, and glass beads. These ingredients are then boiled and cooled under controlled conditions to produce a solid TMM. To determine if the TMM has the correct acoustic properties, acoustic measurements are performed using a scanning acoustic macroscope. Mechanical measurements are also performed to test the elasticity and density properties. TMMs with the correct properties are subsequently put through a series of moulding procedures to produce the anthropomorphic phantom.

  20. [Bases for the formation of an ultrasound diagnostic image of orbital tissue].

    PubMed

    Kharlap, S I; Vashkulatova, E A; Safonova, T N; Skvortsova, N V

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the specific features of the structure of orbital formations, by considering their anatomic topography and biophysical properties. By studying the results of investigations of the morphological and biophysical studies of orbital tissues, the authors analyze their features and compare their relationships. These results unraveling each of the considered orbital anatomic elements from the acoustic profile ranges may be useful in understanding the nature of clinical changes, which will be able to interpret these or those diagnostic signs--guides and to trace their evolution. In addition, this approach can help interpret the texture of an ultrasound digital image of eye socket soft tissue and permit one to look at pathological clinical manifestations from the so-called biophysical essence. This will allow additional information to be gleaned, by analyzing the usual signs.

  1. Emergency department bedside ultrasound diagnosis of retinoblastoma in a child.

    PubMed

    Presley, Bradley C; Flannigan, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    A 30-month-old boy presented to a Haitian emergency department with proptosis, periorbital edema, and progressive blindness. Bedside ultrasound examination revealed bilateral ocular masses with dense calcifications pathognomonic for retinoblastoma. This case illustrates the diagnostic utility of bedside ultrasound for an advanced case of retinoblastoma in a resource-poor setting. Ocular ultrasound technique is also reviewed. PMID:24084617

  2. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: current diagnostic criteria and advances in MRI diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Magill, Stephen T; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Weinstein, Philip R; Chin, Cynthia T; Jacques, Line

    2015-09-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is caused by compression of the brachial plexus as it traverses from the thoracic outlet to the axilla. Diagnosing nTOS can be difficult because of overlap with other complex pain and entrapment syndromes. An nTOS diagnosis is made based on patient history, physical exam, electrodiagnostic studies, and, more recently, interpretation of MR neurograms with tractography. Advances in high-resolution MRI and tractography can confirm an nTOS diagnosis and identify the location of nerve compression, allowing tailored surgical decompression. In this report, the authors review the current diagnostic criteria, present an update on advances in MRI, and provide case examples demonstrating how MR neurography (MRN) can aid in diagnosing nTOS. The authors conclude that improved high-resolution MRN and tractography are valuable tools for identifying the source of nerve compression in patients with nTOS and can augment current diagnostic modalities for this syndrome.

  3. Diagnostic value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in various lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Iliaz, Sinem; Bahadir, Ayse; Aslan, Asuman; Iliaz, Raim; Ozgul, Mehmet Akif; Urer, Halide Nur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new method for the diagnosis and staging of lung disease, and its use is increasing worldwide. It has been used as a means of diagnosing lung cancer in its initial stages, and there are data supporting its use for the diagnosis of benign lung disease. The aim of this study was to share our experience with EBUS-TBNA and discuss its diagnostic value. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the results related to 159 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA at our pulmonary medicine clinic between 2010 and 2013. We recorded the location and size of lymph nodes seen during EBUS. Lymph nodes that appeared to be affected on EBUS were sampled at least twice. We recorded the diagnostic results of EBUS-TBNA and (for cases in which EBUS-TBNA yielded an inconclusive diagnosis) the final diagnoses after further investigation and follow-up. Results: We evaluated 159 patients, of whom 89 (56%) were male and 70 (44%) were female. The mean age was 54.6 ± 14.2 years among the male patients and 51.9 ± 11.3 years among the female patients. Of the 159 patients evaluated, 115 (84%) were correctly diagnosed by EBUS. The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA was 83% for benign granulomatous diseases and 77% for malignant diseases. Conclusions: The diagnostic value of EBUS-TBNA is also high for benign pathologies, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. In patients with mediastinal disorders, the use of EBUS-TBNA should be encouraged, primarily because it markedly reduces the need for mediastinoscopy. PMID:26578131

  4. Advanced Diagnostics for Developing High-Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.-J.; Yakimenko, V.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  5. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH-BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  6. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... reflect off body structures. A computer receives the waves and uses them to create a picture. Unlike with an x-ray or CT scan, this test does not use ionizing radiation. The test is done in the ultrasound ...

  7. Using computer aided system to determine the maximum depth of visualization of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslebu, G.; Adi, K.; Suryono

    2016-03-01

    In the service unit of radiology, ultrasound modality is widely used because it has advantages over other modalities, such as relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, does not use ionizing radiation, and portable. Until now, the method for determining the depth visualization on quality control program is through the visual observation of ultrasound image on the monitor. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided system to determine maximum depth of visualization. Data acquisition was done by using B-Mode Diagnostic Ultrasound machine and Multi-purpose Multi-tissue Ultrasound Phantom model 040GSE. Phantom was scanned at fixed frequency of 1,8 MHz, 2,2 MHz, 3,6 MHz and 5,0 MHz with a gain variation of 30 dB, 45 dB, and 60 dB. Global thresholding and Euclidean distance method were used to determine maximum visualization depth. From this study, it is proved that the visualization depth using computer aided provide deeper visualization than visual interpretation. The differences between expert verification and the result of image processing are <6%. Thus, computer aided system can be used for the purpose of quality control in determining maximum visualization depth of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image.

  8. Performance of Advanced Light Source particle beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, is complete. The particle beam diagnostics have been installed and tested. The beam injection systems have been running for two years. We have performance data on beam position monitors, beam intensity monitors, scintillators, beam collimators, a 50 {Omega} Faraday cup, and broad-band striplines and kickers used in the linac, transport lines, and the booster synchrotron. The single-turn monitoring capability of the booster beam position monitoring system has been particularly useful for studying beam dynamics. Beam diagnostics for the storage ring are being commissioned. In this paper we describe each instrument, show its performance, and outline how the instruments are controlled and their output data displayed.

  9. Status of neutron diagnostics on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, G. Q.; Hu, L. Q.; Pu, N.; Zhou, R. J.; Xiao, M.; Cao, H. R.; Zhu, Y. B.; Li, K.; Fan, T. S.; Peng, X. Y.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Huang, J.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    Neutron diagnostics have become a significant means to study energetic particles in high power auxiliary heating plasmas on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Several kinds of neutron diagnostic systems have been implemented for time-resolved measurements of D-D neutron flux, fluctuation, emission profile, and spectrum. All detectors have been calibrated in laboratory, and in situ calibration using 252Cf neutron source in EAST is in preparation. A new technology of digitized pulse signal processing is adopted in a wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor, compact recoil proton spectrometer, and time of flight spectrometer. Improvements will be made continuously to the system to achieve better adaptation to the EAST's harsh γ-ray and electro-magnetic radiation environment.

  10. Lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: proposal for a new diagnostic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Maria; De Luca, Giuseppe; Prisco, Salvatore; Mancusi, Carlo; Laganà, Bruno; Comune, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite guideline recommendations, chest radiography (CR) for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children is commonly used also in mild and/or uncomplicated cases. The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of lung ultrasonography (LUS) as an alternative test in these cases and suggest a new diagnostic algorithm. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to the pediatric ward from February 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014 with respiratory signs and symptoms. We selected only cases with mild/uncomplicated clinical course and in which CR and LUS were performed within 24 h of each other. The LUS was not part of the required exams recorded in medical records but performed independently. The discharge diagnosis, made only on the basis of history and physical examination, laboratory and instrumental tests, including CR (without LUS), was used as a reference test to compare CR and LUS findings. Results. Of 52 selected medical records CAP diagnosis was confirmed in 29 (55.7%). CR was positive in 25 cases, whereas LUS detected pneumonia in 28 cases. Four patients with negative CR were positive in ultrasound findings. Instead, one patient with negative LUS was positive in radiographic findings. The LUS sensitivity was 96.5% (95% CI [82.2%–99.9%]), specificity of 95.6% (95% CI [78.0%–99.9%]), positive likelihood ratio of 22.2 (95% CI [3.2–151.2]), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.04 (95% CI [0.01–0.25]) for diagnosing pneumonia. Conclusion. LUS can be considered as a valid alternative diagnostic tool of CAP in children and its use must be promoted as a first approach in accordance with our new diagnostic algorithm. PMID:26587343

  11. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P. Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.; Granetz, R. S.

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  12. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Chen, D L; Shen, B; Granetz, R S; Sun, Y; Qian, J P; Wang, Y; Xiao, B J

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  13. A new method for tracking organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiki Matsumura, Akihiko; Fukahori, Mai; Minohara, Shin-ichi; Yasuda, Shigeo; Nagahashi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated irradiation is effective in reducing the margins of a target in the case of abdominal organs, such as the liver, that change their position as a result of respiratory motion. However, existing technologies are incapable of directly measuring organ motion in real-time during radiation beam delivery. Hence, the authors proposed a novel quantitative organ motion tracking method involving the use of diagnostic ultrasound images; it is noninvasive and does not entail radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors have prospectively evaluated this proposed method. Methods: The method involved real-time processing of clinical ultrasound imaging data rather than organ monitoring; it comprised a three-dimensional ultrasound device, a respiratory sensing system, and two PCs for data storage and analysis. The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by tracking the gallbladder in one subject and a liver vein in another subject. To track a moving target organ, the method involved the control of a region of interest (ROI) that delineated the target. A tracking algorithm was used to control the ROI, and a large number of feature points and an error correction algorithm were used to achieve long-term tracking of the target. Tracking accuracy was assessed in terms of how well the ROI matched the center of the target. Results: The effectiveness of using a large number of feature points and the error correction algorithm in the proposed method was verified by comparing it with two simple tracking methods. The ROI could capture the center of the target for about 5 min in a cross-sectional image with changing position. Indeed, using the proposed method, it was possible to accurately track a target with a center deviation of 1.54 ± 0.9 mm. The computing time for one frame image using our proposed method was 8 ms. It is expected that it would be possible to track any soft-tissue organ or tumor with large deformations and

  14. [Current Advances and Future Development of Thyroid Ultrasound Examination--Steps toward State-of-the-Art Laboratory Medicine in Fukushima].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    Since the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, large quantities of radionuclides have leaked into the surrounding environment. Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project including Thyroid Ultrasound Examination to screen for thyroid cancer in all residents aged 0 to 18 years at the time of the nuclear accident. This accident also led to increased interest in thyroid ultrasound examination in Japan. This article reviews the studies to establish ultrasound diagnostic criteria for thyroid nodules and the clinical guidelines of thyroid nodule management, both of which are fundamental to Thyroid Ultrasound Examination in Fukushima. This article also reviews a study designed to clarify the actual frequency of sonographically detected thyroid nodular lesions among Japanese children, which will become appropriate reference data to interpret the results from Thyroid Ultrasound Examination. Further advances in the screening and management of thyroid diseases are important responsibilities of clinicians and researchers in Fukushima. PMID:26524862

  15. Ultrasound introscopic image quantitative characteristics for medical diagnostics and refinements of physical noise rise reasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselets, Mikhail K.; Radchenko, Sergiy P.; Tsubin, Vitaliy A.; Gridko, Alexander N.

    1994-05-01

    Ultrasound images obtained with a simple sector scan show a granular appearance, called `speckle'. The speckle is the useless property of the ultrasound introskopic images as it mask all small differences of the images. The possibility of the speckle noise reduction by special created filter is analyzed. The computer processing results of ultrasound introskopic thyroid gland images by such filter are presented.

  16. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  17. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  18. Diagnostic value of ultrasound in calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gamon, Etienne; Combe, Bernard; Barnetche, Thomas; Mouterde, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of data from cohort studies to analyse the diagnostic performances (ie, sensitivity and specificity) of ultrasound (US) for diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease with microscopic crystal detection used as a gold standard. Methods We performed a systematic review of articles published up to December 2014 using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane databases and abstracts from the past two EULAR and ACR annual meetings. Only studies reporting the performance of US for diagnosis of CPPD disease were selected. A meta-analysis involved the inverse variance method to evaluate global sensitivity and specificity of US. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q-test and I2 values. Results The search resulted in 85 articles and 11 abstracts; 17 and 4, respectively, were selected for the systematic review. A total of 262 patients with CPPD disease and 335 controls from 4 original articles and 4 abstracts were included in the meta-analysis. The US diagnostic patterns most frequently recorded were thin hyperechoic bands in the hyaline cartilage (8 articles); hyperechoic spots in fibrous cartilage or in tendons (7 articles); and homogeneous hyperechoic nodules localised in bursa or articular recesses (4 articles). The meta-analysis revealed a heterogeneity of the data, with a sensitivity of 87.9% (95% CI 80.9% to 94.9%) and specificity of 91.5% (95% CI 85.5% to 97.5%) using a random model. Conclusions This meta-analysis confirmed that US has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CPPD and may be a promising tool for the diagnosis and management of CPPD. PMID:26535143

  19. Ultrasound Elastography and MR Elastography for Assessing Liver Fibrosis: Part 2, Diagnostic Performance, Confounders, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Tang, An; Cloutier, Guy; Szeverenyi, Nikolaus M.; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of the article is to review the diagnostic performance of ultrasound and MR elastography techniques for detection and staging of liver fibrosis, the main current clinical applications of elastography in the abdomen. CONCLUSION Technical and instrument-related factors and biologic and patient-related factors may constitute potential confounders of stiffness measurements for assessment of liver fibrosis. Future developments may expand the scope of elastography for monitoring liver fibrosis and predict complications of chronic liver disease. PMID:25905762

  20. Efforts to improve the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Shibukawa, Goro; Fujisawa, Mariko; Sato, Ai; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is widely used to obtain a definitive diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Good results have been reported for its diagnostic accuracy, with high sensitivity and specificity of around 90%; however, technological developments and adaptations to improve it still further are currently underway. The endosonographic technique can be improved when several tips and tricks useful to overcome challenges of EUS-FNA are known. This review provides various techniques and equipment for improvement in the diagnostic accuracy in EUS-FNA. PMID:27503153

  1. Surfactant-stabilized contrast agent on the nanoscale for diagnostic ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Margaret A; Forsberg, Flemming; Dube, Neal; Patel, Mihir; Oeffinger, Brian E

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (CA) are generally micron-sized stabilized gas bubbles, injected IV. However, to penetrate beyond the vasculature and accumulate in targets such as tumors, CA must be an order of magnitude smaller. We describe a method of achieving nanometer-sized, surfactant-stabilized CA by differential centrifugation. High g force was shown to destroy bubble integrity. Optimal conditions (300 rpm for 3 min) produced an agent with a mean diameter of 450 nm, which gave 25.5 dB enhancement in vitro at a dose of 10 microL/mL, with a 13 min half-life. In vivo, the CA produced excellent power Doppler and grey-scale pulse inversion harmonic images at low acoustic power when administered. In vivo dose-response curves obtained in three rabbits showed enhancement between 20 and 25 dB for dosages above 0.025 mL/kg. These results encourage further investigation of the possible diagnostic and therapeutic benefits of using nanoparticles as CA, including passive targeting and accumulation in tumors.

  2. Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology Advancements for Plasma Diagnostics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu

    To realize fusion plant, the very first step is to understand the fundamental physics of materials under fusion conditions, i.e. to understand fusion plasmas. Our research group, Plasma Diagnostics Group, focuses on developing advanced tools for physicists to extract as much information as possible from fusion plasmas at millions degrees. The Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics is a very useful tool invented in this group to study fusion plasma electron temperature and it fluctuations. This dissertation presents millimeter wave imaging technology advances recently developed in this group to improve the ECEI system. New technologies made it more powerful to image and visualize magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) activities and micro-turbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis start from development of miniaturized elliptical substrate lens array. This novel substrate lens array replaces the previous generation substrate lens, hyper-hemispherical substrate lens, in terms of geometry. From the optical performance perspective, this substitution not only significantly simplifies the optical system with improved optical coupling, but also enhances the RF/LO coupling efficiency. By the benefit of the mini lens focusing properties, a wideband dual-dipole antenna array is carefully designed and developed. The new antenna array is optimized simultaneously for receiving both RF and LO, with sharp radiation patterns, low side-lobe levels, and less crosstalk between adjacent antennas. In addition, a high frequency antenna is also developed, which extends the frequency limit from 145 GHz to 220 GHz. This type of antenna will be used on high field operation tokamaks with toroidal fields in excess of 3 Tesla. Another important technology advance is so-called extended bandwidth double down-conversion electronics. This new electronics extends the instantaneous IF coverage from 2 to 9.2 GHz to 2 to 16.4 GHz. From the plasma point of view, it means that the

  3. Perspectives on Advances in Tuberculosis Diagnostics, Drugs, and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schito, Marco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Fletcher, Helen A; McNerney, Ruth; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Bates, Matthew; Kibiki, Gibson; Kapata, Nathan; Corrah, Tumena; Bomanji, Jamshed; Vilaplana, Cris; Johnson, Daniel; Mwaba, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-10-15

    Despite concerted efforts over the past 2 decades at developing new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines with expanding pipelines, tuberculosis remains a global emergency. Several novel diagnostic technologies show promise of better point-of-care rapid tests for tuberculosis including nucleic acid-based amplification tests, imaging, and breath analysis of volatile organic compounds. Advances in new and repurposed drugs for use in multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis have focused on development of several new drug regimens and their evaluation in clinical trials and now influence World Health Organization guidelines. Since the failure of the MVA85A vaccine 2 years ago, there have been no new tuberculosis vaccine candidates entering clinical testing. The current status quo of the lengthy treatment duration and poor treatment outcomes associated with MDR/XDR tuberculosis and with comorbidity of tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus and noncommunicable diseases is unacceptable. New innovations and political and funder commitment for early rapid diagnosis, shortening duration of therapy, improving treatment outcomes, and prevention are urgently required.

  4. Perspectives on Advances in Tuberculosis Diagnostics, Drugs, and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Schito, Marco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Fletcher, Helen A.; McNerney, Ruth; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Bates, Matthew; Kibiki, Gibson; Kapata, Nathan; Corrah, Tumena; Bomanji, Jamshed; Vilaplana, Cris; Johnson, Daniel; Mwaba, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts over the past 2 decades at developing new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines with expanding pipelines, tuberculosis remains a global emergency. Several novel diagnostic technologies show promise of better point-of-care rapid tests for tuberculosis including nucleic acid–based amplification tests, imaging, and breath analysis of volatile organic compounds. Advances in new and repurposed drugs for use in multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis have focused on development of several new drug regimens and their evaluation in clinical trials and now influence World Health Organization guidelines. Since the failure of the MVA85A vaccine 2 years ago, there have been no new tuberculosis vaccine candidates entering clinical testing. The current status quo of the lengthy treatment duration and poor treatment outcomes associated with MDR/XDR tuberculosis and with comorbidity of tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus and noncommunicable diseases is unacceptable. New innovations and political and funder commitment for early rapid diagnosis, shortening duration of therapy, improving treatment outcomes, and prevention are urgently required. PMID:26409271

  5. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Chatterjee, Soumya; Veer, Vijay

    2014-10-28

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the important global health problems today. Infection with HBV can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations including severe hepatic complications like liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Presently, routine HBV screening and diagnosis is primarily based on the immuno-detection of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). However, identification of HBV DNA positive cases, who do not have detectable HBsAg has greatly encouraged the use of nucleic acid amplification based assays, that are highly sensitive, specific and are to some extent tolerant to sequence variation. In the last few years, the field of HBV molecular diagnostics has evolved rapidly with advancements in the molecular biology tools, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. Recently, apart of PCR based amplification methods, a number of isothermal amplification assays, such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, transcription mediated amplification, ligase chain reaction, and rolling circle amplification have been utilized for HBV diagnosis. These assays also offer options for real time detection and integration into biosensing devices. In this manuscript, we review the molecular technologies that are presently available for HBV diagnostics, with special emphasis on isothermal amplification based technologies. We have also included the recent trends in the development of biosensors and use of next generation sequencing technologies for HBV.

  6. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the advanced photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1993-07-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e -, e +) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest X-ray sources in the 10-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV injector synchrotron (IS), 7-GeV storage ring (SR), and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  7. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. PMID:27757007

  8. New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.

    2013-12-01

    data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. The main purpose of this presentation is to describe new advanced diagnostic techniques of the near-Earth space plasma and point out the scientific challenges of the radio frequency analyser located on board of low orbiting satellites and LOFAR facilities.

  9. Alteration of Bacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity After Short-Term Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Darvish, Leili; Abounajmi, Mohammad; Zarei, Samira; Zare, Tahereh; Taheri, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background Many pathogenic bacteria show different levels of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, a lot of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. According to WHO, patients with drug-resistant infections have higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, patients infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics considerably consume more healthcare resources. Objectives In this study, we explored a physical method of converting drug-resistant bacteria to drug-sensitive ones. Materials and Methods This is an in vitro case-control study, performed at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, Iran in 2014. All experiments were carried out using Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus group A, isolated from hospitalized patients. The bacterial strains were obtained from the Persian Type Culture Collection, IROST, Iran (Klebsiella pneumonia PTCC 1290) and Bacteriology Department of Shahid Faghihi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus group A). The bacteria in culture plates were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound using a MyLab70XVG sonography system for 5 minutes. Then, the bacteria were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 35°C for 18 hours. Finally, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and the inhibition zone in both control and exposed groups were measured. Three replicate agar plates were used for each test and the inhibition zones of the plates were recorded. Results Compared with the results obtained from unexposed bacteria, statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found in some strains after short-term exposure. In particular, we found major differences (making antibiotic-resistant bacteria susceptible or vice versa) in the diameters of

  10. Computerized Diagnostic Assistant for the Automatic Detection of Pneumothorax on Ultrasound: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Shane M.; Chin, Eric J.; Long, Brit J.; Grisell, Ronald D.; Knight, John G.; Grathwohl, Kurt W.; Ritter, John L.; Morgan, Jeffrey D.; Salinas, Jose; Blackbourne, Lorne H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bedside thoracic ultrasound (US) can rapidly diagnose pneumothorax (PTX) with improved accuracy over the physical examination and without the need for chest radiography (CXR); however, US is highly operator dependent. A computerized diagnostic assistant was developed by the United States Army Institute of Surgical Research to detect PTX on standard thoracic US images. This computer algorithm is designed to automatically detect sonographic signs of PTX by systematically analyzing B-mode US video clips for pleural sliding and M-mode still images for the seashore sign. This was a pilot study to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the PTX detection computer algorithm when compared to an expert panel of US trained physicians. Methods This was a retrospective study using archived thoracic US obtained on adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) between 5/23/2011 and 8/6/2014. Emergency medicine residents, fellows, attending physicians, physician assistants, and medical students performed the US examinations and stored the images in the picture archive and communications system (PACS). The PACS was queried for all ED bedside US examinations with reported positive PTX during the study period along with a random sample of negatives. The computer algorithm then interpreted the images, and we compared the results to an independent, blinded expert panel of three physicians, each with experience reviewing over 10,000 US examinations. Results Query of the PACS system revealed 146 bedside thoracic US examinations for analysis. Thirteen examinations were indeterminate and were excluded. There were 79 true negatives, 33 true positives, 9 false negatives, and 12 false positives. The test characteristics of the algorithm when compared to the expert panel were sensitivity 79% (95 % CI [63–89]) and specificity 87% (95% CI [77–93]). For the 20 images scored as highest quality by the expert panel, the algorithm demonstrated 100% sensitivity (95% CI [56

  11. Non-invasive assessment of negative pressure wound therapy using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound: oedema reduction and new tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen R; Hampton, Sylvie; Martin, Robin

    2013-08-01

    Tissue oedema plays an important role in the pathology of chronic and traumatic wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is thought to contribute to active oedema reduction, yet few studies have showed this effect. In this study, high frequency diagnostic ultrasound at 20 MHz with an axial resolution of 60 µm was used to assess the effect of NPWT at - 80 mmHg on pressure ulcers and the surrounding tissue. Wounds were monitored in four patients over a 3-month period during which changes in oedema and wound bed thickness (granulation tissue) were measured non-invasively. The results showed a rapid reduction of periwound tissue oedema in all patients with levels falling by a mean of 43% after 4 days of therapy. A 20% increase in the thickness of the wound bed was observed after 7 days due to new granulation tissue formation. Ultrasound scans through the in situ gauze NPWT filler also revealed the existence of macrodeformation in the tissue produced by the negative pressure. These preliminary studies suggest that non-invasive assessment using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound could be a valuable tool in clinical studies of NPWT.

  12. Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.

  13. 4D Ultrasound - Medical Devices for Recent Advances on the Etiology of Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Tomasovic, Sanja; Predojevic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Children cerebral palsy (CCP) encompasses a group of nonprogessive and noninfectious conditions, which cause light, moderate, and severe deviations in neurological development. Diagnosis of CCP is set mostly by the age of 3 years. The fact that a large number of cerebral damage occurs prenatally and the fact that early intervention in cases of neurological damage is successful, prompted some researchers to explore the possibility of detecting neurologically damaged fetus in the uterus. This research was made possible thanks to the development of two-dimensional ultrasound technology in a real time, which enabled the display of the mobility of the fetus. Advancement of the ultrasound technology has enabled the development of 4D ultrasound where a spontaneous fetal movement can be observed almost in a real time. Estimate of the number and quality of spontaneous fetal movements and stitches on the head, the neurology thumb and a high palate were included in the prenatal neurological screening of the fetus. This raises the question, as to does the fetal behavior reflect, (which was revealed in 2D or 4D ultrasound), fetal neurological development in a manner that will allow the detection of the brain damage. PMID:23407920

  14. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of locally advanced breast cancer by estimation of its scatterer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory; Wirtzfeld, Lauren; Wright, Frances C.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor

  15. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  16. Advanced Spectral Analysis Methods for Quantification of Coherent Ultrasound Scattering: Applications in the Breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.

    The goal of this dissertation was to improve the diagnostic value of parametric images generated from Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) methods based on the power spectral density (PSD) of radiofrequency echo signals. This was achieved by testing for local adherence to conventional QUS assumptions that echo signals originate from incoherent scattering, and that signals are stationary over PSD estimation windows. For this purpose, we designed a novel algorithm that empirically evaluates the statistical significance of coherent-scattering signatures in the echo signals. Signatures are quantified through a set of optimized metrics describing the stationary or non-stationary features of the echo signals. We compared Nakagami-model based metrics and model-free metrics of the statistics of the echo signal amplitude for analyzing stationary features. For non-stationary features, we advanced the use of the echo-signal generalized spectrum by comparing single- and multi-taper estimators of this spectrum to the time-domain singular spectrum analysis method. Tests of statistical significance were done through empirical comparisons with values of the same metrics estimated from a uniform reference material exhibiting incoherent scattering. The metrics that quantify these features were selected after simulation- and phantom-based optimizations centered on the task of creating parametric images, where tradeoffs must be made between spatial resolution and detection performance. The connection of the analyses of the stationary and the non-stationary features provided a way to estimate descriptors of the tissue organization scales below and above the resolution limit imposed by the size of the acoustic pulse. A preliminary application of the developed algorithm was done on echo data from human breast lesions scanned in vivo. Results supported the idea of a more homogeneously random distribution of subresolution scatterers within invasive ductal carcinomas than within fibroadenomas

  17. [Value of ultrasound in diagnostic and follow-up of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Kinkel, Horst; Michels, Guido; Jaspers, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Transabdominal ultrasound as an easy to use, accurate, cost-effective and pleasant method has emerged as one of the most important imaging techniques in daily routine. Ultrasound is efficient for the diagnosis and differentiation of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). For monitoring disease activity and severity as well as identifying complications (stenosis, abscess and fistula) high-resolution ultrasonography with Doppler techniques and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is well suited. Perineal ultrasound and extravascular CEUS can give important information for clinical management of patients with IBD. The aim of this article is to give an updated overview about the clinical applications of ultrasound in the diagnosis and followup of patients with IBD.

  18. High intensity focused ultrasound: A noninvasive therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The noninvasive ablation of pancreatic cancer with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) energy is received increasingly widespread interest. With rapidly temperature rise to cytotoxic levels within the focal volume of ultrasound beams, HIFU can selectively ablate a targeted lesion of the pancreas without any damage to surrounding or overlying tissues. Preliminary studies suggest that this approach is technical safe and feasible, and can be used alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. It can effectively alleviate cancer-related abdominal pain, and may confer an additional survival benefit with few significant complications. This review provides a brief overview of HIFU, describes current clinical applications, summarizes characteristics of continuous and pulsed HIFU, and discusses future applications and challenges in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25469016

  19. Ultrasound-guided biopsy as a diagnostic aid in three horses with a cranial mediastinal lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, D; van Loon, G; Lefère, L; Deprez, P

    2004-06-01

    An ultrasound examination of the thorax of three horses which were performing poorly or had mild signs of colic showed that they had a cranial mediastinal mass and a pleural effusion. A cytological examination of the pleural fluid showed that it did not contain neoplastic cells. A histological examination of an ultrasound-guided core biopsy of the cranial mediastinal mass showed that in each of the three horses it was a lymphosarcoma. PMID:15214516

  20. What's new in urologic ultrasound?

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Anupam; Naranje, Priyanka; Pavunesan, Santhosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is an imaging technology that has evolved swiftly and has come a long way since its beginnings. It is a commonly used initial diagnostic imaging modality as it is rapid, effective, portable, relatively inexpensive, and causes no harm to human health. In the last few decades, there have been significant technological improvements in the equipment as well as the development of contrast agents that allowed ultrasound to be even more widely adopted for urologic imaging. Ultrasound is an excellent guidance tool for an array of urologic interventional procedures and also has therapeutic application in the form of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for tumor ablation. This article focuses on the recent advances in ultrasound technology and its emerging clinical applications in urology. PMID:26166960

  1. Surface Diagnostics in Tribology Technology and Advanced Coatings Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodologies used for surface property measurement of thin films and coatings, lubricants, and materials in the field of tribology. Surface diagnostic techniques include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and tribology examination. Each diagnostic technique provides specific measurement results in its own unique way. In due course it should be possible to coordinate the different pieces of information provided by these diagnostic techniques into a coherent self-consistent description of the surface properties. Examples are given on the nature and character of thin diamond films.

  2. Automatic CT-ultrasound registration for diagnostic imaging and image-guided intervention.

    PubMed

    Wein, Wolfgang; Brunke, Shelby; Khamene, Ali; Callstrom, Matthew R; Navab, Nassir

    2008-10-01

    The fusion of tracked ultrasound with CT has benefits for a variety of clinical applications, however extensive manual effort is usually required for correct registration. We developed new methods that allow one to simulate medical ultrasound from CT in real-time, reproducing the majority of ultrasonic imaging effects. They are combined with a robust similarity measure that assesses the correlation of a combination of signals extracted from CT with ultrasound, without knowing the influence of each signal. This serves as the foundation of a fully automatic registration, that aligns a 3D ultrasound sweep with the corresponding tomographic modality using a rigid or an affine transformation model, without any manual interaction. These techniques were evaluated in a study involving 25 patients with indeterminate lesions in liver and kidney. The clinical setup, acquisition and registration workflow is described, along with the evaluation of the registration accuracy with respect to physician-defined Ground Truth. Our new algorithm correctly registers without any manual interaction in 76% of the cases, the average RMS TRE over multiple target lesions throughout the liver is 8.1mm.

  3. PREFACE AND CONFERENCE SUMMARY: Advanced Metrology for Ultrasound in Medicine, 27 28 April 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Adam

    2004-01-01

    AMUM 2004 proved to be a great success and provided a fantastic opportunity for the world's ultrasound experts from medicine, industry and academia to explore the measurement challenges presented by new and emerging clinical ultrasound equipment. There were a total of 88 attendees. Of these 39 were from the UK, 22 from the rest of Europe, and 27 from outside Europe. 31 of the delegates were from industry, 22 were university-based, 18 from hospitals, 10 from other National Metrology Institutes and regulatory bodies, and 7 from NPL. Test your knowledge of the ultrasound community by trying to name all the faces in the group photograph! It was especially gratifying to see so many major medical equipment manufacturers represented—including Siemens, Philips, Esaote, Kontron, Pie Medical, G.E., Hitachi, Aloka and Imasonic—since it is essential that there is a good dialogue between industry and the measurement community. The presentations were split into 8 oral sessions—Hydrophones, Hydrophone measurements, Safety and thermal hazard, Measurement challenges for diagnostic ultrasound, Measurement of therapy fields, Tissue interaction, Novel measurement methods, and Measurement challenges for therapeutic ultrasound; and 3 poster sessions—Performance of diagnostic equipment, Measurement and safety, and Field modelling. It was always my hope that this conference would provide a framework for the development of measurement methods to meet the metrological challenges we face over the next decade. To this end, I have asked the Chairs of each oral and poster session to give their views of their own session and of the more general requirements in that topic area. The feedback I received both during and subsequent to the meeting was almost uniformly good; this was borne out by the returned questionnaires, with most categories being scored excellent or good. I was delighted at the high standard of the presentations and to see delegates of such reputation and experience in the

  4. Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) Testability Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossenfort, John

    2008-01-01

    As system designs become more complex, determining the best locations to add sensors and test points for the purpose of testing and monitoring these designs becomes more difficult. Not only must the designer take into consideration all real and potential faults of the system, he or she must also find efficient ways of detecting and isolating those faults. Because sensors and cabling take up valuable space and weight on a system, and given constraints on bandwidth and power, it is even more difficult to add sensors into these complex designs after the design has been completed. As a result, a number of software tools have been developed to assist the system designer in proper placement of these sensors during the system design phase of a project. One of the key functions provided by many of these software programs is a testability analysis of the system essentially an evaluation of how observable the system behavior is using available tests. During the design phase, testability metrics can help guide the designer in improving the inherent testability of the design. This may include adding, removing, or modifying tests; breaking up feedback loops, or changing the system to reduce fault propagation. Given a set of test requirements, the analysis can also help to verify that the system will meet those requirements. Of course, a testability analysis requires that a software model of the physical system is available. For the analysis to be most effective in guiding system design, this model should ideally be constructed in parallel with these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to present the final testability results of the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) after the system model was completed. The tool chosen to build the model and to perform the testability analysis with is the Testability Engineering and Maintenance System Designer (TEAMS-Designer). The TEAMS toolset is intended to be a solution to span all phases of the system, from design and

  5. Early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans and risk of childhood cancer: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jill; Neta, Gila; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Ansell, Pat; Linet, Martha S; Ron, Elaine; Roman, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood cancer risks associated with exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in utero and in early infancy (age 0-100 days). Design Case-control study. Setting England and Wales. Participants 2690 childhood cancer cases and 4858 age, sex, and region matched controls from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS), born 1976-96. Main outcome measures Risk of all childhood cancer, leukaemia, lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours, measured by odds ratios. Results Logistic regression models conditioned on matching factors, with adjustment for maternal age and child’s birth weight, showed no evidence of increased risk of childhood cancer with in utero exposure to ultrasound scans. Some indication existed of a slight increase in risk after in utero exposure to x rays for all cancers (odds ratio 1.l4, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.45) and leukaemia (1.36, 0.91 to 2.02), but this was not statistically significant. Exposure to diagnostic x rays in early infancy (0-100 days) was associated with small, non-significant excess risks for all cancers and leukaemia, as well as increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio 5.14, 1.27 to 20.78) on the basis of small numbers. Conclusions Although the results for lymphoma need to be replicated, all of the findings indicate possible risks of cancer from radiation at doses lower than those associated with commonly used procedures such as computed tomography scans, suggesting the need for cautious use of diagnostic radiation imaging procedures to the abdomen/pelvis of the mother during pregnancy and in children at very young ages. PMID:21310791

  6. Advanced smile diagnostics using CAD/CAM mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostics are essential for predictable restorative dentistry. Both patient and clinician must agree on a treatment goal before the final restorations are delivered to avoid future disappointments. However, fully understanding the patient's desires is difficult. A useful tool to overcome this problem is the diagnostic wax-up and mock-up. A potential treatment outcome is modeled in wax prior to treatment and transferred into the patient's mouth using silicon indexes and autopolymerizing resin to obtain the patient's approval. Yet, this time-consuming procedure only produces a single version of the possible treatment outcome, which can be unsatisfactory for both the patient and the restorative team. Contemporary digital technologies may provide advantageous features to aid in this diagnostic treatment step. This article reviews opportunities digital technologies offer in the diagnostic phase, and presents clinical cases to illustrate the procedures.

  7. Ultrasound physics.

    PubMed

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images.

  8. Nonlinear effects in ultrasound fields of diagnostic-type transducers used for kidney stone propulsion: Characterization in water

    SciTech Connect

    Karzova, M.; Cunitz, B.; Kreider, W.; Bailey, M.; Yuldashev, P.; Andriyakhina, Y.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Khokhlova, V.

    2015-10-28

    Newer imaging and therapeutic ultrasound technologies require higher in situ pressure levels compared to conventional diagnostic values. One example is the recently developed use of focused ultrasonic radiation force to move kidney stones and residual fragments out of the urinary collecting system. A commercial diagnostic 2.3 MHz C5-2 array probe is used to deliver the acoustic pushing pulses. The probe comprises 128 elements equally spaced at the 55 mm long convex cylindrical surface with 38 mm radius of curvature. The efficacy of the treatment can be increased by using higher intensity at the focus to provide stronger pushing force; however, nonlinear acoustic saturation can be a limiting factor. In this work nonlinear propagation effects were analyzed for the C5-2 transducer using a combined measurement and modeling approach. Simulations were based on the 3D Westervelt equation; the boundary condition was set to match the focal geometry of the beam as measured at a low power output. Focal waveforms simulated for increased output power levels were compared with the fiber-optic hydrophone measurements and were found in good agreement. It was shown that saturation effects do limit the acoustic pressure in the focal region of the transducer. This work has application to standard diagnostic probes and imaging.

  9. Nonlinear effects in ultrasound fields of diagnostic-type transducers used for kidney stone propulsion: Characterization in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karzova, M.; Cunitz, B.; Yuldashev, P.; Andriyakhina, Y.; Kreider, W.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Bailey, M.; Khokhlova, V.

    2015-10-01

    Newer imaging and therapeutic ultrasound technologies require higher in situ pressure levels compared to conventional diagnostic values. One example is the recently developed use of focused ultrasonic radiation force to move kidney stones and residual fragments out of the urinary collecting system. A commercial diagnostic 2.3 MHz C5-2 array probe is used to deliver the acoustic pushing pulses. The probe comprises 128 elements equally spaced at the 55 mm long convex cylindrical surface with 38 mm radius of curvature. The efficacy of the treatment can be increased by using higher intensity at the focus to provide stronger pushing force; however, nonlinear acoustic saturation can be a limiting factor. In this work nonlinear propagation effects were analyzed for the C5-2 transducer using a combined measurement and modeling approach. Simulations were based on the 3D Westervelt equation; the boundary condition was set to match the focal geometry of the beam as measured at a low power output. Focal waveforms simulated for increased output power levels were compared with the fiber-optic hydrophone measurements and were found in good agreement. It was shown that saturation effects do limit the acoustic pressure in the focal region of the transducer. This work has application to standard diagnostic probes and imaging.

  10. Nonlinear Effects in Ultrasound Fields of Diagnostic-type Transducers Used for Kidney Stone Propulsion: Characterization in Water

    PubMed Central

    Karzova, M.; Cunitz, B.; Yuldashev, P.; Andriyakhina, Y.; Kreider, W.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Bailey, M.; Khokhlova, V.

    2016-01-01

    Newer imaging and therapeutic ultrasound technologies require higher in situ pressure levels compared to conventional diagnostic values. One example is the recently developed use of focused ultrasonic radiation force to move kidney stones and residual fragments out of the urinary collecting system. A commercial diagnostic 2.3 MHz C5-2 array probe is used to deliver the acoustic pushing pulses. The probe comprises 128 elements equally spaced at the 55 mm long convex cylindrical surface with 38 mm radius of curvature. The efficacy of the treatment can be increased by using higher transducer output to provide stronger pushing force; however, nonlinear acoustic saturation effect can be a limiting factor. In this work nonlinear propagation effects were analyzed for the C5-2 transducer using a combined measurement and modeling approach. Simulations were based on the 3D Westervelt equation; the boundary condition was set to match low power pressure beam scans. Focal waveforms simulated for increased output power levels were compared with the fiber-optic hydrophone measurements and were found in good agreement. It was shown that saturation effects do limit the acoustic pressure in the focal region of the transducer. This work has application to standard diagnostic probes and imaging. PMID:27087711

  11. Diagnostic nerve ultrasound in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Brown, Martin E; Eulitt, Patrick; Walker, Francis O; Lawson, Victoria H; Caress, James B

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound is emerging as a useful tool for evaluation of neuromuscular conditions, because it can provide high-resolution anatomic information to complement electrodiagnostic data. There have been few studies in which ultrasound was used to assess the peripheral nerves of individuals with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and none involving CMT type 1B. In this study we compared nerve cross-sectional area in individuals from a single large family with CMT 1B with normal, healthy controls. We also assessed for cranial nerve enlargement in those with CMT 1B with cranial neuropathies compared to those with CMT 1B without cranial neuropathies. Individuals with CMT 1B have significantly larger median and vagus nerves than healthy controls, but no difference was seen in cranial nerve size between those with versus those without cranial neuropathies. This is the first study to characterize the ultrasonographic findings in the peripheral nerves of individuals with CMT 1B.

  12. WE-D-18C-01: Art of Imaging: Diagnostic Ultrasound Image Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Zagzebski, J; Lu, Z

    2014-06-15

    Assumptions followed during construction of B-mode and color flow images are that the pulse-echo transit time can be converted to reflector depth through uniform tissue models, echoes originate only from locations along the transmit-receive axes of pulse propagation, and first order correction schemes adequately account for acoustic wave attenuation and absorption. The latter allows the display brightness to encode tissue echogenicity. This course will challenge participants to identify imaging artifacts whose origins stem from the more complex and realistic propagating and scattering conditions common in clinical ultrasound. Speckle, a very common artifact but a clinically employed feature, originates from simultaneous echoes from diffuse scatterers and is a result of coherent detection of signals. One of the most bothersome artifacts are those due to reverberations especially that originating from superficial tissue interfaces. Methods to overcome these will be discussed. This presentation also will describe and illustrate speed of sound, refraction, enhancement, shadowing, mirroring, beam width, beam-forming, and slice thickness artifacts. All are useful examples of limitations introduced by acoustic waves propagating through complex tissue paths. New formats for physician board certification exams are demanding the inclusion of image-based examples of ultrasound physics. Instructors' knowledge of, and access to examples of ultrasound artifacts are important in this effort. The presentation will incorporate an audience response system to challenge participants in correct identification of some of these artifacts. Learning Objectives: Review basic mechanisms for producing ultrasound images. Identify the etiology of speckle, reverberation noise, beam width and slice thickness artifacts, and artifacts associated with pulse propagation. Discuss methods that reduce the impact of artifacts OR employ artifacts effectively to facilitate clinical diagnosis.

  13. Target detection in diagnostic ultrasound: Evaluation of a method based on the CLEAN algorithm.

    PubMed

    Masoom, Hassan; Adve, Raviraj S; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2013-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the detection of abnormalities (targets) in ultrasound images using little or no a priori information and requiring little operator intervention. The scheme is a combination of the CLEAN algorithm, originally proposed for radio astronomy, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing, as developed for use in radar systems. The CLEAN algorithm identifies areas in the ultrasound image that stand out above a threshold in relation to the background; CFAR techniques allow for an adaptive, semi-automated, selection of the threshold. Neither appears to have been previously used for target detection in ultrasound images and never together in any context. As a first step towards assessing the potential of this method we used a widely used method of simulating B-mode images (Field II). We assumed the use of a 256 element linear array operating at 3.0MHz into a water-like medium containing a density of point scatterers sufficient to simulate a background of fully developed speckle. Spherical targets with diameters ranging from 0.25 to 6.0mm and contrasts ranging from 0 to 12dB relative to the background were used as test objects. Using a contrast-detail analysis, the probability of detection curves indicate these targets can be consistently detected within a speckle background. Our results indicate that the method has considerable promise for the semi-automated detection of abnormalities with diameters greater than a few millimeters, depending on the contrast.

  14. Diagnostic Ultrasound Induced Inertial Cavitation to Non-Invasively Restore Coronary and Microvascular Flow in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Feng; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Radio, Stanley; Vignon, Francois; Shi, William; Powers, Jeffry; Unger, Evan; Everbach, E. Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Porter, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound induced cavitation has been explored as a method of dissolving intravascular and microvascular thrombi in acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of cavitation required for success, and whether longer pulse duration therapeutic impulses (sustaining the duration of cavitation) could restore both microvascular and epicardial flow with this technique. Accordingly, in 36 hyperlipidemic atherosclerotic pigs, thrombotic occlusions were induced in the mid-left anterior descending artery. Pigs were then randomized to either a) ½ dose tissue plasminogen activator (0.5 mg/kg) alone; or same dose plasminogen activator and an intravenous microbubble infusion with either b) guided high mechanical index short pulse (2.0 MI; 5 usec) therapeutic ultrasound impulses; or c) guided 1.0 mechanical index long pulse (20 usec) impulses. Passive cavitation detectors indicated the high mechanical index impulses (both long and short pulse duration) induced inertial cavitation within the microvasculature. Epicardial recanalization rates following randomized treatments were highest in pigs treated with the long pulse duration therapeutic impulses (83% versus 59% for short pulse, and 49% for tissue plasminogen activator alone; p<0.05). Even without epicardial recanalization, however, early microvascular recovery occurred with both short and long pulse therapeutic impulses (p<0.005 compared to tissue plasminogen activator alone), and wall thickening improved within the risk area only in pigs treated with ultrasound and microbubbles. We conclude that although short pulse duration guided therapeutic impulses from a diagnostic transducer transiently improve microvascular flow, long pulse duration therapeutic impulses produce sustained epicardial and microvascular re-flow in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:23922797

  15. [Interventional ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Blázquez Sánchez, N; Fernández Canedo, I; Valdés Vilches, L; de Troya Martín, M

    2015-11-01

    High-frequency ultrasound has become increasingly used in dermatology. This technique is accessible, non-invasive, and rapid and provides information in real time. Consequently, it has become of great diagnostic value in dermatology. However, high-frequency ultrasound also has a promising future as a complementary technique in interventional diagnostic procedures, even though its application in this field has been little studied by dermatologists. PMID:26895944

  16. Integrated photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence platform for diagnostic medical imaging-proof of concept study with a tissue mimicking phantom

    PubMed Central

    James, Joseph; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham; Woh, Lye Sun

    2014-01-01

    The structural and molecular heterogeneities of biological tissues demand the interrogation of the samples with multiple energy sources and provide visualization capabilities at varying spatial resolution and depth scales for obtaining complementary diagnostic information. A novel multi-modal imaging approach that uses optical and acoustic energies to perform photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging at multiple resolution scales from the tissue surface and depth is proposed in this paper. The system comprises of two distinct forms of hardware level integration so as to have an integrated imaging system under a single instrumentation set-up. The experimental studies show that the system is capable of mapping high resolution fluorescence signatures from the surface, optical absorption and acoustic heterogeneities along the depth (>2cm) of the tissue at multi-scale resolution (<1µm to <0.5mm). PMID:25071954

  17. Individual and combined diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and polymerase chain reaction in identifying tuberculous lymph nodes in the neck.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin; Ha, Tae Kwun; Park, Ha Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of, both individually and in combination, ultrasound (US) diagnosis, US-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in diagnosing tuberculous lymph nodes in the neck (i.e., tuberculous cervical lymph nodes [TCLs]). Eighty-two patients who underwent US diagnosis, US-FNA and PCR for clinical suspicion of TCLs were enrolled. Of the 82 patients, 31 were confirmed as having TCLs. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of US diagnosis, US-FNA and PCR were 93.5%, 76.5%, 70.7%, 95.1% and 82.9%; 64.5%, 98.0%, 95.2%, 82.0% and 85.4%; and 100%, 96.1%, 93.9%, 100% and 97.6%, respectively. The diagnostic values of PCR alone and in combination with US-FNA were found to be higher than those of other methods. No US feature with high sensitivity and specificity was identified.

  18. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB[sub 2] and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB[sub 2].

  19. Advanced clinical monitoring: considerations for real-time hemodynamic diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J M; Cordova, M J

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to ease staffing burdens and potentially improve patient outcome in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment, we are developing a real-time system to accurately and efficiently diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. The system is being designed to utilize all relevant routinely-monitored physiological data in order to automatically diagnose potentially fatal events. The initial stage of this project involved formulating the overall system design and appropriate methods for real-time data acquisition, data storage, data trending, waveform analysis, and implementing diagnostic rules. Initially, we defined a conceptual analysis of the minimum physiologic data set, and the monitoring time-frames (trends) which would be required to diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. Following that analysis, we used a fuzzy logic diagnostic engine to analyze physiological data during a simulated arrhythmic cardiac arrest (ACA) in order to assess the validity of our diagnostic methodology. We used rate, trend, and morphologic data extracted from the following signals: expired CO2 time-concentration curve (capnogram), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure. The system performed well: The fuzzy logic engine effectively diagnosed the likelihood of ACA from the subtle hemodynamic trends which preceded the complete arrest. As the clinical picture worsened, the fuzzy logic-based system accurately indicated the change in patient condition. Termination of the simulated arrest was rapidly detected by the diagnostic engine. In view of the effectiveness of this fuzzy logic implementation, we plan to develop additional fuzzy logic modules to diagnose other cardiopulmonary emergencies.

  20. Diagnostic value of endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for accessible lung cancer lesions after non-diagnostic conventional techniques: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer diagnosis is usually achieved through a set of bronchoscopic techniques or computed tomography guided-transthoracic needle aspiration (CT-TTNA). However these procedures have a variable diagnostic yield and some patients remain without a definite diagnosis despite being submitted to an extensive workup. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost of linear endobronchial (EBUS) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA), performed with one echoendoscope, for the diagnosis of suspicious lung cancer lesions after failure of conventional procedures. Methods One hundred and twenty three patients with an undiagnosed but suspected malignant lung lesion (paratracheal, parabronchial, paraesophageal) or with a peripheral lesion and positron emission tomography positive mediastinal lymph nodes who had undergone at least one diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy or CT-TTNA attempt were submitted to EBUS and EUS-FNA. Patients with endobronchial lesions were excluded. Results Of the 123 patients, 88 had a pulmonary nodule/mass and 35 were selected based on mediastinal PET positive lymph nodes. Two patients were excluded because an endobronchial mass was detected at the time of the procedure. The target lesion could be visualized in 121 cases and FNA was performed in 118 cases. A definitive diagnosis was obtained in 106 cases (87.6%). Eighty-eight patients (72.7%) had non-small cell lung cancer, 15 (12.4%) had small cell lung cancer and metastatic disease was found in 3 patients (2.5%). The remaining 15 negative cases were subsequently diagnosed by surgical procedures. Twelve patients (9.9%) had a malignant tumor and in 3 (2.5%) a benign lesion was found. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of EBUS and EUS-FNA to diagnose malignancy were 89.8%, 100%, 100% and 20.0% respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.1% in a population with 97.5% prevalence of cancer. The ultrasonographic

  1. Ultrasound annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an analyses of developments in the field of diagnostic ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian follicles for in vitro fertilization are addressed. The use of Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow in obstetrics is also examined.

  2. The effects of transducer geometry on artifacts common to diagnostic bone imaging with conventional medical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, F William; Owen, Kevin; Tiouririne, Mohamed; Hossack, John A

    2012-06-01

    The portability, low cost, and non-ionizing radiation associated with medical ultrasound suggest that it has potential as a superior alternative to X-ray for bone imaging. However, when conventional ultrasound imaging systems are used for bone imaging, clinical acceptance is frequently limited by artifacts derived from reflections occurring away from the main axis of the acoustic beam. In this paper, the physical source of off-axis artifacts and the effect of transducer geometry on these artifacts are investigated in simulation and experimental studies. In agreement with diffraction theory, the sampled linear-array geometry possessed increased off-axis energy compared with single-element piston geometry, and therefore, exhibited greater levels of artifact signal. Simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the linear-array geometry exhibited increased artifact signal when the center frequency increased, when energy off-axis to the main acoustic beam (i.e., grating lobes) was perpendicularly incident upon off-axis surfaces, and when off-axis surfaces were specular rather than diffusive. The simulation model used to simulate specular reflections was validated experimentally and a correlation coefficient of 0.97 between experimental and simulated peak reflection contrast was observed. In ex vivo experiments, the piston geometry yielded 4 and 6.2 dB average contrast improvement compared with the linear array when imaging the spinous process and interlaminar space of an animal spine, respectively. This work indicates that off-axis reflections are a major source of ultrasound image artifacts, particularly in environments comprising specular reflecting (i.e., bone or bone-like) objects. Transducer geometries with reduced sensitivity to off-axis surface reflections, such as a piston transducer geometry, yield significant reductions in image artifact.

  3. Advancing the development of diagnostic tests and biomarkers for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yasinskaya, Y; Plikaytis, B; Sizemore, C; Sacks, L

    2011-07-01

    High costs and limited returns on investment have hampered progress in developing new diagnostic tests and treatments for tuberculosis (TB). We need new biomarkers to develop assays that can rapidly, efficiently and reliably detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease, identify drug resistance and expedite drug and vaccine development. This can only be accomplished through cross-disciplinary collaborations to facilitate access to human specimens. The Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, the industry and academia experts came together in a June 2010 workshop to examine the field of TB diagnostic test development and biomarker discovery, identify areas of most urgent need and formulate strategies to address those needs.

  4. Advances in Optical Fiber-Based Faraday Rotation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; McHale, G B; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    In the past two years, we have used optical fiber-based Faraday Rotation Diagnostics (FRDs) to measure pulsed currents on several dozen capacitively driven and explosively driven pulsed power experiments. We have made simplifications to the necessary hardware for quadrature-encoded polarization analysis, including development of an all-fiber analysis scheme. We have developed a numerical model that is useful for predicting and quantifying deviations from the ideal diagnostic response. We have developed a method of analyzing quadrature-encoded FRD data that is simple to perform and offers numerous advantages over several existing methods. When comparison has been possible, we have seen good agreement with our FRDs and other current sensors.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of integrated intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (IVUS-OCT) system for coronary plaque characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Mohar, Dilbahar; Correa, Adrian; Minami, Hataka; Jing, Joseph; Zhou, Qifa; Patel, Pranav M.; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-03-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT), two commonly used intracoronary imaging modalities, play important roles in plaque evaluation. The combined use of IVUS (to visualize the entire plaque volume) and OCT (to quantify the thickness of the plaque cap, if any) is hypothesized to increase plaque diagnostic accuracy. Our group has developed a fully-integrated dual-modality IVUS-OCT imaging system and 3.6F catheter for simultaneous IVUS-OCT imaging with a high resolution and deep penetration depth. However, the diagnostic accuracy of an integrated IVUS-OCT system has not been investigated. In this study, we imaged 175 coronary artery sites (241 regions of interest) from 20 cadavers using our previous reported integrated IVUS-OCT system. IVUS-OCT images were read by two skilled interventional cardiologists. Each region of interest was classified as either calcification, lipid pool or fibrosis. Comparing the diagnosis by cardiologists using IVUSOCT images with the diagnosis by the pathologist, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity for characterization of calcification, lipid pool or fibrosis with this integrated system. In vitro imaging of cadaver coronary specimens demonstrated the complementary nature of these two modalities for plaques classification. A higher accuracy was shown than using a single modality alone.

  6. DNA transfer and cell killing in epidermoid cells by diagnostic ultrasound activation of contrast agent gas bodies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Song, Jianming

    2003-04-01

    DNA transfer by sonoporation and cell killing in monolayer cells were examined by contrast-aided low-power diagnostic ultrasound (US). Culture chambers with epidermoid cell monolayers were scanned at about 1 mm/s with a 1.5-MHz scan head aimed upward at the chamber in a 37 degrees C water bath. For DNA transfer tests, plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to the medium, and GFP expression was assessed by flow cytometry after 2 days. In separate tests, cell killing was determined immediately after treatment. GFP-positive cell counts were 0.4% (0.7% SD) for shams and 3.7% (1.2% SD) of cells for exposure at 2.3 MPa with 2% Optison contrast agent. The fraction of dead cells was 3.4% (1.7% SD) in shams and 28.6% (6.3% SD) in exposed chambers. Both effects increased for increasing Optison concentration and increasing peak rarefactional pressure amplitude. Contrast-aided diagnostic US has a potential therapeutic application for gene transfer, but a trade-off appears to exist with cell killing.

  7. Advances in genetic diagnostics for hereditary hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Idan, Natali; Brownstein, Zippora; Shivatzki, Shaked; Avraham, Karen B

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hearing loss affects a significant proportion of the hearing impaired, with genetic mutations estimated to be responsible for its etiology in over 50% of this population. The methods for molecular diagnostics are changing as a result of the transition from linkage analysis to next generation sequencing to identify the genes responsible for hearing loss in affected families. In this review, we summarize the attitudes of the hearing impaired towards genetic testing, the latest techniques for identifying mutations, and provide a comprehensive list of the mutations found in the Israeli Jewish hearing-impaired population.

  8. Development and characterization of hollow polymeric microcapsules for use as contrast agents for diagnostic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Padma Jyothi

    1999-09-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a new type of rigid-shelled ultrasound contrast agent. A novel method was devised for producing hollow, gas- filled, polymer microcapsules, sized to less than 10 μm in diameter for contrast imaging. This method involved the encapsulation of a solid, volatile core material, and its subsequent evacuation by sublimation. The biodegradable polymer, 50/50 poly(D,L-lactide-co- glycolide), was the main focus of this study. Polymer- based contrast agents have many advantages, such as their applicability for concomitant imaging and drug delivery. Three encapsulation techniques were evaluated: solvent evaporation, coacervation, and spray drying. The polymer molecular weight and polydispersity in the solvent evaporation and coacervation techniques strongly affected microcapsule size and morphology. Efficient mechanical agitation and shear were crucial for obtaining high yields in the desired size range (less than 6 μm). In spray drying, a factorial design approach was used to optimize conditions to produce microcapsules. The main factors affecting spray drying were found to be the temperature driving force for drying and initial polymer concentration. The smallest microcapsule mean diameters were produced by spray drying (3-4 μm) and solvent evaporation (5-6 μm). Zeta potential (ζ) studies for all microcapsule types indicated that the encapsulation technique affected their surface properties due to the orientation of the polymer chains within nascent polymer droplets. Microcapsules with the most hydrophilic tendency were produced with solvent evaporation (ζ ~ -50 mV). In vitro acoustic testing revealed that the 20-41 μm size fractions of coacervate microcapsules were the most echogenic. In vivo ultrasound studies with both solvent evaporation and coacervate microcapsules showed visible enhancement of the color Doppler image in the rabbit kidney for the samples less than 10 μm in diameter. A mathematical

  9. Correlation of acoustic emissions associated with effects from diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Stanley

    2007-12-01

    This research has investigated the correlation of acoustic emissions with associated contrast-mediated ultrasound bio-effects. The hypothesis that motivated this study was that during exposure with ultrasound, the cavitation occurring in tissue emits acoustical signals, which if correlated with specific bio-effects, could provide a way to monitor the potential bio-effects of exposure. A good bio-effects indicator would find immediate use in research on drug and gene delivery, and could have clinical application in avoiding bio-effects in diagnosis. Studies conducted to test the hypothesis involved investigation of (i) the influence of pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and number of exposures on cell damage, (ii) the effect of total exposure duration and pulse-to-pulse bubble distribution on acoustic emissions and corresponding cell damage, and (iii) the translation of in vitro effects to an in situ environment. Exposures were primarily conducted at a peak rarefactional pressure of 2 MPa, 2.25 MHz insonating frequency and pulse length of 46 cycles. PRFs of 1-, 10-, 100-, 500-, and 1000 Hz were compared. High speed photography (2000 fps) was employed for the investigation of pulse-to-pulse bubble distribution while intravital microscopy was used for in situ studies. A strong correlation was observed between acoustic emissions and bio-effects with the availability of bubbles of resonant size serving as a key link between the two. It was observed that total exposure duration may play an important role in cell damage. Damage increased with increasing total exposure duration from 0 ms to 100 ms with a plateau at above 100 ms. These results were consistent for all studies. There is, therefore, an implication that manipulating these parameters may allow for measurement and control of the extent of bioeffects. Moreover, the correlation of acoustic emission and extravasation observed in in situ studies reveals that cumulative function of the relative integrated power spectrum

  10. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  11. Utilization of diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous lipid-encapsulated perfluorocarbons in non-invasive targeted cardiovascular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Porter, Thomas R; Choudhury, Songita A; Xie, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound (DUS) pressures have the ability to induce inertial cavitation (IC) of systemically administered microbubbles; this bioeffect has many diagnostic and therapeutic implications in cardiovascular care. Diagnostically, commercially available lipid-encapsulated perfluorocarbons (LEP) can be utilized to improve endocardial and vascular border delineation as well as assess myocardial perfusion. Therapeutically, the liquid jets induced by IC can alter endothelial function and dissolve thrombi within the immediate vicinity of the cavitating microbubbles. The cavitating LEP can also result in the localized release of any bound therapeutic substance at the site of insonation. DUS-induced IC has been tested in pre-clinical studies to determine what effect it has on acute vascular and microvascular thrombosis as well as nitric oxide (NO) release. These pre-clinical studies have consistently shown that DUS-induced IC of LEP is effective in restoring coronary vascular and microvascular flow in acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), with microvascular flow improving even if upstream large vessel flow has not been achieved. The initial clinical trials examining the efficacy of short pulse duration DUS high mechanical index impulses in patients with STEMI are underway, and preliminary studies have suggested that earlier epicardial vessel recanalization can be achieved prior to arriving in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. DUS high mechanical index impulses have also been effective in pre-clinical studies for targeting DNA delivery that has restored islet cell function in type I diabetes and restored vascular flow in the extremities downstream from a peripheral vascular occlusion. Improvements in this technique will come from three dimensional arrays for therapeutic applications, more automated delivery techniques that can be applied in the field, and use of submicron-sized acoustically activated LEP droplets that may better permeate the

  12. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  13. Recent Advances in Diagnostic Strategies for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an increasing epidemic in Korea, and associated diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is its most common and disabling complication. DPN has an insidious onset and heterogeneous clinical manifestations, making it difficult to detect high-risk patients of DPN. Early diagnosis is recommended and is the key factor for a better prognosis and preventing diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, or disability. However, diagnostic tests for DPN are not clearly established because of the various pathophysiology developing from the nerve injury to clinical manifestations, differences in mechanisms according to the type of diabetes, comorbidities, and the unclear natural history of DPN. Therefore, DPN remains a challenge for physicians to screen, diagnose, follow up, and evaluate for treatment response. In this review, diagnosing DPN using various methods to assess clinical symptoms and/or signs, sensorineural impairment, and nerve conduction studies will be discussed. Clinicians should rely on established modalities and utilize current available testing as complementary to specific clinical situations. PMID:27246283

  14. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  15. Endoscopy and polyps-diagnostic and therapeutic advances in management

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Scott R; Johnson, Eric K; Champagne, Bradley; Davis, Brad; Lee, Sang; Rivadeneira, David; Ross, Howard; Hayden, Dana A; Maykel, Justin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts aimed at early detection through screening, colon cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with an estimated 51000 deaths during 2013 alone. The goal remains to identify and remove benign neoplastic polyps prior to becoming invasive cancers. Polypoid lesions of the colon vary widely from hyperplastic, hamartomatous and inflammatory to neoplastic adenomatous growths. Although these lesions are all benign, they are common, with up to one-quarter of patients over 60 years old will develop pre-malignant adenomatous polyps. Colonoscopy is the most effective screening tool to detect polyps and colon cancer, although several studies have demonstrated missed polyp rates from 6%-29%, largely due to variations in polyp size. This number can be as high as 40%, even with advanced (> 1 cm) adenomas. Other factors including sub-optimal bowel preparation, experience of the endoscopist, and patient anatomical variations all affect the detection rate. Additional challenges in decision-making exist when dealing with more advanced, and typically larger, polyps that have traditionally required formal resection. In this brief review, we will explore the recent advances in polyp detection and therapeutic options. PMID:23885138

  16. Advanced ultrasound activated lockin-thermography for defect selective depth-resolved imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleiter, A.; Riegert, G.; Zweschper, Th.; Degenhardt, R.; Busse, G.

    2006-04-01

    Ultrasound activated Lockin-Thermography ("ultrasound attenuation mapping") is a defect selective NDT-technique. Its main advantage is a high probability of defect detection ("POD") since only defects produce a signal while all other features are suppressed. The mechanism involved is local sound absorption which turns a variably loaded defect into a heat source. Thermographic monitoring of elastic wave attenuation in defects was reported for the first time in 1979 by Henneke and colleagues for continuous and pulsed ultrasound injection. Later, amplitude modulated ultrasound was used to derive frequency coded phase angle images combining defect-selectivity with robustness of measurement. With mono-frequent ultrasound excitation a standing wave pattern might hide defects. With additional modulation of the ultrasound frequency such a misleading pattern can be minimized. Applications related to quality maintenance (aerospace, automotive industry) will be presented in order to illustrate the potential of frequency modulated ultrasound excitation and its applications.

  17. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. Wan, B.; Hu, L.; Hu, C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M.; Shi, Y.

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  18. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Wan, B.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Shi, Y.; Ye, M.; Hu, L.; Hu, C.

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  19. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Heidbrink, W W; Wan, B; von Hellermann, M G; Zhu, Y; Gao, W; Wu, C; Li, Y; Fu, J; Lyu, B; Yu, Y; Shi, Y; Ye, M; Hu, L; Hu, C

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  20. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  1. Left Ventricular Flow Analysis: Recent Advances in Numerical Methods and Applications in Cardiac Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Heys, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics. PMID:23690874

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of ovarian cyst segmentation in B-mode ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibicu, Dorin; Moraru, Luminita; Stratulat (Visan), Mirela

    2013-11-01

    Cystic and polycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine disorder affecting women in the fertile age. The Moore Neighbor Contour, Watershed Method, Active Contour Models, and a recent method based on Active Contour Model with Selective Binary and Gaussian Filtering Regularized Level Set (ACM&SBGFRLS) techniques were used in this paper to detect the border of the ovarian cyst from echography images. In order to analyze the efficiency of the segmentation an original computer aided software application developed in MATLAB was proposed. The results of the segmentation were compared and evaluated against the reference contour manually delineated by a sonography specialist. Both the accuracy and time complexity of the segmentation tasks are investigated. The Fréchet distance (FD) as a similarity measure between two curves and the area error rate (AER) parameter as the difference between the segmented areas are used as estimators of the segmentation accuracy. In this study, the most efficient methods for the segmentation of the ovarian were analyzed cyst. The research was carried out on a set of 34 ultrasound images of the ovarian cyst.

  3. Diagnostic efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound in evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Deepankar; Panjwani, Sapna; Rai, Shalu; Misra, Akansha; Prabhat, Mukul; Gupta, Prashant; Talukder, Subrata K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in differentiating benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes by detecting differences in blood flow patterns. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional prospective study, 25 untreated patients with clinical evidence of cervical lymphadenopathy were evaluated. CDUS was performed for 80 cervical lymph nodes. The gray scale parameters of the lymph node and intranodal perfusion sites were the key CDUS features used to differentiate between reactive and metastatic lymph nodes. Histopathological confirmations were obtained and compared with the results of CDUS. Results: Initially, 53 cervical lymph nodes were evaluated by clinical examination. Twenty-seven additional lymph nodes (53 + 27 = 80) were discovered by CDUS evaluation. Gray scale parameters for lymph nodes such as size of lymph node, shape of lymph node, and presence or absence of hilum revealed highly significant results (P < 0.0001). Color Doppler flow signals revealed that central/hilar flow was characteristic for benign nodes whereas peripheral/mixed flow was characteristic for malignant nodes, the findings were highly significant (P < 0.0001). Gray scale and color Doppler features are used to differentiate benign and malignant nodes. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, CDUS evaluation was found to be highly significant with a high sensitivity and specificity over clinical evaluation CDUS examination provides a prospect to reduce the need for biopsy/fine needle aspiration cytology in reactive nodes. PMID:27274341

  4. Comparison of Inter-Observer Variability and Diagnostic Performance of the Fifth Edition of BI-RADS for Breast Ultrasound of Static versus Video Images.

    PubMed

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Jung, Inkyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, You Me; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to compare the inter-observer variability and diagnostic performance of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast ultrasound of static and video images. Ninety-nine breast masses visible on ultrasound examination from 95 women 19-81 y of age at five institutions were enrolled in this study. They were scheduled to undergo biopsy or surgery or had been stable for at least 2 y of ultrasound follow-up after benign biopsy results or typically benign findings. For each mass, representative long- and short-axis static ultrasound images were acquired; real-time long- and short-axis B-mode video images through the mass area were separately saved as cine clips. Each image was reviewed independently by five radiologists who were asked to classify ultrasound features according to the fifth edition of the BI-RADS lexicon. Inter-observer variability was assessed using kappa (κ) statistics. Diagnostic performance on static and video images was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. No significant difference was found in κ values between static and video images for all descriptors, although κ values of video images were higher than those of static images for shape, orientation, margin and calcifications. After receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the video images (0.83, range: 0.77-0.87) had higher areas under the curve than the static images (0.80, range: 0.75-0.83; p = 0.08). Inter-observer variability and diagnostic performance of video images was similar to that of static images on breast ultrasonography according to the new edition of BI-RADS.

  5. Recent advances in the molecular diagnostics of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world, representing a major global health issue. Although the incidence of GC is declining, the outcomes for GC patients remain dismal because of the lack of effective biomarkers to detect early GC and predict both recurrence and chemosensitivity. Current tumor markers for GC, including serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, are not ideal due to their relatively low sensitivity and specificity. Recent improvements in molecular techniques are better able to identify aberrant expression of GC-related molecules, including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, and DNA methylation, as novel molecular markers, although the molecular pathogenesis of GC is complicated by tumor heterogeneity. Detection of genetic and epigenetic alterations from gastric tissue or blood samples has diagnostic value in the management of GC. There are high expectations for molecular markers that can be used as new screening tools for early detection of GC as well as for patient stratification towards personalized treatment of GC through prediction of prognosis and drug-sensitivity. In this review, the studies of potential molecular biomarkers for GC that have been reported in the publicly available literature between 2012 and 2015 are reviewed and summarized, and certain highlighted papers are examined. PMID:26379391

  6. Ultrasound pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; Placenta previa - ultrasound; Multiple ...

  7. Advancing Porous Silicon Biosensor Technology for Use in Clinical Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Lisa Marie

    Inexpensive and robust analytical techniques for detecting molecular recognition events are in great demand in healthcare, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Despite vast research in this area, challanges remain to develop practical biomolecular platforms that, meet the rigorous demands of real-world applications. This includes maintaining low-cost devices that are sensitive and specific in complex test specimens, are stable after storage, have short assay time, and possess minimal complexity of instrumentation for readout. Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) material has been identified as an ideal candidate towards achieving these goals and the past decade has seen diverse proof-of-principle studies developing optical-based sensing techniques. In Part 1 of this thesis, the impact of surface chemistry and PSi morphology on detection sensitivity of target molecules is investigated. Initial proof-of-concept that PSi devices facilitate detection of protein in whole blood is demonstrated. This work highlights the importance of material stability and blocking chemistry for sensor use in real world biological samples. In addition, the intrinisic filtering capability of the 3-D PSi morphology is shown as an advantage in complex solutions, such as whole blood. Ultimately, this initial work identified a need to improve detection sensitivity of the PSI biosensor technique to facilitate clinical diagnostic use over relevant target concentration ranges. The second part of this thesis, builds upon sensitivity challenges that are highlighted in the first part of the thesis and development of a surface-bound competitive inhibition immunoassay facilitated improved detection sensitivity of small molecular weight targets (opiates) over a relevant clinical concentration range. In addition, optimization of assay protocol addressed issues of maintaining stability of sensors after storage. Performance of the developed assay (specificity and sensitivity) was then validated in a

  8. Advances in Performance of Microchannel Plate Detectors for HEDP Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ming Wu, Craig Kruschwitz, Ken Moy, Greg Rochau

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, a team from NSTec and SNL has built a unique capability to develop microchannel plate (MCP)?based framing x-ray cameras for HEDP diagnostics. At the SNL Z facility, multistrip MCP detectors to record up to eight channels are employed in 2-D, sub-nanosecond time-resolved imaging and time- and space-resolved spectroscopy diagnostics. Progressively more stringent technical temporal resolution and response uniformity requirements have necessitated a systematic design approach based on iterative modeling of the MCP using inputs from electrical circuit characterization. An inherently large exponential dependence in MCP gain, V{sup 11.5}, has mandated a firm understanding of the applied voltage pulse shape propagating across the strip. We pioneered direct measurements of the propagating waveform using a Picoprobe{reg_sign} and developed a Monte Carlo code to simulate MCP response to compare against test measurements. This scheme is shown in Figure 1. The simulation detailed a physical model of the cascade and amplification process of the MCP that includes energy conservation for the secondary electrons, the effects of elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from the channel wall, and gain saturation mechanisms from wall charging and space charge. Our model can simulate MCP response for both static and pulsed voltage waveforms. Using this design approach, we began to characterize the newly developed second-generation detector (H-CA-65) by using a Manson x-ray source to evaluate the following DC characteristics: MCP sensitivity as a function of bias voltage, flat-field uniformity and spatial resolution, and variation of spatial resolution and sensitivity as a function of phosphor bias voltage. Dynamic performance and temporal response were obtained by using an NSTec short-pulse laser to measure optical gate profiles, saturation, and dynamic range. These data were processed and combined to obtain the gain variation and gate profiles for any position along

  9. Evaluation of the diagnostic utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for metastatic mediastinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Dariusz; Peryt, Adam; Szolkowska, Malgorzata; Langfort, Renata; Orlowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The mediastinum is a relatively uncommon site of distant metastases, which typically appear as peripheral lung nodules. We chose to assess the utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for the diagnosis of distant metastases to the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Over the period 2008–2013, a total of 446 patients with concurrent or previously diagnosed and treated extrathoracic malignancies were evaluated. Results: Surgical treatment was carried out in 414 patients (156 women and 237 men aged 26–68 years, mean age of 56.5 years) presenting with distant metastases to the lungs: Thoracoscopic wedge resection was completed in 393 patients and lobectomy and segmentectomy were performed in 7 and 14 patients, respectively. The median time from primary tumor resection was 6.5 years (range: 4.5 months to 17 years). Thirty-two of these patients underwent EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal manifestation of the underlying disease. EBUS-TBNA specimens were aspirated from the subcarinal or right paratracheal lymph node stations in 26 (81%) patients and from the hilar lymph nodes in 6 (18.8%) patients only. Metastases to lymph nodes were confirmed in 14 of these patients (43.8%). Primary lung cancer was diagnosed in seven patients. Mediastinoscopy was performed in two patients to reveal either lymph node metastasis or sarcoidosis. Thoracotomy for pulmonary metastases resection and mediastinal lymph node biopsy was performed in nine patients. Lymph node metastasis was confirmed in five patients (15.6%). The diagnostic efficacy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value (NPV) of EBUS-TBNA were 78.8%, 93.3%, 100%, and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusion: EBUS-TBNA is a valuable diagnostic tool in a selected group of patients with secondary tumors in the mediastinum and lungs. PMID:27386474

  10. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Linear Endoscopic Ultrasound for Evaluating Symptoms Suggestive of Common Bile Duct Stones

    PubMed Central

    He, Xu; Li, Jian; Min, Feng; Li, Hong-yan

    2016-01-01

    Background. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of linear EUS for evaluating clinically suggestive CBD stones in high-risk groups. Methods. 202 patients with clinically suggestive CBD stones in high-risk groups who underwent linear EUS examination between January 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with stone extraction or surgical choledochoscopy was only performed when a CBD stone was detected by linear EUS. Cases that were negative for CBD stones were followed up for at least 6 months. Results. Of 202 enrolled patients, 126 were positive for CBD stones according to linear EUS findings. 124 patients successfully underwent ERCP, and ERCP failed in 2 who were later successfully treated by surgical intervention. There were 2 false-positive cases with positive findings for CBD stones on ERCP. Among 76 patients without CBD stones, no false-negative cases were identified during the mean 6-month follow-up. Linear EUS had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of CBD stones of 100%, 92.88%, 98.21%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions. Linear EUS is a safe and efficacious diagnostic tool for evaluating clinically suggestive CBD stones with high risk of choledocholithiasis. Performing linear EUS prior to ERCP in patients with symptoms suggestive of CBD stones can reduce unnecessary ERCP procedures.

  11. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Linear Endoscopic Ultrasound for Evaluating Symptoms Suggestive of Common Bile Duct Stones

    PubMed Central

    He, Xu; Li, Jian; Min, Feng; Li, Hong-yan

    2016-01-01

    Background. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of linear EUS for evaluating clinically suggestive CBD stones in high-risk groups. Methods. 202 patients with clinically suggestive CBD stones in high-risk groups who underwent linear EUS examination between January 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with stone extraction or surgical choledochoscopy was only performed when a CBD stone was detected by linear EUS. Cases that were negative for CBD stones were followed up for at least 6 months. Results. Of 202 enrolled patients, 126 were positive for CBD stones according to linear EUS findings. 124 patients successfully underwent ERCP, and ERCP failed in 2 who were later successfully treated by surgical intervention. There were 2 false-positive cases with positive findings for CBD stones on ERCP. Among 76 patients without CBD stones, no false-negative cases were identified during the mean 6-month follow-up. Linear EUS had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of CBD stones of 100%, 92.88%, 98.21%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions. Linear EUS is a safe and efficacious diagnostic tool for evaluating clinically suggestive CBD stones with high risk of choledocholithiasis. Performing linear EUS prior to ERCP in patients with symptoms suggestive of CBD stones can reduce unnecessary ERCP procedures. PMID:27610131

  12. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Linear Endoscopic Ultrasound for Evaluating Symptoms Suggestive of Common Bile Duct Stones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; He, Xu; Tian, Chuan; Li, Jian; Min, Feng; Li, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of linear EUS for evaluating clinically suggestive CBD stones in high-risk groups. Methods. 202 patients with clinically suggestive CBD stones in high-risk groups who underwent linear EUS examination between January 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with stone extraction or surgical choledochoscopy was only performed when a CBD stone was detected by linear EUS. Cases that were negative for CBD stones were followed up for at least 6 months. Results. Of 202 enrolled patients, 126 were positive for CBD stones according to linear EUS findings. 124 patients successfully underwent ERCP, and ERCP failed in 2 who were later successfully treated by surgical intervention. There were 2 false-positive cases with positive findings for CBD stones on ERCP. Among 76 patients without CBD stones, no false-negative cases were identified during the mean 6-month follow-up. Linear EUS had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of CBD stones of 100%, 92.88%, 98.21%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions. Linear EUS is a safe and efficacious diagnostic tool for evaluating clinically suggestive CBD stones with high risk of choledocholithiasis. Performing linear EUS prior to ERCP in patients with symptoms suggestive of CBD stones can reduce unnecessary ERCP procedures. PMID:27610131

  13. Diagnostic Yield of Fine-Needle Aspiration for Axillary Lymph Nodes During Screening Breast Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Youn, Inyoung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the positive predictive value (PPV) of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and the cancer detection rate for incidentally detected abnormal axillary lymph node (LN) in patients who underwent screening US. We retrospectively reviewed 72 LNs of 69 patients (mean age, 44.9 years) who underwent US-FNA for incidentally detected abnormal axillary LNs on 50,488 screening US from January 2005 to December 2011. The PPV of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate were calculated. We evaluated US images for lymph node size, abnormal findings (hilum loss, eccentric cortical thickening, round shape, extranodal extension, or marked hypoechoic cortex), and mammography for the identification of abnormal LNs. The PPV of each finding was also calculated. The PPV of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate were 2.8% (2/72) and 0.004% (2/50,488), respectively. The mean (SD) measurements for long-axis, short-axis, and cortical thickening of the LNs were 14.9 (5.9) mm, 8.5 (3.5) mm, and 5.8 (2.8) mm, respectively. Of the positive LNs, US findings of hilum loss, eccentric cortical thickening, and extranodal extension were found, and each corresponding PPV was 6.3% (1/16), 1.8% (1/56), and 14.3% (1/7), respectively. The PPV of mammography was 14.3% (1/7). Our results suggest that the PPVs of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate for incidentally detected abnormal axillary LNs during screening US are too low to recommend axillary US during breast US screening and that follow-up is acceptable for abnormal LNs detected during screening breast US that do not have extranodal extension or are negative on mammography. PMID:27054655

  14. Evaluation of Diagnostic Efficiency of Ultrasound Features on Malignant Thyroid Nodules in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ru-Qiang; Yuan, Ge-Heng; Chen, Ming; Shao, Yi-Min; Zhu, Sai-Nan; Zhang, Jun-Qing; Guo, Xiao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic features in predicting the malignancy of thyroid nodules in a group of Chinese patients. Methods: In all, 762 patients with thyroid nodules (424 malignant and 338 benign) underwent ultrasound (US) check and surgery between March 2011 and July 2014 at Peking University First Hospital were identified. Univariate and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of each US feature, and the accuracy of their combinations for prediction of malignancy. Results: Patients with malignant nodules were younger and without obvious risk history than those in the benign group (P < 0.001, P = 0.93). No individual US sign was fully predictive of a malignant lesion. The Youden indexes of irregular margins and hypoechogenicity were the first and second highest in all US features, which were 51.9% and 45.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of solid components (89.7%) and hypoechogenicity (89.2%) and the specificity of taller-than-wide shape (98.5%) and microcalcifications (90.6%) were the first and second highest in all US features. Intranodular flow on a color Doppler examination was a weak predictor of malignancy. Under ROC analysis excepting intranodular flow, the 95% confidence interval (CI) of areas under the curves of hypoechogenicity and irregular margins with any one of the US features were overlapped that of five-feature combinations (95% CI: 0.850–0.901). Conclusions: We should be alert with taller-than-wide shape and microcalcifications. Intranodular flow was a weak predictor of malignancy. According to Youden indexes and ROC analysis, irregular margins and hypoechogenicity combined with solid component or taller-than-wide shapes or microcalcifications have a high predicative value for malignant thyroid nodules in Chinese patients. PMID:27453225

  15. Does Tumor Size Influence the Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology for Thyroid Nodules?

    PubMed Central

    Song, KwangSeop

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is diagnostic standard for thyroid nodules. However, the influence of size on FNAC accuracy remains unclear especially in too small or too large thyroid nodules. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of nodule size on FNAC accuracy. Methods. All consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy for nodules in 2010 were enrolled. FNAC results (according to the Bethesda system) were compared to pathological diagnosis. The nodules were categorized into groups A–E on the basis of maximal diameter on ultrasound (≤0.5, >0.5–1, >1-2, >2–4, and >4 cm, resp.). Results. There were 502 cases with 690 nodules. Overall FNAC sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 95.4%, 98.2%, 99.4%, 86.4%, and 96.0%, respectively. False-negative rates (FNRs) of groups A–E were 3.2%, 5.1%, 1.3%, 13.3%, and 50%, respectively. Accuracy rates of groups A–E were 96.8%, 94.8%, 99%, 94.7%, and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Although accuracy rates of FNAC in thyroid nodules smaller than 0.5 cm are comparable to the other group, thyroid nodules larger than 4 cm with benign cytology carry a higher risk of malignancy, which suggest that those should be considered for intensive follow-up or repeated biopsy.

  16. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  17. Advancing research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease: the IWG-2 criteria.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Bruno; Feldman, Howard H; Jacova, Claudia; Hampel, Harald; Molinuevo, José Luis; Blennow, Kaj; DeKosky, Steven T; Gauthier, Serge; Selkoe, Dennis; Bateman, Randall; Cappa, Stefano; Crutch, Sebastian; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Fox, Nick C; Galasko, Douglas; Habert, Marie-Odile; Jicha, Gregory A; Nordberg, Agneta; Pasquier, Florence; Rabinovici, Gil; Robert, Philippe; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Sarazin, Marie; Epelbaum, Stéphane; de Souza, Leonardo C; Vellas, Bruno; Visser, Pieter J; Schneider, Lon; Stern, Yaakov; Scheltens, Philip; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2014-06-01

    In the past 8 years, both the International Working Group (IWG) and the US National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association have contributed criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that better define clinical phenotypes and integrate biomarkers into the diagnostic process, covering the full staging of the disease. This Position Paper considers the strengths and limitations of the IWG research diagnostic criteria and proposes advances to improve the diagnostic framework. On the basis of these refinements, the diagnosis of AD can be simplified, requiring the presence of an appropriate clinical AD phenotype (typical or atypical) and a pathophysiological biomarker consistent with the presence of Alzheimer's pathology. We propose that downstream topographical biomarkers of the disease, such as volumetric MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET, might better serve in the measurement and monitoring of the course of disease. This paper also elaborates on the specific diagnostic criteria for atypical forms of AD, for mixed AD, and for the preclinical states of AD. PMID:24849862

  18. Diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in patients with salivary gland masses.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, J; Ridder, G J

    2012-04-01

    The salivary glands are unique in the diversity and complexity of their pathologies. Because fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section are associated with major diagnostic difficulties, the authors analyzed the use of core needle biopsy (CNB) for the histologic assessment of salivary gland lesions. A systematic observational clinicopathologic quality assessment study was performed over 81 months including 161 CNB procedures in 76 patients with salivary gland pathologies. Adequate samples containing the target tissue were obtained in 73 patients. These samples revealed malignant disease in 45 (62%) patients, benign disease in 26 (36%) patients, and were inconclusive in 2 (3%) patients. Follow-up uncovered no false-positive or false-negative results. On the basis of secondary histologic and clinical follow-up, the statistical parameters were calculated as follows: sensitivity 94%; specificity 100%; accuracy 96%; positive predictive value 100%; negative predictive value 90%. The advantages and potential limitations of CNB in patients with salivary gland masses are discussed. CNB is a reliable biopsy technique for the assessment of salivary gland pathologies, although limitations remain for the subclassification of some neoplastic lesions. The authors recommend CNB as the biopsy technique of choice for a selection of indications.

  19. Advanced diagnostic imaging in privately insured patients: recent trends in utilization and payments.

    PubMed

    Horný, Michal; Burgess, James F; Horwitt, Jedediah; Cohen, Alan B

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have reported that the rate of growth in utilization of noninvasive diagnostic imaging has slowed, with a concomitant reduction in total payments to providers in the Medicare Part B fee-for-service population. Utilization and payment growth trends in commercially insured populations, however, are not as well understood. We used the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database containing more than 29 million individuals to investigate commercially insured population trends in utilization of and payments for CT, MRI, PET, and ultrasound procedures in the years 2007-2011. We found that imaging use--after a brief downturn in 2010--rose again in 2011, coupled with substantial increases in adjusted payments for all four imaging modalities, raising concerns about future efforts to stem growth in imaging use and associated spending.

  20. Recent advances in low-cost microfluidic platforms for diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Tomazelli Coltro, Wendell Karlos; Cheng, Chao-Min; Carrilho, Emanuel; de Jesus, Dosil Pereira

    2014-08-01

    The use of inexpensive materials and cost-effective manufacturing processes for mass production of microfluidic devices is very attractive and has spurred a variety of approaches. Such devices are particularly suited for diagnostic applications in limited resource settings. This review describes the recent and remarkable advances in the use of low-cost substrates for the development of microfluidic devices for diagnostics and clinical assays. Thus, a plethora of new and improved fabrication methods, designs, capabilities, detections, and applications of microfluidic devices fabricated with paper, plastic, and threads are covered.

  1. Advancing Patient-centered Outcomes in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; McCabe, Aileen M; Meisel, Zachary M; LeBlanc, Annie; Schaffer, Jason T; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Vaughan, William; Merck, Lisa H; Applegate, Kimberly E; Hollander, Judd E; Grudzen, Corita R; Mills, Angela M; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hess, Erik P

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is integral to the evaluation of many emergency department (ED) patients. However, relatively little effort has been devoted to patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) in emergency diagnostic imaging. This article provides background on this topic and the conclusions of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference PCOR work group regarding "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The goal was to determine a prioritized research agenda to establish which outcomes related to emergency diagnostic imaging are most important to patients, caregivers, and other key stakeholders and which methods will most optimally engage patients in the decision to undergo imaging. Case vignettes are used to emphasize these concepts as they relate to a patient's decision to seek care at an ED and the care received there. The authors discuss applicable research methods and approaches such as shared decision-making that could facilitate better integration of patient-centered outcomes and patient-reported outcomes into decisions regarding emergency diagnostic imaging. Finally, based on a modified Delphi process involving members of the PCOR work group, prioritized research questions are proposed to advance the science of patient-centered outcomes in ED diagnostic imaging. PMID:26574729

  2. Endobronchial ultrasound elastography

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Herth, Felix J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Elastographic techniques have recently become available as advanced diagnostic tools for tissue characterization. Strain elastography is a real-time technique used with transcutaneous ultrasound (US) and endoscopic US. Convincing evidence is available demonstrating a significant value of strain elastography for the discrimination of benign and malignant lymph nodes (LNs). This paper reviews preliminary data demonstrating the feasibility of performing real-time elastography during endobronchial US (EBUS) and a potential application of this technique for selection of LNs for EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in patients with lung cancer and extrathoracic malignancies. PMID:27503154

  3. Response monitoring using quantitative ultrasound methods and supervised dictionary learning in locally advanced breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Fung, Brandon; Tadayyon, Hadi; Tran, William T.; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive computer-aided-theragnosis (CAT) system was developed for the early assessment of responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The CAT system was based on quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy methods comprising several modules including feature extraction, a metric to measure the dissimilarity between "pre-" and "mid-treatment" scans, and a supervised learning algorithm for the classification of patients to responders/non-responders. One major requirement for the successful design of a high-performance CAT system is to accurately measure the changes in parametric maps before treatment onset and during the course of treatment. To this end, a unified framework based on Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC) was used for the design of feature extraction from parametric maps and the dissimilarity measure between the "pre-" and "mid-treatment" scans. For the feature extraction, HSIC was used to design a supervised dictionary learning (SDL) method by maximizing the dependency between the scans taken from "pre-" and "mid-treatment" with "dummy labels" given to the scans. For the dissimilarity measure, an HSIC-based metric was employed to effectively measure the changes in parametric maps as an indication of treatment effectiveness. The HSIC-based feature extraction and dissimilarity measure used a kernel function to nonlinearly transform input vectors into a higher dimensional feature space and computed the population means in the new space, where enhanced group separability was ideally obtained. The results of the classification using the developed CAT system indicated an improvement of performance compared to a CAT system with basic features using histogram of intensity.

  4. Advancing the science of measurement of diagnostic errors in healthcare: the Safer Dx framework

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic errors are major contributors to harmful patient outcomes, yet they remain a relatively understudied and unmeasured area of patient safety. Although they are estimated to affect about 12 million Americans each year in ambulatory care settings alone, both the conceptual and pragmatic scientific foundation for their measurement is under-developed. Health care organizations do not have the tools and strategies to measure diagnostic safety and most have not integrated diagnostic error into their existing patient safety programs. Further progress toward reducing diagnostic errors will hinge on our ability to overcome measurement-related challenges. In order to lay a robust groundwork for measurement and monitoring techniques to ensure diagnostic safety, we recently developed a multifaceted framework to advance the science of measuring diagnostic errors (The Safer Dx framework). In this paper, we describe how the framework serves as a conceptual foundation for system-wide safety measurement, monitoring and improvement of diagnostic error. The framework accounts for the complex adaptive sociotechnical system in which diagnosis takes place (the structure), the distributed process dimensions in which diagnoses evolve beyond the doctor's visit (the process) and the outcomes of a correct and timely “safe diagnosis” as well as patient and health care outcomes (the outcomes). We posit that the Safer Dx framework can be used by a variety of stakeholders including researchers, clinicians, health care organizations and policymakers, to stimulate both retrospective and more proactive measurement of diagnostic errors. The feedback and learning that would result will help develop subsequent interventions that lead to safer diagnosis, improved value of health care delivery and improved patient outcomes. PMID:25589094

  5. Nde of Advanced Automotive Composite Materials that Apply Ultrasound Infrared Thermography Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hyun; Park, Soo-Keun; Kim, Jae-Yeol

    The infrared thermographic nondestructive inspection technique is a quality inspection and stability assessment method used to diagnose the physical characteristics and defects by detecting the infrared ray radiated from the object without destructing it. Recently, the nondestructive inspection and assessment that use the ultrasound-infrared thermography technique are widely adopted in diverse areas. The ultrasound-infrared thermography technique uses the phenomenon that the ultrasound wave incidence to an object with cracks or defects on its mating surface generates local heat on the surface. The car industry increasingly uses composite materials for their lightweight, strength, and environmental resistance. In this study, the car piston passed through the ultrasound-infrared thermography technique for nondestructive testing, among the composite material car parts. This study also examined the effects of the frequency and power to optimize the nondestructive inspection.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound B scan using 10 MHz linear probe in ocular trauma;results from a high burden country

    PubMed Central

    Shazlee, Muhammad Kashif; Ali, Muhammad; SaadAhmed, Muhammad; Hussain, Ammad; Hameed, Kamran; Lutfi, Irfan Amjad; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the diagnostic accuracy of Ultrasound B scan using 10 MHz linear probe in ocular trauma. Methods: A total of 61 patients with 63 ocular injuries were assessed during July 2013 to January 2014. All patients were referred to the department of Radiology from Emergency Room since adequate clinical assessment of the fundus was impossible because of the presence of opaque ocular media. Based on radiological diagnosis, the patients were provided treatment (surgical or medical). Clinical diagnosis was confirmed during surgical procedures or clinical follow-up. Results: A total of 63 ocular injuries were examined in 61 patients. The overall sensitivity was 91.5%, Specificity was 98.87%, Positive predictive value was 87.62 and Negative predictive value was 99%. Conclusion: Ultrasound B-scan is a sensitive, non invasive and rapid way of assessing intraocular damage caused by blunt or penetrating eye injuries. PMID:27182245

  7. Advances in bi-modal optical and ultrasound detection of prostate cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutet, Jerome; Guyon, Laurent; Debourdeau, Mathieu; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Vray, Didier; Rizo, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer diagnosis is based on PSA dosage and digital rectal examination. In case of positive test, a biopsy is conducted and guided by ultrasound imaging. Today, however, as ultrasound imaging is not able to precisely detect tumors, some biopsies have to be performed in the prostate and the only way to improve detection is to increase the number of those uncomfortable biopsies. In order to decrease this number and to improve the patient wellness, we are studying a way to couple ultrasound and fluorescence optical imaging on an endorectal probe. The ultrasounds are used to get morphological information on the prostate and the optical system to detect and to localize fluorophore marked tumors. To support the development of such a system, we have carried out a new tissue-mimicking phantom which represents the three different kind of tissue concerned during prostate endorectal examination: prostate, rectum, surrounding tissues. It was imaged by ultrasound and by fluorescence diffuse optical imaging. We have proved that the optical system is able to detect and to localize a fluorescing inclusion at different depth inside the phantom which has then been superimposed to the morphological image provided by the ultrasounds.

  8. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  9. Gene delivery using ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Unger, E C; Hersh, E; Vannan, M; McCreery, T

    2001-05-01

    With the human genome product and continuing advances in molecular biology many therapeutic genes have been discovered. In the cardiovascular system, gene therapy has the potential to improve myocardial vascularization and ameliorate congestive heart failure. For successful development of clinical gene therapy, however, effective gene delivery vectors are needed. Ultrasound contrast agents can be used to develop new, more effective vectors for gene delivery. Ultrasound contrast agents lower the threshold for cavitation by ultrasound energy. Using physical properties of microbubbles and coating materials, genetic drugs have been incorporated into ultrasound contrast agents. Gene-bearing microbubbles can be injected IV and ultrasound energy applied to the target region. As the microbubbles enter the region of insonation, the microbubbles cavitate, locally releasing DNA. Cavitation also likely causes a local shockwave that improves cellular uptake of DNA. With transthoracic ultrasound, using commercially available diagnostic ultrasound system and an IV injection of gene-bearing microbubbles, high levels of transgene expression are observed in the insonated region of the myocardium. This new technology using microbubbles and ultrasound for gene delivery merits further study and development.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for detecting posterior ligamentous complex injuries of the thoracic and lumbar spine: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Alcalá-Cerra; Ángel, J. Paternina-Caicedo; Juan, J. Gutiérrez-Paternina; Luis, R. Moscote-Salazar; Hernando, R. Alvis-Miranda; Rubén, Sabogal-Barrios

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posterior ligamentous complex injuries of the thoracolumbar (TL) spine represent a major consideration during surgical decision-making. However, X-ray and computed tomography imaging often does not identify those injuries and sometimes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not available or is contraindicated. Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasound for detecting posterior ligamentous complex injuries in the TL spine. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was carried out through four international databases and proceedings of scientific meetings. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, by using weighted averages according to the sample size of each study. Summary receiver operating characteristic was also estimated. Results: A total of four articles were included in the meta-analysis, yielding a summary estimate: Sensitivity, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86-0.92); specificity, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00); positive likelihood ratio, 224.49 (95% CI, 30.43-1656.26); negative likelihood ratio, 0.11 (95% CI, 0.05-0.19); and diagnostic odds ratio, 2,268.13 (95% CI, 265.84-19,351.24). There was no statistically significant heterogeneity among results of included studies. Summary: Receiver operating characteristic (±standard error) was 0.928 ± 0.047. Conclusion and Recommendation: The present meta-analysis showed that ultrasound has a high accuracy for diagnosing posterior ligamentous complex injuries in patients with flexion distraction, compression, or burst TL fractures. On the basis of present results, ultrasound may be considered as a useful alternative when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unavailable or contraindicated, or when its results are inconclusive. PMID:24381453

  11. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involving ultrasound for waste water treatment: a review with emphasis on cost estimation.

    PubMed

    Mahamuni, Naresh N; Adewuyi, Yusuf G

    2010-08-01

    Two things are needed for any technology to be suitable for use in the industry, viz. 1. Technical feasibility and 2. Economical feasibility. The use of ultrasound for waste water treatment has been shown to be technically feasible by numerous reports in the literature over the years. But there are hardly any exhaustive reports which address the issue of economical feasibility of the use of ultrasound for waste water treatment on industrial scale. Hence an attempt was made to estimate the cost for the waste water treatment using ultrasound. The costs have been calculated for 1000 L/min capacity treatment plant. The costs were calculated based upon the rate constants for pollutant degradation. The pollutants considered were phenol, trichloroethylene (TCE) and reactive azo dyes. Time required for ninety percent degradation of pollutant was taken as the residence time. The amount of energy required to achieve the target degradation was calculated from the energy density (watt/ml) used in the treatability study. The cost of treatment was calculated by considering capital cost and operating cost involved for the waste water treatment. Quotations were invited from vendors to ascertain the capital cost of equipments involved and operating costs were calculated based on annual energy usage. The cost was expressed in dollars per 1000 gallons of waste water treated. These treatment costs were compared with other established Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) technologies. The cost of waste water treatment for phenol was in the range of $89 per 1000 gallons for UV/US/O(3) to $15,536 per 1000 gallons for US alone. These costs for TCE were in the range of $25 per 1000 gallons to $91 for US+UV treatment and US alone, respectively. The cost of waste water treatment for reactive azo dyes was in the range of $65 per 1000 gallon for US+UV+H(2)O(2) to $14,203 per 1000 gallon for US alone. This study should help in quantifying the economics of waste water treatment using ultrasound on

  12. Therapeutic potential of ultrasound microbubbles in gastrointestinal oncology: recent advances and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Haider, Yasser; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2015-01-01

    Microbubbles were initially invented as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. However, lately more and more therapeutic applications of microbubbles are emerging, mostly related to drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound is a safe and noninvasive therapeutic modality which has the unique ability to interact with microbubbles and release their payload in situ in addition to permeabilizing the target tissues. The combination of drug-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound has been used in preclinical studies on blood–brain barrier opening, drug and gene delivery to solid tumors, and ablation of blood vessels. This review covers the basic principles of ultrasound–microbubble interaction, the types of microbubbles and the effect they have on tissue, and the preclinical and clinical experience with this approach to date in the field of gastrointestinal oncology. PMID:26557894

  13. Advances in Microfluidic PCR for Point-of-Care Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seungkyung; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Shin; Wang, Tza-Huei; Yang, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Global burdens from existing or emerging infectious diseases emphasize the need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to enhance timely recognition and intervention. Molecular approaches based on PCR methods have made significant inroads by improving detection time and accuracy but are still largely hampered by resource-intensive processing in centralized laboratories, thereby precluding their routine bedside- or field-use. Microfluidic technologies have enabled miniaturization of PCR processes onto a chip device with potential benefits including speed, cost, portability, throughput, and automation. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in microfluidic PCR technologies and discuss practical issues and perspectives related to implementing them into infectious disease diagnostics. PMID:21741465

  14. Advanced diagnostic methods in oral and maxillofacial pathology. Part II: immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Richard C K; Daniels, Troy E; Greenspan, John S; Regezi, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, in large part due to advances in the analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins in tissues. These advances have permitted improved biologic insights into many developmental, inflammatory, metabolic, infectious, and neoplastic diseases. Moreover, molecular analysis has also led to improvements in the accuracy of disease diagnosis and classification. It is likely that, in the future, these methods will increasingly enter into the day-to-day diagnosis and management of patients. The pathologist will continue to play a fundamental role in diagnosis and will likely be in a pivotal position to guide the implementation and interpretation of these tests as they move from the research laboratory into diagnostic pathology. The purpose of this 2-part series is to provide an overview of the principles and applications of current molecular biologic and immunologic tests. In Part I, the biologic fundamentals of DNA, RNA, and proteins and methods that are currently available or likely to become available to the pathologist in the next several years for their isolation and analysis in tissue biopsies were discussed. In Part II, advances in immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods and their application to modern diagnostic pathology are reviewed. PMID:11805778

  15. Development of advanced diagnostics for characterization of burning droplets in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Subramanian; Buermann, Dale H.; Bachalo, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques currently used for microgravity research are generally not as advanced as those used in earth based gravity experiments. Diagnostic techniques for measuring the instantaneous radial temperature profile (or temperature gradients) within the burning droplet do not exist. Over the past few years, Aerometrics has been researching and developing a rainbow thermometric technique for measuring the droplet temperatures of burning droplets. This technique has recently been integrated with the phase Doppler interferometric technique to yield a diagnostic instrument that can be used to simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and temperature of burning droplets in complex spray flames. Also, the rainbow thermometric technique has been recently integrated with a point-diffraction interferometric technique for measuring the instantaneous gas phase temperature field surrounding a burning droplet. These research programs, apart from being very successful, have also helped us identify other innovative techniques for the characterization of burning droplets. For example, new techniques have been identified for measuring the instantaneous regression rate of burning droplets. Also, there is the possibility of extracting the instantaneous radial temperature distribution or the temperature gradients within a droplet during transient heating. What is important is that these diagnostic techniques have the potential for making use of inexpensive, light-weight, and rugged devices such as diode lasers and linear CCD arrays. As a result, they can be easily packaged for incorporation into microgravity drop-test and flight-test facilities. Furthermore, with the use of linear CCD arrays, data rates as high as 10-100 kHz can be easily achieved. This data rate is orders of magnitude higher than what is currently achievable. In this research and development program, a compact and rugged diagnostic system will be developed that can be used to measure instantaneous fuel

  16. Recent advances on optical reflectometry for access network diagnostics and distributed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuyuan; Fan, Xinyu; Liu, Qingwen; Du, Jiangbing

    2015-07-01

    In this invited talk, we will present the advances in research and development activities of optical reflectometry in our laboratory. The performance of phase-sensitive coherent OTDR, which is developed for distributed vibration measurement, is reported with the results of field tests. The performance of time-gated digital OFDR, which is developed for optical access network diagnostics, is also reported. We will also discuss how to increase the frequency sweep span of the linearly-swept optical source, a very important part for improving the performance of optical reflectometry.

  17. Advanced Imaging and Diagnostic Methods in the Assessment of Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Joly, Joanna M; Bittner, Vera

    2016-09-01

    Although differences diminish with age, outcomes are overall worse for women compared to men who present with suspected acute coronary syndrome. The reasons for this discrepancy are multifactorial, including sex-related differences in atherosclerosis biology and fluid dynamics, as well as a premature conclusion by providers that chest pain must be noncardiac in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. In this review of existing literature, we explore the diverse differential diagnosis in this unique set of patients. Especially in women with persistent symptoms, absence of occlusive disease should prompt consideration for subangiographic plaque disruption, epicardial or microvascular endothelial dysfunction, transient neurohormonal imbalance predisposing to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or spontaneous coronary artery dissection, underlying systemic inflammatory conditions, thromboembolic disease, myocarditis, and sequelae of congenital heart disease. As always, a thorough history and attentive physical exam will help guide further work-up, which in many cases may warrant noninvasive imaging, such as contrast-enhanced echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography, with their respective means of measuring myocardial perfusion and myocardial tissue pathology. Lastly, intracoronary imaging such as intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography and invasive diagnostic methods such as coronary reactivity testing continue to add to our understanding that what appear to be atypical presentations of ischemic heart disease in women may in fact be typical presentations of pathologic cousin entities that remain incompletely defined. PMID:27443380

  18. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  19. Point-of-Care Multi-Organ Ultrasound Improves Diagnostic Accuracy in Adults Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Mantuani, Daniel; Frazee, Bradley W.; Fahimi, Jahan; Nagdev, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Determining the etiology of acute dyspnea in emregency department (ED) patients is often difficult. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) holds promise for improving immediate diagnostic accuracy (after history and physical), thus improving use of focused therapies. We evaluate the impact of a three-part POCUS exam, or “triple scan” (TS) – composed of abbreviated echocardiography, lung ultrasound and inferior vena cava (IVC) collapsibility assessment – on the treating physician’s immediate diagnostic impression. Methods A convenience sample of adults presenting to our urban academic ED with acute dyspnea (Emergency Severity Index 1, 2) were prospectively enrolled when investigator sonographers were available. The method for performing components of the TS has been previously described in detail. Treating physicians rated the most likely diagnosis after history and physical but before other studies (except electrocardiogram) returned. An investigator then performed TS and disclosed the results, after which most likely diagnosis was reassessed. Final diagnosis (criterion standard) was based on medical record review by expert emergency medicine faculty blinded to TS result. We compared accuracy of pre-TS and post-TS impression (primary outcome) with McNemar’s test. Test characteristics for treating physician impression were also calculated by dichotomizing acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia as present or absent. Results 57 patients were enrolled with the leading final diagnoses being ADHF (26%), COPD/asthma (30%), and pneumonia (28%). Overall accuracy of the treating physician’s impression increased from 53% before TS to 77% after TS (p=0.003). The post-TS impression was 100% sensitive and 84% specific for ADHF. Conclusion In this small study, POCUS evaluation of the heart, lungs and IVC improved the treating physician’s immediate overall diagnostic accuracy for ADHF, COPD

  20. The modified ultrasound pattern sum score mUPSS as additional diagnostic tool for genetically distinct hereditary neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Alexander; Rasenack, Maria; Athanasopoulou, Ioanna M; Dammeier, Nele Maria; Lipski, Christina; Wolking, Stefan; Vittore, Debora; Décard, Bernhard F; Axer, Hubertus

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the nerve ultrasound characteristics in genetically distinct inherited neuropathies, the value of the modified ultrasound pattern sum score (mUPSS) to differentiate between the subtypes and the correlation of ultrasound with nerve conduction studies (NCS), disease duration and severity. All patients underwent a standardized neurological examination, ultrasound, and NCS. In addition, genetic testing was performed. Consequently, mUPSS was applied, which is a sum-score of cross-sectional areas (CSA) at predefined anatomical points in different nerves. 31 patients were included (10xCharcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT)1a, 3xCMT1b, 3xCMTX, 9xCMT2, 6xHNPP [Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies]). Generalized, homogeneous nerve enlargement and significantly increased UPS scores emphasized the diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy, particularly CMT1a and CMT1b. The amount of enlargement did not depend on disease duration, symptom severity, height and weight. In CMTX the nerves were enlarged, as well, however, only in the roots and lower limbs, most prominent in men. In CMT2 no significant enlargement was detectable. In HNPP the CSA values were increased at entrapped sites, and not elsewhere. However, a distinction from CMT1, which also showed enlarged CSA values at entrapment sites, was only possible by calculating the entrapment ratios and entrapment score. The mUPSS allowed distinction between CMT1a (increased UPS scores, entrapment ratios <1.0) and HNPP (low UPS scores, entrapment ratios >1.4), while CMT1b and CMTX showed intermediate UPS types and entrapment ratios <1.0. Although based on few cases, ultrasound revealed consistent and homogeneous nerve alteration in certain inherited neuropathies. The modified UPSS is a quantitative tool, which may provide useful information for diagnosis, differentiation and follow-up evaluation in addition to NCS and molecular testing.

  1. DNA technological progress toward advanced diagnostic tools to support human hookworm control.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Cantacessi, C; Loukas, A

    2008-01-01

    Blood-feeding hookworms are parasitic nematodes of major human health importance. Currently, it is estimated that 740 million people are infected worldwide, and more than 80 million of them are severely affected clinically by hookworm disease. In spite of the health problems caused and the advances toward the development of vaccines against some hookworms, limited attention has been paid to the need for improved, practical methods of diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and genetic characterization of hookworms is central to their effective control. While traditional diagnostic methods have considerable limitations, there has been some progress toward the development of molecular-diagnostic tools. The present article provides a brief background on hookworm disease of humans, reviews the main methods that have been used for diagnosis and describes progress in establishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the specific diagnosis of hookworm infection and the genetic characterisation of the causative agents. This progress provides a foundation for the rapid development of practical, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic and analytical tools to be used in improved hookworm prevention and control programmes.

  2. Diagnostic Systems Plan for the Advanced Light Source Top-OffUpgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Walter; Chin, Mike; Robin, David; Sannibale, Fernando; Scarvie, Tom; Steier, Christoph

    2005-05-10

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) will soon be upgraded to enable top-off operations [1], in which electrons are quasi-continuously injected to produce constant stored beam current. The upgrade is structured in two phases. First, we will upgrade our injector from 1.5 GeV to 1.9 GeV to allow full energy injection and will start top-off operations. In the second phase, we will upgrade the Booster Ring (BR) with a bunch cleaning system to allow high bunch purity top-off injection. A diagnostics upgrade will be crucial for success in both phases of the top-off project, and our plan for it is described in this paper. New booster ring diagnostics will include updated beam position monitor (BPM) electronics, a tune monitoring system, and a new scraper. Two new synchrotron light monitors and a beam stop will be added to the booster-to-storage ring transfer line (BTS), and all the existing beam current monitors along the accelerator chain will be integrated into a single injection efficiency monitoring application. A dedicated bunch purity monitor will be installed in the storage ring (SR). Together, these diagnostic upgrades will enable smooth commissioning of the full energy injector and a quick transition to high quality top-off operation at the ALS.

  3. The circuit of polychromator for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, Qing; Zhao, Junyu; Chen, Hui; Li, Fengjuan; Hsieh, C. L.

    2013-09-15

    The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T{sub e}) gradient and low electron density (n{sub e}). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasing stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10.

  4. The circuit of polychromator for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qing; Hsieh, C L; Zhao, Junyu; Chen, Hui; Li, Fengjuan

    2013-09-01

    The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T(e)) gradient and low electron density (n(e)). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasing stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10.

  5. PREFACE: Advanced Metrology for Ultrasound in Medicine12-14 May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Adam

    2011-02-01

    Conference logo AMUM 2010 is the successor to the first AMUM conference held in 2004, which was the conference featured in the very first issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/1/1). Like its predecessor, AMUM 2010 proved to be very successful and provided a fantastic opportunity for the world's ultrasound experts from medicine, industry and academia to explore the measurement challenges presented by new and emerging clinical ultrasound equipment. 2010 was a very difficult year economically for much of the world, and then air travel over Europe was thrown into chaos by prolonged ash clouds from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April. So it was something of a relief to see such good attendance; this is a clear indication of the need for this conference with its focus on metrology in medical ultrasound. There were a total of 70 attendees: of these 34 were from the UK, 16 from the rest of Europe, and 20 from outside Europe. National Metrology Institutes from no fewer than nine different countries were represented, some of them very new to the field, some with a recent growth of interest in ultrasound, and others with a well-established reputation. I was particularly pleased to see younger researchers from those NMIs new to ultrasound attend and have the chance to mix with such a wide grouping of their peers and present their work. There was also a strong attendance by industry including the major imaging companies such as GE Healthcare, Siemens, Philips Healthcare, Hitachi Medical, Aloka, Medison and the newer Supersonic Imagine; and more specialist companies such as Imasonic, Onda Corporation, Unisyn Medical Technologies, and Polytec and Precision Acoustics, our partner in organizing the event. The conference was spread over 3 days with plenty of time for discussions over coffee; the afternoon of the 3rd day was dedicated to laboratory visits within NPL. We were fortunate to have some excellent Keynote

  6. Application of advanced laser diagnostics to hypersonic wind tunnels and combustion systems.

    SciTech Connect

    North, Simon W.; Hsu, Andrea G.; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2009-09-01

    This LDRD was a Sandia Fellowship that supported Andrea Hsu's PhD research at Texas A&M University and her work as a visitor at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility. The research project at Texas A&M University is concerned with the experimental characterization of hypersonic (Mach>5) flowfields using experimental diagnostics. This effort is part of a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) and is a collaboration between the Chemistry and Aerospace Engineering departments. Hypersonic flight conditions often lead to a non-thermochemical equilibrium (NTE) state of air, where the timescale of reaching a single (equilibrium) Boltzmann temperature is much longer than the timescale of the flow. Certain molecular modes, such as vibrational modes, may be much more excited than the translational or rotational modes of the molecule, leading to thermal-nonequilibrium. A nontrivial amount of energy is therefore contained within the vibrational mode, and this energy cascades into the flow as thermal energy, affecting flow properties through vibrational-vibrational (V-V) and vibrational-translational (V-T) energy exchanges between the flow species. The research is a fundamental experimental study of these NTE systems and involves the application of advanced laser and optical diagnostics towards hypersonic flowfields. The research is broken down into two main categories: the application and adaptation of existing laser and optical techniques towards characterization of NTE, and the development of new molecular tagging velocimetry techniques which have been demonstrated in an underexpanded jet flowfield, but may be extended towards a variety of flowfields. In addition, Andrea's work at Sandia National Labs involved the application of advanced laser diagnostics to flames and turbulent non-reacting jets. These studies included quench-free planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and mixture fraction measurements via Rayleigh scattering.

  7. Point-of-care diagnostics: an advancing sector with nontechnical issues.

    PubMed

    Huckle, David

    2008-11-01

    The particular reasons for the relative lack in development of point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics in a business context were discussed in our sister journal, Expert Review of Medical Devices, over 2 years ago. At that time, it could be seen that the concept of PoC testing was being revisited for at least the fifth time in the last 20 years. There had been important advances in technology but, with changes in global healthcare structures and funding, the overall in vitro diagnostics sector has had sluggish growth. Only molecular diagnostics and PoC testing are growing strongly. PoC testing is now a quarter of the total global in vitro diagnostics market, but largely due to use in diabetes monitoring. An increased focus on areas other than glucose self-testing has created a disturbance in the market. An implementation issue from this disturbance is that of control between central laboratories and the proposed sites for PoC testing. Evidence is presented to show that the first step is likely to be increased use in clinics and outpatient facilities closely linked with the laboratory. The aim will be to control the quality of the test, maintenance of equipment and provide support for the clinician in interpretation. The major problem for effective PoC implementation will be the significant changes to patient pathways that are required. The changes will benefit the patient and clinical outcomes but will require healthcare professionals to change their work patterns. This will be an uphill task!

  8. Strategic steps for advanced molecular imaging with magnetic resonance-based diagnostic modalities.

    PubMed

    Belkic, Dž; Belkic, K

    2015-02-01

    With the rapidly-expanding sophistication in our understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a critical bridge to oncology. Molecular imaging through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide information about many metabolites at the same time. Since MRS entails no ionizing radiation, repeated monitoring, including screening can be performed. However, MRS via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) has poor resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, subjective and non-unique (ambiguous) fittings of FFT spectra cannot provide reliable quantification of clinical usefulness. In sharp contrast, objective and unique (unambiguous) signal processing by the fast Padé transform (FPT) can increase resolution and retrieve the true quantitative metabolic information. To illustrate, we apply the FPT to in vitro MRS data as encoded from malignant ovarian cyst fluid and perform detailed analysis. This problem area is particularly in need of timely diagnostics by more advanced modalities, such as high-resolution MRS, since conventional methods usually detect ovarian cancers at late stages with poor prognosis, whereas at an early stage the prognosis is excellent. The reliability and robustness of the FPT is assessed for time signals contaminated with varying noise levels. In the presence of higher background noise, all physical metabolites were unequivocally identified and their concentrations precisely extracted, using small fractions of the total signal length. Via the "signal-noise separation" concept alongside the "stability test", all non-physical information was binned, such that fully denoised spectra were generated. These results imply that a reformulation of data acquisition is needed, as guided by the FPT in MRS, since a small number of short transient time signals can provide high resolution and good SNR. This would enhance the diagnostic accuracy of MRS and shorten examination times, thereby improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness of

  9. Trauma Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures.

  10. [Evaluation of the diagnostic value of color Doppler ultrasound examination of salivary gland neoplasms and metastatic tumors from the facial bones].

    PubMed

    Falkowski, A

    1998-01-01

    . Atheromatosis was detected in patients of each group, 7 of them had to be operated on due to a stricture within the proximal part of internal carotid artery. The results of the study express high diagnostic value of colour Doppler ultrasound examination in the neck tumours. The examination should be obligatory performed as one of the first diagnostic measures after admitting a patient. The method seems to be of very little use in diagnosis differentiating inflammation, benign and malignant salivary gland tumours and metastatic masses of the neck hence some other diagnostic procedures should be here employed.

  11. Validation of the fifth edition BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon with comparison of fourth and fifth edition diagnostic performance using video clips

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and the diagnostic performance of the ultrasonographic descriptors in the fifth edition of BI-RADS, comparing with the fourth edition using video clips. Methods From September 2013 to July 2014, 80 breast masses in 74 women (mean age, 47.5±10.7 years) from five institutions of the Korean Society of Breast Imaging were included. Two radiologists individually reviewed the static and video images and analyzed the images according to the fourth and fifth edition of BI-RADS. The PPV of each descriptor was calculated and diagnostic performances between the fourth and fifth editions were compared. Results Of the 80 breast masses, 51 (63.8%) were benign and 29 (36.2%) were malignant. Suspicious ultrasonographic features such as irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, angular or spiculated margins, and combined posterior features showed higher PPV in both editions (all P<0.05). No significant differences were found in the diagnostic performances between the two editions (all P>0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was higher in the fourth edition (0.708 to 0.690), without significance (P=0.416). Conclusion The fifth edition of the BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon showed comparable performance to the fourth edition and can be useful in the differential diagnosis of breast masses using ultrasonography. PMID:27184655

  12. Diagnostic utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for glomus tumor of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Chinen, Kenji; Murakami, Takahiro; Kunishima, Fumihito

    2015-06-14

    A 52-year-old man was referred for further investigation of a gastric submucosal tumor on the greater curvature of the antrum. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic solid mass, which was primarily connected to the muscular layer of the stomach. We performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The pathological examination showed proliferation of oval-shaped cells with nest formation, which stained strongly positive for muscle actin, and negative for c-kit, CD34, CD56, desmin, S-100, chromogranin, and neuron-specific enolase. Therefore, we performed laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery based on the preoperative diagnosis of glomus tumor of the stomach. The final histological diagnosis confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. Although preoperative diagnosis of glomus tumor of the stomach is difficult with conventional images and endoscopic biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an essential tool to gain histological evidence of glomus tumor of the stomach for early diagnosis.

  13. Advanced noise reduction in placental ultrasound imaging using CPU and GPU: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zombori, G.; Ryan, J.; McAuliffe, F.; Rainford, L.; Moran, M.; Brennan, P.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of different implementations of 3D anisotropic diffusion speckle noise reduction technique on ultrasound images. In this project we are developing a novel volumetric calcification assessment metric for the placenta, and providing a software tool for this purpose. The tool can also automatically segment and visualize (in 3D) ultrasound data. One of the first steps when developing such a tool is to find a fast and efficient way to eliminate speckle noise. Previous works on this topic by Duan, Q. [1] and Sun, Q. [2] have proven that the 3D noise reducing anisotropic diffusion (3D SRAD) method shows exceptional performance in enhancing ultrasound images for object segmentation. Therefore we have implemented this method in our software application and performed a comparative study on the different variants in terms of performance and computation time. To increase processing speed it was necessary to utilize the full potential of current state of the art Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Our 3D datasets are represented in a spherical volume format. With the aim of 2D slice visualization and segmentation, a "scan conversion" or "slice-reconstruction" step is needed, which includes coordinate transformation from spherical to Cartesian, re-sampling of the volume and interpolation. Combining the noise filtering and slice reconstruction in one process on the GPU, we can achieve close to real-time operation on high quality data sets without the need for down-sampling or reducing image quality. For the GPU programming OpenCL language was used. Therefore the presented solution is fully portable.

  14. Opto-acoustic diagnostics of the thermal action of high-intensity focused ultrasound on biological tissues: the possibility of its applications and model experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlova, Tanya D; Pelivanov, Ivan M; Solomatin, Vladimir S; Karabutov, Aleksander A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2006-12-31

    The possibility of using the opto-acoustic (OA) method for monitoring high-intensity ultrasonic therapy is studied. The optical properties of raw and boiled liver samples used as the undamaged model tissue and tissue destroyed by ultrasound, respectively, are measured. Experiments are performed with samples consisting of several alternating layers of raw and boiled liver of different thickness. The position and transverse size of the thermal lesion were determined from the temporal shape of the OA signals. The results of measurements are compared with the real size and position of the thermal lesion determined from the subsequent cuts of the sample. It is shown that the OA method permits the diagnostics of variations in biological tissues upon ultrasonic therapy. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  15. Ultrasound artifacts: classification, applied physics with illustrations, and imaging appearances.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Somnath J; Kanal, Kalpana; Bhargava, Puneet; Vaidya, Sandeep; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound has become a widely used diagnostic imaging modality in medicine because of its safety and portability. Because of rapid advances in technology, in recent years, sonographic imaging quality has significantly increased. Despite these advances, the potential to encounter artifacts while imaging remains.This article classifies both common and uncommon gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound artifacts into those resulting from physiology and those caused by hardware. A brief applied-physics explanation for each artifact is listed along with an illustrated diagram. The imaging appearance of artifacts is presented in case examples, along with strategies to minimize the artifacts in real time or use them for clinical advantage where applicable.

  16. 78 FR 59701 - Medicare Program; Approval of Accrediting Organization for Suppliers of Advanced Diagnostic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...)(4)(B) (excluding X-ray, ultrasound, and fluoroscopy), as specified by the Secretary in consultation... imaging services as ``imaging and computer-assisted imaging services,'' including x-ray, ultrasound... on November 25, 2009 (74 FR 61738), as corrected in the November 30, 2009 correcting document (74...

  17. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  18. Design of quasi-traveling wave pinger magnet for beam diagnostics on the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.E.; Stover, G.

    1997-05-01

    A beam diagnostic tool to modify single bunch orbits in all four quadrants is proposed for measuring various machine physics parameters at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Quasi-Traveling Wave pinger magnets were chosen to provide programmable bipolar horizontal and vertical kicks of sufficient duration while providing negligible deflection on subsequent beam revolutions in the storage ring. This magnet technology, originally investigated at the SSC, provides a cost-effective method of achieving the moderately fast pulse requirements of the pinger application. The design of the pinger magnet and associated pulsed power drive unit will be presented. Electrical response results of initial pinger magnet prototypes and ceramic beam pipe coatings will be given.

  19. Design of Quasi-Travelling Wave Pinger Magnet for Beam Diagnostics on the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. E.; Stover, G.; Thur, W.

    1997-05-01

    A beam diagnostic tool to modify single bunch orbits in all four quadrants is proposed for measuring various machine physics parameters at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Quasi-Travelling Wave Pinger magnets were chosen to provide programmable bipolar horizontal and vertical kicks of sufficient duration while providing negligible deflection on subsequent beam revolutions in the storage ring. This magnet technology, originally investigated at the SSC(D. Anderson and L. Schneider, "Design and Preliminary Testing of the LEB Extraction Kicker Magnet at the SSC", Proceedings of 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, May 1993, pp. 1354-6.), provides a cost-effective method of achieving the moderately fast pulse requirements of the pinger application. The design of the pinger magnet and associated pulsed power drive unit will be presented. Electrical response results of initial pinger magnet prototypes and ceramic beampipe coatings will also be given.

  20. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  1. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI): A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets

    PubMed Central

    de Vent, Nathalie R.; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A.; Schmand, Ben A.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI), datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity, and range of these data surpasses that of traditional normative data, thereby enabling more accurate neuropsychological assessment. Because of the unique structure of the database, it facilitates normative comparison methods that were not feasible before, in particular those in which entire profiles of scores are evaluated. In this article, we describe the steps that were necessary to combine the separate datasets into a single database. These steps involve matching variables from multiple datasets, removing outlying values, determining the influence of demographic variables, and finding appropriate transformations to normality. Also, a brief description of the current contents of the ANDI database is given. PMID:27812340

  2. Results of prototype particle-beam diagnostics tests for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation source (hard x-rays) based on 7-GeV positrons circulating in a 1,104-m circumference storage ring. In the past year a number of the diagnostic prototypes for the measurement of the charged-particle beam parameters throughout the subsystems of the facility (ranging from 450-MeV to 7-GeV positrons and with different pulse formats) have been built and tested. Results are summarized for the beam position monitor (BPM), current monitor (CM), loss monitor (LM), and imaging systems (ISYS). The test facilities ranged from the 40-MeV APS linac test stand to the existing storage rings at SSRL and NSLS.

  3. Emittance and Phase Space Exchange for Advanced Beam Manipulation and Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-04-27

    Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between transverse phase space (x,x') and longitudinal phase space (z,{delta}), where x is the transverse position, x' is the transverse divergence, and z and {delta} are relative longitudinal position and energy deviation with respect to the reference particle. Methods to achieve exact phase space exchanges, i.e., mapping x to z, x' to {delta}, z to x, and {delta} to x', are suggested. Schemes to mitigate and completely compensate for the thick-lens effect of the transverse cavity on emittance exchange are studied. Some applications of the phase space exchange for advanced beam manipulation and diagnostics are discussed.

  4. Primary ciliary dyskinesia. Recent advances in diagnostics, genetics, and characterization of clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael R; Daniels, Leigh Anne; Davis, Stephanie D; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Leigh, Margaret W

    2013-10-15

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder of motile cilia that leads to oto-sino-pulmonary diseases and organ laterality defects in approximately 50% of cases. The estimated incidence of PCD is approximately 1 per 15,000 births, but the prevalence of PCD is difficult to determine, primarily because of limitations in diagnostic methods that focus on testing ciliary ultrastructure and function. Diagnostic capabilities have recently benefitted from (1) documentation of low nasal nitric oxide production in PCD and (2) discovery of biallelic mutations in multiple PCD-causing genes. The use of these complementary diagnostic approaches shows that at least 30% of patients with PCD have normal ciliary ultrastructure. More accurate identification of patients with PCD has also allowed definition of a strong clinical phenotype, which includes neonatal respiratory distress in >80% of cases, daily nasal congestion and wet cough starting soon after birth, and early development of recurrent/chronic middle-ear and sinus disease. Recent studies, using advanced imaging and pulmonary physiologic assessments, clearly demonstrate early onset of lung disease in PCD, with abnormal air flow mechanics by age 6-8 years that is similar to cystic fibrosis, and age-dependent onset of bronchiectasis. The treatment of PCD is not standardized, and there are no validated PCD-specific therapies. Most patients with PCD receive suboptimal management, which should include airway clearance, regular surveillance of pulmonary function and respiratory microbiology, and use of antibiotics targeted to pathogens. The PCD Foundation is developing a network of clinical centers, which should improve diagnosis and management of PCD.

  5. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Core Biopsy to Minimal-Invasively Diagnose Supraclavicular Fossa Tumors and Minimize the Requirement of Invasive Diagnostic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Nan; Lin, Che-Yi; Chi, Fan-Hsiang; Chou, Chen-Han; Hsu, Ya-Ching; Kuo, Yen-Lin; Lin, Chih-Feng; Chen, Tseng-Cheng; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Lou, Pei-Jen; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Yang, Tsung-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the supraclavicular fossa (SC) is clinically challenging because of anatomical complexity and tumor pathological diversity. Because of varied diseases entities and treatment choices of SC tumors, making the accurate decision among numerous differential diagnoses is imperative. Sampling by open biopsy (OB) remains the standard procedure for pathological confirmation. However, complicated anatomical structures of SC always render surgical intervention difficult to perform. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy (USCB) is a minimally invasive and office-based procedure for tissue sampling widely applied in many diseases of head and neck. This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy and utility of using USCB as the sampling method of SC tumors. From 2009 to 2014, consecutive patients who presented clinical symptoms and signs of supraclavicular tumors and were scheduled to receive sampling procedures for diagnostic confirmation were recruited. The patients received USCB or OB respectively in the initial tissue sampling. The accurate diagnostic rate based on pathological results was 90.2% for USCB, and 93.6% for OB. No significant difference was noted between USCB and OB groups in terms of diagnostic accuracy and the percentage of inadequate specimens. All cases in the USCB group had the sampling procedure completed within 10  minutes, but not in the OB group. No scars larger than 1  cm were found in USCB. Only patients in the OB groups had the need to receive general anesthesia and hospitalization and had scars postoperatively. Accordingly, USCB can serve as the first-line sampling tool for SC tumors with high diagnostic accuracy, minimal invasiveness, and low medical cost. PMID:26825877

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Intravascular Ultrasound-Derived Minimal Lumen Area to Predict Functionally Significant Non-Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Cheol; Bae, Jong Seok; Jin, Han-Young; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Park, Yong Hyun; Je, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention frequently results in unnecessary stenting due to the low positive predictive value of IVUS-derived minimal lumen area (MLA) for identification of functionally significant coronary stenosis. We appraised the diagnostic accuracy of IVUS-derived MLA compared with the fractional flow reserve (FFR) to assess intermediate coronary stenosis. Subjects and Methods We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for studies using IVUS and FFR methods to establish the best MLA cut-off values to predict significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. Results The 17 studies used in our analysis enrolled 3920 patients with 4267 lesions. The weighted overall mean MLA cut-off value was 2.58 mm2. The pooled MLA sensitivity that predicted functionally significant coronary stenosis was 0.75 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 0.77) and the specificity was 0.66 (CI: 0.64 to 0.68). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 2.33 (CI: 2.06 to 2.63) and LR (-) was 0.33 (CI: 0.26 to 0.42). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 7.53 (CI: 5.26 to 10.76) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve for all the trials was 0.782 with a Q point of 0.720. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that an FFR cut-off point of 0.75 was associated with a four times higher diagnostic accuracy compared to that of 0.80 (relative DOR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 12.34). Conclusion IVUS-derived MLA has limited diagnostic accuracy and needs careful interpretation to correlate with functionally significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. PMID:27721852

  7. Overview of charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-,e+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FEL's and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  8. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-08-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-), e(+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  9. Overview of charged-particle beam diagnostics for the advanced photon source (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-07-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-,e+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  10. Installation of the advanced heavy ion beam probing diagnostic on the TJ-II stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, I. S.; Chmyga, A. A.; Dreval, N. B.; Khrebtov, S. M.; Komarov, A. D.; Kozachok, A. S.; Krupnik, L. I.; Melnikov, A. V.; Yudina, O. A.; Coelho, P.; Cunha, M.; Goncalves, B.; Malaquias, A.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Varandas, C. F. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Garcia-Cortes, I.

    2000-12-01

    An advanced heavy ion beam diagnostic has been developed for the TJ-II stellarator based on the simultaneous utilisation of two different detection systems for the secondary ions: a multiple cell array detector and a 30° Proca-Green electrostatic energy analyser. This innovative design aims at enlarging the HIBD capabilities to allow the instanteneous measurements of electron density and plasma potential profiles together with their respective fluctuations. This paper presents the detailed description of the main parts of HIBD and their characteristics obtained during the first operation on TJ-II. Special attention is paid to the control and data acquisition system built on two VME controllers. The results of the diagnostic beam propagating through the magnetic structure of TJ-II into electrostatic energy analyser are presented and compared with the trajectory calculations. The operation and calibration of a 30° electrostatic energy analyser free of guard rings and with a new biased split detector are described. High intensities of the caesium and thallium ions was obtained from thermionic source using new stable and long-time special operation regimes.

  11. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundesmann, C.; Tartz, M.; Scholze, F.; Leiter, H. J.; Scortecci, F.; Gnizdor, R. Y.; Neumann, H.

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1.

  12. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources.

    PubMed

    Bundesmann, C; Tartz, M; Scholze, F; Leiter, H J; Scortecci, F; Gnizdor, R Y; Neumann, H

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1. PMID:20441379

  13. From FAST to E-FAST: an overview of the evolution of ultrasound-based traumatic injury assessment.

    PubMed

    Montoya, J; Stawicki, S P; Evans, D C; Bahner, D P; Sparks, S; Sharpe, R P; Cipolla, J

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound is a ubiquitous and versatile diagnostic tool. In the setting of acute injury, ultrasound enhances the basic trauma evaluation, influences bedside decision-making, and helps determine whether or not an unstable patient requires emergent procedural intervention. Consequently, continued education of surgeons and other acute care practitioners in performing focused emergency ultrasound is of great importance. This article provides a synopsis of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and the extended FAST (E-FAST) that incorporates basic thoracic injury assessment. The authors also review key pitfalls, limitations, controversies, and advances related to FAST, E-FAST, and ultrasound education.

  14. Advanced characterization and refinement of poly N-butyl cyanoacrylate microbubbles for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Fokong, Stanley; Siepmann, Monica; Liu, Zhe; Schmitz, Georg; Kiessling, Fabian; Gätjens, Jessica

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to develop and characterize poly n-butylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) microbubbles (MBs) with a narrow size distribution. MBs were synthesized by established emulsion polymerization techniques, size-isolated by centrifugation and functionalized for molecular imaging by coating their surface with streptavidin. The physical and acoustic properties of the parent solution, different-size isolated populations and functionalized MBs were measured and compared. As expected from negative zeta potentials at pH 7, cryo scanning electron microscopy showed no aggregates. In phantoms MBs were destructible at high mechanical indices and showed a frequency-dependent attenuation and backscattering. The MBs were stable in solution for more than 14 weeks and could be lyophilized without major damage. However, for injection, small needle diameters and high injection rates are shown to be critical because both lead to MB destruction. In summary, when being handled correctly, size-isolated PBCA MBs are promising candidates for preclinical functional and molecular ultrasound imaging.

  15. The Technologist Function in Fields Related to Radiology: Tasks in Radiation Therapy and Diagnostic Ultrasound. Research Report No. 9; Relating Technologist Tasks in Diagnostic Radiology, Ultrasound and Radiation Therapy. Research Report No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpatrick, Eleanor

    The two research reports included in this document describe the application of the Health Services Mobility Study (HSMS) task analysis method to two technologist functions and examine the interrelationships of these tasks with those in diagnostic radiology. (The HSMS method includes processes for using the data for designing job ladders, for…

  16. New advanced netted ground based and topside radio diagnostics for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Krankowski, Andrzej; Morawski, Marek; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2014-05-01

    data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. The main purpose of this presentation is to describe new advanced diagnostic techniques of the near-Earth space plasma and point out the scientific challenges of the radio frequency analyser located on board of low orbiting satellites and LOFAR facilities. This research is partly supported by grant O N517 418440

  17. Portable bedside ultrasound: the visual stethoscope of the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade technological advances in the realm of ultrasound have allowed what was once a cumbersome and large machine to become essentially hand-held. This coupled with a greater understanding of lung sonography has revolutionized our bedside assessment of patients. Using ultrasound not as a diagnostic test, but instead as a component of the physical exam, may allow it to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. PMID:22400903

  18. Interprofessional Obstetric Ultrasound Education: Successful Development of Online Learning Modules; Case-Based Seminars; and Skills Labs for Registered and Advanced Practice Nurses, Midwives, Physicians, and Trainees.

    PubMed

    Shaw-Battista, Jenna; Young-Lin, Nichole; Bearman, Sage; Dau, Kim; Vargas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important aid in the clinical diagnosis and management of normal and complicated pregnancy and childbirth. The technology is widely applied to maternity care in the United States, where comprehensive standard ultrasound examinations are routine. Targeted scans are common and used for an increasing number of clinical indications due to emerging research and a greater availability of equipment with better image resolution at lower cost. These factors contribute to an increased demand for obstetric ultrasound education among students and providers of maternity care, despite a paucity of data to inform education program design and evaluation. To meet this demand, from 2012 to 2015 the University of California, San Francisco nurse-midwifery education program developed and implemented an interprofessional obstetric ultrasound course focused on clinical applications commonly managed by maternity care providers from different professions and disciplines. The course included matriculating students in nursing and medicine, as well as licensed practitioners such as registered and advanced practice nurses, midwives, and physicians and residents in obstetrics and gynecology and family medicine. After completing 10 online modules with a pre- and posttest of knowledge and interprofessional competencies related to teamwork and communication, trainees attended a case-based seminar and hands-on skills practicum with pregnant volunteers. The course aimed to establish a foundation for further supervised clinical training prior to independent practice of obstetric ultrasound. Course development was informed by professional guidelines and clinical and education research literature. This article describes the foundations, with a review of the challenges and solutions encountered in obstetric ultrasound education development and implementation. Our experience will inform educators who wish to facilitate obstetric ultrasound competency development among new and experienced

  19. Interprofessional Obstetric Ultrasound Education: Successful Development of Online Learning Modules; Case-Based Seminars; and Skills Labs for Registered and Advanced Practice Nurses, Midwives, Physicians, and Trainees.

    PubMed

    Shaw-Battista, Jenna; Young-Lin, Nichole; Bearman, Sage; Dau, Kim; Vargas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important aid in the clinical diagnosis and management of normal and complicated pregnancy and childbirth. The technology is widely applied to maternity care in the United States, where comprehensive standard ultrasound examinations are routine. Targeted scans are common and used for an increasing number of clinical indications due to emerging research and a greater availability of equipment with better image resolution at lower cost. These factors contribute to an increased demand for obstetric ultrasound education among students and providers of maternity care, despite a paucity of data to inform education program design and evaluation. To meet this demand, from 2012 to 2015 the University of California, San Francisco nurse-midwifery education program developed and implemented an interprofessional obstetric ultrasound course focused on clinical applications commonly managed by maternity care providers from different professions and disciplines. The course included matriculating students in nursing and medicine, as well as licensed practitioners such as registered and advanced practice nurses, midwives, and physicians and residents in obstetrics and gynecology and family medicine. After completing 10 online modules with a pre- and posttest of knowledge and interprofessional competencies related to teamwork and communication, trainees attended a case-based seminar and hands-on skills practicum with pregnant volunteers. The course aimed to establish a foundation for further supervised clinical training prior to independent practice of obstetric ultrasound. Course development was informed by professional guidelines and clinical and education research literature. This article describes the foundations, with a review of the challenges and solutions encountered in obstetric ultrasound education development and implementation. Our experience will inform educators who wish to facilitate obstetric ultrasound competency development among new and experienced

  20. Advances in the Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Subepithelial Tumor: Pathologic Diagnosis Using Endoscopy without Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hang Lak

    2016-01-01

    Until now, biopsy methods for subepithelial tumors (SETs) have focused on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biopsy; however, these methods have several limitations. We devised a simple method for pathologic diagnosis of SETs. SETs are occasionally diagnosed during endoscopy, and lesions are generally small and asymptomatic. It can be challenging to decide on a management plan for large asymptomatic SETs. EUS imaging provides information regarding the size, layer, and echo pattern of the lesions. Patient management plans have traditionally been determined based on EUS images, whereby the endoscopist chooses to either monitor or remove the tumor. However, EUS alone cannot diagnose and evaluate upper gastrointestinal SETs with high accuracy. As sufficient tissue samples are required for the accurate diagnosis of SETs, EUS-guided biopsy techniques such as EUS fine-needle aspiration and trucut biopsy are currently used. However, these methods have a relatively low diagnostic accuracy and do not always provide information upon immunohistochemical staining. Endoscopists can easily detect a submucosal mass after creating an iatrogenic mucosal ulcer, after which tissue sampling is performed by using endoscopic biopsy. Furthermore, pathologic results can differentiate between benign and premalignant lesions. Here, we introduce a simple method for the pathologic diagnosis of SETs. PMID:27246253

  1. Multiparametric monitoring of chemotherapy treatment response in locally advanced breast cancer using quantitative ultrasound and diffuse optical spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tran, William T.; Childs, Charmaine; Chin, Lee; Slodkowska, Elzbieta; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Tadayyon, Hadi; Watkins, Elyse; Wong, Sharon Lemon; Curpen, Belinda; Kaffas, Ahmed El; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging (DOSI) biomarkers in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Materials and Methods The institution's ethics review board approved this study. Subjects (n = 22) gave written informed consent prior to participating. US and DOSI data were acquired, relative to the start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, at weeks 0, 1, 4, 8 and preoperatively. QUS parameters including the mid-band fit (MBF), 0-MHz intercept (SI), and the spectral slope (SS) were determined from tumor ultrasound data using spectral analysis. In the same patients, DOSI was used to measure parameters relating to tumor hemoglobin and composition. Discriminant analysis and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to classify clinical and pathological response during treatment and to estimate the area under the curve (AUC). Additionally, multivariate analysis was carried out for pairwise QUS/DOSI parameter combinations using a logistic regression model. Results Individual QUS and DOSI parameters, including the (SI), oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2), and total hemoglobin (HbT) were significant markers for response after one week of treatment (p < 0.01). Multivariate (pairwise) combinations increased the sensitivity, specificity and AUC at this time; the SI + HbO2 showed a sensitivity/specificity of 100%, and an AUC of 1.0. Conclusions QUS and DOSI demonstrated potential as coincident markers for treatment response and may potentially facilitate response-guided therapies. Multivariate QUS and DOSI parameters increased the sensitivity and specificity of classifying LABC patients as early as one week after treatment. PMID:26942698

  2. MicroRNA Imaging in Combination with Diagnostic Ultrasound and Bubble Liposomes for MicroRNA Delivery.

    PubMed

    Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Negishi, Yoichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Aramaki, Yukihiko

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is expected to play an important role in the diagnosis and therapy of various diseases. In miRNA therapy, the development of delivery tools to the target site is considered to be essential. By using a delivery tool possessing imaging ability, miRNA colocalized with the carrier could be visualized after administration. We prepared polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes containing echo-contrast gas, "Bubble liposomes" (BLs), and confirmed that BLs containing cationic lipid were capable of loading miRNA. Furthermore, we also achieved the imaging and delivery of systemically injected miRNA to target site in combination with ultrasound exposure. MiRNA-loaded BLs could be a useful tool for imaging and therapy.

  3. Evaluation of diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound scoring system to select thyroid nodules requiring fine needle aspiration biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Hajizadeh, Tohid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The large number of patients that require fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to discriminate malignant from benign thyroid nodules is a practical problem especially in iodine deficient area. To obtain an ultrasound (US) score and for predicting malignant nodules and reduce the number of unnecessary and expensive FNAB. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 thyroid nodules observed from August 2009 to August 2011 that had underwent FNAB were evaluated by US for echogenicity, peripheral halo, microcalcifications and intranodular vascularity. Results: showed that nodules with two ultrasonographic features (US score = 4) were characterized by a 67.9% sensitivity and a 87% specificity for prediction of malignant thyroid nodules. Conclusion: According to our data, we suggest FNAB for nodules with US score ≥ 4. The practical use of this US score may help reduce unnecessary and expensive FNAB especially in iodine-deficient areas. PMID:24040471

  4. Advances in quantitative muscle ultrasonography using texture analysis of ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Filippo; Caresio, Cristina; Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging can be used to investigate the skeletal muscle structure in terms of architecture (thickness, cross-sectional area, fascicle length and fascicle pennation angle) and texture. Gray-scale analysis is commonly used to characterize transverse scans of the muscle. Gray mean value is used to distinguish between normal and pathologic muscles, but it depends on the image acquisition system and its settings. In this study, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on five muscles (biceps brachii, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior) of 20 healthy patients (10 women, 10 men) to assess the characterization performance of higher-order texture descriptors to differentiate genders and muscle types. A total of 53 features (7 first-order descriptors, 24 Haralick features, 20 Galloway features and 2 local binary pattern features) were extracted from each muscle region of interest (ROI) and were used to perform the multivariate linear regression analysis (MANOVA). Our results show that first-order descriptors, Haralick features (energy, entropy and correlation measured along different angles) and local binary pattern (LBP) energy and entropy were highly linked to the gender, whereas Haralick entropy and symmetry, Galloway texture descriptors and LBP entropy helped to distinguish muscle types. Hence, the combination of first-order and higher-order texture descriptors (Haralick, Galloway and LBP) can be used to discriminate gender and muscle types. Therefore, multi-texture analysis may be useful to investigate muscle damage and myopathic disorders.

  5. Advances in a fully integrated intravascular OCT-ultrasound system for cardiovascular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Joe; Li, Jiawen; Li, Xiang; Yin, Jiechen; Zhang, Jun; Hoang, Khiet; Patel, Pranav; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are two popular techniques for the detection and determination of atherosclerosis. IVUS allows visualization of plaques while also providing a large penetration depth to determine plaque volume. Intracoronary OCT provides the ability to capture microscopic features associated with high risk plaque. Traditionally to utilize the benefits of both modalities, separate probes and systems had to be used one at a time to image a vessel. We present work required to create a combined OCT IVUS system capable of simultaneous imaging to detect atherosclerotic plaques. A novel integrated probe of size 0.69 mm OD featuring sequential placement of components was created to acquire co-registered images within small coronary vessels. By utilizing commercial graphics processing units (GPUs) real time visualization of acquired data is possible up to a maximum 48 frames per second per channel. In vitro studies on human coronary artery samples as well as in vivo studies in rabbits and pigs show various plaque buildups in both OCT and IVUS images which match histology results, demonstrating the capabilities of the system.

  6. Advances in quantitative muscle ultrasonography using texture analysis of ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Filippo; Caresio, Cristina; Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging can be used to investigate the skeletal muscle structure in terms of architecture (thickness, cross-sectional area, fascicle length and fascicle pennation angle) and texture. Gray-scale analysis is commonly used to characterize transverse scans of the muscle. Gray mean value is used to distinguish between normal and pathologic muscles, but it depends on the image acquisition system and its settings. In this study, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on five muscles (biceps brachii, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior) of 20 healthy patients (10 women, 10 men) to assess the characterization performance of higher-order texture descriptors to differentiate genders and muscle types. A total of 53 features (7 first-order descriptors, 24 Haralick features, 20 Galloway features and 2 local binary pattern features) were extracted from each muscle region of interest (ROI) and were used to perform the multivariate linear regression analysis (MANOVA). Our results show that first-order descriptors, Haralick features (energy, entropy and correlation measured along different angles) and local binary pattern (LBP) energy and entropy were highly linked to the gender, whereas Haralick entropy and symmetry, Galloway texture descriptors and LBP entropy helped to distinguish muscle types. Hence, the combination of first-order and higher-order texture descriptors (Haralick, Galloway and LBP) can be used to discriminate gender and muscle types. Therefore, multi-texture analysis may be useful to investigate muscle damage and myopathic disorders. PMID:26026375

  7. Advanced abdominal ectopic pregnancy: lessons from three cases from Zimbabwe and a literature appraisal of diagnostic and management challenges.

    PubMed

    Gidiri, Muchabayiwa F; Kanyenze, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    We report three cases illustrating difficulties in diagnosis and challenges with management of the placenta in a low-resource country where ultrasound scanning, methotrexate, interventional radiology or blood products are often not accessible for the majority of patients. Even in situations where an ultrasound scan is available prenatally as in our three cases, the diagnosis is often missed. All the cases presented with vague abdominal symptoms, which are common in pregnancy anyway. Only one case was correctly diagnosed before surgery by ultrasound scan. For the two cases in the second trimester as expected the fetuses did not survive. The one advanced pregnancy had a good perinatal outcome. Maternal morbidity and mortality usually results from perioperative hemorrhage from the placental attachment site. The most important aspect of management is the management of the placenta. In the two cases with second trimester pregnancies, it was possible to remove the placentas, even though blood loss was significant, hemostasis was achieved at surgery. All three mothers recovered well and survived. PMID:26102467

  8. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the

  9. State of the art: diagnostic tools and innovative therapies for treatment of advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ried, Michael; Marx, Alexander; Götz, Andrea; Hamer, Okka; Schalke, Berthold; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this review article, state-of-the-art diagnostic tools and innovative treatments of thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) are described with special respect to advanced tumour stages. Complete surgical resection (R0) remains the standard therapeutic approach for almost all a priori resectable mediastinal tumours as defined by preoperative standard computed tomography (CT). If lymphoma or germ-cell tumours are differential diagnostic considerations, biopsy may be indicated. Resection status is the most important prognostic factor in thymoma and TC, followed by tumour stage. Advanced (Masaoka-Koga stage III and IVa) tumours require interdisciplinary therapy decisions based on distinctive findings of preoperative CT scan and ancillary investigations [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] to select cases for primary surgery or neoadjuvant strategies with optional secondary resection. In neoadjuvant settings, octreotide scans and histological evaluation of pretherapeutic needle biopsies may help to choose between somatostatin agonist/prednisolone regimens and neoadjuvant chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Finally, a multimodality treatment regime is recommended for advanced and unresectable thymic tumours. In conclusion, advanced stage thymoma and TC should preferably be treated in experienced centres in order to provide all modern diagnostic tools (imaging, histology) and innovative therapy techniques. Systemic and local (hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy) medical treatments together with extended surgical resections have increased the therapeutic options in patients with advanced or recurrent thymoma and TC.

  10. Advances in the Treatment of Aortic Valve Disease: is it Time for Companion Diagnostics?

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review Aortic valve disease (AVD) is a growing public health problem, and the pathogenesis underlying AVD is complex. The lack of durable bioprostheses and pharmacologic therapies remain central needs in care. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent clinical studies that impact the care of children with AVD and to explore ongoing translational research efforts. Recent findings Clinical studies have evaluated the durability of bioprosthetics and surgical strategies, tested statins during early disease, and identified new predictive biomarkers. Large animal models have demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel bioprosthetic scaffold. Mouse models of latent AVD have advanced our ability to elucidate natural history and perform preclinical studies that test new treatments in the context of early disease. Summary Current priorities for AVD patients include identifying new pharmacologic treatments and developing durable bioprostheses. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed that bridge pediatric and adult programs, bring together different types of expertise and leverage network and consortium resources. As our understanding of the underlying complex genetics is better defined, companion diagnostics may transform future clinical trials and ultimately improve the care of patients with AVD by promoting personalized medicine and early intervention. PMID:25089943

  11. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Lan, H.; Liu, Y. L.; Wei, J.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Wang, H. Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhao, J. L.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.; Lin, X.; Li, X. L.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2015-12-15

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

  12. Advances in associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe diagnostics for substance detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; Frey, M.

    1995-07-01

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) shows potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. Generally no collimators or radiation shielding are needed. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Most recently, inspection applications have been investigated for radioactive waste characterization, presence of cocaine in propane tanks, and uranium and plutonium smuggling. Based on lessons learned with the present APSTNG system, an advanced APSTNG tube (along with improved high voltage supply and control units) is being designed and fabricated that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  13. The Evolution of Advanced Molecular Diagnostics for the Detection and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant advancements in the methods used for detecting and characterizing Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common cause of respiratory illness and community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. The repertoire of available molecular diagnostics has greatly expanded from nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) that encompass a variety of chemistries used for detection, to more sophisticated characterizing methods such as multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), single nucleotide polymorphism typing, and numerous macrolide susceptibility profiling methods, among others. These many molecular-based approaches have been developed and employed to continually increase the level of discrimination and characterization in order to better understand the epidemiology and biology of M. pneumoniae. This review will summarize recent molecular techniques and procedures and lend perspective to how each has enhanced the current understanding of this organism and will emphasize how Next Generation Sequencing may serve as a resource for researchers to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the genomic complexities of this insidious pathogen. PMID:27014191

  14. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, Y. B.; Wan, B. N.; Lan, H.; Liu, Y. L.; Wei, J.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Wang, H. Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhao, J. L.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.; Lin, X.; Li, X. L.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

  15. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Xu, G S; Tritz, K; Zhu, Y B; Wan, B N; Lan, H; Liu, Y L; Wei, J; Zhang, W; Hu, G H; Wang, H Q; Duan, Y M; Zhao, J L; Wang, L; Liu, S C; Ye, Y; Li, J; Lin, X; Li, X L

    2015-12-01

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

  16. Design, construction, and validation of a rotary multifunctional intravascular diagnostic catheter combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bec, Julien; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Ghata, Narugopal; Aldredge, Ralph; Marcu, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We report the development and validation of an intravascular rotary catheter for bimodal interrogation of arterial pathologies. This is based on a point-spectroscopy scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy technique enabling reconstruction of fluorescence lifetime images (FLIm) and providing information on arterial intima composition and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) providing information on arterial wall morphology. The catheter design allows for independent rotation of the ultrasonic and optical channels within an 8 Fr outer diameter catheter sheath and integrates a low volume flushing channel for blood removal in the optical pathways. In the current configuration, the two channels consist of (a) a standard 3 Fr IVUS catheter with single element transducer (40 MHz) and (b) a side-viewing fiber optic (400 μm core). Experiments conducted in tissue phantoms showed the ability of the catheter to operate in an intraluminal setting and to generate coregistered FLIm and IVUS in one pull-back scan. Current results demonstrate the feasibility of the catheter for simultaneous bimodal interrogation of arterial lumen and for generation of robust fluorescence lifetime data under IVUS guidance. These results facilitate further development of a FLIm-IVUS technique for intravascular diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including vulnerable plaques.

  17. Quantitative 3-d diagnostic ultrasound imaging using a modified transducer array and an automated image tracking technique.

    PubMed

    Hossack, John A; Sumanaweera, Thilaka S; Napel, Sandy; Ha, Jun S

    2002-08-01

    An approach for acquiring dimensionally accurate three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound data from multiple 2-D image planes is presented. This is based on the use of a modified linear-phased array comprising a central imaging array that acquires multiple, essentially parallel, 2-D slices as the transducer is translated over the tissue of interest. Small, perpendicularly oriented, tracking arrays are integrally mounted on each end of the imaging transducer. As the transducer is translated in an elevational direction with respect to the central imaging array, the images obtained by the tracking arrays remain largely coplanar. The motion between successive tracking images is determined using a minimum sum of absolute difference (MSAD) image matching technique with subpixel matching resolution. An initial phantom scanning-based test of a prototype 8 MHz array indicates that linear dimensional accuracy of 4.6% (2 sigma) is achievable. This result compares favorably with those obtained using an assumed average velocity [31.5% (2 sigma) accuracy] and using an approach based on measuring image-to-image decorrelation [8.4% (2 sigma) accuracy]. The prototype array and imaging system were also tested in a clinical environment, and early results suggest that the approach has the potential to enable a low cost, rapid, screening method for detecting carotid artery stenosis. The average time for performing a screening test for carotid stenosis was reduced from an average of 45 minutes using 2-D duplex Doppler to 12 minutes using the new 3-D scanning approach.

  18. Design, construction, and validation of a rotary multifunctional intravascular diagnostic catheter combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec, Julien; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Ghata, Narugopal; Aldredge, Ralph; Marcu, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We report the development and validation of an intravascular rotary catheter for bimodal interrogation of arterial pathologies. This is based on a point-spectroscopy scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy technique enabling reconstruction of fluorescence lifetime images (FLIm) and providing information on arterial intima composition and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) providing information on arterial wall morphology. The catheter design allows for independent rotation of the ultrasonic and optical channels within an 8 Fr outer diameter catheter sheath and integrates a low volume flushing channel for blood removal in the optical pathways. In the current configuration, the two channels consist of (a) a standard 3 Fr IVUS catheter with single element transducer (40 MHz) and (b) a side-viewing fiber optic (400 μm core). Experiments conducted in tissue phantoms showed the ability of the catheter to operate in an intraluminal setting and to generate coregistered FLIm and IVUS in one pull-back scan. Current results demonstrate the feasibility of the catheter for simultaneous bimodal interrogation of arterial lumen and for generation of robust fluorescence lifetime data under IVUS guidance. These results facilitate further development of a FLIm-IVUS technique for intravascular diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including vulnerable plaques.

  19. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy: An Odyssey in Measurement Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, Albert

    Perhaps the speeds of sound, or, equivalently, the elastic moduli are some of the most fundamental attributes of a solid, connecting to fundamental physics, metallurgy, non-destructive testing, and more. Unlike most of the quantities used to characterize condensed matter, the elastic moduli are fourth-rank tensors containing a wealth of detail, directional information, and consistency constraints that provide some of the most revealing probes of solids. We describe here the current state of the art in one method, Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy, where the mechanical resonances of a specimen of regular shape (easy to measure) are analyzed (difficult computational problem) to obtain the full elastic tensor. With modern advances in electronics and analysis, fractions of a part per million changes in elastic moduli are detectable providing new and important insight into grand challenges in condensed matter physics. This work was supported as part of the Materials Science of Actinides, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award # DE-SC0001089.

  20. Ultrasound-diagnosed bone and joint destruction as a typical image in advanced Charcots arthropathy – case report

    PubMed Central

    Rzepecka-Wejs, Ludomira; Korzon-Burakowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a case of Charcot foot in a patient with long standing type 2 diabetes and complicated by peripheral neuropathy. It was initially diagnosed by an ultrasound examination and subsequently confirmed by an X-ray and an magnetic resonance imaging. Diabetic neuropathy is nowadays the most frequent cause of Charcot arthropathy, although it can be also a result of other diseases of the nervous system. In the acute phase the patient usually presents with edema, redness and increased temperature of the foot, which can suggest many other diagnoses including bacterial infection, gout, venous thrombosis or trauma. Because of its non specific clinical presentation and unsufficient awareness of the specificity of the diabetic foot syndrome among health professionals and the patients the diagnosis of this process is in many cases delayed. In the acute phase appropriate treatment needs to be initiated (mainly off loading and immobilization of the foot in a total contact cast), otherwise a rapidly progressing destruction of the bones and joints will usually begin, leading to fractures, dislocations and a severe foot deformity. Increased awareness among doctors taking care of the diabetic patients and appropriate use of the imaging methods can definitely improve efficacy of the diagnostic process and help to optimize the treatment of Charcot arthropathy. The standard approach usually includes use of radiography, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy. In some cases a sonographer may be the first one to notice typical signs of bony destruction in a patient with Charcot arthropathy and suggest immediate further imaging in order to confirm the diagnosis and to minimize the risk of mutilating complications. PMID:26674219

  1. Ultrasound applications in electrodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boon, Andrea J; Smith, Jay; Harper, C Michel

    2012-01-01

    This review article discusses the current scope of high-resolution diagnostic ultrasound in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease, both as a complementary tool to electrodiagnosis and in some cases as a stand-alone imaging modality. Indications, limitations, potential for research, and training and credentialing are discussed. Indications include needle guidance for nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography, diagnosis of nerve entrapment, diagnostic muscle imaging via grayscale analysis, and dynamic real-time imaging, including sonopalpation, to provide additional diagnostic information. The role of neuromuscular ultrasound in research is discussed, including the need to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and cost-effectiveness of these techniques when they are used alone or in combination. Training and credentialing are reviewed, specifically noting the challenge of the lack of formal training programs and the relatively long, flat learning curve of diagnostic ultrasound.

  2. Diagnostic performance of axial-strain sonoelastography in confirming clinically diagnosed Achilles tendinopathy: comparison with B-mode ultrasound and color Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Chin Chin; Schneider, Michal Elisabeth; Malliaras, Peter; Chadwick, Martine; Connell, David Alister

    2015-01-01

    This primary aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of axial-strain sonoelastography (ASE), B-mode ultrasound (US) and color Doppler US in confirming clinically symptomatic Achilles tendinopathy. The secondary aim was to establish the relationship between the strain ratio during sonoelastography and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) scores. The VISA-A questionnaire is a validated clinical rating scale that evaluates the symptoms and dysfunction of the Achilles tendon. One hundred twenty Achilles tendons of 120 consecutively registered patients with clinical symptoms of Achilles tendinopathy and another 120 gender- and age-matched, asymptomatic Achilles tendons of 120 healthy volunteers were assessed with B-mode US, ASE and color Doppler US. Symptomatic patients had significantly higher strain ratio scores and softer Achilles tendon properties compared with controls (p < 0.001). The strain ratio was moderately correlated with VISA-A scores (r = -0.62, p < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of B-mode US, ASE and color Doppler US in confirming clinically symptomatic Achilles tendinopathy was 94.7%, 97.8% and 82.5% respectively. There was excellent correlation between the clinical reference standard and the grade of tendon quality on ASE (κ = 0.91, p < 0.05), compared with B-mode US (κ = 0.74, p < 0.05) and color Doppler imaging (κ = 0.49, p < 0.05). ASE is an accurate clinical tool in the evaluation of Achilles tendinopathy, with results comparable to those of B-mode US and excellent correlation with clinical findings. The strain ratio may offer promise as a supplementary tool for the objective evaluation of Achilles tendon properties.

  3. Mixed partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage coexistent with an aortic valve abnormality - analysis of ultrasound diagnostics in a 10-year-old girl with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mądry, Wojciech; Karolczak, Maciej A; Komarnicka, Justyna; Mirecka, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    The authors present a case of echocardiographic diagnosis of a rare congenital cardiovascular anomaly in the form of mixed partial anomalous pulmonary veins connection in a 10-year-old girl with Turner syndrome and congenital mild stenosis of insufficient bicuspid aortic valve, made while diagnosing the causes of intestinal tract bleeding. The article presents various diagnostic difficulties leading to the delayed determination of a correct diagnosis, resulting from the absence of symptoms of circulatory failure in the early stage of the disease and the occurrence of severe and dominant auscultatory phenomena typical for congenital aortic valve defect which effectively masked the syndromes of increased pulmonary flow. The authors discuss the role of the impact of phenotypic characteristics of the Turner syndrome, in particular a short webbed neck restricting the suprasternal echocardiographic access and the presence of psychological factors associated with a long-term illness. The importance of indirect echocardiographic symptoms suggesting partial anomalous pulmonary veins connection in the presence of bicuspid aortic valve, e.g. enlargement of the right atrium and right ventricle, and paradoxical interventricular septum motion were emphasized in patients lacking ASD, pulmonary hypertension or tricupid and pulmonary valve abnormalities. The methodology of echocardiographic examination enabling direct visualization of the abnormal vascular structures was presented. Special attention was paid to the significance of highly sensitive echocardiographic projections: high right and left parasternal views in sagittal and transverse planes with patient lying on the side, with the use of two-dimensional imaging and color Doppler. Finally, the limitations of echocardiography resulting from the visualization and tracking of abnormal vascular structures hidden behind ultrasound non-conductive tissues were indicated, as was the role of other diagnostic modalities, such as angio

  4. Mixed partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage coexistent with an aortic valve abnormality – analysis of ultrasound diagnostics in a 10-year-old girl with Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karolczak, Maciej A.; Komarnicka, Justyna; Mirecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a case of echocardiographic diagnosis of a rare congenital cardiovascular anomaly in the form of mixed partial anomalous pulmonary veins connection in a 10-year-old girl with Turner syndrome and congenital mild stenosis of insufficient bicuspid aortic valve, made while diagnosing the causes of intestinal tract bleeding. The article presents various diagnostic difficulties leading to the delayed determination of a correct diagnosis, resulting from the absence of symptoms of circulatory failure in the early stage of the disease and the occurrence of severe and dominant auscultatory phenomena typical for congenital aortic valve defect which effectively masked the syndromes of increased pulmonary flow. The authors discuss the role of the impact of phenotypic characteristics of the Turner syndrome, in particular a short webbed neck restricting the suprasternal echocardiographic access and the presence of psychological factors associated with a long-term illness. The importance of indirect echocardiographic symptoms suggesting partial anomalous pulmonary veins connection in the presence of bicuspid aortic valve, e.g. enlargement of the right atrium and right ventricle, and paradoxical interventricular septum motion were emphasized in patients lacking ASD, pulmonary hypertension or tricupid and pulmonary valve abnormalities. The methodology of echocardiographic examination enabling direct visualization of the abnormal vascular structures was presented. Special attention was paid to the significance of highly sensitive echocardiographic projections: high right and left parasternal views in sagittal and transverse planes with patient lying on the side, with the use of two-dimensional imaging and color Doppler. Finally, the limitations of echocardiography resulting from the visualization and tracking of abnormal vascular structures hidden behind ultrasound non-conductive tissues were indicated, as was the role of other diagnostic modalities, such as angio

  5. Endocervical ultrasound applicator for integrated hyperthermia and HDR brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Jeffery H.; Hsu, I-Chow Joe; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The clinical success of hyperthermia adjunct to radiotherapy depends on adequate temperature elevation in the tumor with minimal temperature rise in organs at risk. Existing technologies for thermal treatment of the cervix have limited spatial control or rapid energy falloff. The objective of this work is to develop an endocervical applicator using a linear array of multisectored tubular ultrasound transducers to provide 3-D conformal, locally targeted hyperthermia concomitant to radiotherapy in the uterine cervix. The catheter-based device is integrated within a HDR brachytherapy applicator to facilitate sequential and potentially simultaneous heat and radiation delivery. Methods: Treatment planning images from 35 patients who underwent HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer were inspected to assess the dimensions of radiation clinical target volumes (CTVs) and gross tumor volumes (GTVs) surrounding the cervix and the proximity of organs at risk. Biothermal simulation was used to identify applicator and catheter material parameters to adequately heat the cervix with minimal thermal dose accumulation in nontargeted structures. A family of ultrasound applicators was fabricated with two to three tubular transducers operating at 6.6-7.4 MHz that are unsectored (360 deg.), bisectored (2x180 deg.), or trisectored (3x120 deg.) for control of energy deposition in angle and along the device length in order to satisfy anatomical constraints. The device is housed in a 6 mm diameter PET catheter with cooling water flow for endocervical implantation. Devices were characterized by measuring acoustic efficiencies, rotational acoustic intensity distributions, and rotational temperature distributions in phantom. Results: The CTV in HDR brachytherapy plans extends 20.5{+-}5.0 mm from the endocervical tandem with the rectum and bladder typically <8 mm from the target boundary. The GTV extends 19.4{+-}7.3 mm from the tandem. Simulations indicate that for 60

  6. Electromagnetically navigated laparoscopic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wilheim, Dirk; Feussner, Hubertus; Schneider, Armin; Harms, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) representation of laparoscopic ultrasound examinations could be helpful in diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy, but has not yet been realised with flexible laparoscopic ultrasound probes. Therefore, an electromagnetic navigation system was integrated into the tip of a conventional laparoscopic ultrasound probe. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound was compared with the imaging data of 3D navigated transcutaneous ultrasound and 3D computed tomography (CT) scan. The 3D CT scan served as the "gold standard". Clinical applicability in standardized operating room (OR) settings, imaging quality, diagnostic potential, and accuracy in volumetric assessment of various well-defined hepatic lesions were analyzed. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound facilitates exact definition of tumor location and margins. As compared with the "gold standard" of the 3D CT scans, 3D laparoscopic ultrasound has a tendency to underestimate the volume of the region of interest (ROI) (Delta3.1%). A comparison of 3D laparoscopy and transcutaneous 3D ultrasonography demonstrated clearly that the former is more accurate for volumetric assessment of the ROI and facilitates a more detailed display of the lesions. 3D laparoscopic ultrasound imaging with a navigated probe is technically feasible. The technique facilitates detailed ultrasound evaluation of laparoscopic procedures that involve visual, in-depth, and volumetric perception of complex liver pathologies. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound may have the potential to promote the practical role of laparoscopic ultrasonography, and become a valuable tool for local ablative therapy. In this article, our clinical experiences with a certified prototype of a 3D laparoscopic ultrasound probe, as well as its in vitro and in vivo evaluation, is reported.

  7. Diagnostic suite of the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. C.; Gota, H.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M.

    2016-11-01

    The C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy studies the evolution of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection. Data on the FRC plasma performance are provided by a comprehensive suite of diagnostics that includes magnetic sensors, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, neutral particle analyzers, and fusion product detectors. While many of these diagnostic systems were inherited from the preceding experiment C-2, C-2U has a variety of new and upgraded diagnostic systems: multi-chord far-infrared polarimetry, multiple fast imaging cameras with selectable atomic line filters, proton detector arrays, and 100 channel bolometer units capable of observing multiple regions of the spectrum simultaneously. In addition, extensive ongoing work focuses on advanced methods of measuring separatrix shape and plasma current profile that will facilitate equilibrium reconstruction and active control of the FRC plasma.

  8. X-ray Diffraction and Multi-Frame Phase Contrast Imaging Diagnostics for IMPULSE at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Adam; Carlson, Carl; Young, Jason; Curtis, Alden; Jensen, Brian; Ramos, Kyle; Yeager, John; Montgomery, David; Fezza, Kamel

    2013-07-08

    The diagnostic needs of any dynamic loading platform present unique technical challenges that must be addressed in order to accurately measure in situ material properties in an extreme environment. The IMPULSE platform (IMPact system for Ultrafast Synchrotron Experiments) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is no exception and, in fact, may be more challenging, as the imaging diagnostics must be synchronized to both the experiment and the 60 ps wide x-ray bunches produced at APS. The technical challenges of time-resolved x-ray diffraction imaging and high-resolution multi-frame phase contrast imaging (PCI) are described in this paper. Example data from recent IMPULSE experiments are shown to illustrate the advances and evolution of these diagnostics with a focus on comparing the performance of two intensified CCD cameras and their suitability for multi-frame PCI. The continued development of these diagnostics is fundamentally important to IMPULSE and many other loading platforms and will benefit future facilities such as the Dynamic Compression Sector at APS and MaRIE at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  9. Phyllodes tumors of the breast: ultrasonographic findings and diagnostic performance of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Youn, Inyoung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated ultrasonography (US) findings between benign and malignant phyllodes tumors and analyzed diagnostic performance of US-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) for phyllodes tumors. Surgically removed phyllodes tumors of 168 women were divided into two groups according to the benign and malignant (including borderline tumor) groups and 116 were benign and 52 were malignant. On US, the complex cystic echogenicity (p = 0.021), presence of cleft (p = 0.005) and higher final US assessment (p = 0.008) were more frequent in the malignant group. The sensitivity of CNB including fibroepithelial tumors was 67.9% (114/168) and the concordant rate between CNB and surgical excision was 82.1% (32/39) and 5.8% (3/52) in the benign and malignant group. Our results suggested that the US findings of complex cystic echogenicity, cleft, higher final US assessment were more frequent in malignant phyllodes tumors. The sensitivity of CNB was 67.9% (114/168) and malignant phyllodes tumors were rarely diagnosed as malignant by US-guided CNB.

  10. Can Doppler or contrast-enhanced ultrasound analysis add diagnostically important information about the nature of breast lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Daniela; Chala, Luciano F.; de Barros, Nestor; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence suggesting that Doppler ultrasonography can help to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions, it is rarely applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain vascular features of breast masses observed by duplex Doppler and color Doppler ultrasonography (before and/or after microbubble contrast injection) add information to the gray-scale analysis and support the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. METHODS: Seventy solid lesions were prospectively evaluated with gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. The morphological analysis and lesion vascularity were correlated with the histological results. RESULTS: Percutaneous core biopsies revealed that 25/70 (17.5%) lesions were malignant, while 45 were benign. Hypervascular lesions with tortuous and central vessels, a resistive index (RI)≥0.73 before contrast injection, and an RI≥0.75 after contrast injection were significantly predictive of malignancy (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The combination of gray-scale ultrasonography data with unenhanced or enhanced duplex Doppler and color Doppler US data can provide diagnostically useful information. These techniques can be easily implemented because Doppler devices are already present in most health centers. PMID:24519198

  11. Ultrasound in perinatology

    SciTech Connect

    Maklad, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    This 19th volume in the series Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound provides an overview and update of some of the recent applications of ultrasound (US) in the pernatal period. Prenatal topics include estimation of gestational age; evaluation of intrauterine growth retardation, non-immune hydrops, and fetal urinary abnormalities; fetal echocardiography; and biophysical scoring. The discussion of postnatal topics includes US studies of the head and abdomen, echocardiography, and interventional procedures.

  12. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems

  13. Utility and diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal lesions: Saudi Arabian experience

    PubMed Central

    Raddaoui, Emad; Alhamad, Esam H; Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Al-Habeeb, Fatmah F; Arafah, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TFNA) of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Study Design: Over 3½ years from inception at King Khalid University Hospital, a retrospective analysis of the cytological diagnoses of all the EBUS-TFNA procedures performed in 80 patients who had mediastinal mass/nodular enlargement. Cytology results were reviewed and correlated with the histologic follow-up. Results: Of the 80 patients who underwent EBUS-TFNA, 15 cases (18.75%) were positive for malignancy, 48 cases (60%) negative for malignancy and 17 cases (21.25%) unsatisfactory. Of the 48 cases, which were negative for malignancy, 24 (50%) cases were of granulomatous inflammation. The overall diagnostic yield of our EBUS-TFNA specimen was 78.75%. Forty-seven cases (58.75%) of 80 cases had histological follow-up biopsies. Among them, 32 cases (68%) had the same cytological and histological diagnosis and 15 cases (31.09%) had discordance between the cytology and the follow-up histological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing granulomas by EBUS-TFNA are 77%, 82%, 83%, and 75% and for diagnosing malignancy are 71%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results show that cytological samples obtained through EBUS-TFNA are accurate and specific in making a diagnosis of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Its optimum use depends on the effective collaboration between the cytotechnologist, pathologist, and the bronchoscopist. PMID:25191512

  14. Recent advances in salivary cancer diagnostics enabled by biosensors and bioelectronics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saswat; Saadat, Darius; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Yongkuk; Choi, Woon-Seop; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2016-07-15

    There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures. Here, we review various cancer biomarkers in saliva and compare the biomarkers efficacy with traditional diagnostics and state-of-the-art bioelectronics. We summarize biomarkers in four major groups: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/microbiota. Representative bioelectronic systems for each group are summarized based on various stages of a cancer. Systematic study of oxidative stress establishes the relationship between macromolecules and cancer biomarkers in saliva. We also introduce the most recent examples of salivary diagnostic electronics based on nanotechnologies that can offer rapid, yet highly accurate detection of biomarkers. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and applications of these technologies. PMID:26946257

  15. Intravascular ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    IVUS; Ultrasound - coronary artery; Endovascular ultrasound; Intravascular echocardiography ... A tiny ultrasound wand is attached to the top of a thin tube. This tube is called a catheter. The catheter ...

  16. Duplex ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... Deane CR, Goss DE. Peripheral arteries and veins. In: Allan PL, Baxter GM, Weston MJ, eds. Allan & Baxter: Clinical Ultrasound . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  19. Hip Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  1. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  2. Ultrasound - Scrotum

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  3. Office-based ultrasound in sports medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Coris, Eric E; Pescasio, Michele; Zwygart, Kira; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Farrar, Ted; Bryan, Sean; Konin, Jeff; McElroy, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    Increasing knowledge, interest, and visibility in the field of sports medicine has equipped clinicians in the field with a novel array of diagnostic and therapeutic options but has also provided a higher level of complexity in patient care. True understanding of the vast spectrum of radiographic technology available to the sports clinician has become more critical than ever. Advances particularly in the areas of magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic office ultrasound, and 3-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography, as well as nuclear medicine, offer the clinician a myriad of diagnostic options in patient evaluation. As these advances accumulate, the challenge to optimize care, contain cost, and interpret the extensive data generated becomes even more difficult to manage. Improving technology, education, and application of office ultrasound offers an interesting new tool for the bedside evaluation in real time of dynamic motion and pathology of sports-related injuries. As studies continue to validate ultrasound's effectiveness in diagnosing injuries to the upper and lower extremities compared with more costly magnetic resonance imaging and more invasive exploratory surgery, its promise as a cost-effective diagnostic tool is growing. A particularly promising development in the care of sports injuries is the expansion of injection therapies, and in-office ultrasound provides assurance that prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma, dry needling, corticosteroid, and viscosupplementation are delivered accurately and safely. Communication with patients continues to increase in complexity because a greater understanding of the presence of radiographic abnormalities irrelevant to the current complaint is gained. All the accumulated data must then be interpreted and communicated to the patient with a firm understanding of not only the patient history and physical examination but also the availability, indications, contraindications, sensitivity, specificity, and even the

  4. Office-based ultrasound in sports medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Coris, Eric E; Pescasio, Michele; Zwygart, Kira; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Farrar, Ted; Bryan, Sean; Konin, Jeff; McElroy, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    Increasing knowledge, interest, and visibility in the field of sports medicine has equipped clinicians in the field with a novel array of diagnostic and therapeutic options but has also provided a higher level of complexity in patient care. True understanding of the vast spectrum of radiographic technology available to the sports clinician has become more critical than ever. Advances particularly in the areas of magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic office ultrasound, and 3-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography, as well as nuclear medicine, offer the clinician a myriad of diagnostic options in patient evaluation. As these advances accumulate, the challenge to optimize care, contain cost, and interpret the extensive data generated becomes even more difficult to manage. Improving technology, education, and application of office ultrasound offers an interesting new tool for the bedside evaluation in real time of dynamic motion and pathology of sports-related injuries. As studies continue to validate ultrasound's effectiveness in diagnosing injuries to the upper and lower extremities compared with more costly magnetic resonance imaging and more invasive exploratory surgery, its promise as a cost-effective diagnostic tool is growing. A particularly promising development in the care of sports injuries is the expansion of injection therapies, and in-office ultrasound provides assurance that prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma, dry needling, corticosteroid, and viscosupplementation are delivered accurately and safely. Communication with patients continues to increase in complexity because a greater understanding of the presence of radiographic abnormalities irrelevant to the current complaint is gained. All the accumulated data must then be interpreted and communicated to the patient with a firm understanding of not only the patient history and physical examination but also the availability, indications, contraindications, sensitivity, specificity, and even the

  5. Advancements in electron cyclotron emission imaging demonstrated by the TEXTOR ECEI diagnostic upgrade.

    PubMed

    Tobias, B; Kong, X; Liang, T; Spear, A; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Classen, I G J; Boom, J E; van de Pol, M J; Jaspers, R; Donné, A J H; Park, H K; Munsat, T

    2009-09-01

    A new TEXTOR electron cyclotron emission imaging system has been developed and employed, providing a diagnostic with new features and enhanced capabilities when compared to the legacy system it replaces. Optical coupling to the plasma has been completely redesigned, making use of new minilens arrays for reduced optical aberration and providing the new feature of vertical zoom, whereby the vertical coverage is now remotely adjustable on a shot-by-shot basis from 20-35 cm. Other innovations, such as the implementation of stacked quasioptical planar notch filters, allow for the diagnostic to be operated without interruption or degradation in performance during electron cyclotron resonance heating. Successful commissioning of the new diagnostic and a demonstration of the improved capabilities are presented in this paper, along with a discussion of the new technologies employed.

  6. Advancements in electron cyclotron emission imaging demonstrated by the TEXTOR ECEI diagnostic upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, B.; Kong, X.; Liang, T.; Spear, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Pol, M. J. van de; Jaspers, R.; Donne, A. J. H.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.

    2009-09-15

    A new TEXTOR electron cyclotron emission imaging system has been developed and employed, providing a diagnostic with new features and enhanced capabilities when compared to the legacy system it replaces. Optical coupling to the plasma has been completely redesigned, making use of new minilens arrays for reduced optical aberration and providing the new feature of vertical zoom, whereby the vertical coverage is now remotely adjustable on a shot-by-shot basis from 20-35 cm. Other innovations, such as the implementation of stacked quasioptical planar notch filters, allow for the diagnostic to be operated without interruption or degradation in performance during electron cyclotron resonance heating. Successful commissioning of the new diagnostic and a demonstration of the improved capabilities are presented in this paper, along with a discussion of the new technologies employed.

  7. Advancements in electron cyclotron emission imaging demonstrated by the TEXTOR ECEI diagnostic upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, B.; Kong, X.; Liang, T.; Spear, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; van de Pol, M. J.; Jaspers, R.; Donné, A. J. H.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.

    2009-09-01

    A new TEXTOR electron cyclotron emission imaging system has been developed and employed, providing a diagnostic with new features and enhanced capabilities when compared to the legacy system it replaces. Optical coupling to the plasma has been completely redesigned, making use of new minilens arrays for reduced optical aberration and providing the new feature of vertical zoom, whereby the vertical coverage is now remotely adjustable on a shot-by-shot basis from 20-35 cm. Other innovations, such as the implementation of stacked quasioptical planar notch filters, allow for the diagnostic to be operated without interruption or degradation in performance during electron cyclotron resonance heating. Successful commissioning of the new diagnostic and a demonstration of the improved capabilities are presented in this paper, along with a discussion of the new technologies employed.

  8. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Z. Q.; Chen, Z. J.; Xie, X. F.; Peng, X. Y.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, X.; Fan, T. S.; Chen, J. X.; Li, X. Q. E-mail: guohuizhang@pku.edu.cn; Zhang, G. H. E-mail: guohuizhang@pku.edu.cn; Xia, Z. W.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.

    2014-11-15

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  9. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z Q; Chen, Z J; Xie, X F; Peng, X Y; Hu, Z M; Du, T F; Ge, L J; Zhang, X; Yuan, X; Xia, Z W; Hu, L Q; Zhong, G Q; Lin, S Y; Wan, B N; Fan, T S; Chen, J X; Li, X Q; Zhang, G H

    2014-11-01

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  10. 75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis (TB).'' The purpose of the workshop is to provide... Medicine, Ending Neglect: The Elimination of Tuberculosis in the United States, Committee on...

  11. Ultrasound imaging during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B

    1984-01-01

    Review by a panel of experts convened by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) resulted in a recommendation for diagnostic ultrasound imaging in about 1/3 of pregnancies only when medically indicated but not routinely. Ultrasound technology, 1st developed for use in submarine warfare sonar devices, is widely used by physicians because of its clinical significance and because it allows seeing intrauterine structures without exposing the fetus to dangerous radiation. Its most important uses include estimating the gestational age for patients with uncertain clinical dates, evaluating fetal growth, determining the cause of vaginal bleeding, determining fetal presentation, identifying multiple gestation, supplementing amniocentesis or other special procedures, diagnosing, confirming fetal death and locating intrauterine devices. Recently, many physicians have been advocating routine ultrasound screening of all pregnancies but this is an issue of concern among leading physicians and the NIH. The panel stressed the urgent need for additional research on the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Many studies that found adverse reactions associated with ultrasound use in humans suffer from sever methodological flaws. The panel recommended ultrasound not to be used for routine screening. Some studies indicate that no clear benefit from routine screening results. The panel's recommendations were criticized for unnecessarily restricting ultrasound use and for inappropriately sanctioning widespread use of the technology. Human Life International, an anti-abortion organization, opposed using ultrasound to detect fetal abnormalities, contending that this would promote abortion. Some abortion opponents, however, believe ultrasound would cause bonding between the mother and the fetus and discourage abortion. The panel underscored the importance of the skill and training of ultrasound examiners. In regard to informed consent, the

  12. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  13. Diagnostic Analysis Of Ultrasound Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, David H.; Mast, Jeffrey; Azevedo, Stephen G.; Wuebbeling, Frank; Natterer, Frank; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, Earle

    2006-01-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for investigating tissue in which acoustic data are derived from scattering a plurality of pulsed spherical or cylindrical acoustic waves from a plurality of transmission elements through the tissue to a plurality of receiving elements. The acoustic data, which include a mix of reflected and transmitted acoustic waves, are received and digitized, and a representation of a portion of the tissue is generated from the digitized acoustic data.

  14. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality.

  15. Ultrasound and the IRB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assist researchers in writing their research protocols and subject consent forms so that both the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and subjects are assured of the minimal risk associated with diagnostic B-scan ultrasound as it is used in speech research. There have been numerous epidemiological studies on fetal…

  16. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  17. Recent advances and results from the solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Gharibyan, N.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Despotopulos, J. D.; Faye, S. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-08-05

    The solid debris collection capability at the National Ignition Facility has been expanded to include a third line-of-sight assembly. The solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic measurement of the ratio of gold isotopes is dependent on the efficient collection of neutron-activated hohlraum debris by passive metal disks. As a result, the collection of target debris at this new location is more reliable in comparison to the historic locations, and it appears to be independent of collector surface ablation.

  18. Recent advances and results from the solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharibyan, N.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Despotopulos, J. D.; Faye, S. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-11-01

    The solid debris collection capability at the National Ignition Facility has been expanded to include a third line-of-sight assembly. The solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic measurement of the ratio of gold isotopes is dependent on the efficient collection of neutron-activated hohlraum debris by passive metal disks. The collection of target debris at this new location is more reliable in comparison to the historic locations, and it appears to be independent of collector surface ablation.

  19. Advancing the Use of Administrative Data for Emergency Department Diagnostic Imaging Research.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Damon R; Berdahl, Carl T; Jackson, Tiffany D; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Mistry, Rakesh D; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Raukar, Neha P; Carr, Brendan G; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Kocher, Keith E

    2015-12-01

    Administrative data are critical to describing patterns of use, cost, and appropriateness of imaging in emergency care. These data encompass a range of source materials that have been collected primarily for a nonresearch use: documenting clinical care (e.g., medical records), administering care (e.g., picture archiving and communication systems), or financial transactions (e.g., insurance claims). These data have served as the foundation for large, descriptive studies that have documented the rise and expanded role of diagnostic imaging in the emergency department (ED). This article summarizes the discussions of the breakout session on the use of administrative data for emergency imaging research at the May 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The authors describe the areas where administrative data have been applied to research evaluating the use of diagnostic imaging in the ED, the common sources for these data, and the strengths and limitations of administrative data. Next, the future role of administrative data is examined for answering key research questions in an evolving health system increasingly focused on measuring appropriateness, ensuring quality, and improving value for health spending. This article specifically focuses on four thematic areas: data quality, appropriateness and value, special populations, and policy interventions.

  20. Sterile working in ultrasonography: the use of dedicated ultrasound covers and sterile ultrasound gel.

    PubMed

    Marhofer, Peter; Fritsch, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently an important tool for diagnostic and interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging provides significant advantages as compared to other imaging methods. The widespread use of ultrasound also carries the risk of drawbacks such as cross-infections. A large body of literature reports this possibly life-threatening side effect and specific patient populations are particularly at risk (e.g., neonates). Various methods of ultrasound probe disinfection are described; however, none of the mechanical or chemical probe disinfection procedures is optimal and, in particular, disinfection with high concentration of alcohol might be associated with ultrasound probe damage. The preparation of ultrasound probes with dedicated probe covers is a useful alternative for sterile working conditions. One ultrasound probe cover discussed in this paper is directly glued on to the ultrasound probe without the use of ultrasound coupling gel. By the use of sterile ultrasound coupling gel at the outer surface, additional effects on aseptic working conditions can be obtained.

  1. Safety Assurance in Obstetrical Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L

    2008-01-01

    Safety assurance for diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics began with a tacit assumption of safety allowed by a federal law enacted in 1976 for then-existing medical ultrasound equipment. The implementation of the 510(k) pre-market approval process for diagnostic ultrasound resulted in the establishment of guideline upper limits for several examination categories in 1985. The obstetrical category has undergone substantial evolution from initial limits (I. e., 46 mW/cm2 spatial peak temporal average (SPTA) intensity) set in 1985. Thermal and mechanical exposure indices, which are displayed on-screen according to an Output Display Standard (ODS), were developed for safety assurance with relaxed upper limits. In 1992, with the adoption of the ODS, the allowable output for obstetrical ultrasound was increased both in terms of the average exposure (e. g. to a possible 720 mW/cm2 SPTA intensity) and of the peak exposure (via the Mechanical Index). There has been little or no subsequent research with the modern obstetrical ultrasound machines to systematically assess potential risks to the fetus using either relevant animal models of obstetrical exposure or human epidemiology studies. The assurance of safety for obstetrical ultrasound therefore is supported by three ongoing means: (I) review of a substantial but uncoordinated bioeffect research literature, (ii) the theoretical evaluation of diagnostic ultrasound exposure in terms of thermal and nonthermal mechanisms for bioeffects, and (iii) the skill and knowledge of professional sonographers. At this time, there is no specific reason to suspect that there is any significant health risk to the fetus or mother from exposure to diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics. This assurance of safety supports the prudent use of diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics by trained professionals for any medically indicated examination. PMID:18450141

  2. Guideline report. Medical ultrasound imaging: progress and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Burns, M

    1989-01-01

    Utilization of medical ultrasound has expanded rapidly during the past several years. In 1988, sales of ultrasound equipment will approach $600 million, which is higher than any other individual imaging modality, including the most capital intensive, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and cath lab angiography. This growth would have been difficult to predict previously, since ultrasound appeared to be a relatively mature imaging modality not too long ago. There are several reasons for this growth. Technological developments have been quite rapid; ultrasound has become easier to use, image quality has improved dramatically, and diagnostic accuracy has been enhanced. There has been a proliferation of new equipment at all ends of the price spectrum, allowing the user a wide choice in instrument performance, multi-function capabilities, and automated features to increase patient throughput. The DRG environment and the prospect for more pre-admission tests have also been a stimulus. Hospital buying activity has expanded, and many more ultrasound exams are now being conducted on an outpatient basis. Sales to freestanding imaging centers and individual physicians have similarly increased. The hospital user is willing to pay a large premium for advanced technical performance and is prepared to retire or replace older technology in less than three years. This replacement cycle is much shorter than the four to five year period which existed prior to 1985. By comparison, some of the more traditional imaging areas, such as radiology, have replacement rates of eight to ten years. The reason for early replacement is obvious. Ultrasound exams in hospitals generate revenues at a rate that justifies the purchase of the most advanced equipment. It also improves the referral rate and positions the hospital as a high quality provider. Even with low utilization rates, an ultrasound instrument can normally pay for itself in less than one year of regular

  3. Advances in diagnostic and treatment options in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Ali; Oktayoglu, Pelin

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized as a chronic, painful, noninflammatory syndrome affecting the musculoskeletal system. In addition to pain, common co-morbid symptoms associated with FM include sleep disturbances, fatigue, morning stiffness, affective disorders, chronic daily headache, dyscognition, irritable bowel syndrome, and irritable bladder. Fibromyalgia is usually classified by application of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Although these criteria are accepted among investigators who agree with the concept of fibromyalgia, they do so with some reservations. Tender points and widespread pain alone does not describe the esence of fibromyalgia. New diagnostic tools including either clinical or radiological components are studied to diminish these problems. Although various pharmacological solutions have been studied for treating fibromyalgia, no single drug or groups of drugs have proved to be useful in treating fibromyalgia patients. Recently, three drugs, pregabalin, duloxetine and milnacipran, were approved for the treatment of FM by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Novel therapeutic approaches to the management of FM include cannabinoids, sodium channel blockade and new generation antiepileptics. This review evaluates both new diagnostic tools, including clinical or radiological regimes, and tries to highlight the efficacy of medicinal and nonmedicinal treatments with new therapeutic approaches in the management of FM with a wide perspective.

  4. An Epidemiological Survey of Cachexia in Advanced Cancer Patients and Analysis on Its Diagnostic and Treatment Status.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Quan, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Shiying

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an international consensus diagnostic criterion for cancer cachexia was proposed. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of cachexia in patients with advanced cancer and to assess the current status of the diagnosis and management of cancer cachexia. A total of 390 patients with advanced cancer were included. There were 140 patients with cachexia and the prevalence was 35.9%. The prevalence was highest in pancreatic cancer (88.9%), followed by gastric cancer (76.5%) and esophageal cancer (52.9%). Sixty-three patients with cancer cachexia have CT scans available for muscle mass evaluation and 98.4% were sarcopenic. Cachectic patients have a significantly lower overall quality of life and a higher symptom burden. According to oncology physicians, only 33 patients were considered to have cancer cachexia. The false negative rate amounted to 76.4%. The positive rate was related to the body mass index and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of the patients. There were few types of pharmacological approaches for cancer cachexia and more than half of cachectic patients did not receive any anticachexia treatment. These results indicate that the prevalence of cachexia in advanced cancer patients was high. However, cancer cachexia was rarely recognized and clinical management for cancer cachexia was very inadequate. PMID:26317149

  5. AMUM LECTURE: Therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques.

  6. Wrist ultrasound examination – scanning technique and ultrasound anatomy. Part 1: Dorsal wrist

    PubMed Central

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal system is superior to other imaging methods in many aspects, such as multidimensional character of imaging, possibility of dynamic evaluation and precise assessment of soft tissues. Moreover, it is a safe and relatively inexpensive method, broadly available and well-tolerated by patients. A correctly conducted ultrasound examination of the wrist delivers detailed information concerning the condition of tendons, muscles, ligaments, nerves and vessels. However, the knowledge of anatomy is crucial to establish a correct ultrasound diagnosis, also in wrist assessment. An ultrasound examination of the wrist is one of the most common US examinations conducted in patients with rheumatological diseases. Ultrasonographic signs depend on the advancement of the disease. The examination is equally frequently conducted in patients with pain or swelling of the wrist due to non-rheumatological causes. The aim of this publication was to present ultrasound images and anatomic schemes corresponding to them. The correct scanning technique of the dorsal part of the wrist was discussed and some practical tips, thanks to which highly diagnostic images can be obtained, were presented. The following anatomical structures should be visualized in an ultrasound examination of the dorsal wrist: distal radio-ulnar joint, radiocarpal joint, midcarpal joint, carpometacarpal joints, dorsal radiocarpal ligament, compartments of extensor tendons, radial artery, cephalic vein, two small branches of the radial nerve: superficial and deep, as well as certain midcarpal ligaments, particularly the scapholunate ligament and lunotriquetral ligament. The paper was distinguished in 2014 as the “poster of the month” (poster number C-1896) during the poster session of the European Congress of Radiology in Vienna. PMID:26675810

  7. 30-kW class Arcjet Advanced Technology Transition Demonstration (ATTD) flight experiment diagnostic package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriebel, M. M.; Stevens, N. J.

    1992-07-01

    TRW, Rocket Research Co and Defense Systems Inc are developing a space qualified 30-kW class arcjet flight unit as a part of the Arcjet ATTD program. During space operation the package will measure plume deposition and contamination, electromagnetic interference, thermal radiation, arcjet thruster performance, and plume heating in order to quantify arcjet operational interactions. The Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX) diagnostic package is described. The goals of ESEX are the demonstration of a high powered arcjet performance and the measurement of potential arcjet-spacecraft interactions which cannot be determined in ground facilities. Arcjet performance, plume characterization, thermal radiation flux and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) experiment as well as experiment operations with a preliminary operations plan are presented.

  8. Advances in molecular imaging: targeted optical contrast agents for cancer diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hellebust, Anne; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades, our understanding of the molecular changes associated with cancer development and progression has advanced greatly. This has led to new cancer therapeutics targeted against specific molecular pathways; such therapies show great promise to reduce mortality, in part by enabling physicians to tailor therapy for patients based on a molecular profile of their tumor. Unfortunately, the tools for definitive cancer diagnosis – light microscopic examination of biopsied tissue stained with nonspecific dyes – remain focused on the analysis of tissue ex vivo. There is an important need for new clinical tools to support the molecular diagnosis of cancer. Optical molecular imaging is emerging as a technique to help meet this need. Targeted, optically active contrast agents can specifically label extra-and intracellular biomarkers of cancer. Optical images can be acquired in real time with high spatial resolution to image-specific molecular targets, while still providing morphologic context. This article reviews recent advances in optical molecular imaging, highlighting the advances in technology required to improve early cancer detection, guide selection of targeted therapy and rapidly evaluate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22385200

  9. [Ultrasound imaging in laryngology].

    PubMed

    Zajkowski, Piotr; Białek, Ewa J

    2007-01-01

    Modern ultrasound with high resolution transducers, and sensitive power Doppler and color Doppler modes, and other options, such as panoramic and 3D imaging, allows for detailed imaging of many anatomical structures and pathologic lesions of the head and neck. Only the structures situated in the sonographic acoustic shadow: behind bones, calcified cartilages, stones, and behind organs containing gas (f.e. trachea and larynx) can not be visualized. Ultrasound is widely regarded as the first imaging method in the diseases of the thyroid, salivary glands (parotid gland, submandibular gland and sublingual gland), lymph nodes, muscles, soft tissues of the head and neck, and as an valuable adjunct in some laryngeal pathologies. Real time ultrasound examination allows for dynamic assessment of organs and lesions, lets the examiner check the susceptibility of tumors for pressure, which is inaccessible in other imaging methods. Tumors and congenital lesions, inflammation, abscesses, abnormal lymph nodes, cysts, muscle hypertrophy and posttraumatic conditions may be well evaluated with ultrasound. However, most neck tumors (f.e. in the thyroid, salivary glands, and soft tisses) as well as equivocal lymph nodes demand fine needle aspiration biopsy to determine their benign or malignant nature. This paper presents application of ultrasound examination in the head and neck area including limitations of ultrasound diagnostics in many clinical cases. Data taken from Polish and foreign literature and author's experience are included in this paper.

  10. High sensitivity far infrared laser diagnostics for the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. H.; Beall, M.; Schroeder, J.; Settles, G.; Feng, P.; Kinley, J. S.; Gota, H.; Thompson, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    A high sensitivity multi-channel far infrared laser diagnostics with switchable interferometry and polarimetry operation modes for the advanced neutral beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is described. The interferometer achieved superior resolution of 1 × 1016 m-2 at >1.5 MHz bandwidth, illustrated by measurement of small amplitude high frequency fluctuations. The polarimetry achieved 0.04° instrument resolution and 0.1° actual resolution in the challenging high density gradient environment with >0.5 MHz bandwidth, making it suitable for weak internal magnetic field measurements in the C-2U plasmas, where the maximum Faraday rotation angle is less than 1°. The polarimetry resolution data is analyzed, and high resolution Faraday rotation data in C-2U is presented together with direct evidences of field reversal in FRC magnetic structure obtained for the first time by a non-perturbative method.

  11. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Localized and Locally Advanced Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer: 2,5 Year Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, V. A.; Dvoynikov, S. Y.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction & Objectives: High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be a successful treatment for localised prostate cancer (PC). Here we have explored the effectiveness of the HIFU treatment for hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). Materials & Methods: 341 patients were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2009; all of them showed treatment failure following hormone ablation. The median time before hormone-resistance was 20 (3-48) months. In the group with localised PC: number of patients 237, Gleason score ≤7, stage T1-2N0M0, age 69 (60-89) years, mean PSA before treatment 40,0 (5,8-92,9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—39,3 (28-92) cc; in the group with locally advanced PC: number of patients 104, Gleason score ≤9, stage T2-3N0M0, age 72 (52-83) years, PSA before treatment 30,3 (20,1-60) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—41,2 (25-198) cc. HIFU was delivered under spinal anesthesia using the Ablatherm HIFU device (EDAP, France). Pre HIFU transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed for all patients. Mean follow-up time 18 months (3-30). Results: The median PSA level 12 months after HIFU treatment was 0,04 (0-2,24) ng/ml—localised PC, and for locally advanced disease—0,05 (0-48,4) ng/ml, at 18 months after HIFU treatment this was 0,2 (0,02-2,0) ng/ml for localised PC, and for locally advanced disease 0,18 (0,04-7,45) ng/ml. Patients with localised PC has 4,5% recurrence, those with locally advanced PC 20%. Kaplan-Meir analyses of the total group indicated that the risk of recurrence after 1 year follow-up was 10%, the risk of recurrence was 19% after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that ultrasound ablation is safe, minimally invasive and effective as a treatment for localised and locally advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer.

  12. Evaluation of an Advanced-Practice Physical Therapist in a Specialty Shoulder Clinic: Diagnostic Agreement and Effect on Wait Times

    PubMed Central

    Robarts, Susan; Kennedy, Deborah; McKnight, Cheryl; MacLeod, Anne Marie; Holtby, Richard

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine the role of an advanced-practice physiotherapist (APP) with respect to (1) agreement with an orthopaedic surgeon on diagnosis and management of patients with shoulder problems; (2) wait times; and (3) satisfaction with care. Methods: This prospective study involved patients with shoulder complaints who were referred to a shoulder specialist in a tertiary care centre. Agreement was examined on seven major diagnostic categories, need for further examination and surgery, and type of surgical procedure. Wait times were compared between the APP- and surgeon-led clinics from referral date to date of initial consultation, date of final diagnostic test, and date of confirmed diagnosis and planned treatment. A modified and validated version of the Visit-Specific Satisfaction Instrument assessed satisfaction in seven domains. Kappa (κ) coefficients and bias- and prevalence-adjusted kappa (PABAK) values were calculated, and strength of agreement was categorized. Wait time and satisfaction data were examined using non-parametric statistics. Results: Agreement on major diagnostic categories varied from 0.68 (good) to 0.96 (excellent). Agreement with respect to indication for surgery was κ=0.75, p<0.001; 95% CI, 0.62–0.88 (good). Wait time for APP assessment was significantly shorter than wait time for surgeon consultation at all time points (p<0.001); the surgeon's wait time was significantly reduced over 3 years. High satisfaction was reported in all components of care received from both health care providers. Conclusions: Using experienced physiotherapists in an extended role reduces wait times without compromising patient clinical management and overall satisfaction. PMID:24381382

  13. Application of nanotechnology in miniaturized systems and its use for advanced analytics and diagnostics - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Sandetskaya, Natalia; Allelein, Susann; Kuhlmeier, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    A combination of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems and nanoscale structures allows for the creation of novel miniaturized devices, which broaden the boundaries of the diagnostic approaches. Some materials possess unique properties at the nanolevel, which are different from those in bulk materials. In the last few years these properties became a focus of interest for many researchers, as well as methods of production, design and operation of the nanoobjects. Intensive research and development work resulted in numerous inventions exploiting nanotechnology in miniaturized systems. Modern technical and laboratory equipment allows for the precise control of such devices, making them suitable for sensitive and accurate detection of the analytes. The current review highlights recent patents in the field of nanotechnology in microdevices, applicable for medical, environmental or food analysis. The paper covers the structural and functional basis of such systems and describes specific embodiments in three principal branches: application of nanoparticles, nanofluidics, and nanosensors in the miniaturized systems for advanced analytics and diagnostics. This overview is an update of an earlier review article. PMID:24365338

  14. Application of nanotechnology in miniaturized systems and its use for advanced analytics and diagnostics - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Sandetskaya, Natalia; Allelein, Susann; Kuhlmeier, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    A combination of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems and nanoscale structures allows for the creation of novel miniaturized devices, which broaden the boundaries of the diagnostic approaches. Some materials possess unique properties at the nanolevel, which are different from those in bulk materials. In the last few years these properties became a focus of interest for many researchers, as well as methods of production, design and operation of the nanoobjects. Intensive research and development work resulted in numerous inventions exploiting nanotechnology in miniaturized systems. Modern technical and laboratory equipment allows for the precise control of such devices, making them suitable for sensitive and accurate detection of the analytes. The current review highlights recent patents in the field of nanotechnology in microdevices, applicable for medical, environmental or food analysis. The paper covers the structural and functional basis of such systems and describes specific embodiments in three principal branches: application of nanoparticles, nanofluidics, and nanosensors in the miniaturized systems for advanced analytics and diagnostics. This overview is an update of an earlier review article.

  15. High resolution and high definition anorectal manometry and pressure topography: diagnostic advance or a new kid on the block?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish S C

    2013-12-01

    The recent development of closely spaced circumferential solid state transducers has paved the way for novel technology that includes high resolution anorectal manometry and topography (HRAM) and 3-D high definition anorectal manometry (HDAM). These techniques are increasingly being used for the assessment of anorectal neuromuscular function. However, whether they constitute a diagnostic advantage or a mere refinement of an old technology is unknown. Unlike the traditional manometry that utilized 3 or 6 unidirectional sensors, the closely spaced circumferential arrangement facilitates superior spatiotemporal mapping of pressures at rest and during various dynamic maneuvers. HDAM can provide knowledge of the three muscles that govern the anal continence namely, the puborectalis, and the internal and external anal sphincters, and can show how they mediate the rectoanal inhibitory reflex and sensorimotor responses and the spatiotemporal orientation of these muscles. Also, anal sphincter defects can be mapped and readily detected using 3-D technology. Similarly, HRAM has facilitated confirmation and development of phenotypes of dyssynergic defecation. Recently, normative data have also been reported with HRAM and HDAM, together with the influence of age, gender, and test instructions. The greater yield of anatomical and functional information may supersede the limitations of costs, fragility, and shorter life-span associated with these new techniques. Thus, HDAM and HRAM are not just new gadgets but constitute a significant and novel diagnostic advance. However, more prospective studies are needed to better define anorectal disorders with these techniques and to confirm their superiority.

  16. Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike lesions.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Maria Teresa; Antoniadis, Gregor; Scheuerle, Angelika; Pham, Mirko; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Koenig, Ralph W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup and surgical therapy for peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike lesions are challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging is the standard diagnostic tool in the preoperative workup. However, even with advanced pulse sequences such as diffusion tensor imaging for MR neurography, the ability to differentiate tumor entities based on histological features remains limited. In particular, rare tumor entities different from schwannomas and neurofibromas are difficult to anticipate before surgical exploration and histological confirmation. High-resolution ultrasound (HRU) has become another important tool in the preoperative evaluation of peripheral nerves. Ongoing software and technical developments with transducers of up to 17-18 MHz enable high spatial resolution with tissue-differentiating properties. Unfortunately, high-frequency ultrasound provides low tissue penetration. The authors developed a setting in which intraoperative HRU was used and in which the direct sterile contact between the ultrasound transducer and the surgically exposed nerve pathology was enabled to increase structural resolution and contrast. In a case-guided fashion, the authors report the sonographic characteristics of rare tumor entities shown by intraoperative HRU and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. PMID:26323823

  17. Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike lesions.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Maria Teresa; Antoniadis, Gregor; Scheuerle, Angelika; Pham, Mirko; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Koenig, Ralph W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup and surgical therapy for peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike lesions are challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging is the standard diagnostic tool in the preoperative workup. However, even with advanced pulse sequences such as diffusion tensor imaging for MR neurography, the ability to differentiate tumor entities based on histological features remains limited. In particular, rare tumor entities different from schwannomas and neurofibromas are difficult to anticipate before surgical exploration and histological confirmation. High-resolution ultrasound (HRU) has become another important tool in the preoperative evaluation of peripheral nerves. Ongoing software and technical developments with transducers of up to 17-18 MHz enable high spatial resolution with tissue-differentiating properties. Unfortunately, high-frequency ultrasound provides low tissue penetration. The authors developed a setting in which intraoperative HRU was used and in which the direct sterile contact between the ultrasound transducer and the surgically exposed nerve pathology was enabled to increase structural resolution and contrast. In a case-guided fashion, the authors report the sonographic characteristics of rare tumor entities shown by intraoperative HRU and contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

  18. Update in salivary gland cytopathology: Recent molecular advances and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Faquin, William C

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are notorious for their extraordinary diversity and for the morphological overlap that exists between many of these entities. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a well-established role in the evaluation of patients with a salivary gland lesion, helping to guide clinical management. However, salivary gland FNAB has several limitations and does not allow for a specific diagnosis in some cases. For these reasons, salivary gland FNAB is considered one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. Over the last decade, new salivary gland entities have been recognized, enlarging SGT diversity and complexity even more. In addition, a subset of SGT, including common entities such as pleomorphic adenoma and uncommon new entities such as mammary analog secretory carcinoma, have been characterized cytogenetically by the presence of specific translocations. The molecular consequences of these translocations and their potential prognostic and therapeutic values are not yet well characterized. However, these translocations and their resulting fusion oncogenes and oncoproteins can be used as diagnostic clues in salivary gland FNAB material in order to overcome the limitations of cytomorphological evaluation alone. In this review, we focus on SGTs currently known to harbor translocations and fusion genes, including uncommon and recently recognized entities, and discuss their potential application to salivary gland FNAB.

  19. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Molinaro, Marilisa; Ameri, Pietro; Marone, Giancarlo; Petretta, Mario; Abete, Pasquale; Di Lisa, Fabio; De Placido, Sabino; Bonaduce, Domenico; Tocchetti, Carlo G.

    2015-01-01

    Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and heart failure (HF). The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF) is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure. PMID:26583088

  20. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an advanced endoscopic technique currently used in the staging and diagnosis of many gastrointestinal neoplasms. The proximity of the echoendoscope to the gastrointestinal tract lends itself to a detailed view of the luminal pathology and the pancreas. This unique ability enables endoscopists to use EUS in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). Diagnostic EUS allows previously unidentified NETs to be localized. EUS also determines tumor management by staging the GEP-NETS, enabling the clinicians to choose the appropriate endoscopic or surgical management. The ability to obtain a tissue diagnosis with EUS guidance enables disease confirmation. Finally, recent developments suggest that EUS may be used to deliver therapeutic agents for the treatment of NETs. This review will highlight the advances in our knowledge of EUS in the clinical management of these tumors. PMID:23170141

  1. Technological advances in diagnostic testing for von Willebrand disease: new approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hayward, C P M; Moffat, K A; Graf, L

    2014-06-01

    Diagnostic tests for von Willebrand disease (VWD) are important for the assessment of VWD, which is a commonly encountered bleeding disorder worldwide. Technical innovations have been applied to improve the precision and lower limit of detection of von Willebrand factor (VWF) assays, including the ristocetin cofactor activity assay (VWF:RCo) that uses the antibiotic ristocetin to induce plasma VWF binding to glycoprotein (GP) IbIXV on target platelets. VWF-collagen-binding assays, depending on the type of collagen used, can improve the detection of forms of VWD with high molecular weight VWF multimer loss, although the best method is debatable. A number of innovations have been applied to VWF:RCo (which is commonly performed on an aggregometer), including replacing the target platelets with immobilized GPIbα, and quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoturbidimetric, or chemiluminescent end-point. Some common polymorphisms in the VWF gene that do not cause bleeding are associated with falsely low VWF activity by ristocetin-dependent methods. To overcome the need for ristocetin, some new VWF activity assays use gain-of-function GPIbα mutants that bind VWF without the need for ristocetin, with an improved precision and lower limit of detection than measuring VWF:RCo by aggregometry. ELISA of VWF binding to mutated GPIbα shows promise as a method to identify gain-of-function defects from type 2B VWD. The performance characteristics of many new VWF activity assays suggest that the detection of VWD, and monitoring of VWD therapy, by clinical laboratories could be improved through adopting newer generation VWF assays.

  2. Advances in Huntington's disease diagnostics: development of a standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barbara C; Richie, Kristy L; Jakupciak, John P

    2006-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects four to seven individuals per 100,000. The onset of symptoms usually begins in middle age, although approximately 5% become symptomatic as juveniles. Death occurs approximately 15 years following the onset of symptoms, which include choreic movements, cognitive decline and psychiatric changes. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease that is associated with an expansion of a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat located on chromosome 4. Physicians rely on a positive family history, and diagnostic and genetic tests to detect the expansion in the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the HD gene to confirm the diagnosis. More than 99% of HD patients have 40 or more CAG triplet repeats and, therefore, targeted mutational analysis is greater than 99% sensitive. Individuals with 26 triplet repeats or less are normal, and while those with 27-35 repeats may not demonstrate symptoms themselves, their offspring may have the disease. Individuals with 36-39 repeats may or may not exhibit symptoms. The College of American Pathology/American College of Medical Genetics Biochemical and Molecular Genetics Resource Committee has emphasized the need to standardize the methodology for the determination of the accurate number of CAG repeats. This will prevent false-positive or -negative results when conducting predictive or prenatal testing of at-risk individuals. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is developing a standard reference material to provide these positive and negative controls needed by clinical testing laboratories. The use of a HD standard reference material will provide the quality control and assurance that data from different laboratories are both comparable and accurate.

  3. Endocavity Ultrasound Hyperthermia for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Patient-specific Modeling, Experimental Verification, and Combination with HDR Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Jeffery; Diederich, Chris; Chen Xin; Prakash, Punit; Juang, Titania

    2010-03-09

    The feasibility of targeted hyperthermia delivery by an intrauterine ultrasound applicator to patient-specific treatment volumes in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy was investigated using theory and experiment. 30 HDR brachytherapy treatment plans were inspected to define hyperthermia treatment volumes (HTVs) based on tumor and radiation target volumes. Several typical cases were imported into a patient-specific treatment planning platform that optimized acoustic output power from an endocavity multisectored tubular array to conform temperature and thermal dose to HTVs. Perfusion was within a clinical range of 0.5-3 kg m{sup -3} s{sup -1}. Applicators were constructed with 1-3 elements at 6.5-8 MHz with 90 deg. -360 deg. sectoring and 25-35 mm heating length housed in a water-cooled PET catheter. Acoustic output was compared to heating in ex vivo tissue assessed with implanted thermometry. Radiation attenuation through the device was measured in an ionization chamber. The HTV extends 2-4 cm in diameter and 2-4 cm in length. The bladder and rectum can be within 10-12 mm. HTV targets can be covered with temperature clouds >41 deg. and thermal dose t{sup 43}>5 min with 45 deg. C maximum temperature and rectal temperature <41.5 deg. C. Sectored applicators preferentially direct energy laterally into the parametrium to limit heating of rectum and bladder. Interstitial brachytherapy catheters within the HTV could be used for thermal feedback during HT treatment. Temperature distributions in phantom show preferential heating within sectors and align well with acoustic output. Heating control along the device length and in angle is evident. A 4-6% reduction in radiation transmission through the transducers was observed, which could likely be compensated for in planning. Patient-specific modeling and experimental heating demonstrated 3-D conformal heating capabilities of endocavity ultrasound applicators.

  4. High frequency ultrasound as a selective advanced oxidation process to remove penicillinic antibiotics and eliminate its antimicrobial activity from water.

    PubMed

    Serna-Galvis, Efraim A; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Flórez-Acosta, Oscar A; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2016-07-01

    This work studies the sonochemical degradation of a penicillinic antibiotic (oxacillin) in simulated pharmaceutical wastewater. High frequency ultrasound was applied to water containing the antibiotic combined with mannitol or calcium carbonate. In the presence of additives, oxacillin was efficiently removed through sonochemical action. For comparative purposes, the photo-Fenton, TiO2 photocatalysis and electrochemical oxidation processes were also tested. Therefore, the evolution of the antibiotic and its associated antimicrobial activity (AA) were monitored. A high inhibition was found for the other three oxidation processes in the elimination of the antimicrobial activity caused by the additives; while for the ultrasonic treatment, a negligible effect was observed. The sonochemical process was able to completely degrade the antibiotic, generating solutions without AA. In fact, the elimination of antimicrobial activity showed an excellent performance adjusted to exponential kinetic-type decay. The main sonogenerated organic by-products were determined by means of HPLC-MS. Four intermediaries were identified and they have modified the penicillinic structure, which is the moiety responsible for the antimicrobial activity. Additionally, the possible oxacillin sonodegradation mechanism was proposed based on the evolution of the by-products and their chemical structure. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound action over 120 min readily removed oxacillin and eliminated its antimicrobial activity. However, the pollutant was not mineralized even after a long period of ultrasonic irradiation (360 min). Interestingly, the previously sonicated water containing oxacillin and both additives was completely mineralized using non-adapted microorganisms from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. These results show that the sonochemical treatment transformed the initial pollutant into substances that are biotreatable with a typical aerobic biological system.

  5. Endocavity Ultrasound Hyperthermia for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Patient-specific Modeling, Experimental Verification, and Combination with HDR Brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, Jeffery; Chen, Xin; Prakash, Punit; Juang, Titania; Diederich, Chris

    2010-03-01

    The feasibility of targeted hyperthermia delivery by an intrauterine ultrasound applicator to patient-specific treatment volumes in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy was investigated using theory and experiment. 30 HDR brachytherapy treatment plans were inspected to define hyperthermia treatment volumes (HTVs) based on tumor and radiation target volumes. Several typical cases were imported into a patient-specific treatment planning platform that optimized acoustic output power from an endocavity multisectored tubular array to conform temperature and thermal dose to HTVs. Perfusion was within a clinical range of 0.5-3 kg m-3 s-1. Applicators were constructed with 1-3 elements at 6.5-8 MHz with 90°-360° sectoring and 25-35 mm heating length housed in a water-cooled PET catheter. Acoustic output was compared to heating in ex vivo tissue assessed with implanted thermometry. Radiation attenuation through the device was measured in an ionization chamber. The HTV extends 2-4 cm in diameter and 2-4 cm in length. The bladder and rectum can be within 10-12 mm. HTV targets can be covered with temperature clouds >41° and thermal dose t43>5 min with 45° C maximum temperature and rectal temperature <41.5° C. Sectored applicators preferentially direct energy laterally into the parametrium to limit heating of rectum and bladder. Interstitial brachytherapy catheters within the HTV could be used for thermal feedback during HT treatment. Temperature distributions in phantom show preferential heating within sectors and align well with acoustic output. Heating control along the device length and in angle is evident. A 4-6% reduction in radiation transmission through the transducers was observed, which could likely be compensated for in planning. Patient-specific modeling and experimental heating demonstrated 3-D conformal heating capabilities of endocavity ultrasound applicators.

  6. OCT corneal epithelial topographic asymmetry as a sensitive diagnostic tool for early and advancing keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate epithelial thickness-distribution characteristics in a large group of keratoconic patients and their correlation to normal eyes employing anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Materials and methods The study group (n=160 eyes) consisted of clinically diagnosed keratoconus eyes; the control group (n=160) consisted of nonkeratoconic eyes. Three separate, three-dimensional epithelial thickness maps were obtained employing AS-OCT, enabling investigation of the pupil center, average, mid-peripheral, superior, inferior, maximum, minimum, and topographic epithelial thickness variability. Intraindividual repeatability of measurements was assessed. We introduced correlation of the epithelial data via newly defined indices. The epithelial thickness indices were then correlated with two Scheimpflug imaging-derived AS-irregularity indices: the index of height decentration, and the index of surface variance highly sensitive to early and advancing keratoconus diagnosis as validation. Results Intraindividual repeatability of epithelial thickness measurement in the keratoconic group was on average 1.67 μm. For the control group, repeatability was on average 1.13 μm. In the keratoconic group, pupil-center epithelial thickness was 51.75±7.02 μm, while maximum and minimum epithelial thickness were 63.54±8.85 μm and 40.73±8.51 μm. In the control group, epithelial thickness at the center was 52.54±3.23 μm, with maximum 55.33±3.27 μm and minimum 48.50±3.98 μm epithelial thickness. Topographic variability was 6.07±3.55 μm in the keratoconic group, while for the control group it was 1.59±0.79 μm. In keratoconus, topographic epithelial thickness change from normal, correlated tightly with the topometric asymmetry indices of IHD and ISV derived from Scheimpflug imaging. Conclusion Simple, OCT-derived epithelial mapping, appears to have critical potential in early and advancing keratoconus diagnosis, confirmed with its correlation

  7. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches.

  8. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  9. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Hussain Huang, Hua Wei Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  10. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part I: The diagnostic value of the ultrasound B-mode imaging in the differentiation diagnostics of solid, focal lesions in the breast in relation to the pathomorphological verification

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasound B-mode imaging in the differentiation diagnostics of solid lesions in the breast in relation to the pathomorphological verification. From January to July 2010, 375 ultrasound breast examinations were conducted. The study enrolled 80 women aged 17–83, with 99 solid, focal lesions present in breasts, which were qualified for pathomorphological verification on the basis of the ultrasound examination. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, ultrasound examination and sonoelastography. The ultrasound features of the lesions, their vascularization patterns in the Doppler examination as well as the adjacent tissues were determined. Next, the focal lesions were categorized according to the BIRADS-US classification. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. In the group of 80 patients, 99 focal, solid lesions in breasts were visualized, including 39 neoplastic, malignant lesions (group I) and 60 lesions of benign nature (group II). The malignant lesions were often characterized by: greater size, irregular shape (34/39), prevalence of the anteroposterior dimension over the lateral-lateral dimension (22/39), acoustic shadowing (20/39), the margins not well-circumscribed (37/39), spiculated margins (16/39) and the presence of calcifications (14/39). The benign lesions were much more often hyper- and isoechogenic (14/60). In group I the lesions more often demonstrated the features of increased vascularization (29/39) and the presence of irregularly shaped vessels (23/29). This vascularization more often originated in the adjacent tissues. In the surroundings of the malignant neoplastic lesions, the presence of edema (16/39) and skin thickening (6/39) occurred more frequently and the abnormal axillary lymph nodes were more often diagnosed. The lesions of group I were assigned to the following BIRADS categories: BIRADS-US 4 (9 lesions) and BIRADS-US 5 (30 lesions). In group

  11. Recent Advances in Point-of-Care Diagnostics for Cardiac Markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    National and international cardiology guidelines have recommended a 1-hour turnaround time for reporting results of cardiac troponin to emergency department personnel, measured from the time of blood collection to reporting. Use of point-of-care testing (POCT) can reduce turnaround times for cardiac markers, but current devices are not as precise or sensitive as central laboratory assays. The gap is growing as manufacturers of mainframe immunoassay instruments have or will release troponin assays that are even higher than those currently available. These assays have analytical sensitivity that enables detection of nearly 100% of all healthy subjects which is not possible for current POCT assays. Use of high sensitivity troponin results in a lower value for the 99th percentile of a healthy population. Clinically, this enables for the detection of more cases of myocardial injury. In order to compete analytically, next generation POCT assays will to make technologic advancements, such as the use of microfluidic to better control sample delivery, nanoparticles or nanotubes to increase the surface-to-volume ratios for analytes and antibodies, and novel detection schemes such as chemiluminescence and electrochemical detectors to enhance analytical sensitivity. Multi-marker analysis using POCT is also on the horizon for tests that complement cardiac troponin.

  12. Basic Principles of Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Teresa M.

    Ultrasound has been used in medicine for at least 50 years. Its current importance can be judged by the fact that, of all the various kinds of diagnostic images produced in the world, 1 in 4 is an ultrasound scan. Ultrasound energy is exactly like sound energy, it is a variation in the pressure within a medium. The only difference is that the rate of variation of pressure, the frequency of the wave, is too rapid for humans to hear. Medical ultrasound lies within a frequency range of 30 kHz to 500 MHz. Generally, the lower frequencies (30 kHz to 3 MHz) are for therapeutic purposes, the higher ones (2 to 40 MHz) are for diagnosis (imaging and Doppler), the very highest (50 to 500 MHz) are for microscopic images. For diagnostic purposes two main techniques are employed; the pulse-echo method is used to create images of tissue distribution; the Doppler effect is used to assess tissue movement and blood flow.

  13. Ultrasound-Mediated Polymeric Micelle Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of multi-functional nanocarriers and the design of new stimuli-responsive means are equally important for drug delivery. Ultrasound can be used as a remote, non-invasive and controllable trigger for the stimuli-responsive release of nanocarriers. Polymeric micelles are one kind of potential drug nanocarrier. By combining ultrasound and polymeric micelles, a new modality (i.e., ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery) has been developed and has recently received increasing attention. A major challenge remaining in developing ultrasound-responsive polymeric micelles is the improvement of the sensitivity or responsiveness of polymeric micelles to ultrasound. This chapter reviews the recent advance in this field. In order to understand the interaction mechanism between ultrasound stimulus and polymeric micelles, ultrasound effects, such as thermal effect, cavitation effect, ultrasound sonochemistry (including ultrasonic degradation, ultrasound-initiated polymerization, ultrasonic in-situ polymerization and ultrasound site-specific degradation), as well as basic micellar knowledge are introduced. Ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery has been classified into two main streams based on the different interaction mechanism between ultrasound and polymeric micelles; one is based on the ultrasound-induced physical disruption of the micelle and reversible release of payload. The other is based on micellar ultrasound mechanochemical disruption and irreversible release of payload.

  14. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique. PMID:25636803

  15. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique.

  16. Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

  17. Advanced optical diagnostics of multiphase combustion flow field using OH planar laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kevin Young-jin

    , 3D scan time of 500 micros was achieved with a trapezoidal scan profile, generating five new slices per sweep at 1000 Hz scan rate. The system was applied to 3 wt.% and 6 wt.% HPC methanol gelled droplet combustion in 1 atm, and at room temperature. The system had sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to provide a more complete picture of the complex asymmetrical and random flame structure of the gelled droplet combustion. However, the technique had limited capabilities for resolving the impinging jet spray combustion flow field. For the ammonium perchlorate (AP)/ hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) combustion study with 3D OH PLIF, 40 wt.% coarse AP crystal (400 microm), 40 wt.% fine AP crystal (20 microm), and 20 wt.% HTPB binder formulation with pellet diameter of 6.35 mm was used. The scan rate was reduced to 250 Hz, resulting in 20 images generated per scan, 500 scans per second, and 2 ms scan time, with 1.5 mm scan distance. The test pressure ranged from 3.4 - 6.1 atm of nitrogen, with test temperature at room condition. The results from 3D OH PLIF of AP/HTPB combustion showed a diffusion flame structure, with a lack of OH in the middle of the flame. This is the first time a direct observation of the diffusion flame and the OH structure have been made at elevated pressure. The preliminary results show a good agreement with the BDP model, with a second order increase in the diffusion flame height with increased coarse crystal diameter. Although the scan of 3D OH PLIF is non-instantaneous, no other systems in the literature can scan reacting flow field at such a high 3D repetition rate. Since the identification of the transient flame patterns is facilitated by the ability to visualize the flame front at multiple planes, the 3D OH PLIF technique offers great promise as a diagnostic for dynamic combustion events.

  18. Therapeutic Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) technology has evolved dramatically over the past 20 years, from being a supplementary diagnostic aid available only in large medical centers to being a core diagnostic and therapeutic tool that is widely available. Although formal recommendations and practice guidelines have not been developed, there are considerable data supporting the use of EUS for its technical accuracy in diagnosing pancreaticobiliary and gastrointestinal pathology. Endosonography is now routine practice not only for pathologic diagnosis and tumor staging but also for drainage of cystic lesions and celiac plexus neurolysis. In this article, we cover the use of EUS in biliary and pancreatic intervention, ablative therapy, enterostomy, and vascular intervention. PMID:27118942

  19. [Abdominal ultrasound course an introduction to the ultrasound technique. Physical basis. Ultrasound language].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Sáez-Fernández, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Díaz-Rodríguez, N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, accessible, and versatile diagnostic technique that uses high frequency ultrasound waves to define outline the organs of the human body, with no ionising radiation, in real time and with the capacity to visual several planes. The high diagnostic yield of the technique, together with its ease of uses plus the previously mentioned characteristics, has currently made it a routine method in daily medical practice. It is for this reason that the multidisciplinary character of this technique is being strengthened every day. To be able to perform the technique correctly requires knowledge of the physical basis of ultrasound, the method and the equipment, as well as of the human anatomy, in order to have the maximum information possible to avoid diagnostic errors due to poor interpretation or lack of information.

  20. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinini, M. Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.; Ambrosini, F.; Nichelatti, E.

    2015-06-29

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 10{sup 3} to about 10{sup 6 }Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  1. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, M.; Ambrosini, F.; Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-06-01

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 1011 to 1015 protons/cm2. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F2 and F3+ laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 103 to about 106 Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  2. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    PubMed

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time. PMID:27503078

  3. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    PubMed

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time.

  4. Evaluating the Use of a Negative D-Dimer and Modified Low Wells Score in Excluding above Knee Deep Venous Thrombosis in an Outpatient Population, Assessing Need for Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Anshul; Prabhudesai, Shirish; Mcclinton, David; MacCallum, Peter; Platton, Sean; Friedman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Colour doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) is widely used in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT); however, the number of scans positive for above knee DVT is low. The present study evaluates the reliability of the D-dimer test combined with a clinical probability score (Wells score) in ruling out an above knee DVT and identifying patients who do not need a CDUS. Materials and Method. This study is a retrospective audit and reaudit of a total of 816 outpatients presenting with suspected lower limb DVT from March 2009 to March 2010 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Following the initial audit, a revised clinical diagnostic pathway was implemented. Results. In our initial audit, seven patients (4.9%) with a negative D-dimer and a low Wells score had a DVT. On review, all seven had a risk factor identified that was not included in the Wells score. No patient with negative D-dimer and low Wells score with no extra clinical risk factor had a DVT on CDUS (negative predictive value 100%). A reaudit confirmed adherence to our revised clinical diagnostic pathway. Conclusions. A negative D-dimer together with a low Wells score and no risk factors effectively excludes a lower limb DVT and an ultrasound is unnecessary in these patients. PMID:24967296

  5. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  6. Treatment of liver cancer of middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection combined with radiofrequency ablation: A clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XUE; LI, RU; ZHANG, BOTAO; YANG, YUEJIE; CUI, ZHIFEI

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is a malignancy of the digestive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Local intervention has become a viable option in identifying liver treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical effects of treating liver cancer in middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in tumors combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A total of 100 patients with stage III–IV liver cancers were selected to participate in the study. Patients were divided into groups. In group A, treatment was initiated with PEI and after 1–2 weeks RFA was applied while in group B treatment was initiated with RFA and after 1–2 weeks PEI was applied. Patients in group C received PEI and RFA simultaneously. The clinical effects in the 3 groups were compared after 6-month follow ups. The volume of tumor ablation necrosis in group A was significantly greater than that in the groups B and C, while the size was significantly smaller compared to groups B and C after ablation. For group A, the complete ablation rate was significantly higher than that in groups B and C, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Liver damage indices, including raising levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin, were significantly decreased in group A (P<0.05). The survival rate in group A was also significantly higher than in groups B and C (P<0.05). In conclusion, for patients with liver cancer in middle and advanced stages, the treatment method using PEI followed by RFA was more beneficial in terms of improving the tumor ablation rate, alleviating liver damages and increasing survival rates. PMID:26998128

  7. [Gynecological ultrasound examination at the general health care emergency department].

    PubMed

    Forsbom, Otto; Väyrynen, Tapio; Hurskainen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal ultrasound examination is a possible addition for the general health care emergency department. It gives additional information of gynecological illnesses and pregnancy. Ultrasound can guide treatment and make consulting the right specialty easier when treating women with acute abdominal pain. Correctly used ultrasound can also reduce the need for consultation and speed up treatment, especially in early pregnancy. The physician performing the ultrasound should know the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound and compare findings to the clinical status and history. Ultrasound can't replace clinical history and status in any situation. A pregnancy test, hemoglobin or CRP are often required to achieve diagnosis.

  8. Advanced Diagnostics and Life Estimation of Extruded Dielectric Cable: Nonproprietary Results Related to Cross-Linked Polyethylene and Ethylene Propylene Rubber Insulated Shielded Cables

    SciTech Connect

    G. Toman

    2006-03-31

    This report describes research on accelerated aging and diagnostic testing of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation and an earlier test program on ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables. The XLPE research subjected cable specimens to accelerated cable life tests (ACLTs) and assessed the specimens with six nondestructive electrical tests and two destructive tests. The EPR program subjected EPR insulation to a similar accelerated aging protocol but focused on breakdown voltage to assess aging. Objectives ? To correlate advanced diagnostic test data with time-to-failure data as a means of determining the value of each diagnostic test for cable condition assessment and future life predictions (XLPE program) ? To perform accelerated aging tests of EPR insulated cables under various controlled conditions of temperature and voltage stress in a wet environment (EPR program) ? To ascertain the relative influence of temperature and voltage stress on aging (EPR program)

  9. Using the Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Frontotemporal Dementia in India: Evidence of an Advanced and Florid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Amitabha; Dutt, Aparna; Ghosh, Madhura; Bhargava, Pallavi; Rao, Sulakshana

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Consortium (FTDC) that revised the diagnostic criteria for behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) did not have an Asian representation. Whether the revised criteria are equally useful in the early detection of Asian bvFTD patients therefore remains largely unexplored. Earlier studies have indicated differences in clinical manifestations in Indian and other Asian bvFTD patients when compared to western groups. There is an urgent need for clarification, given the projected exponential rise in dementia in these countries and the imminent clinical trials on bvFTD. Objective To assess how Indian bvFTD patients fulfil the FTDC criteria, hypothesizing that our patients might present differently early in the illness. Method In a hospital-based retrospective observational study, we assessed 48 probable bvFTD patients, diagnosed according to the FTDC criteria, for the speed with which these criteria were fulfilled, the frequency of individual symptoms and their order of appearance during the illness. Results Most of our patients presented with moderate to severe dementia, in spite of having relatively short onset to diagnosis times. Patients on average took 1.4 years from onset to meet the FTDC criteria, with 90% of them presenting with four or more symptoms at diagnosis. Disinhibition was the commonest symptom and the first symptom in most patients. Conclusion With most patients presenting with advanced and florid disease, the FTDC criteria have little additional impact in early identification of bvFTD in India. Modifying the criteria further could allow detection of Indian patients early enough for their inclusion in future clinical trials. PMID:23596513

  10. Diagnostic Management of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dabizzi, Emanuele; Assef, Mauricio Saab; Raimondo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly solid tumors, with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and is rarely amenable for curative treatment. Therefore early diagnosis and appropriate staging are still essential to define the best care and to improve patient survival. Several imaging modalities are currently available for the evaluation of pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on different techniques and discusses the diagnostic management of patients with pancreatic cancer. This review was conducted utilizing Pubmed and was limited to papers published within the last 5 years. The search key words pancreatic cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic tumors, diagnosis, radiology, imaging, nuclear imaging, endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and biochemical markers were used. PMID:24212626

  11. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  12. Coronary plaque progression of non-culprit lesions after culprit percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease: intravascular ultrasound and integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Kashiyama, Kuninobu; Sonoda, Shinjo; Muraoka, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Tsuda, Yuki; Araki, Masaru; Tamura, Masahito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Abe, Haruhiko; Okazaki, Masahiro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Otsuji, Yutaka

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the deterioration of renal function increases the risk of major adverse clinical events not only in culprit lesions but also in non-culprit lesions (NCLs) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study evaluated serial coronary plaque change of NCL in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and integrated backscatter IVUS (IB-IVUS). In 113 patients (113 NCLs) underwent both IVUS-guided PCI and follow-up IVUS, volumetric IVUS analyses were performed at proximal reference NCLs in de novo target vessels post PCI and at 8-month follow-up. NCLs were divided into 4 groups based on baseline CKD stage: CKD-1, n = 18; CKD-2, n = 42; CKD-3, n = 29; and CKD4-5, n = 24. We compared serial changes of plaque burden and composition among groups under statin treatment. Plaque progression occurred in CKD-3 (+4.6 mm(3), p < 0.001) and CKD4-5 (+9.8 mm(3), p < 0.001) despite anti-atherosclerotic treatment, whereas plaque regression occurred in CKD-1 (-5.4 mm(3), p = 0.002) and CKD-2 (-3.2 mm(3), p = 0.001) mainly due to initiate statin treatment after PCI. Plaque volume change was correlated with eGFR (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed CKD stage 3-5 was an independent predictor of plaque progression. Regarding IB-IVUS analyses, lipid plaque increased in CKD-3 (+4.6 mm(3), p < 0.001) and CKD4-5 (+5.4 mm(3), p < 0.001), but decreased in CKD-2 (-2.7 mm(3), p < 0.05). Fibrotic plaque also increased in CKD4-5 (+3.4 mm(3), p < 0.001). Moderate to advanced CKD was associated with coronary plaque progression characterized by greater lipid and fibrotic plaque volumes in NCL under statin treatment after culprit PCI. PMID:25724567

  13. Hot topics in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound therapy and its integration with ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everbach, E. Carr

    2005-09-01

    Since the development of biomedical ultrasound imaging from sonar after WWII, there has been a clear divide between ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound therapy. While imaging techniques are designed to cause as little change as possible in the tissues through which ultrasound propagates, ultrasound therapy typically relies upon heating or acoustic cavitation to produce a desirable therapeutic effect. Concerns over the increasingly high acoustic outputs of diagnostic ultrasound scanners prompted the adoption of the Mechanical Index (MI) and Thermal Index (TI) in the early 1990s. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound, meanwhile, have evolved from deep tissue heating in sports medicine to include targeted drug delivery, tumor and plaque ablation, cauterization via high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and accelerated dissolution of blood clots. The integration of ultrasonic imaging and therapy in one device is just beginning, but the promise of improved patient outcomes is balanced by regulatory and practical impediments.

  14. Repeat Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Patients with Suspected Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnostic Yield and Associated Change in Access to Appropriate Care.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert A; Stanger, Dylan; Shuster, Constantin; Telford, Jennifer; Lam, Eric; Enns, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a high incidence of inconclusive cytopathology at initial EUS-FNA (endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration) for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. To obtain appropriate preoperative or palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer, definitive cytopathology is often required. The utility of repeat EUS-FNA is not well established. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating the yield of repeat EUS-FNA in determining a cytological diagnosis in patients who had undergone a prior EUS-FNA for diagnosis of suspected malignant pancreatic lesions with inconclusive cytopathology. The wait times to the second procedure and to decisions regarding therapy were calculated. Results. Overall, 45 repeat EUS-FNA procedures were performed over seven years for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. Cytopathological class (I to IV) changed between first and second EUS-FNA in 32 patients (71%). Of 34 patients with an initially nonconclusive diagnosis, 20 had a conclusive diagnosis (59%) on repeat EUS-FNA. The cumulative yield after repeat EUS-FNA for definite pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 7 (16%). The median time interval between first and second EUS-FNA was 31 (7-175) days. Conclusions. A substantial number of patients had a definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on repeat FNA and were, therefore, subsequently able to access appropriate care. PMID:27648440

  15. Resident-Perceived Benefit of a Diagnostic and Interventional Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Curriculum: A Multifaceted Approach Using Independent Study, Peer Teaching, and Interdisciplinary Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Luz, Jennifer; Siddiqui, Imran; Jain, Nitin B; Kohler, Minna J; Donovan, Jayne; Gerrard, Paul; Borg-Stein, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) training is now a required component of physiatry residency, but formal curriculum guidelines are not yet required or established. The authors' objective was to assess the educational value of a collaborative residency MSUS training program. The authors designed a structured MSUS training curriculum for residents based on the authors' experience and previous literature. Twenty-five residents participated in this MSUS curriculum designed by faculty and chief residents. Resident volunteers were trained by the faculty as "table trainers" who taught their peers in small groups. Hands-on MSUS training sessions were led by a Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation faculty MSUS expert. A Likert scale-formatted questionnaire assessed resident-perceived value of the curriculum. Response rate was 96% (22 of 23). Self-reported MSUS knowledge comparing precurriculum and postcurriculum implementation resulted in significant improvement (P = 0.001). Peer teaching was highly valued, with 86% of residents rating it "very" or "extremely" beneficial (mean [SD] score, 3.9 [1.1]). Self-guided learning, by supplemental scanning and reading, was rated "beneficial" or "very beneficial" by 73% of residents (3.0 [0.7]). The authors' successful pilot program may serve as a teaching model for other residency programs.

  16. Repeat Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Patients with Suspected Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnostic Yield and Associated Change in Access to Appropriate Care

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Dylan; Shuster, Constantin; Telford, Jennifer; Lam, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a high incidence of inconclusive cytopathology at initial EUS-FNA (endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration) for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. To obtain appropriate preoperative or palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer, definitive cytopathology is often required. The utility of repeat EUS-FNA is not well established. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating the yield of repeat EUS-FNA in determining a cytological diagnosis in patients who had undergone a prior EUS-FNA for diagnosis of suspected malignant pancreatic lesions with inconclusive cytopathology. The wait times to the second procedure and to decisions regarding therapy were calculated. Results. Overall, 45 repeat EUS-FNA procedures were performed over seven years for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. Cytopathological class (I to IV) changed between first and second EUS-FNA in 32 patients (71%). Of 34 patients with an initially nonconclusive diagnosis, 20 had a conclusive diagnosis (59%) on repeat EUS-FNA. The cumulative yield after repeat EUS-FNA for definite pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 7 (16%). The median time interval between first and second EUS-FNA was 31 (7–175) days. Conclusions. A substantial number of patients had a definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on repeat FNA and were, therefore, subsequently able to access appropriate care. PMID:27648440

  17. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Demi, Libertario; Van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast. PMID:27703251

  18. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast.

  19. A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

    2014-12-01

    There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.

  20. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge) and to characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography or breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound imaging ... supply in breast lesions . Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening Mammography is the only screening tool for breast cancer ...

  1. Thyroid ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed Ultrasound is a painless method that uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the ... neck to help with the transmission of the sound waves. Next, the technician moves a wand, called a ...

  2. Abdominal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  3. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  4. Wireless medical ultrasound video transmission through noisy channels.

    PubMed

    Panayides, A; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in video compression such as the current state-of-the-art H.264/AVC standard in conjunction with increasingly available bitrate through new technologies like 3G, and WiMax have brought mobile health (m-Health) healthcare systems and services closer to reality. Despite this momentum towards m-Health systems and especially e-Emergency systems, wireless channels remain error prone, while the absence of objective quality metrics limits the ability of providing medical video of adequate diagnostic quality at a required bitrate. In this paper we investigate different encoding schemes and loss rates in medical ultrasound video transmission and come to conclusions involving efficiency, the trade-off between bitrate and quality, while we highlight the relationship linking video quality and the error ratio of corrupted P and B frames. More specifically, we investigate IPPP, IBPBP and IBBPBBP coding structures under packet loss rates of 2%, 5%, 8% and 10% and derive that the latter attains higher SNR ratings in all tested cases. A preliminary clinical evaluation shows that for SNR ratings higher than 30 db, video diagnostic quality may be adequate, while above 30.5 db the diagnostic information available in the reconstructed ultrasound video is close to that of the original. PMID:19163920

  5. Wireless medical ultrasound video transmission through noisy channels.

    PubMed

    Panayides, A; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in video compression such as the current state-of-the-art H.264/AVC standard in conjunction with increasingly available bitrate through new technologies like 3G, and WiMax have brought mobile health (m-Health) healthcare systems and services closer to reality. Despite this momentum towards m-Health systems and especially e-Emergency systems, wireless channels remain error prone, while the absence of objective quality metrics limits the ability of providing medical video of adequate diagnostic quality at a required bitrate. In this paper we investigate different encoding schemes and loss rates in medical ultrasound video transmission and come to conclusions involving efficiency, the trade-off between bitrate and quality, while we highlight the relationship linking video quality and the error ratio of corrupted P and B frames. More specifically, we investigate IPPP, IBPBP and IBBPBBP coding structures under packet loss rates of 2%, 5%, 8% and 10% and derive that the latter attains higher SNR ratings in all tested cases. A preliminary clinical evaluation shows that for SNR ratings higher than 30 db, video diagnostic quality may be adequate, while above 30.5 db the diagnostic information available in the reconstructed ultrasound video is close to that of the original.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and 18F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic 18F-FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The 18F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal 18F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy. Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result. 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive 18F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-09-01

    Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer.A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic F-FDG uptake on F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy.Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result.F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  8. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  9. Quantified ultrasound elastography in the assessment of cutaneous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael A; Mehregan, Darius; Siegel, Eliot L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of high-frequency ultrasound and ultrasound elastography (USE) in discriminating benign from malignant skin lesions in a prospective cohort study and to introduce the use of a “strain ratio” for evaluation of skin lesions. Methods: A commercial ultrasound system with a 14-MHz transducer was used to visualize skin lesions requiring biopsy on clinical evaluation. Anatomic ultrasound and USE imaging of the skin lesions was performed using 2- to 4-mm gel stand-off pads. A region of interest was manually selected over the area of each lesion with the lowest strain. The concept of a strain ratio of the compressibility of the normal skin at the corresponding layer to that of the least compressible region of a lesion in question was created and applied. This ratio was subsequently correlated with blind histopathological evaluation for malignancy. Results: 55 patients were included in the study with a total of 67 lesions evaluated. 29 lesions were malignant and 38 benign. All malignant lesions had strain ratios ≥3.9. All benign lesions had strain ratios ≤3.0. A diagnostic value between 3.0 and 3.9 would result in 100% sensitivity and specificity in the characterization of these lesions as malignant. Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrated that USE plus strain ratio appears to be a promising modality in providing diagnostic determination between cancerous and benign primary solitary skin lesions prior to biopsy. Advances in knowledge: This is the first reported study applying an original mathematical elastographic ratio, or strain ratio, to evaluate primary solitary skin lesions. PMID:26268142

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides access to many organs and lesions which are in proximity to the gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunity to target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This modality also provides a real time opportunity to target the required area while avoiding adjacent vascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS has found role in management of pancreatic fluid collections, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage, drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscesses and collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice for management of pancreatic pseudocysts and recent innovations like fully covered removable metallic stents have improved results in patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUS guided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic duct helps drainage of these systems in patients with failed cannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUS guided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergent procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who are not fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysis and blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-vis the percutaneous technique. The field of interventional EUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventions are being continuously added. This review focuses on the current status of evidence vis-à-vis the established indications of therapeutic EUS. PMID:26078831

  11. Ultrasound Fracture Diagnosis in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Amponsah, David; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; vanHolsbeeck, Marnix

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This ground-based investigation accumulated high-level clinical evidence on the sensitivity and specificity of point of care ultrasound performed by expert and novice users for the rapid diagnosis of musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries. We developed preliminary educational methodologies to provide just-in-time training of novice users by creating multi-media training tools and imaging procedures for non expert operators and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of non-expert performed musculoskeletal ultrasound to diagnose acute injuries in a Level 1 Trauma Center. Methods: Patients with potential MSK injuries were identified in the emergency room. A focused MSK ultrasound was performed by expert operators and compared to standard radiographs. A repeat examination was performed by non-expert operators who received a short, just-in-time multimedia education aid. The sensitivity and specificity of the expert and novice ultrasound examinations were compared to gold standard radiography. Results: Over 800 patients were enrolled in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of expert performed ultrasound exceeded 98% for MSK injuries. Novice operators achieved 97% sensitivity and 99% specificity for targeted examinations with the greatest error in fractures involving the hand and foot. Conclusion: Point of care ultrasound is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for MSK injury when performed by experts and just-in-time trained novice operators.

  12. Controlled Study of Traditional Ultrasound and Ultrasound Elastography on the Diagnosis of Breast Masses.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Wang, Ling; Wu, Haojie; Wei, Xiangkun; Duan, Yajie; Xu, Lingyao; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Liu

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to explore the application values of traditional ultrasound (contrast ultrasound [CUS]) and ultrasound elastography (UE) (including gray-scale ultrasound, color Doppler flow imaging, spectral Doppler ultrasound) in the diagnosis of breast masses. Postoperative histopathological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. One hundred seventy benign and malignant breast lesions from our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy differences of breast malignancy diagnosed by UE and CUS were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy rates of breast malignancy diagnosed by UE were 98.7%, 90.2%, and 97.7%, whereas that by CUS were 93.6%, 76.1%, and 78.9%, respectively. The specificity and diagnosis rate of UE in the differential diagnosis of malignant breast lesions are superior to those of CUS and have an important clinical value.

  13. Multi-dimensional transfer functions for effective visualization of streaming ultrasound and elasticity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, David; Caban, Jesus J.; Stolka, Philipp J.; Boctor, Emad M.; Yoo, Terry S.

    2011-03-01

    The low-cost and minimum health risks associated with ultrasound (US) have made ultrasonic imaging a widely accepted method to perform diagnostic and image-guided procedures. Despite the existence of 3D ultrasound probes, most analysis and diagnostic procedures are done by studying the B-mode images. Currently, multiple ultrasound probes include 6-DOF sensors that can provide positioning information. Such tracking information can be used to reconstruct a 3D volume from a set of 2D US images. Recent advances in ultrasound imaging have also shown that, directly from the streaming radio frequency (RF) data, it is possible to obtain additional information of the anatomical region under consideration including the elasticity properties. This paper presents a generic framework that takes advantage of current graphics hardware to create a low-latency system to visualize streaming US data while combining multiple tissue attributes into a single illustration. In particular, we introduce a framework that enables real-time reconstruction and interactive visualization of streaming data while enhancing the illustration with elasticity information. The visualization module uses two-dimensional transfer functions (2D TFs) to more effectively fuse and map B-mode and strain values into specific opacity and color values. On commodity hardware, our framework can simultaneously reconstruct, render, and provide user interaction at over 15 fps. Results with phantom and real-world medical datasets show the advantages and effectiveness of our technique with ultrasound data. In particular, our results show how two-dimensional transfer functions can be used to more effectively identify, analyze and visualize lesions in ultrasound images.

  14. Ultrasound imaging in the general practitioner's office – a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ryk, Małgorzata; Suwała, Magdalena; Żurakowska, Tatiana; Kosiak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound, which is a safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality that uses more and more advanced imaging techniques, has become the first-choice examination in various diseases. It is more and more often used in the general practitioner's office to supplement physical examination and interview. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the Polish medical literature pertaining to the usage of ultrasound imaging in general practice as well as to present advantages, disadvantages and utility associated with conducting ultrasound examinations by general practitioners based on selected publications. Material and methods The analysis involved 15 articles found in Polish medical literature published in 1994–2013 in 9 medical journals. These publications were obtained using various data bases, such as Polish Medical Bibliography, Google Scholar as well as websites of “Lekarz Rodzinny” and “Ultrasonografia.” Results Of 15 available publications, 5 papers present the usage of ultrasound imaging by a primary care physician for general purposes, 4 discuss the usage of abdominal scans, 3 – imaging of the neck and lymph nodes, 1 – lungs, and 2 discuss its usage for specific disease entities. In over 70% of the papers, the financial aspect associated with the usage of this modality in general practice is mentioned. More than a half of the publications draw attention to the possibility of using point-of-care ultrasound examinations. Advantages of ultrasonography most often mentioned by the authors include: good effects of screening, safety, short duration and low cost. The authors of eight publications also indicate disadvantages associated with ultrasound imaging used by a general practitioner. Conclusions In the Polish literature, there are relatively few papers on the role of ultrasonography in the office of a primary care physician. This modality is more and more often becoming a tool that helps primary care physicians to establish diagnoses, accelerates the

  15. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recommended sports ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships.

    PubMed

    Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The following sports ultrasound (SPORTS US) curriculum is a revision of the curriculum developed by the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) in 2010. Several changes have been made to the curriculum with the primary aim of providing a pathway by which a sports medicine fellow can obtain sufficient SPORTS US training to become proficient in the core competencies of SPORTS US. The core competencies of SPORTS US are outlined in the learning objectives section of this document. The term "SPORTS US" was purposefully chosen rather than "musculoskeletal ultrasound" (MSK US) because it was recognized by the panel that the evolving field of SPORTS US encompasses non-MSK applications of ultrasound such as the FAST examination (focused assessment with sonography for trauma). Although the SPORTS US core competencies in this curriculum are all MSK in nature, they represent the minimum SPORTS US knowledge a sports medicine fellow should acquire during fellowship. However, additional training in more advanced MSK and non-MSK applications of ultrasound can be provided at the fellowship director's discretion. Completion of this SPORTS US curriculum fulfills the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine's (AIUM) requirements to perform an MSK US examination and the prerequisites for the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography's (ARDMS) MSK sonography certification examination.

  16. The efficacy of bedside chest ultrasound: from accuracy to outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hew, Mark; Tay, Tunn Ren

    2016-09-01

    For many respiratory physicians, point-of-care chest ultrasound is now an integral part of clinical practice. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound to detect abnormalities of the pleura, the lung parenchyma and the thoracic musculoskeletal system is well described. However, the efficacy of a test extends beyond just diagnostic accuracy. The true value of a test depends on the degree to which diagnostic accuracy efficacy influences decision-making efficacy, and the subsequent extent to which this impacts health outcome efficacy. We therefore reviewed the demonstrable levels of test efficacy for bedside ultrasound of the pleura, lung parenchyma and thoracic musculoskeletal system.For bedside ultrasound of the pleura, there is evidence supporting diagnostic accuracy efficacy, decision-making efficacy and health outcome efficacy, predominantly in guiding pleural interventions. For the lung parenchyma, chest ultrasound has an impact on diagnostic accuracy and decision-making for patients presenting with acute respiratory failure or breathlessness, but there are no data as yet on actual health outcomes. For ultrasound of the thoracic musculoskeletal system, there is robust evidence only for diagnostic accuracy efficacy.We therefore outline avenues to further validate bedside chest ultrasound beyond diagnostic accuracy, with an emphasis on confirming enhanced health outcomes. PMID:27581823

  17. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 4 of 6: ON-LINE, NON-DESTRUCTIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENT USING LASER-ULTRASOUND

    SciTech Connect

    Andre' Moreau; Martin Lord; Daniel Levesqure; Marc Dubois; Jean Bussiere; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Christian Padioleau; Guy Lamouche; Teodor Veres; Martin Viens; Harold Hebert; Pierre Basseras; Cheng-Kuei Jen

    2001-03-31

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility to measure the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, strain hardening exponent and plastic strain ratio parameters, of low carbon steel sheets on the production line using laser ultrasound. The ultrasound generated by the developed apparatus travels mostly back and forth in the thickness of the steel sheet. By measuring the time delay between two echoes, and the relative amplitude of these two echoes, one can measure ultrasound velocity and attenuation. These are governed by the microstructure: grain size, crystallographic texture, dislocations, etc. Thus, by recording the time behavior of the ultrasonic signal, one can extract microstructural information. These microstructural information together with the modified Hall-Petch equation allow measurement of the mechanical properties. Through laboratory investigations with a laboratory laser ultrasound system, followed by the installation of a prototype system at LTV Steel Company's No.1 Inspection Line in Cleveland, all target mechanical properties of ultra low carbon (ULC), low carbon (LC) and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sample lots were measured meeting or nearly meeting all the target accuracies. Thus, the project realized its goal to demonstrate that the mechanical properties of low carbon steel sheets can be measured on-line using laser ultrasound

  18. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-15

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  19. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  20. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  1. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method. PMID:26724028

  2. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M.; Rogers, B; Walsh, N.

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  3. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques. Performance report, 1 September 1992--30 April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB{sub 2} and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB{sub 2}.

  4. Intralaparoscopic ultrasound and Doppler sonography in urology.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, C; Liguori, G; Savoca, G; Siracusano, S

    1996-01-01

    Common practice with intraoperative sonography during open surgery has demonstrated that ultrasounds supply important information that can help the urologist in decision making; in addition, the growing popularity of laparoscopy has underscored the importance of laparoscopic ultrasonography. Laparoscopic ultrasound combines the advantage of diagnostic laparoscopy and intraoperative contact ultrasonography. The authors report their experience with intralaparoscopic ultrasonography using a 7.5-MHz transesophageal probe in several paradigmatic urologic applications, in which intraoperative ultrasonography was employed to provide anatomical information, to supply efficiency in confirming and excluding anticipated or unexpected pathology, and to solve diagnostic problems using high-resolution, real-time, B-mode ultrasound. Intralaparoscopic ultrasound proves to be a simple, efficient procedure that provides useful information in order to help the urologist in intraoperative decision making.

  5. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  6. Observation of cavitation bubbles and acoustic streaming in high intensity ultrasound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Yuuki; Sasaki, Kazuma; Minami, Kyohei; Sato, Toshio; Choi, Pak-Kon; Takeuchi, Shinichi

    2015-07-01

    We observed the behavior of acoustic cavitation by sonochemical luminescence and ultrasound B-mode imaging with ultrasound diagnostic equipment in a standing-wave ultrasound field and focused ultrasound field. Furthermore, in order to investigate the influence of acoustic streaming on acoustic cavitation bubbles, we performed flow analysis of the sound field using particle image velocimetry. We found that acoustic cavitation bubbles are stirred by circulating acoustic streaming and local vortexes occurring in the water tank of the standing-wave ultrasound exposure system. We considered that the acoustic cavitation bubbles are carried away by acoustic streaming due to the high ultrasound pressure in the focused ultrasound field.

  7. Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.

  8. [Bowel ultrasound in Crohn's disease. Surgical importance].

    PubMed

    Maconi, G; Greco, S; Parente, F; Ardizzone, S; Sampietro, G M; Sartani, A; Danelli, P; Bianchi Porro, G

    2003-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in Crohns disease has a recent history. This method is useful in various situations like: the diagnosis of the disease, the diagnosis of intra-abdominal complications and the follow-up of the operated patient. Moreover, thanks to its practicality of use, ripetibility and accuracy, ultrasounds can represent a first line diagnostic instrument for Crohns disease both in elective and emergency conditions. The authors, in this paper, consider its usefulness and various aspects in these conditions. PMID:15206806

  9. Quality assurance tools for therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Schätzle, U; Reuner, T; Jenne, J; Heilingbrunner, A

    1998-02-01

    Compared to diagnostic ultrasound, special phantoms and measurement techniques for therapeutic ultrasound are still far from standardization. In the following article, the development of quality assurance (QA) tools for two therapy methods are described: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HiFU). The three consequent parts are QA tools in research and development, QA in clinical environment and standardization. For part one the computerized scanning with hydrophones, the use of Schlieren optics and sound force balances are state of the art. For clinical use the test procedures have to be simple so that routine checking of the equipment becomes convenient.

  10. Breast ultrasound scans - surgeons' expectations.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Piotr; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound- guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment.

  11. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  12. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Bradford J.; Yanof, J.; Frenkel, V.; Viswanathan, A.; Dromi, S.; Oh, K.; Kruecker, J.; Bauer, C.; Seip, R.; Kam, A.; Li, K. C. P.

    2006-05-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large

  13. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Bradford J.; Frenkel, V.; Viswanathan, A.; Dromi, S.; Oh, K.; Kam, A.; Li, K. C. P.; Yanof, J.; Bauer, C.; Kruecker, J.; Seip, R.

    2006-05-08

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large

  14. [A review on thoracic ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bussy, Sebastián; Labarca, Gonzalo; Lanza, Mario; Folch, Erik; Majid, Adnan

    2016-07-01

    The use of thoracic ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in the emergency department, intensive care unit or in patients with pulmonary diseases is increasing steadily. It is used to guide percutaneous tracheostomies, to assess pleural effusions, to rule out pneumothorax, and to guide the placement of endovascular and pleural catheters. It is also useful in the assessment of patients with dyspnea. The aim of this review is to provide the practical and technical basics for the use of this diagnostic tool among internists and specialists in pulmonary diseases. PMID:27661554

  15. Design of the radiation shielding for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Du, T. F.; Chen, Z. J.; Peng, X. Y.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, X.; Hu, Z. M.; Cui, Z. Q.; Xie, X. F.; Ge, L. J.; Li, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.; Chen, J. X.; Fan, T. S.; Gorini, G.; Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.

    2014-11-15

    A radiation shielding has been designed to reduce scattered neutrons and background gamma-rays for the new double-ring Time Of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics (TOFED). The shielding was designed based on simulation with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. Dedicated model of the EAST tokamak has been developed together with the emission neutron source profile and spectrum; the latter were simulated with the Nubeam and GENESIS codes. Significant reduction of background radiation at the detector can be achieved and this satisfies the requirement of TOFED. The intensities of the scattered and direct neutrons in the line of sight of the TOFED neutron spectrometer at EAST are studied for future data interpretation.

  16. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, C. P.; Sherman, M. H.; Walker, I. S.; Dickerhoff, D. J.; Federspiel, C. C.

    2008-09-01

    The performance of air-handling systems in buildings needs to be improved. Many of the deficiencies result from myths and lore and a lack of understanding about the non-linear physical principles embedded in the associated technologies. By incorporating these principles, a few important efforts related to diagnostics and controls have already begun to solve some of the problems. This paper illustrates three novel solutions: one rapidly assesses duct leakage, the second configures ad hoc duct-static-pressure reset strategies, and the third identifies useful intermittent ventilation strategies. By highlighting these efforts, this paper seeks to stimulate new research and technology developments that could further improve air-handling systems.

  17. Design of the radiation shielding for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Du, T F; Chen, Z J; Peng, X Y; Yuan, X; Zhang, X; Gorini, G; Nocente, M; Tardocchi, M; Hu, Z M; Cui, Z Q; Xie, X F; Ge, L J; Hu, L Q; Zhong, G Q; Lin, S Y; Wan, B N; Li, X Q; Zhang, G H; Chen, J X; Fan, T S

    2014-11-01

    A radiation shielding has been designed to reduce scattered neutrons and background gamma-rays for the new double-ring Time Of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics (TOFED). The shielding was designed based on simulation with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. Dedicated model of the EAST tokamak has been developed together with the emission neutron source profile and spectrum; the latter were simulated with the Nubeam and GENESIS codes. Significant reduction of background radiation at the detector can be achieved and this satisfies the requirement of TOFED. The intensities of the scattered and direct neutrons in the line of sight of the TOFED neutron spectrometer at EAST are studied for future data interpretation.

  18. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  19. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Han, H. W.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Orozco, D.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, a D-T neutron source and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The ion accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products through acceleration of D ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. The D-T neutron source generates up to 6 × 108 neutrons/s. The two x-ray generators produce spectra with peak energies of 35 keV and 225 keV and maximum dose rates of 0.5 Gy/min and 12 Gy/min, respectively. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  20. Utility and Potential of Bedside Ultrasound in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Dhamija, Ekta; Thulkar, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound is an important tool in modern palliative care practice. It can be utilized for rapid diagnostic evaluation or as an image guidance to perform invasive therapeutic procedures. With advent of portable ultrasound machines, it can also be used in community or home care settings, apart from palliative care wards. Major applications of bedside ultrasound include drainage of malignant pleural effusions and ascites, nerve blocks, venous access, evaluation of urinary obstruction, deep vein thrombosis and abscesses. Bedside ultrasound leads to better clinical decision-making as well as more accurate and faster invasive therapeutic procedures. It also enhances patient comfort and reduces cost burden. However, use of bedside ultrasound is still not widespread among palliative care givers, owing to initial cost, lack of basic training in ultrasound and apprehensions about its use. A team approach involving radiologists is important to develop integration of bedside ultrasound in palliative care. PMID:26009664

  1. Ultrasound Imaging of the Hepatobiliary System and Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Larson, Martha Moon

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound is an extremely valuable diagnostic modality for the diagnosis of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease. Normal appearance and normal variations are important to understand to avoid misinterpretation. Although ultrasound can identify a lesion, cytology and histopathology are usually needed for a final diagnosis.

  2. [Comprehensive ultrasound diagnosis of orbital tumors and preudotumors].

    PubMed

    Aznabaev, M T; Gabdrakhmanova, A F; Gaĭsina, G F

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive ultrasound examination was made in 37 patients with orbital tumors and pseudotumors. The basic differential diagnostic sonographic and Doppler signs were defined in capillary hemangioma, vasculitis at the stage of infiltration and malignancies of the orbit.

  3. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation (brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry. PMID:25349663

  4. Applications of endoscopic ultrasound in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Leticia Perondi; Al-Haddad, Mohammad Ali; Sey, Michael Sai Lai; DeWitt, John M

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS has assumed a growing role in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The objective of this review is to discuss the various applications of EUS and EUS-FNA in PDAC. Initially, its use for detection, diagnosis and staging will be described. EUS and EUS-FNA are highly accurate modalities for detection and diagnosis of PDAC, this high accuracy, however, is decreased in specific situations particularly in the presence of chronic pancreatitis. Novel techniques such as contrast-enhanced EUS, elastography and analysis of DNA markers such as k-ras mutation analysis in FNA samples are in progress and might improve the accuracy of EUS in the detection of PDAC in this setting and will be addressed. EUS and EUS-FNA have recently evolved from a diagnostic to a therapeutic technique in the management of PDAC. Significant developments in therapeutic EUS have occurred including advances in celiac plexus interventions with direct injection of ganglia and improved pain control, EUS-guided fiducial and brachytherapy seed placement, fine-needle injection of intra-tumoral agents and advances in EUS-guided biliary drainage. The future role of EUS and EUS in management of PDAC is still emerging. PMID:24976719

  5. Applications of endoscopic ultrasound in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Luz, Leticia Perondi; Al-Haddad, Mohammad Ali; Sey, Michael Sai Lai; DeWitt, John M

    2014-06-28

    Since the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS has assumed a growing role in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The objective of this review is to discuss the various applications of EUS and EUS-FNA in PDAC. Initially, its use for detection, diagnosis and staging will be described. EUS and EUS-FNA are highly accurate modalities for detection and diagnosis of PDAC, this high accuracy, however, is decreased in specific situations particularly in the presence of chronic pancreatitis. Novel techniques such as contrast-enhanced EUS, elastography and analysis of DNA markers such as k-ras mutation analysis in FNA samples are in progress and might improve the accuracy of EUS in the detection of PDAC in this setting and will be addressed. EUS and EUS-FNA have recently evolved from a diagnostic to a therapeutic technique in the management of PDAC. Significant developments in therapeutic EUS have occurred including advances in celiac plexus interventions with direct injection of ganglia and improved pain control, EUS-guided fiducial and brachytherapy seed placement, fine-needle injection of intra-tumoral agents and advances in EUS-guided biliary drainage. The future role of EUS and EUS in management of PDAC is still emerging.

  6. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  7. Advanced development of particle-beam-probe diagnostic systems. Technical progress report, 1 July 1980-30 April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; Connor, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    The heavy ion beam probe system on the RENTOR tokamak has been reinstalled with considerably improved performance. The heavy neutral beam probe system on the ALEX baseball facility has demonstrated the capability of measuring space potential in minimum-B geometry. A large amount of data were obtained from the highly successful TMX beam probe system and are presently being analyzed. Technological improvements were made on both the RENTOR and ALEX diagnostic systems, new ion sources and extraction configurations were investigated, and the superiority of off-line processing techniques for beam probe data has been demonstrated. The development of high energy probing beams for application to major confinement experiments has been initiated and cross-over sweep systems to improve spatial resolution, differential pumping, and reduce energy requirements have been designed.

  8. Upgrade of Langmuir probe diagnostic in ITER-like tungsten mono-block divertor on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. C.; Wang, L.; Xu, G. S.; Luo, G. N.; Yao, D. M.; Li, Q.; Cao, L.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, H. Q.; Jia, M. N.; Feng, W.; Deng, G. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J.; Sun, Y. W.; Guo, H. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to withstand rapid increase in particle and power impact onto the divertor and demonstrate the feasibility of the ITER design under long pulse operation, the upper divertor of the EAST tokamak has been upgraded to actively water-cooled, ITER-like tungsten mono-block structure since the 2014 campaign, which is the first attempt for ITER on the tokamak devices. Therefore, a new divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system (DivLP) was designed and successfully upgraded on the tungsten divertor to obtain the plasma parameters in the divertor region such as electron temperature, electron density, particle and heat fluxes. More specifically, two identical triple probe arrays have been installed at two ports of different toroidal positions (112.5-deg separated toroidally), which can provide fundamental data to study the toroidal asymmetry of divertor power deposition and related 3-dimension (3D) physics, as induced by resonant magnetic perturbations, lower hybrid wave, and so on. The shape of graphite tip and fixed structure of the probe are designed according to the structure of the upper tungsten divertor. The ceramic support, small graphite tip, and proper connector installed make it possible to be successfully installed in the very narrow interval between the cassette body and tungsten mono-block, i.e., 13.5 mm. It was demonstrated during the 2014 and 2015 commissioning campaigns that the newly upgraded divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system is successful. Representative experimental data are given and discussed for the DivLP measurements, then proving its availability and reliability.

  9. Upgrade of Langmuir probe diagnostic in ITER-like tungsten mono-block divertor on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Xu, J C; Wang, L; Xu, G S; Luo, G N; Yao, D M; Li, Q; Cao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, W; Liu, S C; Wang, H Q; Jia, M N; Feng, W; Deng, G Z; Hu, L Q; Wan, B N; Li, J; Sun, Y W; Guo, H Y

    2016-08-01

    In order to withstand rapid increase in particle and power impact onto the divertor and demonstrate the feasibility of the ITER design under long pulse operation, the upper divertor of the EAST tokamak has been upgraded to actively water-cooled, ITER-like tungsten mono-block structure since the 2014 campaign, which is the first attempt for ITER on the tokamak devices. Therefore, a new divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system (DivLP) was designed and successfully upgraded on the tungsten divertor to obtain the plasma parameters in the divertor region such as electron temperature, electron density, particle and heat fluxes. More specifically, two identical triple probe arrays have been installed at two ports of different toroidal positions (112.5-deg separated toroidally), which can provide fundamental data to study the toroidal asymmetry of divertor power deposition and related 3-dimension (3D) physics, as induced by resonant magnetic perturbations, lower hybrid wave, and so on. The shape of graphite tip and fixed structure of the probe are designed according to the structure of the upper tungsten divertor. The ceramic support, small graphite tip, and proper connector installed make it possible to be successfully installed in the very narrow interval between the cassette body and tungsten mono-block, i.e., 13.5 mm. It was demonstrated during the 2014 and 2015 commissioning campaigns that the newly upgraded divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system is successful. Representative experimental data are given and discussed for the DivLP measurements, then proving its availability and reliability. PMID:27587120

  10. Upgrade of Langmuir probe diagnostic in ITER-like tungsten mono-block divertor on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Xu, J C; Wang, L; Xu, G S; Luo, G N; Yao, D M; Li, Q; Cao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, W; Liu, S C; Wang, H Q; Jia, M N; Feng, W; Deng, G Z; Hu, L Q; Wan, B N; Li, J; Sun, Y W; Guo, H Y

    2016-08-01

    In order to withstand rapid increase in particle and power impact onto the divertor and demonstrate the feasibility of the ITER design under long pulse operation, the upper divertor of the EAST tokamak has been upgraded to actively water-cooled, ITER-like tungsten mono-block structure since the 2014 campaign, which is the first attempt for ITER on the tokamak devices. Therefore, a new divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system (DivLP) was designed and successfully upgraded on the tungsten divertor to obtain the plasma parameters in the divertor region such as electron temperature, electron density, particle and heat fluxes. More specifically, two identical triple probe arrays have been installed at two ports of different toroidal positions (112.5-deg separated toroidally), which can provide fundamental data to study the toroidal asymmetry of divertor power deposition and related 3-dimension (3D) physics, as induced by resonant magnetic perturbations, lower hybrid wave, and so on. The shape of graphite tip and fixed structure of the probe are designed according to the structure of the upper tungsten divertor. The ceramic support, small graphite tip, and proper connector installed make it possible to be successfully installed in the very narrow interval between the cassette body and tungsten mono-block, i.e., 13.5 mm. It was demonstrated during the 2014 and 2015 commissioning campaigns that the newly upgraded divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system is successful. Representative experimental data are given and discussed for the DivLP measurements, then proving its availability and reliability.

  11. MRI Compatible Ultrasound Transducers for Simultaneous Acquisition of Coregistered Ultrasound to MRI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speicher, Daniel; Bartscherer, T.; Becker, F. J.; Jenne, J. W.; Mrosk, K.; Degel, C.; Günther, M.; Tretbar, S.

    Magnetic resonance imaging has become an important part of radiological diagnostics as it shows high resolution volumes of human tissue without any radiation exposure. Beside the high costs for MR imaging the greatest disadvantage of this technology is that it is not real-time capable which leads to possible motion artifacts. Whereas Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic tool in radiology as it is real-time capable and cost effective. Therefore a combination of both modalities is obvious, not only to reduce motion artifacts in MR imaging but to save costs by reducing time in the MR scanner through coregistering ultrasound and MR images for deformation analysis. This work presents the manufacturing and measurement results of MR compatible ultrasound transducers for motion compensation and deformation analyses for clinical interventions under MRI conditions, based on ultrasound volumes acquired by a full MR compatible 180° rotating 8 MHz phased array.

  12. Nonlinear Acoustics in Ultrasound Metrology and other Selected Applications.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    A succinct background explaining why, initially, both the scientific community and industry were skeptical about the existence of the nonlinear (NL) wave propagation in tissue will be given and the design of an adequately wideband piezoelectric polymer hydrophone probe that was eventually used to verify that the 1-5 MHz probing wave then used in diagnostic ultrasound imaging was undergoing nonlinear distortion and generated harmonics in tissue will be discussed. The far-reaching implications of the advent of the piezoelectric PVDF polymer material will be reviewed and the advances in ultrasound metrology prompted by the regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) will be presented. These advances include the development of absolute calibration techniques for hydrophones along with the methods of accounting for spatial averaging corrections up to 100 MHz and the development of "point-receiver" hydrophone probes utilizing acousto-optic sensors. Next, selected therapeutic applications of nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU), including lithotripters will be briefly discussed. Also, the use of shock waves as pain relief tool and in abating penicillin resistant bacteria that develop rock hard "biofilm" that can be shattered by the finite amplitude wave will also be mentioned. The growing applications of NLU in cosmetic industry where it is used for redistribution and reduction of fatty tissue within the body will be briefly reviewed, and, finally, selected examples of NLU applications in retail and entertainment industry will also be pointed out.

  13. Nonlinear Acoustics in Ultrasound Metrology and other Selected Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    A succinct background explaining why, initially, both the scientific community and industry were skeptical about the existence of the nonlinear (NL) wave propagation in tissue will be given and the design of an adequately wideband piezoelectric polymer hydrophone probe that was eventually used to verify that the 1-5 MHz probing wave then used in diagnostic ultrasound imaging was undergoing nonlinear distortion and generated harmonics in tissue will be discussed. The far-reaching implications of the advent of the piezoelectric PVDF polymer material will be reviewed and the advances in ultrasound metrology prompted by the regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) will be presented. These advances include the development of absolute calibration techniques for hydrophones along with the methods of accounting for spatial averaging corrections up to 100 MHz and the development of “point-receiver” hydrophone probes utilizing acousto-optic sensors. Next, selected therapeutic applications of nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU), including lithotripters will be briefly discussed. Also, the use of shock waves as pain relief tool and in abating penicillin resistant bacteria that develop rock hard “biofilm” that can be shattered by the finite amplitude wave will also be mentioned. The growing applications of NLU in cosmetic industry where it is used for redistribution and reduction of fatty tissue within the body will be briefly reviewed, and, finally, selected examples of NLU applications in retail and entertainment industry will also be pointed out. PMID:21472037

  14. Nonlinear acoustics in ultrasound metrology and other selected applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    A succinct background explaining why, initially, both the scientific community and industry were skeptical about the existence of the nonlinear (NL) wave propagation in tissue will be given and the design of an adequately wideband piezoelectric polymer hydrophone probe that was eventually used to verify that the 1-5 MHz probing wave then used in diagnostic ultrasound imaging was undergoing nonlinear distortion and generated harmonics in tissue will be discussed. The far-reaching implications of the advent of the piezoelectric PVDF polymer material will be reviewed and the advances in ultrasound metrology prompted by the regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) will be presented. These advances include the development of absolute calibration techniques for hydrophones along with the methods of accounting for spatial averaging corrections up to 100 MHz and the development of 'point-receiver' hydrophone probes utilizing acousto-optic sensors. Next, selected therapeutic applications of nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU), including lithotripters will be briefly discussed. Also, the use of shock waves as pain relief tool and in abating penicillin resistant bacteria that develop rock hard 'biofilm' that can be shattered by the finite amplitude wave will also be mentioned. The growing applications of NLU in cosmetic industry where it is used for redistribution and reduction of fatty tissue within the body will be briefly reviewed, and, finally, selected examples of NLU applications in retail and entertainment industry will also be pointed out.

  15. Emerging non-cancer applications of therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound therapy has been investigated for over half a century. Ultrasound can act on tissue through a variety of mechanisms, including thermal, shockwave and cavitation mechanisms, and through these can elicit different responses. Ultrasound therapy can provide a non-invasive or minimally invasive treatment option, and ultrasound technology has advanced to the point where devices can be developed to investigate a wide range of applications. This review focuses on non-cancer clinical applications of therapeutic ultrasound, with an emphasis on treatments that have recently reached clinical investigations, and preclinical research programmes that have great potential to impact patient care.

  16. Diagnostic and therapeutic issues for patients with advanced non‑small cell lung cancer harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement: European vs. US perspective (review).

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Massimo; De Marinis, Filippo; Hirsch, Fred R; Gridelli, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The recent availability of crizotinib in clinical practice, for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by the presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement, has relevant implications for both the diagnostic phase and the treatment choices. In the United States, crizotinib was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for patients with ALK positivity detected by FDA-approved companion diagnostic test. As of January, 2014, the only FDA-approved diagnostic test is Vysis ALK Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit. In Europe, European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved crizotinib for ALK-positive patients in 2012, without specifying the type of test used for determining the positivity. FISH remains the reference technique for ALK determination, but, if fully validated, immunohistochemistry could challenge the current ALK screening practice. Given the robust evidence of activity of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients both pretreated and chemotherapy-naïve, and the favourable tolerability profile of the drug, many oncologists would prefer to administer the drug as early as possible. This is technically feasible in the United States, where crizotinib was approved well before the availability of the results of the randomized phase III trial comparing the drug with standard second-line chemotherapy, and the use of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients is not restricted to a specific line of treatment. On the contrary, in Europe, differently from the FDA decision, crizotinib cannot be used in chemotherapy-naïve patients. In both realities, a deeper knowledge of mechanisms of resistance, the role of repeated biopsies, the treatment strategy for patients experiencing disease progression with crizotinib, the choice of the best chemotherapy regimen are challenging topics for the management of ALK-positive patients in clinical practice.

  17. Ultrasound: from Earth to space.

    PubMed

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul B

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically isolated populations and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. While ultrasound has traditionally been used in spaceflight to study anatomical and physiological adaptations to microgravity and evaluate countermeasures, recent years have seen a growth of applications adapted from terrestrial techniques. Terrestrial, remote, and space applications for ultrasound are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Ultrasound: From Earth to Space

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically isolated populations and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. While ultrasound has traditionally been used in spaceflight to study anatomical and physiological adaptations to microgravity and evaluate countermeasures, recent years have seen a growth of applications adapted from terrestrial techniques. Terrestrial, remote, and space applications for ultrasound are reviewed in this paper. PMID:22399873

  19. Point-of-care lung ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Volpicelli, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Point-of-care lung ultrasound represents an emerging and useful technique in the management of pulmonary diseases. For many years, thoracic ultrasonography was limited to the study of pleural effusion and thoracic superficial masses because alveolar air and bones of the thoracic cage limit the propagation of the ultrasound beam. Only recently has been highlighted that, by the fact, lung ultrasound works like a real densitometer that is highly sensitive to variations of the pulmonary content and balance between air and fluids. Dynamic and static analysis of a combination of sonographic artifacts and real images makes it possible an accurate diagnosis of many lung disorders, particularly when lung ultrasound is applied in the emergency and critical care setting. Sonography is useful in the diagnostic process of lung diseases where the alveolar air is reduced and interstitial fluids are increased, but also when air or fluids are collected in the pleural space. This article analyzes the basic principles of point-of-care lung ultrasound and all the supposed limitations to the diagnostic usefulness of this technique. Moreover, the article reviews the three main fields of application for lung ultrasound: interstitial, alveolar and pleural syndromes.

  20. Fast imaging diagnostics on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P.; Knapp, K.; Cordero, M.; Patel, V.

    2016-11-01

    The C-2U device employed neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. As part of the diagnostic suite, two fast imaging instruments with radial and nearly axial plasma views were developed using a common camera platform. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses were mounted behind re-entrant viewports attached to welded bellows. During gettering, the vacuum optics were retracted and isolated behind a gate valve permitting their removal if cleaning was necessary. The axial view incorporated a stainless-steel mirror in a protective cap assembly attached to the vacuum-side of the viewport. For each system, a custom lens-based, high-throughput optical periscope was designed to relay the plasma image about half a meter to a high-speed camera. Each instrument also contained a remote-controlled filter wheel, set between shots to isolate a particular hydrogen or impurity emission line. The design of the camera platform, imaging performance, and sample data for each view is presented.

  1. Neuromuscular ultrasound findings in polyneuropathy secondary to disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Stone, Sarah L; Cartwright, Michael S; Panea, Oana R; Vann, Ryan C; Magruder, John L; Walker, Francis O

    2014-12-01

    Disulfiram toxicity can cause multiple neurologic problems, including a reversible distal sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Although electrodiagnosis and biopsy results have been described in the diagnosis and management of patients with disulfiram associated polyneuropathy, neuromuscular ultrasound findings have not been reported. The authors present a case of electrodiagnostically confirmed axonal polyneuropathy with relative sural sparing secondary to disulfiram and describe the neuromuscular ultrasound findings in this individual. Ultrasound demonstrated distal enlargement with slight side-to-side asymmetry and normal proximal cross-sectional area in the lower extremity nerves. Neuromuscular ultrasound is another diagnostic modality that may be used to assist in the diagnosis of patients with polyneuropathy secondary to disulfiram.

  2. Clinical application of modern ultrasound techniques after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Teegen, Eva Maria; Denecke, Timm; Eisele, Robert; Lojewski, Christian; Neuhaus, Peter; Chopra, Sascha Santosh

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation has been established as a first-line therapy for a number of indications. Conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are methods of choice during the postoperative period as a safe and fast tool to detect potential complications and to enable early intervention if necessary. CEUS increases diagnostic quality and is an appropriate procedure for the examination of vessels and possibly bile ducts. This article presents the state of the art of ultrasound application during the early period after liver transplantation. It addresses common vascular complications and describes the identification of postoperative abnormal findings using ultrasound and CEUS.

  3. Recent advances in the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a rapid point-of-care pathogen diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehse, Steven J.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2012-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has made tremendous progress in becoming a viable technology for rapid bacterial pathogen detection and identification. The significant advantages of LIBS include speed (< 1 sec analysis), portability, robustness, lack of consumables, little to no need for sample preparation, lack of genetic amplification, and the ability to identify all bacterial pathogens without bias (including spore-forms and viable but nonculturable specimens). In this manuscript, we present the latest advances achieved in LIBS-based bacterial sensing including the ability to uniquely identify species from more than five bacterial genera with high-sensitivity and specificity. Bacterial identifications are completely unaffected by environment, nutrition media, or state of growth and accurate diagnoses can be made on autoclaved or UV-irradiated specimens. Efficient discrimination of bacteria at the strain level has been demonstrated. A rapid urinary tract infection diagnosis has been simulated with no sample preparation and a one second diagnosis of a pathogen surrogate has been demonstrated using advanced chemometric analysis with a simple "stop-light" user interface. Stand-off bacterial identification at a 20-m distance has been demonstrated on a field-portable instrument. This technology could be implemented in doctors' offices, clinics, or hospital laboratories for point-of-care medical specimen analysis; mounted on military medical robotic platforms for in-the- field diagnostics; or used in stand-off configuration for remote sensing and detection.

  4. Fuel Injector Patternation Evaluation in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors, Using Nonintrusive Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three diverse fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. Further comparison is also made for one injector with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  5. MicroRNA-based diagnostic tools for advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C

    PubMed Central

    Appourchaux, Kevin; Dokmak, Safi; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Treton, Xavier; Lapalus, Martine; Gattolliat, Charles-Henry; Porchet, Emmanuelle; Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Boyer, Nathalie; Vidaud, Michel; Bedossa, Pierre; Marcellin, Patrick; Bièche, Ivan; Estrabaud, Emilie; Asselah, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Staging fibrosis is crucial for the prognosis and to determine the rapid need of treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and C (CHC). The expression of 13 fibrosis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-20a, miR-21, miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-29a, miR-29c, miR-92a, miR-122, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-224) was analyzed in 194 serums and 177 liver biopsies of patients with either CHB or CHC to develop models to diagnose advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis (Metavir F3-F4). In CHB patients, the model (serum miR-122, serum miR-222, platelet count and alkaline phosphatase) was more accurate than APRI and FIB-4 to discriminate in between mild and moderate fibrosis (F1-F2) and F3-F4 (AUC of CHB model: 0.85 vs APRI: 0.70 and FIB-4: 0.81). In CHC patients, the model (hepatic miR-122, hepatic miR-224, platelet count, albumin and alanine aminotransferase) was more accurate than both APRI and FIB-4 to discriminate in between patients with F3-F4 and F1-F2 (AUC of the CHC model = 0.93 vs APRI: 0.86 and FIB-4: 0.79). Most of the miRNAs tested were differentially expressed in patients with CHB and CHC. In particular, serum miR-122 was 28-fold higher in patients with CHB than in those with CHC. Both CHB and CHC models may help for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis (F3-F4). PMID:27731343

  6. Therapeutic ultrasound for dental tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Scheven, B A A; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R; Walmsley, A D; Smith, A J

    2009-10-01

    Dental disease affects human health and the quality of life of millions worldwide. Tooth decay (caries) and diseases of the dental pulp result in loss of tooth vitality and function requiring invasive treatment to restore the tooth to health. "Therapeutic" low intensity pulsed ultrasound has been shown to accelerate bone fracture healing indicating that ultrasound may be used as a tool to facilitate hard tissue regeneration. We have shown recently that low frequency ultrasound is able to exert biological effects on odontoblast-like cells. In this paper, we postulate that low frequency, low intensity ultrasound may stimulate endogenous coronal tooth repair by stimulating dentine formation from existing odontoblasts or by activating dental pulp stem cells to differentiate into new reparative dentine-producing cells. Ultrasound therapy promoting dentine formation and repair may also have the potential benefit of alleviating dentine hypersensitivity by inducing occlusion of dentinal tubules. It is envisaged that therapeutic ultrasound may be used in future to facilitate dental tissue engineering and stem cell therapy applications for dental tissue regeneration. Further research is warranted in this clinically important area and we envisage that novel strategies in dental therapy will be realised that may ultimately lead to the development of novel non-invasive, multifunctional ultrasound devices for dental diagnostics, repair and regeneration.

  7. Comparison of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis and follow-up of joint lesions in patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Sierra Aisa, C; Lucía Cuesta, J F; Rubio Martínez, A; Fernández Mosteirín, N; Iborra Muñoz, A; Abío Calvete, M; Guillén Gómez, M; Moretó Quintana, A; Rubio Félix, D

    2014-01-01

    Haematomas and recurrent haemarthroses are a common problem in haemophilia patients from early age. Early diagnosis is critical in preventing haemophilic arthritis, and recent years have seen excellent advances in musculoskeletal ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in soft tissue lesions. In this study, we compared the results of ultrasound imaging for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal injuries in haemophilia patients with scores obtained using magnetic resonance (MRI) scans. A total of 61 haemophilia patients aged 4-82 years were included in this study. Both knees and ankles of each patient were assessed using the Gilbert (clinical assessment) and Pettersson scores (X-ray assessment). Patients with severe haemophilia (n = 30) were examined using ultrasound and MRI (Denver scoring system). Results obtained with ultrasound and MRI in severe patients were correlated using the Pearson test. In patients with severe haemophilia, normal joints were similarly assessed with MRI and ultrasound (κ = 1.000). By component of joint assessment, haemarthrosis was similarly diagnosed with both techniques in all joints (κ = 1.000). A good positive correlation was found between these techniques in detecting and locating synovial hyperplasia (κ = 0.839-1.000, knees and ankles respectively), and erosion of margins (κ = 0.850-1.000). The presence of bone cysts or cartilage loss was better detected with MRI (κ = 0.643-0.552 for knees and ankles, and κ = 0.643-0.462 respectively). Ultrasound is useful in detecting joint bleeds, synovial hyperplasia and joint erosions, with results comparable to those of MRI. A quick and affordable technique, ultrasound imaging may be useful for monitoring joint bleeds and structure normalization and maintenance in routine practice.

  8. Collagen and chondrocyte concentrations control ultrasound scattering in agarose scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Inkinen, S; Liukkonen, J; Ylärinne, J H; Puhakka, P H; Lammi, M J; Virén, T; Jurvelin, J S; Töyräs, J

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound imaging has been proposed for diagnostics of osteoarthritis and cartilage injuries in vivo. However, the specific contribution of chondrocytes and collagen to ultrasound scattering in articular cartilage has not been systematically studied. We investigated the role of these tissue structures by measuring ultrasound scattering in agarose scaffolds with varying collagen and chondrocyte concentrations. Ultrasound catheters with center frequencies of 9 MHz (7.1-11.0 MHz, -6 dB) and 40 MHz (30.1-45.3 MHz, -6 dB) were applied using an intravascular ultrasound device. Ultrasound backscattering quantified in a region of interest starting right below sample surface differed significantly (p < 0.05) with the concentrations of collagen and chondrocytes. An ultrasound frequency of 40 MHz, as compared with 9 MHz, was more sensitive to variations in collagen and chondrocyte concentrations. The present findings may improve diagnostic interpretation of arthroscopic ultrasound imaging and provide information necessary for development of models describing ultrasound propagation within cartilage. PMID:24972499

  9. Using light scattering to measure the response of individual ultrasound contrast microbubbles subjected to pulsed ultrasound in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jingfeng; Matula, Thomas J

    2004-11-01

    Light scattering was used to measure the radial pulsations of individual ultrasound contrast microbubbles subjected to pulsed ultrasound. Highly diluted Optison or Sonazoid microbubbles were injected into either a water bath or an aqueous solution containing small quantities of xanthan gum. Individual microbubbles were insonified by ultrasound pulses from either a commercial diagnostic ultrasound machine or a single element transducer. The instantaneous response curves of the microbubbles were measured. Linear and nonlinear microbubble oscillations were observed. Good agreement was obtained by fitting a bubble dynamics model to the data. The pulse-to-pulse evolution of individual microbubbles was investigated, the results of which suggest that the shell can be semipermeable, and possibly weaken with subsequent pulses. There is a high potential that light scattering can be used to optimize diagnostic ultrasound techniques, understand microbubble evolution, and obtain specific information about shell parameters. PMID:15603131

  10. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ponsaing, Laura Graves; Kiss, Katalin; Loft, Annika; Jensen, Lise Ingemann; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally. Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined. Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools. PMID:17659668

  11. Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Osman, Adi; Sum, Kok Meng

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies. Widespread POCUS awareness, better technological advancements, portability, and availability of ultrasound in most critical areas facilitate upper airway ultrasound to become the potential first-line non-invasive airway assessment tool in the future. PMID:27529028

  12. Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Osman, Adi; Sum, Kok Meng

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies. Widespread POCUS awareness, better technological advancements, portability, and availability of ultrasound in most critical areas facilitate upper airway ultrasound to become the potential first-line non-invasive airway assessment tool in the future.

  13. Advances in Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma potential and electron-energy distribution function in magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Tsv K.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Kovačič, J.; Gyergyek, T.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Pedrosa, M. A.; López-Bruna, D.; Hidalgo, C.

    2016-06-01

    Advanced Langmuir probe techniques for evaluating the plasma potential and electron-energy distribution function (EEDF) in magnetized plasma are reviewed. It is shown that when the magnetic field applied is very weak and the electrons reach the probe without collisions in the probe sheath the second-derivative Druyvesteyn formula can be used for EEDF evaluation. At low values of the magnetic field, an extended second-derivative Druyvesteyn formula yields reliable results, while at higher values of the magnetic field, the first-derivative probe technique is applicable for precise evaluation of the plasma potential and the EEDF. There is an interval of intermediate values of the magnetic field when both techniques—the extended second-derivative and the first-derivative one—can be used. Experimental results from probe measurements in different ranges of magnetic field are reviewed and discussed: low-pressure argon gas discharges in the presence of a magnetic field in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 T, probe measurements in circular hydrogen plasmas for high-temperature fusion (magnetic fields from 0.45 T to 1.3 T) in small ISTTOK and CASTOR tokamaks, D-shape COMPASS tokamak plasmas, as well as in the TJ-II stellarator. In the vicinity of the last closed flux surface (LCFS) in tokamaks and in the TJ-II stellarator, the EEDF obtained is found to be bi-Maxwellian, while close to the tokamak chamber wall it is Maxwellian. The mechanism of the appearance of a bi-Maxwellian EEDF in the vicinity of the LCFS is discussed. Comparison of the results from probe measurements with those obtained from calculations using the ASTRA and EIRENE codes shows that the main reason for the appearance of a bi-Maxwellian EEDF in the vicinity of the LCFS is the ionization of the neutral atoms.

  14. [Novel dianostics and therapeutics with ultrasound technologies and nanotechnologies].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Omata, Daiki; Sawaguchi, Yoshikazu; Negishi, Yoichi; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is a good tool for theranostics due to have multi-potency both of diagnostics with sonography and therapeutics with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). In addition, microbubbles and nanobubbles are utilized as not only contrast imaging agent but also enhancer of drug and gene delivery by combination of ultrasound. Recently, we developed novel liposomal nanobubbles (Bubble liposomes) which were containing perfluoropropane. Bubble liposomes induced jet stream by low intensity ultrasound exposure and resulted in enhancing permeability of cell membrane. This phenomenon has been utilized as driving force for drug and gene delivery. On the other hand, the combination of Bubble liposomes and high intensity ultrasound induces strong jet stream and increase temperature. This condition can directly damage to tumor cells, we are applying this for cancer therapy. Therefore, their combination has potency for various cancer therapies such as gene therapy, immunotherapy and hyperthermia. In this review, we discuss about cancer therapy by the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound.

  15. Sound sight: seeing with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Monika; Jensen, Gloria

    2007-03-01

    Recent advances in medical imaging, information and communication technology promise to support medical visual practice as well as everyday healthcare experience. However, this potential is not easy to realize. A better understanding of existing practices can inform socio-technical innovation. We draw on ethnographic observations and our involvement in the design of 'palpable computing' to examine the use of ultrasound imaging technologies in consultations with pregnant women with a view to ideas and implications for socio-technical innovation. PMID:17296616

  16. New Methods and Transducer Designs for Ultrasonic Diagnostics and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybyanets, A. N.; Naumenko, A. A.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.; Khokhlova, V. A.

    Recent advances in the field of physical acoustics, imaging technologies, piezoelectric materials, and ultrasonic transducer design have led to emerging of novel methods and apparatus for ultrasonic diagnostics, therapy and body aesthetics. The paper presents the results on development and experimental study of different high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. Technological peculiarities of the HIFU transducer design as well as theoretical and numerical models of such transducers and the corresponding HIFU fields are discussed. Several HIFU transducers of different design have been fabricated using different advanced piezoelectric materials. Acoustic field measurements for those transducers have been performed using a calibrated fiber optic hydrophone and an ultrasonic measurement system (UMS). The results of ex vivo experiments with different tissues as well as in vivo experiments with blood vessels are presented that prove the efficacy, safety and selectivity of the developed HIFU transducers and methods.

  17. Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Robin O.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.

  18. Economic Evaluation of Companion Diagnostic Testing for EGFR Mutations and First-Line Targeted Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun-A; Bae, Eunmi; Lim, Jaeok; Shin, Young Kee; Choi, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background As targeted therapy becomes increasingly important, diagnostic techniques for identifying targeted biomarkers have also become an emerging issue. The study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treating patients as guided by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status compared with a no-testing strategy that is the current clinical practice in South Korea. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted to compare an EGFR mutation testing strategy with a no-testing strategy from the Korean healthcare payer’s perspective. The study population consisted of patients with stage 3b and 4 lung adenocarcinoma. A decision tree model was employed to select the appropriate treatment regimen according to the results of EGFR mutation testing and a Markov model was constructed to simulate disease progression of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The length of a Markov cycle was one month, and the time horizon was five years (60 cycles). Results In the base case analysis, the testing strategy was a dominant option. Quality-adjusted life-years gained (QALYs) were 0.556 and 0.635, and total costs were $23,952 USD and $23,334 USD in the no-testing and testing strategy respectively. The sensitivity analyses showed overall robust results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) increased when the number of patients to be treated with erlotinib increased, due to the high cost of erlotinib. Conclusion Treating advanced adenocarcinoma based on EGFR mutation status has beneficial effects and saves the cost compared to no testing strategy in South Korea. However, the cost-effectiveness of EGFR mutation testing was heavily affected by the cost-effectiveness of the targeted therapy. PMID:27483001

  19. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  20. WE-A-18C-01: Emerging and Innovative Ultrasound Technology in Diagnosis and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Emelianov, S; Oraevsky, A; Stafford, R

    2014-06-15

    The application of new ultrasound-based technologies in medicine has expanded in recent years. One area of rapid growth has been the combination of ultrasound with other methods of image generation and imaging modalities to produce hybrid approaches for diagnostic imaging and noninvasive therapeutic intervention. The presentations associated with this session will provide an overview of two emerging technologies that are currently being developed and implemented to enhance ultrasound-related diagnostic imaging and therapy: the utilization of optically-induced ultrasound imaging (optoacoustic / photoacoustic imaging) and the use of magnetic resonance imaging to guide the use of high-intensity focused ultrasound for therapeutic applications. Learning Objectives: Develop a general understanding of the underlying technologies associated with optoacoustic / photoacoustic tomography and MRguided high-intensity focused ultrasound. Develop an understanding of the current methods of these new ultrasound-based technologies in preclinical research and clinical applications.

  1. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    PubMed

    Streckfus, C F; Bigler, L R

    2002-03-01

    In the last 10 years, the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid has become somewhat of a translational research success story. Technologies are now available enabling saliva to be used to diagnose disease and predict disease progression. This review describes some important recent advances in salivary diagnostics and barriers to application and advancement. This review will also stimulate future research activity.

  2. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Pramoda; Suzuki, Rei; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Ramchandani, Mohan; Makmun, Dadang; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. The mortality rate remains high despite many advances in treatment. HCC is frequently diagnosed late in its course due to lack of classical symptoms at earlier stages. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool for the diagnostic evaluation, staging, and treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration has been a valuable addition to EUS by being able to obtain tissue under direct visualization. Here, we review the potential role of EUS in the diagnosis and management of HCC. EUS seems to be a safe and reliable alternative method for obtaining tissue for diagnosis of liver cancer, especially for lesions that are inaccessible by traditional methods. EUS could play an important role in the diagnosis and management of HCC. PMID:27508203

  3. Advanced diagnostic system for piston slap faults in IC engines, based on the non-stationary characteristics of the vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Randall, Robert Bond; Peeters, Bart

    2016-06-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have the potential to solve the problem of automated diagnostics of piston slap faults, but the critical issue for the successful application of ANN is the training of the network by a large amount of data in various engine conditions (different speed/load conditions in normal condition, and with different locations/levels of faults). On the other hand, the latest simulation technology provides a useful alternative in that the effect of clearance changes may readily be explored without recourse to cutting metal, in order to create enough training data for the ANNs. In this paper, based on some existing simplified models of piston slap, an advanced multi-body dynamic simulation software was used to simulate piston slap faults with different speeds/loads and clearance conditions. Meanwhile, the simulation models were validated and updated by a series of experiments. Three-stage network systems are proposed to diagnose piston faults: fault detection, fault localisation and fault severity identification. Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) networks were used in the detection stage and severity/prognosis stage and a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) was used to identify which cylinder has faults. Finally, it was demonstrated that the networks trained purely on simulated data can efficiently detect piston slap faults in real tests and identify the location and severity of the faults as well.

  4. [Diagnosis. Radiological study. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Because of its low cost, availability in primary care and ease of interpretation, simple X-ray should be the first-line imaging technique used by family physicians for the diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, this technique should only be used if there are sound indications and if the results will influence decision-making. Despite the increase of indications in patients with rheumatological disease, the role of ultrasound in patients with osteoarthritis continues to be limited. Computed tomography (CT) is of some -although limited- use in osteoarthritis, especially in the study of complex joints (such as the sacroiliac joint and facet joints). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has represented a major advance in the evaluation of joint cartilage and subchondral bone in patients with osteoarthritis but, because of its high cost and diagnostic-prognostic yield, this technique should only be used in highly selected patients. The indications for ultrasound, CT and MRI in patients with osteoarthritis continue to be limited in primary care and often coincide with situations in which the patient may require hospital referral. Patient safety should be bourne in mind. Patients should be protected from excessive ionizing radiation due to unnecessary repeat X-rays or inadequate views or to requests for tests such as CT, when not indicated.

  5. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-08-15

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  6. Introduction to ultrasound elastography

    PubMed Central

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    For centuries tissue palpation has been an important diagnostic tool. During palpation, tumors are felt as tissues harder than the surrounding tissues. The significance of palpation is related to the relationship between mechanical properties of different tissue lesions. The assessment of tissue stiffness through palpation is based on the fact that mechanical properties of tissues are changing as a result of various diseases. A higher tissue stiffness translates into a higher elasticity modulus. In the 90's, ultrasonography was extended by the option of examining the stiffness of tissue by estimating the difference in backscattering of ultrasound in compressed and non-compressed tissue. This modality is referred to as the static, compression elastography and is based on tracking the deformation of tissue subjected to the slowly varying compression through the recording of the backscattered echoes. The displacement is estimated using the methods of cross-correlation between consecutive ultrasonic lines of examined tissue, so calculating the degree of similarity of ultrasonic echoes acquired from tissue before and after the compression was applied. The next step in the development of ultrasound palpation was to apply the local remote tissue compression by using the acoustic radiation force generated through the special beam forming of the ultrasonic beam probing the tissue. The acoustic radiation force causes a slight deformation the tissue thereby forming a shear wave propagating in the tissue at different speeds dependent on the stiffness of the tissue. Shear wave elastography, carries great hopes in the field of quantitative imaging of tissue lesions. This article describes the physical basis of both elastographic methods: compression elastography and shear wave elastography. PMID:27446596

  7. Medical ultrasound - From inner space to outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last decade, medical ultrasound has rapidly become a widely accepted imaging modality used in many medical specialties. It has the advantages that it is noninvasive, does not use ionizing radiation, is relatively inexpensive and is easy to use. Future trends in ultrasound include expanded areas of use, advanced signal processing and digital image analysis including tissue characterization and three-dimensional reconstructions.

  8. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p < 0.0001) and a specificity of 67% (p < 0.0001). The strongest predictors of rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.004). Sonographic assessments of tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  9. Ultrasound-Propelled Nanocups for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, James J; Myers, Rachel; Coviello, Christian M; Graham, Susan M; Shah, Apurva R; Stride, Eleanor; Carlisle, Robert C; Coussios, Constantin C

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-induced bubble activity (cavitation) has been recently shown to actively transport and improve the distribution of therapeutic agents in tumors. However, existing cavitation-promoting agents are micron-sized and cannot sustain cavitation activity over prolonged time periods because they are rapidly destroyed upon ultrasound exposure. A novel ultrasound-responsive single-cavity polymeric nanoparticle (nanocup) capable of trapping and stabilizing gas against dissolution in the bloodstream is reported. Upon ultrasound exposure at frequencies and intensities achievable with existing diagnostic and therapeutic systems, nanocups initiate and sustain readily detectable cavitation activity for at least four times longer than existing microbubble constructs in an in vivo tumor model. As a proof-of-concept of their ability to enhance the delivery of unmodified therapeutics, intravenously injected nanocups are also found to improve the distribution of a freely circulating IgG mouse antibody when the tumor is exposed to ultrasound. Quantification of the delivery distance and concentration of both the nanocups and coadministered model therapeutic in an in vitro flow phantom shows that the ultrasound-propelled nanocups travel further than the model therapeutic, which is itself delivered to hundreds of microns from the vessel wall. Thus nanocups offer considerable potential for enhanced drug delivery and treatment monitoring in oncological and other biomedical applications. PMID:26296985

  10. Ethical analysis of non-medical fetal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Leung, John Lai Yin; Pang, Samantha Mei Che

    2009-09-01

    Obstetric ultrasound is the well-recognized prenatal test used to visualize and determine the condition of a pregnant woman and her fetus. Apart from the clinical application, some businesses have started promoting the use of fetal ultrasound machines for nonmedical reasons. Non-medical fetal ultrasound (also known as 'keepsake' ultrasound) is defined as using ultrasound to view, take a picture, or determine the sex of a fetus without a medical indication. Notwithstanding the guidelines and warnings regarding ultrasound safety issued by governments and professional bodies, the absence of scientifically proven physical harm to fetuses from this procedure seems to provide these businesses with grounds for rapid expansion. However, this argument is too simplistic because current epidemiological evidence is not synchronous with advancing ultrasound technology. As non-medical fetal ultrasound has aroused very significant public attention, a thorough ethical analysis of this topic is essential. Using a multifaceted approach, we analyse the ethical perspective of non-medical fetal ultrasound in terms of the expectant mother, the fetus and health professionals. After applying four major theories of ethics and principles (the precautionary principle; theories of consequentialism and impartiality; duty-based theory; and rights-based theories), we conclude that obstetric ultrasound practice is ethically justifiable only if the indication for its use is based on medical evidence. Non-medical fetal ultrasound can be considered ethically unjustifiable. Nevertheless, the ethical analysis of this issue is time dependent owing to rapid advancements in ultrasound technology and the safety issue. The role of health professionals in ensuring that obstetric ultrasound is an ethically justifiable practice is also discussed.

  11. Transvaginal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a method of imaging the genital tract in females. A hand held probe is inserted directly ... vaginal cavity to scan the pelvic structures, while ultrasound pictures are viewed on a monitor. The test ...

  12. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  13. Comparison of Thresholds for Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Pulsed-wave and B-mode Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed ultrasound was found to induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in mice about 25 years ago but remains a poorly understood risk factor for pulmonary diagnostic ultrasound. In early research using laboratory fixed beam ultrasound, thresholds for PCH had frequency variation from 1–4 MHz similar to the Mechanical Index. In recent research, thresholds for B mode diagnostic ultrasound from 1.5–12 MHz had little dependence on frequency. To compare the diagnostic ultrasound method to laboratory pulsed exposure, thresholds for fixed beam ultrasound were determined using comparable methods at 1.5 and 7.5 MHz. PCH thresholds were lower for simple fixed-beam pulse modes than for B mode and in approximate agreement with early research. However, for comparable timing parameters, PCH thresholds had little dependence on ultrasonic frequency. These findings suggest that the MI may not be directly useful as a dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound. PMID:26819648

  14. Breast Imaging: How We Manage Diagnostic Technology at a Multidisciplinary Breast Center

    PubMed Central

    Tejerina Bernal, Alejandro; Tejerina Bernal, Antonio; Rabadán Doreste, Francisco; De Lara González, Ana; Roselló Llerena, Juan Antonio; Tejerina Gómez, Armando

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the most important aspects and problems related to the management of breast cancer imaging, at a center specialized in breast pathology. We review the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications, and peculiarities: digital mammography, CAD systems, and the recent digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound and complementary elastography, molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, advanced sequences (diffusion), and positron emission mammography (PEM). The adequate integration and rational management of these techniques is essential, but this is not always easy, in order to achieve a successful diagnosis. PMID:22829820

  15. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  16. The diagnostic utility and tendency of the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yun Su; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) may have an inflammatory or homeostatic function in lung tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of sRAGE as a diagnostic marker for exudative pleural effusions, which are common manifestations of a variety of diseases. Methods Patients with an undiagnosed pleural effusion were prospectively enrolled between January 2013 and January 2015. Samples of blood and pleural fluid were centrifuged and the supernatant stored at −70 °C. The levels of sRAGE in serum and pleural fluid were determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results In total 47 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with a tuberculous effusion, and the groups diagnosed with parapneumonic or malignant effusions comprised 13 patients each. The serum sRAGE levels for tuberculosis were significantly elevated [median, 1,291 pg/mL; interquartile range (IQR), 948–1,711 pg/mL] when compared with those for both pneumonia (median, 794 pg/mL; IQR, 700–1,255 pg/mL) and lung cancer (median, 886 pg/mL; IQR, 722–1,285 pg/mL) (P=0.029). The pleural sRAGE levels for pneumonia (median, 1,763 pg/mL; IQR, 1,262–4,431 pg/mL) were lower than those for both tuberculosis (median, 5,081 pg/mL; IQR, 3,300–6,004 pg/mL) and lung cancer (median, 4,936 pg/mL; IQR, 3,282–7,018 pg/mL) (P=0.009) The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis selected 896 pg/mL as the best cutoff value in the sRAGE serum level for tuberculosis [sensitivity, 86%; specificity 58%; area under the curve (AUC) =0.727, P=0.008]. For the pleural effusion sRAGE level, the ROC curve analysis selected 2,231 pg/mL as the best cutoff value for pneumonia (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 62%, AUC =0.792, P=0.002). Conclusions Among patients with exudative effusion, pleural and serum sRAGE measurements may be useful supportive diagnostic tools in the evaluation of ambiguous pleural effusion. Furthermore

  17. An innovative technique for recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2013-08-01

    Many ultrasound educational products and ultrasound researchers present diagnostic and interventional ultrasound information using picture-in-picture videos, which simultaneously show the ultrasound image and transducer and patient positions. Traditional techniques for creating picture-in-picture videos are expensive, nonportable, or time-consuming. This article describes an inexpensive, simple, and portable way of creating picture-in-picture ultrasound videos. This technique uses a laptop computer with a video capture device to acquire the ultrasound feed. Simultaneously, a webcam captures a live video feed of the transducer and patient position and live audio. Both sources are streamed onto the computer screen and recorded by screen capture software. This technique makes the process of recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos more accessible for ultrasound educators and researchers for use in their presentations or publications. PMID:23887962

  18. [Endosonographic diagnostics of hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Starkov, Iu G; Solodinina, E N; Shishin, K V; Plotnikova, A S; Kobesova, T A; Dubova, E A

    2009-01-01

    Clinical use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) diagnostics of 550 patients with diseases of hepatobiliary and pancreas was analyzed. The procedure of the examination was thoroughly described. Ultrasound semiotics of the pancreas, papilla Vateri and bile ducts' lesions was defined. Accuracy of EUS in the diagnostics of solid pancreas tumors was 81,6%. Accuracy of the method in the diagnostics of the vessel invasion was 81,6%. EUS was considered to be leading in the diagnostics of papilla Vateri and duodenal tumors, its accuracy was up to 97,2%, which is much higher then other radiological and endoscopic methods. EUS was highly effective in diagnostics of choledocholithiasis and comprised 90,2%. The introduction of thin-needle biopsy, Doppler mapping and elastography in the EUS protocol permitted further increase of the accuracy and value of the method for the surgical practice.

  19. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Francesco; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasing health problem, representing the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The major risk factor for HCC is cirrhosis. In developing countries, viral hepatitis represent the major risk factor, whereas in developed countries, the epidemic of obesity, diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis contribute to the observed increase in HCC incidence. Cirrhotic patients are recommended to undergo HCC surveillance by abdominal ultrasounds at 6-mo intervals. The current diagnostic algorithms for HCC rely on typical radiological hallmarks in dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, while the use of α-fetoprotein as an independent tool for HCC surveillance is not recommended by current guidelines due to its low sensitivity and specificity. Early diagnosis is crucial for curative treatments. Surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation and liver transplantation are considered the cornerstones of curative therapy, while for patients with more advanced HCC recommended options include sorafenib and trans-arterial chemo-embolization. A multidisciplinary team, consisting of hepatologists, surgeons, radiologists, oncologists and pathologists, is fundamental for a correct management. In this paper, we review the diagnostic and therapeutic management of HCC, with a focus on the most recent evidences and recommendations from guidelines. PMID:26576088

  20. Clinical ultrasound in the ICU: changing a medical paradigm.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, J A; Núñez-Reiz, A

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades there has been an evolution from the traditional paradigm of sporadic ultrasound performed by radiologists and cardiologists in the ICU to clinical ultrasound performed by intensivists as an extension of patient evaluation rather than as a complementary test. Such clinical ultrasound aims to diagnose and treat the patient directly. All ultrasound modalities could be interesting in the ICU, either helping in decision making or guiding procedures. Clinical ultrasound training should include all the possibilities of ultrasound, and the tutelage of other trained intensivists and other specialists with more experience should be available at all times. Training should be phased into basic, advanced and expert levels, with adjustment to the contents of the CoBaTrICE Project and the recommendations of the SEMICYUC.