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Sample records for advanced digestion process

  1. Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Coors, A; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Guillon, E; Kunkel, U; Mascolo, G; Richter, E; Ternes, T A; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The European Union (EU) Project Routes aimed to discover new routes in sludge stabilization treatments leading to high-quality digested sludge, suitable for land application. In order to investigate the impact of different enhanced sludge stabilization processes such as (a) thermophilic digestion integrated with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (TT), (b) sonication before mesophilic/thermophilic digestion (UMT), and (c) sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion (AA) on digested sludge quality, a broad class of conventional and emerging organic micropollutants as well as ecotoxicity was analyzed, extending the assessment beyond the parameters typically considered (i.e., stability index and heavy metals). The stability index was improved by adding aerobic posttreatment or by operating dual-stage process but not by pretreatment integration. Filterability was worsened by thermophilic digestion, either alone (TT) or coupled with mesophilic digestion (UMT). The concentrations of heavy metals, present in ranking order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr ~ Ni > Cd > Hg, were always below the current legal requirements for use on land and were not removed during the processes. Removals of conventional and emerging organic pollutants were greatly enhanced by performing double-stage digestion (UMT and AA treatment) compared to a single-stage process as TT; the same trend was found as regards toxicity reduction. Overall, all the digested sludges exhibited toxicity to the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis at concentrations about factor 100 higher than the usual application rate of sludge to soil in Europe. For earthworms, a safety margin of factor 30 was generally achieved for all the digested samples. PMID:24903249

  2. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process.

  3. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. PMID:26799793

  4. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  5. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bryen

    2014-01-01

    Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization.

  6. Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocci, Sandra R.

    This digest presents an overview of children with auditory processing disorders (APDs), children who can typically hear information but have difficulty attending to, storing, locating, retrieving, and/or clarifying that information to make it useful for academic and social purposes. The digest begins by describing central auditory processing and…

  7. Kinetics and advanced digester design for anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth and primary sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Dolenc, D.A.; Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Jerger, D.E.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    A research program centered around a facility located at Walt Disney World (WDW) is in progress to evaluate the use of water hyacinth (WH) for secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment, to optimize growth of WH under these conditions, and to convert the resultant primary sludge (PS) and WH to methane via anaerobic digestion. This article describes the status of the biogasification component of this program, which includes baseline and advanced digestion experiments with individual feeds and blends and the design of an experimental test unit (ETU) to be installed at WDW. Experiments with several blends demonstrated that methane yields can be predicted from the fractional content and methane yield of each component. The process was found to adhere to the Monod kinetic model for microbial growth, and associated kinetic parameters were developed for various feed combinations. A novel upflow digester is achieving significantly higher conversion than a stirred-tank digester. Of several pretreatment techniques used, only alkaline treatment resulted in increased biodegradability. A larger scale (4.5 m/sup 3/) experimental test unit is being designed for installation at WDW in 1982. 13 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Cheng, Jay J; Creamer, Kurt S

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment practice in which both pollution control and energy recovery can be achieved. Many agricultural and industrial wastes are ideal candidates for anaerobic digestion because they contain high levels of easily biodegradable materials. Problems such as low methane yield and process instability are often encountered in anaerobic digestion, preventing this technique from being widely applied. A wide variety of inhibitory substances are the primary cause of anaerobic digester upset or failure since they are present in substantial concentrations in wastes. Considerable research efforts have been made to identify the mechanism and the controlling factors of inhibition. This review provides a detailed summary of the research conducted on the inhibition of anaerobic processes. The inhibitors commonly present in anaerobic digesters include ammonia, sulfide, light metal ions, heavy metals, and organics. Due to the difference in anaerobic inocula, waste composition, and experimental methods and conditions, literature results on inhibition caused by specific toxicants vary widely. Co-digestion with other waste, adaptation of microorganisms to inhibitory substances, and incorporation of methods to remove or counteract toxicants before anaerobic digestion can significantly improve the waste treatment efficiency.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  10. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales.

  11. Human digestion--a processing perspective.

    PubMed

    Boland, Mike

    2016-05-01

    The human digestive system is reviewed in the context of a process with four major unit operations: oral processing to reduce particle size and produce a bolus; gastric processing to initiate chemical and enzymatic breakdown; small intestinal processing to break down macromolecules and absorb nutrients; and fermentation and water removal in the colon. Topics are highlighted about which we need to know more, including effects of aging and dentition on particle size in the bolus, effects of different patterns of food and beverage intake on nutrition, changes in saliva production and composition, mechanical effects of gastric processing, distribution of pH in the stomach, physicochemical and enzymatic effects on nutrient availability and uptake in the small intestine, and the composition, effects of and changes in the microbiota of the colon. Current topics of interest including food synergy, gut-brain interactions, nutritional phenotype and digestion in the elderly are considered. Finally, opportunities for food design based on an understanding of digestive processing are discussed. PMID:26711173

  12. Disintegration impact on sludge digestion process.

    PubMed

    Dauknys, Regimantas; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Jankeliūnaitė, Eglė; Mažeikienė, Aušra

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic sludge digestion is a widely used method for sludge stabilization in wastewater treatment plant. This process can be improved by applying the sludge disintegration methods. As the sludge disintegration is not investigated enough, an analysis of how the application of thermal hydrolysis affects the sludge digestion process based on full-scale data was conducted. The results showed that the maximum volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction reached the value of 65% independently on the application of thermal hydrolysis. The average VSS destruction increased by 14% when thermal hydrolysis was applied. In order to have the maximum VSS reduction and biogas production, it is recommended to keep the maximum defined VSS loading of 5.7 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the thermal hydrolysis is applied and to keep the VSS loading between 2.1-2.4 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the disintegration of sludge is not applied. The application of thermal hydrolysis leads to an approximately 2.5 times higher VSS loading maintenance comparing VSS loading without the disintegration; therefore, digesters with 1.8 times smaller volume is required.

  13. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  14. Improved anaerobic digestion by staged fermentation and advanced reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Bostian, H.E.; Henry, M.P.; Sajjad, A.; Farrell, J.B.; Salotto, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has taken on new importance and emphasis in recent years because of its potential applications for energy and chemicals production from various types of renewable-carbon resources, and because it can be coupled with certain electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical processes to generate electric power, hydrocarbons, methanol, and other high-value products. A number of initiatives have been taken to improve the anaerobic digestion process in keeping with the increasing appreciation for its utility and versatility of application in municipal, industrial, and rural settings.

  15. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  16. Cellulase production by the anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.W.; van den Berg, L.

    1981-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion process is described for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using a methanogenic cellulose-enrichment culture. After a heat treatment designed to destroy all but spore-forming bacteria, this culture produced cellulase from a variety of cellulosic materials as well as from cellobiose. The enzyme system contained endo- and exoglucanase, acted on filter paper, and showed cellobiase and xylanase activities. It was stable at 2/sup 0/C under aerobic conditions and showed a pH optimum at 5 and a temperature optimum at 50/sup 0/C. Endoglucanase and filter paper activities were mostly exogenic, whereas cellobiase and xylanase activities were cell associated. The cellulolytic activity produced by this mixed culture was comparable to that of commercially available fungal preparations, and the process could be useful as an alternate source for these enzymes.

  17. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion processes of vegetable and fruit residues: process and microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Peña, E I; Parameswaran, P; Kang, D W; Canul-Chan, M; Krajmalnik-Brown, R

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of methane production from fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) obtained from the central food distribution market in Mexico City using an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Batch systems showed that pH control and nitrogen addition had significant effects on biogas production, methane yield, and volatile solids (VS) removal from the FVW (0.42 m(biogas)(3)/kg VS, 50%, and 80%, respectively). Co-digestion of the FVW with meat residues (MR) enhanced the process performance and was also evaluated in a 30 L AD system. When the system reached stable operation, its methane yield was 0.25 (m(3)/kg TS), and the removal of the organic matter measured as the total chemical demand (tCOD) was 65%. The microbial population (general Bacteria and Archaea) in the 30 L system was also determined and characterized and was closely correlated with its potential function in the AD system.

  18. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  19. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. PMID:23871080

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of livestock and vegetable processing wastes: fibre degradation and digestate stability.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Gómez, Xiomar; Morán, Antonio; García-González, Mari Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes (swine manure (SM) and poultry litter (PL)) and vegetable processing wastes (VPW) mixtures was evaluated in terms of methane yield, volatile solids removal and lignocellulosic material degradation. Batch experiments were performed with 2% VS (volatile solids) to ensure complete conversion of TVFAs (total volatile fatty acids) and to avoid ammonia inhibition. Experimental methane yields obtained for the mixtures resulted in higher values than those obtained from the sum of the methane yields from the individual components. VPW addition to livestock wastes before anaerobic digestion also resulted in improved VS elimination. In SM-VPW co-digestions, CH4 yield increased from 111 to 244 mL CH4 g VS added(-1), and the percentage of VS removed increased from 50% to 86%. For PL-VPW co-digestions, the corresponding values were increased from 158 to 223 mL CH4 g VS added(-1) and from 70% to 92% VS removed. Hemicelluloses and more than 50% of cellulose were degraded during anaerobic digestion. Thermal analyses indicated that the stabilization of the wastes during anaerobic digestion resulted in significantly less energy being released by digestate samples than fresh samples.

  1. Advanced soldering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Golden, J.; Frear, D.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1993-02-20

    Advanced soldering processes are discussed in a complete manner. The ability to meet the needs of electronic manufacturing, while addressing the environmental issues are challenging goals. Government regulations mandate the elimination of most solvents in solder flux removal. Alternative approaches to promoting wetting are discussed. Inert atmosphere soldering, acid vapor fluxless soldering, atomic and ionic hydrogen as reactive atmospheres, fluxless laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere are offered as soldering mechanisms for the future. Laser are discussed as alternate heat sources. Various types of lasers, advantages of lasers, and fiber optic beam delivery are considered.

  2. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  3. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  4. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  5. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  6. Advanced Communication Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Robert A.

    This document contains the proceedings of the workshop Advanced Communication Processing Techniques, held May 14 to 17, 1989, near Ruidoso, New Mexico. Sponsored by the Army Research Office (under Contract DAAL03-89-G-0016) and organized by the Communication Sciences Institute of the University of Southern California, the workshop had as its objective to determine those applications of intelligent/adaptive communication signal processing that have been realized and to define areas of future research. We at the Communication Sciences Institute believe that there are two emerging areas which deserve considerably more study in the near future: (1) Modulation characterization, i.e., the automation of modulation format recognition so that a receiver can reliably demodulate a signal without using a priori information concerning the signal's structure, and (2) the incorporation of adaptive coding into communication links and networks. (Encoders and decoders which can operate with a wide variety of codes exist, but the way to utilize and control them in links and networks is an issue). To support these two new interest areas, one must have both a knowledge of (3) the kinds of channels and environments in which the systems must operate, and of (4) the latest adaptive equalization techniques which might be employed in these efforts.

  7. Vacuum evaporation treatment of digestate: full exploitation of cogeneration heat to process the whole digestate production.

    PubMed

    Guercini, S; Castelli, G; Rumor, C

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum evaporation represents an interesting and innovative solution for managing animal waste surpluses in areas with high livestock density. To reduce operational costs, a key factor is the availability of an inexpensive source of heat, such as that coming from an anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The aim of this study was to test vacuum evaporation for the treatment of cattle slurry digestate focusing on heat exploitation. Tests were performed with a pilot plant fed with the digestate from a full-scale AD plant. The results were used to evaluate if and how cogeneration heat can support both the AD plant and the subsequent evaporation of the whole daily digestate production in a full-scale plant. The concentrate obtained (12% total solids) represents 40-50% of the influent. The heat requirement is 0.44 kWh/kg condensate. Heat power availability exceeding the needs of the digestor ranges from 325 (in winter) to 585 kW (in summer) versus the 382 kW required for processing the whole digestate production. To by-pass fluctuations, we propose to use the heat coming from the cogenerator directly in the evaporator, tempering the digestor with the latent heat of distillation vapor.

  8. Impact of processing on the digestibility of milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing of milk by homogenization and pasteurization causes changes in the milk proteins and fats, but there is little information about whether these changes affect milk digestibility. In this study, whole and skim milk samples were processed and compared to raw milk after all samples had underg...

  9. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  10. A self-sustaining advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production by integration of anaerobic digestion and aerobic fungal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Ruan, Zhenhua; Zhong, Yingkui; Archer, Steven; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    High energy demand hinders the development and application of aerobic microbial biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials. In order to address this issue, this study focused on developing an integrated system including anaerobic digestion and aerobic fungal fermentation to convert corn stover, animal manure and food wastes into microbial lipids for biodiesel production. Dairy manure and food waste were first anaerobically digested to produce energy and solid digestate (AD fiber). AD fiber and corn stover were then processed by a combined alkali and acid hydrolysis, followed by fungal lipid accumulation. The integrated process can generate 1L biodiesel and 1.9 kg methane from 12.8 kg dry dairy manure, 3.1 kg dry food wastes and 12.2 kg dry corn stover with a positive net energy of 57 MJ, which concludes a self-sustaining lignocellulosic biodiesel process and provides a new route to co-utilize corn stover and organic wastes for advanced biofuel production.

  11. [Research advances in anaerobic co-digestion of biogas fermentation substrates].

    PubMed

    Dong, Fei-Qing; Li, Xia; Lu, Jian-Bo

    2012-07-01

    With global climate change, more and more attention has been paid to the development of bio-energy. Biogas fermentation, as a fairly mature technology of bio-matter energy transformation, has received considerable attention and experienced much development. How to improve the efficiency of biogas fermentation and promote its industrialization is a pressing issue. Anaerobic co-digestion is a simple, low-cost, and high-efficiency method for enhancing the efficiency of biogas fermentation, and received increasing attention from related researchers. This paper summarized the characteristics of various fermentation substrates, reviewed the research advances in the co-digestion of animal manure, sewage sludge, and industrial waste, with the focus on the advantages of co-digestion and the factors affecting the rate and efficiency of co-digestion, and prospected the future research of co-digestion and its application, aimed to provide theoretical guidance for the promotion and application of co-digestion techniques.

  12. Dynamic simulator for anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Kleinstreuer, C; Poweigha, T

    1982-09-01

    A transient, two-culture model simulating methane production from biomass has been developed. The simulator, based partially on the work by Andrews and McCarty, is capable of calculating the hydrolysis products of several common organic materials, accommodating various substrate feeding modes, and simulating the transient physico-biochemical transport and conversion processes occurring in the biological, liquid, and gaseous phases of a well-mixed reactor. The mathematical representation of this bioconversion system consists of a set of 11 coupled, nonlinear first-order rate equations based on the principles of mass conservation and biochemical reaction kinetics. The model can be used in conjunction with laboratory investigations and as a simulator for evaluating process control strategies and cost developments.

  13. Advancing Your Library's Web-Based Services. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sari; Strobel, Tracy

    This digest discusses the development of World Wide Web-based services for libraries and provides examples from the Cleveland Public Library (CPL). The first section highlights the importance of developing such services, steps to be followed for a successful project, and the importance of having the goal of replicating and enhancing traditional…

  14. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  16. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhongtang; Hitzhusen, Fredrick

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  17. Highlights of pancreatobiliary endoscopy in international digestive endoscopy network 2012: how much has it advanced?

    PubMed

    Dong, Seok Ho

    2012-09-01

    The pancreatobiliary organ is composed of one of the most complicated structures and complex physiological functions among other digestive organs in our body. This is why endoscopic procedure in pancreaticobiliary system requires rather complicated techniques. In International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2012, many interesting pancreatobiliay endoscopy related topics were presented. Basic procedures like endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD), advanced techniques like endoscopic necrosectomy, prevention and management of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and spyglass system are reviewed in this highlight summary.

  18. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  19. Gastric digestion in vivo and in vitro: how the structural aspects of food influence the digestion process.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Paul Singh, R

    2014-01-01

    Food digestion is crucial for sustaining life. Although it has been examined for more than 300 years, the basic principles are not entirely understood. Antral motility is well characterized, and current research is seeking to determine flow patterns generated by the stomach's peristaltic contractions. The rate of gastric emptying for solid and liquid meals has been determined according to variations in meal composition, energy content, and subject characteristics. The glycemic response has been measured for many carbohydrate foods and is altered by factors such as amount of processing, particle size, and starch structure. Similarly, ileal starch digestibility is altered by food and starch properties. Even though many foods have been studied according to their glycemic response, starch digestibility, and in vitro digestion kinetics, the rate-determining processes and underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The link between food properties, digestion processes, and final health outcomes must be strengthened for functional food optimization.

  20. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  1. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  2. Influent Fractionation for Modeling Continuous Anaerobic Digestion Processes.

    PubMed

    Lübken, Manfred; Kosse, Pascal; Koch, Konrad; Gehring, Tito; Wichern, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The first dynamic model developed to describe anaerobic digestion processes dates back to 1969. Since then, considerable improvements in identifying the underlying biochemical processes and associated microorganisms have been achieved. These have led to an increasing complexity of both model structure and the standard set of stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. Literature has always paid attention to kinetic parameter estimation, as this determines model accuracy with respect to predicting the dynamic behavior of biogas systems. As sufficient computing power is easily available nowadays, sophisticated linear and nonlinear parameter estimation techniques are applied to evaluate parameter uncertainty. However, the uncertainty of influent fractionation in these parameter optimization procedures is generally neglected. As anaerobic digestion systems are currently increasingly used to convert a broad variety of organic biomass to methane, the lack of generally accepted guidelines for input characterization adapted to the simulation model's characteristics is a considerable limitation of model application to these substrates. Directly after the introduction of the standardized Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), several publications pointed out that the model's requirement of a detailed influent characterization can hardly be fulfilled. The main shortcoming of the model application was addressed in the reliable and practical identification of the model's input state variables for particulate and soluble carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, as well as for the inerts. Several authors derived biomass characterization procedures, most of them dedicated to a particular substrate, and some of them being of general nature, but none of these approaches have resulted in a practical standard protocol so far. This review provides an overview of existing approaches that improve substrate influent characterization to be used for state of the art anaerobic digestion models. PMID

  3. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  4. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples.

  5. Modelling sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Hierholtzer, A; Akunna, J C

    2012-01-01

    Sodium is a known process inhibitor in anaerobic systems and impacts on methanogens through an increase of osmotic pressure or complete dehydration of microorganisms. In this study, a combination of experimental and modelling approaches has been employed to determine and simulate sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process. The ADM1, which has been successfully used in modelling anaerobic processes, has been modified to include an extra inhibition function that considers the effect of sodium on acetoclastic methanogens and the impact on biogas production and composition. A non-competitive inhibition function was added to the rate of acetate uptake for the model to take into account sodium toxicity. Experimental studies consisted of both batch and reactor tests to obtain parameters for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model was used to predict the effect of ammonia nitrogen on sodium toxicity. It was found that relatively low sodium levels can bring about significant levels of process inhibition in the presence of high levels of ammonia. On the other hand, where the concentration of ammonia is relatively low, the tolerance threshold for sodium ions increases. Hence, care must be taken in the use of sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment during anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates.

  6. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  7. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  8. Bench-scale Analysis of Surrogates for Anaerobic Digestion Processes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C

    2016-05-01

    Frequent monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes for pathogen destruction is both cost and time prohibitive. The use of surrogates to supplement regulatory monitoring may be one solution. To evaluate surrogates, a semi-batch bench-scale anaerobic digester design was tested. Bench-scale reactors were operated under mesophilic (36 °C) and thermophilic (53-55 °C) conditions, with a 15 day solids retention time. Biosolids from different facilities and during different seasons were examined. USEPA regulated pathogens and surrogate organisms were enumerated at different times throughout each experiment. The surrogate organisms included fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, male-specific and somatic coliphages, Clostridium perfringens, and bacterial spores. Male-specific coliphages tested well as a potential surrogate organism for virus inactivation. None of the tested surrogate organisms correlated well with helminth inactivation under the conditions studied. There were statistically significant differences in the inactivation rates between the facilities in this study, but not between seasons. PMID:27131309

  9. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  10. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area.

  11. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  12. Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chang S.; Robinson, Paul R.

    "This comprehensive book by Robinson and Hsu will certainly become the standard text book for the oil refining business...[A] must read for all who are associated with oil refining." - Dr. Walter Fritsch, Senior Vice President Refining, OMV "This book covers a very advanced horizon of petroleum processing technology. For all refiners facing regional and global environmental concerns, and for those who seek a more sophisticated understanding of the refining of petroleum resources, this book has been long in coming." - Mr. Naomasa Kondo, Cosmo Oil Company, Ltd.

  13. Advanced detectors and signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greve, D. W.; Rasky, P. H. L.; Kryder, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Continued progress is reported toward development of a silicon on garnet technology which would allow fabrication of advanced detection and signal processing circuits on bubble memories. The first integrated detectors and propagation patterns have been designed and incorporated on a new mask set. In addition, annealing studies on spacer layers are performed. Based on those studies, a new double layer spacer is proposed which should reduce contamination of the silicon originating in the substrate. Finally, the magnetic sensitivity of uncontaminated detectors from the last lot of wafers is measured. The measured sensitivity is lower than anticipated but still higher than present magnetoresistive detectors.

  14. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  15. Sludge exchange process on two serial CSTRs anaerobic digestions: process failure and recovery.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2011-07-01

    The sludge exchange process using two anaerobic digesters (CSTRs) in series was investigated under the mesophilic condition (36-38°C). At first, the digesting sludge of the CSTRs in series with different TVFA/alkalinity ratios was tested in the laboratory by mixing the digesting sludge of two CSTRs from 6.5% to 50% based on volume. The sludge exchange test was then performed using the same CSTRs under batch and continuous processes. The change in the TVFA/alkalinity ratio was found to be linear with the digesting sludge exchange volume. The CSTR of TVFA/alkalinity ratio 1.970 recovered completely failed within 11 days for the batch process and the CSTR of TVFA/alkalinity ratio 1.514 within 3 weeks for the continuous feeding process at a sludge exchange volume of 13%. The reactor operation was stable when the TVFA/alkalinity ratio was less than 1.0 and when the TVFA concentration was lower than 10,000 mg L(-1).

  16. Phenols in anaerobic digestion processes and inhibition of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) in soil.

    PubMed

    Levén, Lotta; Nyberg, Karin; Korkea-Aho, Lena; Schnürer, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This study focuses on the presence of phenols in digestate from seven Swedish large-scale anaerobic digestion processes and their impact on the activity of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) in soil. In addition, the importance of feedstock composition and phenol degradation capacity for the occurrence of phenols in the digestate was investigated in the same processes. The results revealed that the content of phenols in the digestate was related to the inhibition of the activity of AOB in soil (EC(50)=26 microg phenols g(-1) d.w. soil). In addition, five pure phenols (phenol, o-, p-, m-cresol and 4-ethylphenol) inhibited the AOB to a similar extent (EC(50)=43-110 microg g(-1) d.w. soil). The phenol content in the digestate was mainly dependent on the composition of the feedstock, but also to some extent by the degradation capacity in the anaerobic digestion process. Swine manure in the feedstock resulted in digestate containing higher amounts of phenols than digestate from reactors with less or no swine manure in the feedstock. The degradation capacity of phenol and p-cresol was studied in diluted small-scale batch cultures and revealed that anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures generally exhibited a higher degradation capacity compared to digestion at thermophilic temperature. Although phenol, p-cresol and 4-ethylphenol were quickly degraded in soil, the phenols added with the digestate constitute an environmental risk according to the guideline values for contaminated soils set by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. In conclusion, the management of anaerobic digestion processes is of decisive importance for the production of digestate with low amounts of phenols, and thereby little risks for negative effects of the phenols on the soil ecosystem.

  17. Effects of stabilization and sludge properties in a combined process of anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiehong; Kong, Feng; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A novel process of combining mesophilic (<35°C) anaerobic digestion with the thermophilic (55°C) aerobic digestion process (AN-TAD) was designed to stabilize sludge and economize aeration energy. Effects of stabilization and sludge properties for AN-TAD process were evaluated by batch experiments during a 25 d digestion period. The sludges digested by AN-TAD process achieved the requirements for Class-A sludge standard. The sludge at total solid (TS) 5.4% had the highest value of decay coefficient K(d(55)) at 0.1851 d(-1) among the three TS contents according to the first-order kinetics equation. Oxidation reduction potential at below 0 mV remained for sludges at TSs of 6.5%, 5.4%, and 4.6% for at least 15 d because of initial hydrolytic-acidification. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in sludges at TSs of 6.5%, 5.4%, and 4.6% gradually increased up to the highest values in the supernatant during the initial 13 d, causing low utilized value in land application as a fertilizer. Prolonging the retention time for more than 15 d was considered because soluble phosphorus precipitated in the solid phase. High content of soluble organic matters of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide in the supernatant caused deterioration in sludge dewaterability rates. PMID:25950189

  18. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  19. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  20. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function

    PubMed Central

    Venkiteshwaran, Kaushik; Bocher, Benjamin; Maki, James; Zitomer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1) hydrolysis rate, (2) direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3) community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4) methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5) bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses. PMID:27127410

  1. Development of an advanced anaerobic digester design and a kinetic model for biogasification of water hyacinth/sludge blends

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.; Fannin, K.F.; Biljetina, R.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Hayes, T.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) conducted a comprehensive laboratory-scale research program to develop and optimize the anaerobic digestion process for producing methane from water hyacinth and sludge blends. This study focused on digester design and operating techniques, which gave improved methane yields and production rates over those observed using conventional digesters. The final digester concept and the operating experience was utilized to design and operate a large-scale experimentla test unit (ETU) at Walt Disney World, Florida. This paper describes the novel digester design, operating techniques, and the results obtained in the laboratory. The paper also discusses a kinetic model which predicts methane yield, methane production rate, and digester effluent solids as a function of retention time. This model was successfully utilized to predict the performance of the ETU. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Effect of pressure processing on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal for poultry.

    PubMed

    Shirley, R B; Parsons, C M

    2000-12-01

    In the future, it may become desirable or required to process meat and bone meal (MBM) under pressure to reduce human health concerns associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, three experiments evaluated the effects of different processing pressures on the digestibility of amino acids (AA) in MBM when the pressure processing was done after typical rendering (Experiments 1 and 2) or during the initial rendering process of raw materials (Experiment 3). Processing pressures varied from 0 to 60 psi in experimental or commercial feather meal cookers. Increasing pressure during processing reduced MBM Cys concentrations in Experiments 1 and 2. True digestibilities of most AA were significantly decreased by increasing pressures in Experiments 1 and 2, and reductions were generally largest for Cys and Lys, particularly Cys, and increased with severity as pressure increased. For example, in Experiment 1, Cys digestibility decreased from 65 to 50 to 15%, and Lys digestibility decreased from 76 to 68 to 41% as the MBM was processed at 0, 30, and 60 psi, respectively, for 20 min. When the pressure processing occurred during the initial rendering of the MBM raw material (Experiment 3), a significant reduction in digestibility of most AA was observed only at 60 psi, and the decrease was much less than that observed in Experiments 1 and 2. Our results indicate that pressure processing of MBM decreases the digestibility of AA for poultry. Thus, pressure processing of MBM to reduce potential BSE infectivity will likely decrease the nutritional value of the MBM.

  3. Anaerobic Digestion. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. These materials include: (1) unit overview; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines; (4) student worksheets for each lesson (with answers); and (5) two copies of a final quiz (with and without answers). Lesson 1 is a review of the theory of…

  4. Process performance of anaerobic co-digestion of raw and acidified pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Sutaryo, S; Møller, H B

    2012-10-15

    The effect of incorporating different ratios of acidified pig slurry on methane yield was evaluated in two scales of anaerobic digesters: Thermophilic (50 °C) pilot scale digester (120 l), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 20 days and thermophilic (52 °C) full-scale digesters (10 and 30 m(3)), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 30 days. In the lab-scale digester, different inclusion levels of acidified slurry (0-60%) were tested each 15 days, to determine the maximum ratio of acidified to non-acidified slurry causing inhibition and to find process state indicators helping to prevent process failure. In the full-scale digesters, the level of inclusion of the acidified slurry was chosen from the ratio causing methane inhibition in the pilot scale experiment and was carried on in a long-term process of 100 days. The optimal inclusion level of acidified pig slurry in anaerobic co-digestion with conventional slurry was 10%, which promoted anaerobic methane yield by nearly 20%. Higher inclusion levels caused methane inhibition and volatile fatty acids accumulations in both experiments. In order to prevent process failure, the most important traits to monitor in the anaerobic digestion of acidified pig slurry were found to be: sulfate content of the slurry, alkalinity parameters (especially partial alkalinity and the ratio of alkalinity) and total volatile fatty acids (especially acetic and butyric acids).

  5. Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia

    2012-06-01

    Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the renewable energy potential whilst retaining organic matter and nutrients for soil replenishment. Co-digestion allowed higher organic loadings and gave a more stable process. A high ammonia inoculum acclimated more readily to cattle slurry than card packaging, probably through supplementation by trace elements and micro-organisms. Long-term operation at a 75-litre scale showed a characteristic pattern of volatile fatty acid accumulation in mono-digestion of food waste, and allowed performance parameters to be determined for the co-digestion substrates.

  6. Combined thermophilic aerobic process and conventional anaerobic digestion: effect on sludge biodegradation and methane production.

    PubMed

    Dumas, C; Perez, S; Paul, E; Lefebvre, X

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of hyper-thermophilic (65 degrees Celsius) aerobic process coupled with a mesophilic (35 degrees Celsius) digester was evaluated for the activated sludge degradation and was compared to a conventional mesophilic digester. For two Sludge Retention Time (SRT), 21 and 42 days, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilisation and biodegradation processes, the methanisation yield and the aerobic oxidation were investigated during 180 days. The best results were obtained at SRT of 44 days; the COD removal yield was 30% higher with the Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion/Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (MAD-TAR) co-treatment. An increase of the sludge intrinsic biodegradability is also observed (20-40%), showing that the unbiodegradable COD in mesophilic conditions becomes bioavailable. However, the methanisation yield was quite similar for both processes at a same SRT. Finally, such a process enables to divide by two the volume of digester with an equivalent efficiency.

  7. Advancing energy cane cell wall digestibility screening by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chong, Barrie Fong; O'Shea, Michael G

    2013-10-01

    Breeding energy cane for cellulosic biofuel production involves manipulating various traits. An important trait to optimize is cell wall degradability as defined by enzymatic hydrolysis. We investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate calibration to predict energy cane cell wall digestibility based upon fiber samples from a range of sugarcane genotypes and related species. These samples produced digestibility values ranging between 6 and 31%. To preserve the practicality of the technique, spectra obtained from crudely prepared samples were used. Various spectral pre-processing methods were tested, with the best NIRS calibration obtained from second derivative, orthogonal signal-corrected spectra. Model performance was evaluated by cross-validation and independent validation. Large differences between the performance results from the two validation approaches indicated that the model was sensitive to the choice of test data. This may be remedied by using a larger calibration training set containing diverse sample types. The best result was obtained through independent validation which produced a R(2) value of 0.86, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.59, and a ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) of 2.7. This study has demonstrated that it is feasible and practical to use NIRS to predict energy cane cell wall digestibility.

  8. Stabilization of waste-activated sludge through the anoxic-aerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, S.; Fujita, M.; Terai, K.

    1982-08-01

    During the aerobic digestion process, the nitrogen which had been embedded in the activated sludge is solubilized to form ammoniacal and nitric nitrogen which are in turn transferred to the liquor and cause the increase of nitrogen loading in the sewage treatment plant. In this study, the anoxic-aerobic sludge digestion system which is a modified form of the conventional aerobic sludge digestion is made up of aerobic and anoxic tanks and are designed to remove both the volatile suspended solids and the total nitrogen (TN) simultaneously. The removal efficiencies of both VSS and TN were investigated by feeding waste-activated sludge continuously and semicontinuously. The maximum percent reduction of both VSS and TN was achieved at a Q /SUB r/ /Q /SUB s/ ratio of 2 in the continuous process. The semicontinuous process was used to improve the nitrogen removal efficiency further. In the semicontinuous process, the VSS reduction efficiency as well as the nitrogen removal efficiency increased remarkably under a constant Q /SUB r/ /Q /SUB s/ ratio of 2. This process also achieved a VSS reduction efficiency higher than the aerobic digestion process (control). It was suggested that the additional anoxic tank enhanced the sludge digestion. Furthermore, the anoxic-aerobic digestion system can be applied to other treatment media like the primary sludge, industrial sludge, animal manure, etc.

  9. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  10. Corn silage management: effects of hybrid, chop length, and mechanical processing on digestion and energy content.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chop length and mechanical processing of two hybrids of whole plant corn on digestion and energy content of the total mixed ration (TMR). The experimental designs in experiments 1 and 2 were 6 x 6 and 4 x 4 Latin squares, respectively. In the first experiment, Pioneer hybrid 3845 was harvested at three theoretical lengths of cut: 11.1, 27.8, and 39.7 mm. At each chop length, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. In the second experiment, Pioneer hybrid Quanta was harvested at two theoretical lengths of cut: 27.8 and 39.7 mm, with and without mechanical processing. In both experiments, the increase in the theoretical length of cut of corn silage increased the average length of cut and tended to increase the percentage of particles greater than 19 mm and lower the percentage of particles between 8 and 19 mm. In experiment 1, apparent total tract dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibilities were lower for cows fed diets containing corn silage harvested at a short chop length (11.1 mm) than for corn silage harvested at a long chop length (39.7 mm). The lower total tract digestibility of nutrients may have contributed to the lower TDN, metabolizable energy (percentage of digestible energy), and NEL concentration of diets containing the short chop length corn silage (experiment 1). In experiment 2, total tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed medium chop (27.8 mm) corn silage diets, and total tract NDF digestibility was greater for cows fed long chop (39.7 mm) corn silage diets. The opposing effect of total tract starch and fiber digestibilities between chop lengths may have contributed to the lack of difference in energy content of the diets in experiment 2. The TDN and NEL concentrations of the processed corn silage diets were greater than the unprocessed corn silage diets in

  11. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... is about 30 feet long. continue How Digestion Works Digestion Begins in the Mouth The process of ... a noncongenital condition. Esophagitis is usually caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) , a condition in which the esophageal ...

  12. Modification in digestive processing strategies to reduce toxic trace metal uptake in a marine bivalve

    SciTech Connect

    Decho, A.W.; Luoma, S.N.

    1994-12-31

    Bivalves possess two major digestion pathways for processing food particles: a rapid ``intestinal`` pathway where digestion is largely extracellular; and a slower ``glandular`` pathway where digestion is largely intracellular. The slower glandular pathway often results in more efficient absorption of carbon but also more efficient uptake of certain metals (e.g. Cr associated with bacteria). In the bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis, large portions (> 90%) of bacteria are selectively routed to the glandular pathway. This results in efficient C uptake but also efficient uptake of associated Cr. The authors further determined if prolonged exposure to Cr-contaminated bacteria would result in high Cr uptake by animals or whether mechanisms exist to reduce Cr exposure and uptake. Bivalves were exposed to natural food + added bacteria (with or without added Cr) for a 6-day period, then pulse-chase experiments were conducted to quantify digestive processing and % absorption efficiencies (%AE) of bacterial Cr. Bivalves compensate at low (2--5 ug/g sed) Cr by reducing overall food ingestion, while digestive processing of food remains statistically similar to controls. At high Cr (200--500 ug/g sed) there are marked decreases in % bacteria processed by glandular digestion. This results in lower overall %AE of Cr. The results suggest that bivalves under natural conditions might balance efficient carbon sequestration against avoiding uptake of potentially toxic metals associated the food.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of livestock wastes with vegetable processing wastes: a statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; García-González, María Cruz; González-Fernández, Cristina; Cuetos, María José; Morán, Antonio; Gómez, Xiomar

    2010-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes with carbon rich residues was studied. Swine manure and poultry litter were selected as livestock waste, and vegetable processing waste was selected as the rich carbon source. A Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were employed in designing experiments and determine individual and interactive effects over methane production and removal of volatile solids. In the case of swine manure co-digestion, an increase in vegetable processing waste resulted in higher volatile solids removal. However, without a proper substrate/biomass ratio, buffer capacity of swine manure was not able to avoid inhibitory effects associated with TVFA accumulation. Regarding co-digestion with poultry litter, substrate concentration determined VS removal achieved, above 80 g VSL(-1), NH(3) inhibition was detected. Statistical analysis allowed us to set initial conditions and parameters to achieve best outputs for real-scale plant operation and/or co-digestion mixtures design.

  14. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  15. The foodomics approach for the evaluation of protein bioaccessibility in processed meat upon in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Laghi, Luca; Babini, Elena; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Picone, Gianfranco; Ciampa, Alessandra; Valli, Veronica; Danesi, Francesca; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes a foodomics protocol coupling an in vitro static simulation of digestion to a combination of omics techniques, to grant an overview of the protein digestibility of a meat-based food, namely Bresaola. The proteolytic activity mediated by the digestive enzymes is evaluated through Bradford and SDS-PAGE assays, combined to NMR relaxometry and spectroscopy, to obtain information ranging from the microscopic to the molecular level, respectively. The simple proteomics tool adopted here points out that a clear increase of bioaccessible proteins occurs in the gastric phase, rapidly disappearing during the following duodenal digestion. However, SDS-PAGE and the Bradford assay cannot follow the fate of the digested proteins when the products are sized <5 kDa. Conversely, NMR spectroscopy is able to capture the overall molecular profile of small fragments and peptides, which are mainly formed during the duodenal phase, thus giving the kinetics of the whole digestion process. Time domain NMR relaxometry, finally, detects the swelling phenomenon occurring during the gastric phase, when the digestion fluid enters the meat matrix.

  16. Advanced digital SAR processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.; Gaffney, B. P.; Liu, B.; Perry, R. P.; Ruvin, A.

    1982-01-01

    A highly programmable, land based, real time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor requiring a processed pixel rate of 2.75 MHz or more in a four look system was designed. Variations in range and azimuth compression, number of looks, range swath, range migration and SR mode were specified. Alternative range and azimuth processing algorithms were examined in conjunction with projected integrated circuit, digital architecture, and software technologies. The advaced digital SAR processor (ADSP) employs an FFT convolver algorithm for both range and azimuth processing in a parallel architecture configuration. Algorithm performace comparisons, design system design, implementation tradeoffs and the results of a supporting survey of integrated circuit and digital architecture technologies are reported. Cost tradeoffs and projections with alternate implementation plans are presented.

  17. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  18. [Condition of patients who require heart surgery during treatment for advanced digestive cancer and early recurrence after surgery- an assessment from the viewpoint of digestive surgeons].

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Shigeru; Takashina, Motoi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Tomita, Ryouichi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tomonori

    2013-11-01

    The need for cardiac surgery among patients undergoing treatment for advanced digestive cancer is limited to the following situations:(i) heart diseases that can be life threatening if left untreated and that cannot be cured by medicinal treatment alone (e.g., cardiac tumors) and (ii) heart diseases (e.g., infectious endocarditis and pulmonary thromboembolism) occurring after digestive cancer surgery that need emergency treatment and that are resistant to medicinal treatment. We encountered 2 cases that required cardiac surgery.( Case 1) A 68-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma accompanied by pyloric stenosis and left atrial myxoma underwent radical surgery for gastric cancer( Stage IIIA). Subsequently, the left atrial myxoma was resected before adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer was administered. One month after the surgery, multiple liver metastases appeared. However, they disappeared after chemotherapy was completed, and the patient survived for more than 3 years with complete response. (Case 2) A 67-year-old woman who underwent a Hartmann operation for obstructive rectal cancer (Stage II) experienced infectious endocarditis after the surgery. Because the endocarditis was resistant to medicinal treatment and acute heart failure was anticipated, cardiac surgery was performed. Approximately 2 months after the surgery, the bacilli( methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]) were not found in blood culture. However, multiple liver metastases appeared immediately after the disappearance of the bacilli, and the patient died 3 months after the surgery. In both cases, cancer recurrence occurred early after cardiac surgery. Excessive surgical stress due to cardiac surgery may have promoted cancer recurrence. A decision pertaining to the timing of cardiac surgery is difficult in cases of patients with advanced digestive cancer and co-existing heart disease, which cannot be cured by medicinal treatment.

  19. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

  20. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively.

  1. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  2. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  3. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  4. Comparison of start-up strategies and process performance during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake co-digested with bagasse.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Nikolausz, Marcell; Radetski, Claudemir M; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake and the option of co-digestion with bagasse were investigated in a semi-continuous feeding regime to assess the main parameters used for large-scale process designing. Moreover, fresh cattle manure was considered as alternative inoculum for the start-up of biogas reactors in cases where digestate from a biogas plant would not be available in remote rural areas. Experiments were carried out in 6 lab-scale semi-continuous stirred-tank reactors at mesophilic conditions (38±1°C) while the main anaerobic digestion process parameters monitored. Fresh cattle manure demonstrated to be appropriate for the start-up process. However, an acclimation period was required due to the high initial volatile fatty acids concentration (8.5gL(-1)). Regardless the mono-digestion of filter cake presented 50% higher biogas yield (480mLgVS(-1)) than co-digestion with bagasse (320mLgVS(-1)) during steady state conditions. A large-scale co-digestion system would produce 58% more biogas (1008m(3)h(-1)) than mono-digestion of filter cake (634m(3)h(-1)) due to its higher biomass availability for biogas conversion. Considering that the biogas production rate was the technical parameter that displayed the most relevant differences between the analyzed substrate options (0.99-1.45m(3)biogasm(3)d(-1)). The decision of which substrate option should be implemented in practice would be mainly driven by the available construction techniques, since economically efficient tanks could compensate the lower biogas production rate of co-digestion option.

  5. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  6. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield. PMID:27570139

  7. Strategic Planning for a New Century: Process over Product. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Elaine

    This digest compares long range planning with strategic planning in the community college, focusing on examples of colleges' strategic planning processes and on the future of strategic planning. Long range planning tends to be static, focusing on developing a plan based on what has already happened, while strategic planning emphasizes process over…

  8. A modified anaerobic digestion process with chemical sludge pre-treatment and its modelling.

    PubMed

    Hai, N M; Sakamoto, S; Le, V C; Kim, H S; Goel, R; Terashima, M; Yasui, H

    2014-01-01

    Activated Sludge Models (ASMs) assume an unbiodegradable organic particulate fraction in the activated sludge, which is derived from the decay of active microorganisms in the sludge and/or introduced from wastewater. In this study, a seasonal change of such activated sludge constituents in a municipal wastewater treatment plant was monitored for 1.5 years. The chemical oxygen demand ratio of the unbiodegradable particulates to the sludge showed a sinusoidal pattern ranging from 40 to 65% along with the change of water temperature in the plant that affected the decay rate. The biogas production in a laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) process was also affected by the unbiodegradable fraction in the activated sludge fed. Based on the results a chemical pre-treatment using H2O2 was conducted on the digestate to convert the unbiodegradable fraction to a biodegradable one. Once the pre-treated digestate was returned to the digester, the methane conversion increased up to 80% which was about 2.4 times as much as that of the conventional AD process, whilst 96% of volatile solids in the activated sludge was digested. From the experiment, the additional route of the organic conversion processes for the inert fraction at the pre-treatment stage was modelled on the ASM platform with reasonable simulation accuracy.

  9. Secondary hospital wastewater detoxification and disinfection by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Machado, E L; Kist, L T; Schmidt, R; Hoeltz, J M; Dalberto, D; Alcayaga, E L A

    2007-10-01

    Secondary hospital wastewater treatment was investigated as an alternative to detoxification and disinfection after anaerobic digestion in a hospital located in southern Brazil. Tertiary and secondary effluents were assessed by general parameters. The use of advanced oxidation processes (UV/O3 and UV/TiO2/O3) showed potential capacity for disinfection and detoxification of wastewater effluents. The UV/TiO2/O3 method yielded the best results, decreasing toxicity of EC50 = 65 to nontoxic levels, also reducing MPN/100ml of 1.1 x 10(6) to values less than 2 and increasing wastewater biodegradability. The low energetic consumption of the proposed UV/TiO2/O3 method can be considered operationally advantageous.

  10. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus. PMID:26253912

  11. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus.

  12. Pretreatment technologies for advancing anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper biotreatment residues.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Allan; Mahmood, Talat

    2007-11-01

    While anaerobic digestion is commonly practiced in the municipal sector, it has not gained popularity in the pulp and paper industry mainly because of its long sludge residence time requirement of 20-30 days. The construction of large digesters to provide such extended residence times is capital-intensive and thus the implementation of anaerobic digestion has remained economically prohibitive. A review of the literature suggests that recent developments in sludge preconditioning technologies have substantially reduced the sludge residence time requirement to the order of 7 days. Also, the preconditioned sludges have been reported to hold potential for higher methane recovery with reduced excess sludge production requiring disposal. Such advantages, coupled with escalating fuel prices and the introduction of carbon credits under the Kyoto Accord, have significantly improved the economics of anaerobic digestion. As the cost of sludge management varies from one mill to another, mill-specific economic assessment of anaerobic digestion could identify cost-saving opportunities. PMID:17628630

  13. Investigation of the reactions of acrylamide during in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion of thermally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the fate of acrylamide in thermally processed foods after ingestion. An in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion system simulating gastric, duodenal and colon phases was used to understand the fate of acrylamide in bakery and fried potato products. Acrylamide levels gradually decreased through gastric, duodenal and colon phases during in vitro digestion of biscuits. At the end of digestion, acrylamide reduction was between 49.2% and 73.4% in biscuits. Binary model systems composed of acrylamide and amino acids were used to understand the mechanism of acrylamide reduction. High-resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed Michael addition of amino acids to acrylamide during digestion. In contrast to bakery products, acrylamide levels increased significantly during gastric digestion of fried potatoes. The Schiff base formed between reducing sugars and asparagine disappeared rapidly, whereas the acrylamide level increased during the gastric phase. This suggests that intermediates like the Schiff base that accumulate in potatoes during frying are potential precursors of acrylamide under gastric conditions.

  14. Investigation of the reactions of acrylamide during in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion of thermally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the fate of acrylamide in thermally processed foods after ingestion. An in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion system simulating gastric, duodenal and colon phases was used to understand the fate of acrylamide in bakery and fried potato products. Acrylamide levels gradually decreased through gastric, duodenal and colon phases during in vitro digestion of biscuits. At the end of digestion, acrylamide reduction was between 49.2% and 73.4% in biscuits. Binary model systems composed of acrylamide and amino acids were used to understand the mechanism of acrylamide reduction. High-resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed Michael addition of amino acids to acrylamide during digestion. In contrast to bakery products, acrylamide levels increased significantly during gastric digestion of fried potatoes. The Schiff base formed between reducing sugars and asparagine disappeared rapidly, whereas the acrylamide level increased during the gastric phase. This suggests that intermediates like the Schiff base that accumulate in potatoes during frying are potential precursors of acrylamide under gastric conditions. PMID:25468219

  15. Ammonia removal in food waste anaerobic digestion using a side-stream stripping process.

    PubMed

    Serna-Maza, A; Heaven, S; Banks, C J

    2014-01-01

    Three 35-L anaerobic digesters fed on source segregated food waste were coupled to side-stream ammonia stripping columns and operated semi-continuously over 300 days, with results in terms of performance and stability compared to those of a control digester without stripping. Biogas was used as the stripping medium, and the columns were operated under different conditions of temperature (55, 70, 85 °C), pH (unadjusted and pH 10), and RT (2-5 days). To reduce digester TAN concentrations to a useful level a high temperature (≥70 °C) and a pH of 10 were needed; under these conditions 48% of the TAN was removed over a 138-day period without any detrimental effects on digester performance. Other effects of the stripping process were an overall reduction in digestate organic nitrogen-containing fraction compared to the control and a recovery in the acetoclastic pathway when TAN concentration was 1770±20 mg kg(-1).

  16. Ammonia removal in food waste anaerobic digestion using a side-stream stripping process.

    PubMed

    Serna-Maza, A; Heaven, S; Banks, C J

    2014-01-01

    Three 35-L anaerobic digesters fed on source segregated food waste were coupled to side-stream ammonia stripping columns and operated semi-continuously over 300 days, with results in terms of performance and stability compared to those of a control digester without stripping. Biogas was used as the stripping medium, and the columns were operated under different conditions of temperature (55, 70, 85 °C), pH (unadjusted and pH 10), and RT (2-5 days). To reduce digester TAN concentrations to a useful level a high temperature (≥70 °C) and a pH of 10 were needed; under these conditions 48% of the TAN was removed over a 138-day period without any detrimental effects on digester performance. Other effects of the stripping process were an overall reduction in digestate organic nitrogen-containing fraction compared to the control and a recovery in the acetoclastic pathway when TAN concentration was 1770±20 mg kg(-1). PMID:24300847

  17. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  18. Hyperspectral imaging techniques applied to the monitoring of wine waste anaerobic digestion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    An anaerobic digestion process, finalized to biogas production, is characterized by different steps involving the variation of some chemical and physical parameters related to the presence of specific biomasses as: pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile solids, nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO3-). A correct process characterization requires a periodical sampling of the organic mixture in the reactor and a further analysis of the samples by traditional chemical-physical methods. Such an approach is discontinuous, time-consuming and expensive. A new analytical approach based on hyperspectral imaging in the NIR field (1000 to 1700 nm) is investigated and critically evaluated, with reference to the monitoring of wine waste anaerobic digestion process. The application of the proposed technique was addressed to identify and demonstrate the correlation existing, in terms of quality and reliability of the results, between "classical" chemical-physical parameters and spectral features of the digestate samples. Good results were obtained, ranging from a R2=0.68 and a RMSECV=12.83 mg/l for nitrate to a R2=0.90 and a RMSECV=5495.16 mg O2/l for COD. The proposed approach seems very useful in setting up innovative control strategies allowing for full, continuous control of the anaerobic digestion process.

  19. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  20. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning.

  1. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook summarizes commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced photochemical oxidation (APO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and solids. Similar information from pilot- and bench-scale evaluations of APO processes is also included to supplement the...

  2. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED NONPHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this handbook is to summarize commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced nonphotochemical oxidation (ANPO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and soil. Similar information from pilot-and bench-scale evaluations of ANPO processes is also inclu...

  3. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  4. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former.

  5. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former. PMID:27143217

  6. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  7. The alkaloid gramine in the anaerobic digestion process-inhibition and adaptation of the methanogenic community.

    PubMed

    Popp, Denny; Harms, Hauke; Sträuber, Heike

    2016-08-01

    As many plant secondary metabolites have antimicrobial activity, microorganisms of the anaerobic digestion process might be affected when plant material rich in these compounds is digested. Hitherto, the effects of plant secondary metabolites on the anaerobic digestion process are poorly investigated. In this study, the alkaloid gramine, a constituent of reed canary grass, was added daily to a continuous co-digestion of grass silage and cow manure. A transient decrease of the methane yield by 17 % and a subsequent recovery was observed, but no effect on other process parameters. When gramine was infrequently spiked in higher amounts, the observed inhibitory effect was even more pronounced including a 53 % decrease of the methane yield and an increase of acetic acid concentrations up to 96 mM. However, the process recovered and the process parameters were finally at initial values (methane yield around 255 LN CH4 per gram volatile solids of substrate and acetic acid concentration lower than 2 mM). The bacterial communities of the reactors remained stable upon gramine addition. In contrast, the methanogenic community changed from a well-balanced mixture of five phylotypes towards a strong dominance of Methanosarcina (more than two thirds of the methanogenic community) while Methanosaeta disappeared. Batch inhibition assays revealed that acetic acid was only converted to methane via acetoclastic methanogenesis which was more strongly affected by gramine than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis. Hence, when acetoclastic methanogenesis is the dominant pathway, a shift of the methanogenic community is necessary to digest gramine-rich plant material. PMID:27138201

  8. Molecular disassembly of rice and lotus starches during thermal processing and its effect on starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-02-01

    The molecular disassembly of starch during thermal processing is a major determinant for the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion. In the present study, the effects of thermal processing on the disassembly of the granular structure and the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of rice and lotus starches were investigated. After heating at 50 °C, rice and lotus starches did not show significant changes in granular morphology, long-range crystallinity and short-range molecular order. As the temperature increased to 60 °C, rice starch underwent a partial gelatinization followed by an incomplete disruption of granular morphology, crystallites and molecular order. In contrast, lotus starch was almost completely gelatinized at 60 °C. At 70 °C or higher, both starches were fully gelatinized with complete disruption of the micro and macro structures. Our results show that gelatinization greatly increased the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of both starches, but that the degree of disassembly of the starch structure during thermal processing was not a major determinant of the digestibility of gelatinized starch. PMID:26829664

  9. Molecular disassembly of rice and lotus starches during thermal processing and its effect on starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-02-01

    The molecular disassembly of starch during thermal processing is a major determinant for the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion. In the present study, the effects of thermal processing on the disassembly of the granular structure and the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of rice and lotus starches were investigated. After heating at 50 °C, rice and lotus starches did not show significant changes in granular morphology, long-range crystallinity and short-range molecular order. As the temperature increased to 60 °C, rice starch underwent a partial gelatinization followed by an incomplete disruption of granular morphology, crystallites and molecular order. In contrast, lotus starch was almost completely gelatinized at 60 °C. At 70 °C or higher, both starches were fully gelatinized with complete disruption of the micro and macro structures. Our results show that gelatinization greatly increased the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of both starches, but that the degree of disassembly of the starch structure during thermal processing was not a major determinant of the digestibility of gelatinized starch.

  10. Bioactive peptides released during of digestion of processed milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the proteins contained in milk consist of alpha-s1-, alpha-s2-, beta- and kappa-casein, and some of the peptides contained in these caseins may impart health benefits. To determine if processing affected release of peptides, samples of raw (R), homogenized (H), homogenized and pasteurized (...

  11. Effect of cattle age, forage level, and corn processing on diet digestibility and feedlot performance.

    PubMed

    Gorocica-Buenfil, M A; Loerch, S C

    2005-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of cattle age and dietary forage level on the utilization of corn fed whole or ground to feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 16 steers were used to investigate the effects of cattle age and corn processing on diet digestibility. Two cattle age categories were evaluated (weanling [254 +/- 20 kg BW] and yearling [477 +/- 29 kg BW]; eight steers per group), and corn was fed either ground or whole to each cattle age category. Cattle age and corn processing did not affect (P > 0.10) diet digestibility of DM, OM, starch, CP, NDF or ADF, and no interactions (P > 0.10) between these two factors were detected. In Exp. 2, the effects of forage level and corn processing on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated. One hundred eighty steers (310 +/- 40 kg BW) were allotted to 24 pens, and were fed one of the following diets: high-forage (18.2% corn silage) cracked corn (HFCC); high-forage shifting corn (whole corn for the first half of the trial, then cracked corn until harvest; HFSC); high-forage whole corn (HFWC); low-forage (5.2% corn silage) cracked corn (LFCC); low-forage shifting corn (LFSC); and low-forage whole corn (LFWC). For the high-forage diets, steers fed cracked corn had 7% greater DMI than those fed whole corn, whereas for the low-forage diets, grain processing did not affect DMI (interaction; P = 0.02). No interactions (P > 0.10) between forage level and corn processing were found for ADG and G:F. Total trial ADG and G:F, and percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice, and carcass yield grade were not affected (P > 0.10) by corn processing. Cattle with fewer days on feed grew faster and more efficiently when cracked corn was fed, whereas cattle with longer days on feed had greater ADG and G:F when corn was fed whole (interaction; P < 0.10). In Exp. 3, the effects of forage level and corn processing on diet digestibility were evaluated. The high-forage cracked corn, high-forage whole corn

  12. Advanced controlling of anaerobic digestion by means of hierarchical neural networks.

    PubMed

    Holubar, Peter; Zani, Loredana; Hager, Michael; Fröschl, Walter; Radak, Zorana; Braun, Rudolf

    2002-05-01

    In this work several feed-forward back propagation neural networks (FFBP) were trained in order to model, and subsequently control, methane production in anaerobic digesters. To produce data for the training of the neural nets, four anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors were operated in steady-state conditions at organic loading rates (Br) of about 2 kg m(-3) d(-1) chemical oxygen demand, and disturbed by pulse-like increase of the organic loading rate. For the pulses additional carbon sources like flour, sucrose, 1,2-diethylen glycol or vegetable oil were added to the basic feed, which consisted of surplus and primary sludge of a local waste-water treatment plant, to increase the chemical oxygen demand. Measured parameters were: gas composition, methane production rate, volatile fatty acid concentration, pH, redox potential, volatile suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand of feed and effluent. A hierarchical system of nets was developed and embedded in a decision support system to find out which is the best feeding profile for the next time steps in advance. A 3-3-1 FFBP simulated the pH with a regression coefficient of 0.82. A 9-3-3 FFBP simulated the volatile fatty acid concentration in the sludge with a regression coefficient of 0.86. And a 9-3-2 FFBP simulated the gas production and gas composition with a regression coefficient of 0.90 and 0.80, respectively. A lab-scale anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor controlled by this tool was able to maintain a methane concentration of about 60% at a rather high gas production rate of between 5 and 5.6 m3 m(-3) d(-1).

  13. Advanced controlling of anaerobic digestion by means of hierarchical neural networks.

    PubMed

    Holubar, Peter; Zani, Loredana; Hager, Michael; Fröschl, Walter; Radak, Zorana; Braun, Rudolf

    2002-05-01

    In this work several feed-forward back propagation neural networks (FFBP) were trained in order to model, and subsequently control, methane production in anaerobic digesters. To produce data for the training of the neural nets, four anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors were operated in steady-state conditions at organic loading rates (Br) of about 2 kg m(-3) d(-1) chemical oxygen demand, and disturbed by pulse-like increase of the organic loading rate. For the pulses additional carbon sources like flour, sucrose, 1,2-diethylen glycol or vegetable oil were added to the basic feed, which consisted of surplus and primary sludge of a local waste-water treatment plant, to increase the chemical oxygen demand. Measured parameters were: gas composition, methane production rate, volatile fatty acid concentration, pH, redox potential, volatile suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand of feed and effluent. A hierarchical system of nets was developed and embedded in a decision support system to find out which is the best feeding profile for the next time steps in advance. A 3-3-1 FFBP simulated the pH with a regression coefficient of 0.82. A 9-3-3 FFBP simulated the volatile fatty acid concentration in the sludge with a regression coefficient of 0.86. And a 9-3-2 FFBP simulated the gas production and gas composition with a regression coefficient of 0.90 and 0.80, respectively. A lab-scale anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor controlled by this tool was able to maintain a methane concentration of about 60% at a rather high gas production rate of between 5 and 5.6 m3 m(-3) d(-1). PMID:12153025

  14. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  15. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03].

  16. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Kamloops Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2002-05-09

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at five locations roughly equi-spaced from top to bottom of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 60 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of one year. Historical vessel inspection data, including inspections accomplished immediately prior to and immediately following probe deployment, and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare corrosion indications from the probes with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. The results indicate that furnish composition is a significant variable influencing digester corrosion, with increasing amounts of Douglas fir in the nominal furnish correlating directly with increased corrosion activity on the ECN probes. All five probes detected changes in furnish composition approximately simultaneously, indicating rapid chemical communication through the liquor, but the effect was strongest and persisted longest relatively high in the digester. The ECN probes also indicate significant corrosion activity occurred at each probe position during shutdown/restart transients. Little or no correlation between ECN probe corrosion activity and other operational variables was observed. Post-test evaluation of the probes confirmed general corrosion of a magnitude that closely agreed with corrosion current sums calculated for each probe over the exposure period and with historical average corrosion rates for the respective locations. Further, no pitting was observed on any of the electrodes, which is consistent with the ECN data, relevant polarization curves developed for steel in liquor removed from the digester, and the post-test inspection of the digester.

  17. Feasibility of grass co-digestion in an agricultural digester, influence on process parameters and residue composition.

    PubMed

    De Moor, S; Velghe, F; Wierinck, I; Michels, E; Ryckaert, B; De Vocht, A; Verbeke, W; Meers, E

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the potential of co-digestion of grass clippings in a typical Flemish agro-digester characterized by an input of 30% manure, 30% maize silage and 40% side streams. No significant adverse effects in the microbiological functioning of the reactors were detected when part of the maize input was replaced by 10-20% grass. However at the highest dosage of grass input, dry matter content and the viscosity of the reactor content increased substantially. These parameters could be reduced again by enzyme addition in the form of MethaPlus L100. It can be concluded that co-digestion of 20% grass in an agricultural digester would not pose any problem if dry matter content and viscosity are improved by the use of an enzyme mixture.

  18. Malting process optimization for protein digestibility enhancement in finger millet grain.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sara Najdi; Orsat, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a nutritious, gluten-free, and drought resistant cereal containing high amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and minerals. However, bio-availability of these nutrients is restricted due to the presence of an excessive level of anti-nutrient components, mainly phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate. It has been shown that a well-designed malting/germination process can significantly reduce these anti-nutrients and consequently enhance the nutrient availability. In the present study, the effects of two important germination factors, duration and temperature, on the enhancement of in-vitro protein digestibility of finger millet were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Based on a central composite design, the grains were germinated for 24, 36, and 48 h at 22, 26, and 30 °C. For all factor combinations, protein, peptide, phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents were evaluated and digestibility was assessed. It was shown that during the malting/germinating process, both temperature and duration factors significantly influenced the investigated quantities. Germination of finger millet for 48 h at 30 °C increased protein digestibility from 74 % (for native grain) up to 91 %. Besides, it notably decreased phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents by 45 %, 46 %, and 29 %, respectively. Linear correlations between protein digestibility and these anti-nutrients were observed. PMID:27413219

  19. Processing effects on susceptibility of starch to digestion in some dietary starch sources.

    PubMed

    Niba, Lorraine L

    2003-01-01

    Maize flour, potato flour, cocoyam flour, plantain flour, yam flour, and rice flour were assayed for starch digestibility by an established enzymatic procedure. These were either autoclaved, microwaved, or parboiled and then freeze-dried. Freeze-dried samples were stored for 10 days either below freezing or at ambient temperature. Parameters assessed were readily digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and total starch (TS). Data was analyzed by t-test (P < or = 0.05). RDS levels among raw flours ranged from 1.01 g/100g in rice flour to 8.16 g/100 g in cocoyam flour. Autoclaving and parboiling increased RDS levels in most flours, while microwaving significantly reduced RDS compared with raw flour. Ambient temperature storage reduced the RDS content. SDS levels ranged from 4.95 g/100 g in yam flour to 22.2 g/100 g in maize flour. SDS levels were increased by autoclaving and parboling, but significantly reduced by microwaving, compared with the raw flour. Storage at ambient temperature resulted in lower SDS. The TS content in raw flour ranged from 28.0 g/100 g in plantain flour to 68.4 g/100 g in rice flour. Autoclaving resulted in reduced TS levels insome flours. Moist heat processing and the post-process storage temperature therefore result in significant changes in starch susceptibility to enzymic digestion. This information will be useful in developing food processing and storage procedures that modify starch resistance to digestion in order to optimize its nutritional quality and to enhance the physiological benefits.

  20. Advanced parallel processing with supercomputer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K.

    1987-10-01

    This paper investigates advanced parallel processing techniques and innovative hardware/software architectures that can be applied to boost the performance of supercomputers. Critical issues on architectural choices, parallel languages, compiling techniques, resource management, concurrency control, programming environment, parallel algorithms, and performance enhancement methods are examined and the best answers are presented. The authors cover advanced processing techniques suitable for supercomputers, high-end mainframes, minisupers, and array processors. The coverage emphasizes vectorization, multitasking, multiprocessing, and distributed computing. In order to achieve these operation modes, parallel languages, smart compilers, synchronization mechanisms, load balancing methods, mapping parallel algorithms, operating system functions, application library, and multidiscipline interactions are investigated to ensure high performance. At the end, they assess the potentials of optical and neural technologies for developing future supercomputers.

  1. Super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) enhanced two-stage anaerobic digestion process for recycling municipal solid waste: laboratory pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Vogt, G M; Liu, H W; Kennedy, K J; Vogt, H S; Holbein, B E

    2002-12-01

    The super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) process is an enhanced, multi-stage anaerobic digestion process for mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) and other biomass feedstock materials. The technology centers on enhanced high solids, thermophilic digestion after steam-pressure disruption of the ligno-cellulosic fiber components that are recalcitrant to conventional anaerobic digestion. Mixed MSW, rich in organic components but also containing inorganic materials, such as glass, aluminum and steel, as well as non-digestible plastic materials, has been laboratory pilot tested with a fully integrated process train designed to treat and recycle all of the MSW components. Methane yields from the MSW were 0.36 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) representing a 40% increase over the yield obtained from conventional single stage digestion. The secondary digestion step after steam pressure disruption also provided a 40% improvement in total solids and VS reduction. The residual organic fraction following two-stage digestion was fine in texture and was recovered as a clean peat fraction with reduced contents of heavy metal and other fugitive non-digested contaminants. Mass and energy balance determinations indicated a high degree of MSW diversion from landfill disposal (>80%) was achievable by the SUBBOR process as well as substantial net electrical and thermal energy production. Continuous long-term trials of the SUBBOR process at 25,000 tonnes/year are underway.

  2. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces. PMID:27030693

  3. Biogas production from mono-digestion of maize silage-long-term process stability and requirements.

    PubMed

    Lebuhn, M; Liu, F; Heuwinkel, H; Gronauer, A

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production from mono-digestion of maize silage was studied for more than one year in six continuously stirred, daily fed 36 L fermenters. Chemical and microbiological parameters were analysed concomitantly. The reactors acidified already after 8 months of operation at a low organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g VS*(L*d)(-1). The TVA/TAC ratio was the most reliable parameter to indicate early process instabilities leading to acidification. A TVA/TAC threshold of 0.5 should not be exceeded. After acidification and recovery of the fermenters, propionic acid was no reliable parameter anymore to indicate process failure, since values far below the threshold of 1 g*L(-1) were obtained although the process had collapsed.The acidified reactors recovered better, showed greatly improved stability and allowed a higher OLR when a trace element (TE) cocktail was supplemented. Hydrolysis was obviously not process-limiting, results indicated that methanogens were affected. The most limiting element in long-term mono-digestion of maize silage turned out to be cobalt, but data obtained suggest that molybdenum and selenium should also be provided. TE supplementation should be designed specifically in order to meet the actual needs. TE availability for the biocenosis appears to be a key issue in biogas production, not only in mono-but also in co-digestion processes. PMID:19001720

  4. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  5. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  6. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  7. Ammonia removal from raw manure digestate by means of a turbulent mixing stripping process.

    PubMed

    Limoli, Alice; Langone, Michela; Andreottola, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ammonia stripping by means of a turbulent mixing process followed by pH neutralization was investigated as a simple and cost-effective ammonia removal technique to treat raw manure digestate. Batch tests conducted using CaO, NaOH and H2O2 to control pH and temperature and combinations thereof showed that sodium hydroxide was the most suitable chemical, as it is easy to handle, minimizes treatment time and costs, does not increase the solid content of the sludge and allows to easily control the stripping process. NaOH dosage mainly depended on buffering capacity rather than on total solid content. The analysis of the ammonia stripping process indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH, and ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Total solid content slightly influenced TAN removal efficiency. When NaOH was applied to treat raw digestate at pH 10 and mean temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, TAN removal efficiency reached 88.7% after 24 h of turbulent mixing stripping, without reaching inhibitory salinity levels. Moreover, pH neutralization with sulfuric acid following the stripping process improved raw digestate dewaterability. PMID:27031295

  8. Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

  9. Microbial community structure in a thermophilic aerobic digester used as a sludge pretreatment process for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the enhancement of methane production.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-10-01

    An effective two-stage sewage sludge digestion process, consisting of thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), was developed for efficient sludge reduction and methane production. Using TAD as a biological pretreatment, the total volatile suspended solid reduction (VSSR) and methane production rate (MPR) in the MAD reactor were significantly improved. According to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the results indicated that the dominant bacteria species such as Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus in TAD were major routes for enhancing soluble organic matter. TAD pretreatment using a relatively short SRT of 1 day showed highly increased soluble organic products and positively affected an increment of bacteria populations which performed interrelated microbial metabolisms with methanogenic species in the MAD; consequently, a quantitative real-time PCR indicated greatly increased Methanosarcinales (acetate-utilizing methanogens) in the MAD, resulting in enhanced methane production.

  10. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  11. A novel process simulation model (PSM) for anaerobic digestion using Aspen Plus.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Karthik; Kankanala, Harshavardhan R; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-09-01

    A novel process simulation model (PSM) was developed for biogas production in anaerobic digesters using Aspen Plus®. The PSM is a library model of anaerobic digestion, which predicts the biogas production from any substrate at any given process condition. A total of 46 reactions were used in the model, which include inhibitions, rate-kinetics, pH, ammonia, volume, loading rate, and retention time. The hydrolysis reactions were based on the extent of the reaction, while the acidogenic, acetogenic, and methanogenic reactions were based on the kinetics. The PSM was validated against a variety of lab and industrial data on anaerobic digestion. The P-value after statistical analysis was found to be 0.701, which showed that there was no significant difference between discrete validations and processing conditions. The sensitivity analysis for a ±10% change in composition of substrate and extent of reaction results in 5.285% higher value than the experimental value. The model is available at http://hdl.handle.net/2320/12358 (Rajendran et al., 2013b).

  12. Recovery of ammonia in digestates of calf manure through a struvite precipitation process using unconventional reagents.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, A; De Rosa, S

    2014-01-01

    Land spreading of digestates causes the discharge of large quantities of nutrients into the environment, which contributes to eutrophication and depletion of dissolved oxygen in water bodies. For the removal of ammonia nitrogen, there is increasing interest in the chemical precipitation of struvite, which is a mineral that can be reused as a slow-release fertilizer. However, this process is an expensive treatment of digestate because large amounts of magnesium and phosphorus reagents are required. In this paper, a struvite precipitation-based process is proposed for an efficient recovery of digestate nutrients using low-cost reagents. In particular, seawater bittern, a by-product of marine salt manufacturing and bone meal, a by-product of the thermal treatment of meat waste, have been used as low-cost sources of magnesium and phosphorus, respectively. Once the operating conditions are defined, the process enables the removal of more than 90% ammonia load, the almost complete recovery of magnesium and phosphorus and the production of a potentially valuable precipitate containing struvite crystals.

  13. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  14. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production.

  15. [Pilot study of thermal treatment/thermophilic anaerobic digestion process treating waste activated sludge of high solid content].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Guang-qi; Cao, Zhi-ping; Li, Zhong-hua; Hu, Yu-ying; Wang, Kai-jun; Zu, Jian-e

    2014-09-01

    A pilot-scale experiment about the process of "thermal pretreatment at 70°C/thermophilic anaerobic digestion" of waste activated sludge of high solid content (8% -9% ) was conducted. The process employed thermal treatment of 3 days to accelerate the hydrolysis and thermophilic digestion to enhance anaerobic reaction. Thus it was good at organic removal and stabilization. When the solid retention time (SRT) was longer than 20 days, the VSS removal rate was greater than 42. 22% and it was linearly correlated to the SRT of the aerobic digestion with the R2 of 0. 915 3. It was suggested that SRT of anaerobic digestion was 25 days in practice. VSS removal rate and biogas production rate of the pilot experiment were similar to those of the run-well traditional full-scale sludge anaerobic digestion plants (solid content 3% -5% ) and the plant of high solid content using German technique.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by lime mud from papermaking process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Qinqing; Zheng, Pengwei; Wang, Yusong

    2014-10-01

    The effects of lime mud from papermaking process (LMP) addition as buffer agent and inorganic nutrient on the anaerobic digestion stability of food waste (FW) were investigated under mesophilic conditions with the aim of avoiding volatile fatty acids accumulation, and inorganic elements deficiency. When LMP concentration ranged from 6.0 to 10g/L, the FW anaerobic digestion could maintain efficient and stable state. These advantages are attributed to the existence of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Fe, and alkaline substances that favor the methanogenic process. The highest CH4 yield of 272.8mL/g-VS was obtained at LMP and VS concentrations of 10.0 and 19.8g/L, respectively, with the corresponding lag-phase time of 3.84d and final pH of 8.4. The methanogens from residue digestates mainly consisted of Methanobrevibacter, coccus-type and sarcina-type methanogens with LMP addition compared to Methanobacteria in control. However, higher concentration of LMP inhibited methanogenic activities and methane production. PMID:25151070

  17. Anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by lime mud from papermaking process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Qinqing; Zheng, Pengwei; Wang, Yusong

    2014-10-01

    The effects of lime mud from papermaking process (LMP) addition as buffer agent and inorganic nutrient on the anaerobic digestion stability of food waste (FW) were investigated under mesophilic conditions with the aim of avoiding volatile fatty acids accumulation, and inorganic elements deficiency. When LMP concentration ranged from 6.0 to 10g/L, the FW anaerobic digestion could maintain efficient and stable state. These advantages are attributed to the existence of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Fe, and alkaline substances that favor the methanogenic process. The highest CH4 yield of 272.8mL/g-VS was obtained at LMP and VS concentrations of 10.0 and 19.8g/L, respectively, with the corresponding lag-phase time of 3.84d and final pH of 8.4. The methanogens from residue digestates mainly consisted of Methanobrevibacter, coccus-type and sarcina-type methanogens with LMP addition compared to Methanobacteria in control. However, higher concentration of LMP inhibited methanogenic activities and methane production.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Utility of process residues as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.; Kay, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tuna processing wastes (sludges high in fat, oil, and grease [FOG]) and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal challenge. The biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products, including methane and fertilizer-grade residue, through anaerobic high-solids digestion is currently in scale-up development. The suitability of the anaerobic digestion residues as a soil amendment was evaluated through extensive chemical analysis and greenhouse studies using corn as an indicator crop. Additionally, native Samoan soil was used to evaluate the specific application rates for the compost. Experiments established that anaerobic residues increase crop yields in direct proportion to increases in the application rate. Additionally, nutrient saturation was not demonstrated within the range of application rates evaluated for the Samoan soil. Beyond nutrient supplementation, organic residue amendment to Samoan soil imparts enhanced water and nutrient-binding capacities.

  19. Advanced bioreactor concepts for coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The development of advanced bioreactor systems for the processing of coal should follow some basic principles. Continuous operation is preferred, with maximum bioreagent concentrations and enhanced mass transfer. Although conventional stirred-tank bioreactors will be more appropriate for some processing concepts, columnar reactors with retained bioreagents could be the system of choice for most of the applications. Serious consideration must now be given to process development of some biological coal processing concepts. Process biology and biochemistry will continue to be very important, but efficient bioreactor systems will be necessary for economic feasibility. Conventional bioreactor concepts will be useful for some applications, but columnar systems represent an innovative approach to the design of continuous bioreactors with high productivity and good operational control. Fluidized and packed beds are the most promising configurations, especially where three-phase operation is required and where interphase mass transport is a likely controlling mechanism. Although the biocatalyst must be immobilized into or onto particles to be retained in the bioreactors, this also results in a very high biocatalyst concentration without washout and a significant enhancement in bioconversion rates. The multistage nature of these types of bioreactors also contributes to higher efficiencies for many types of biocatalytic processes. 25 refs.

  20. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Spring Grove Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2003-06-18

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank. The probes consisted of carbon steel electrodes, representing the vessel construction material, and 309LSi stainless steel overlay electrodes, representing the weld overlay repair in a portion of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 32 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare ECN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate ECN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the high general corrosion rates of steel observed just below the extraction screens--on the order of 35 mils/y for the past few years--accelerated further during the period of probe deployment. The maximum wastage of steel (normalized to one full year exposure) was about 85 mils/y at the ring 6N probe just below the extraction screens. Consistent with recent historical observations, the steel corrosion rate at the ring 6S probe--at the same elevation but directly across the digester from ring 6N--was significantly lower at about 50 mils/y. Just prior to probe deployment, the digester shell below the extraction screens was overlaid with 309LSi stainless steel, which was observed to be essentially immune to corrosion at this location. While the ECN probes detected differences in electrochemical behavior between steel probes and between 309LSi probes at rings 6N and 6S, there was only poor quantitative correlation of current sums with actual corrosion rates at these locations. A significant contribution of redox reactions on both steel

  1. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, P; Angelidaki, I

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the optimum time interval for effluent removal after temporarily stopping stirring in otherwise continuously stirred tank reactors. Influence of temperature (10 and 55 degrees C) and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure, where no outside mechanical or chemical action was used, within the reactor was studied in three vertical settling columns (100 cm deep). Variations in solids and microbial distribution at top, middle and bottom layers of column were assessed over a 15 day settling period. Results showed that best solids separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum solids separation was noticed 24h after settling in column incubated at 55 degrees C, with active biogas process. Microbiological analyses revealed that proportion of Archaea and Bacteria, absent in the autoclaved material, varied with incubation temperature, time and sampling depth. Short rod shaped bacteria dominated at 55 degrees C, while long rod shaped bacteria dominated at 10 degrees C. Methanosarcinaceae were seen more abundant in the surface layer at 55 degrees C while it was seen more common in the top and bottom layers at 10 degrees C. Thus, passive separation of digester contents within the reactor can be used effectively as an operating strategy to optimize biogas production by increasing the solids and biomass retention times. A minimum of 1-2h "non-stirring" period appears to be optimal time before effluent removal in plants where extraction is batch-wise 2-4 times a day.

  2. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development.

  3. Effect of alkaline pH-shift processing on in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of herring (Clupea harengus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Marmon, Sofia K; Undeland, Ingrid

    2013-05-01

    The effect of alkaline pH-shift processing on herring (Clupea harengus) protein oxidation, salt solubility and digestibility, has been evaluated. For the latter, herring mince and pH-shift produced herring protein isolate, both raw and heat-treated, were digested using a static gastrointestinal in vitro model. The pH-shift process resulted in drastically lowered protein salt solubility and increased lipid oxidation while protein carbonyl formation was unaffected. Yet, no significant differences in the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were observed between mince and isolates after completed gastrointestinal digestion, something which was confirmed by a similar release of proteinaceous material <3 kDa and similar free amino acid profiles. The polypeptide profiles of digested samples however revealed that two peptides (33 and 36 kDa) were present in larger amounts in the digested protein isolate compared to the digested herring mince. The results indicate that alkaline pH-shift processing had limited quantitative influence on the gastrointestinal digestibility of herring proteins despite its negative effects on protein salt solubility and lipid oxidation.

  4. Effects of processing methods on amaranth starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Capriles, V D; Coelho, K D; Guerra-Matias, A C; Arêas, J A G

    2008-09-01

    Amaranth has attracted a great deal of interest in recent decades due to its valuable nutritional, functional, and agricultural characteristics. Amaranth seeds can be cooked, popped, roasted, flaked, or extruded for consumption. This study compared the in vitro starch digestibility of processed amaranth seeds to that of white bread. Raw seeds yielded rapidly digestible starch content (RDS) of 30.7% db and predicted glycemic index (pGI) of 87.2, the lowest among the studied products. Cooked, extruded, and popped amaranth seeds had starch digestibility similar to that of white bread (92.4, 91.2, and 101.3, respectively), while flaked and roasted seeds generated a slightly increased glycemic response (106.0 and 105.8, respectively). Cooking and extrusion did not alter the RDS contents of the seeds. No significant differences were observed among popped, flaked, and roasted RDS contents (38.0%, 46.3%, and 42.9%, respectively), which were all lower than RDS content of bread (51.1%). Amaranth seed is a high glycemic food most likely because of its small starch granule size, low resistant starch content (< 1%), and tendency to completely lose its crystalline and granular starch structure during those heat treatments.

  5. Evaluation of a Ca-modified porphyritic andesite for ammonium removal in the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Ca-modified porphyritic andesite (wheat-rice-stone (WRS)) was developed for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich wastes. The Ca-modified WRS was obtained with integrated Ca-salt treatment and calcination. Scanning electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses were performed to characterize the Ca-modified WRS, and adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated to clarify the adsorption mechanism. The ammonium adsorption process was explained well with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The specific surface area of the Ca-modified WRS was determined to be 4.56 sq. m/g, and the maximum NH4(+)-N adsorption capacity was determined to be 45.45 mg/g. These values are improvements over those of natural WRS. The ammonium adsorption capacity remained constant at a pH range from 5.0 to 9.0, which indicates that Ca-modified WRS is a promising material for various applications. The methane-production and chemical oxygen demand-removal aspects of anaerobic digestion were much improved with the addition of Ca-modified WRS. Therefore, Ca-modified WRS could be developed into a viable ammonium adsorbent for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich wastes.

  6. Evaluation of a Ca-modified porphyritic andesite for ammonium removal in the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Ca-modified porphyritic andesite (wheat-rice-stone (WRS)) was developed for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich wastes. The Ca-modified WRS was obtained with integrated Ca-salt treatment and calcination. Scanning electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses were performed to characterize the Ca-modified WRS, and adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated to clarify the adsorption mechanism. The ammonium adsorption process was explained well with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The specific surface area of the Ca-modified WRS was determined to be 4.56 sq. m/g, and the maximum NH4(+)-N adsorption capacity was determined to be 45.45 mg/g. These values are improvements over those of natural WRS. The ammonium adsorption capacity remained constant at a pH range from 5.0 to 9.0, which indicates that Ca-modified WRS is a promising material for various applications. The methane-production and chemical oxygen demand-removal aspects of anaerobic digestion were much improved with the addition of Ca-modified WRS. Therefore, Ca-modified WRS could be developed into a viable ammonium adsorbent for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich wastes. PMID:23837319

  7. Pig slurry concentration by vacuum evaporation: influence of previous mesophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, August; Flotats, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Water can be removed from pig slurry by evaporation, through the application of wasted heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective of water removal is to obtain water as condensate, which could be reused. The objective of this work was to study the vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction and to evaluate condensate composition as a function of both pH (4, 5, and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Batch experiments showed that condensate characteristics, total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and chemical oxygen demand were strongly dependent on initial slurry pH. In addition to producing part of the required thermal energy, previous anaerobic digestion presented several other clear advantages. The consumption of VFA and other volatile organic compounds during anaerobic digestion reduced the volatilization of organic matter in the evaporation treatment and, consequently, provided a higher quality condensate.

  8. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  9. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  10. Processing conditions affect nutrient digestibility of cold-pressed canola cake for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, R W; Beltranena, E; Newkirk, R W; Goonewardene, L A; Zijlstra, R T

    2011-08-01

    Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 µmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in heated vs. nonheated conditions and 8% greater (P < 0.05) in fast vs. slow screw speed without interaction, indicating that heat enhanced energy digestibility. The AID of energy of cold-pressed canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P < 0.01) than expeller-pressed canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P < 0.05) for SID of AA of test ingredients, but effects were not consistent among AA. The DE and calculated NE content of cold-pressed canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P=0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola

  11. Treatment of digestate from a co-digestion biogas plant by means of vacuum evaporation: tests for process optimization and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, A; da Borso, F; Chiumenti, R; Teri, F; Segantin, P

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum evaporation consists in the boiling of a liquid substrate at negative pressure, at a temperature lower than typical boiling temperature at atmospheric conditions. Condensed vapor represents the so called condensate, while the remaining substrate represents the concentrate. This technology is derived from other sectors and is mainly dedicated to the recovery of chemicals from industrial by-products, while it has not been widely implemented yet in the field of agricultural digestate treatment. The present paper relates on experimental tests performed in pilot-scale vacuum evaporation plants (0.100 and 0.025 m(3)), treating filtered digestate (liquid fraction of digestate filtered by a screw-press separator). Digestate was produced by a 1 MWe anaerobic digestion plant fed with swine manure, corn silage and other biomasses. Different system and process configurations were tested (single-stage and two-stage, with and without acidification) with the main objectives of assessing the technical feasibility and of optimizing process parameters for an eventual technology transfer to full scale systems. The inputs and outputs of the process were subject to characterization and mass and nutrients balances were determined. The vacuum evaporation process determined a relevant mass reduction of digestate. The single stage configuration determined the production of a concentrate, still in liquid phase, with a total solid (TS) mean concentration of 15.0%, representing, in terms of mass, 20.2% of the input; the remaining 79.8% was represented by condensate. The introduction of the second stage allowed to obtain a solid concentrate, characterized by a content of TS of 59.0% and representing 5.6% of initial mass. Nitrogen balance was influenced by digestate pH: in order to limit the stripping of ammonia and its transfer to condensate it was necessary to reduce the pH. At pH 5, 97.5% of total nitrogen remained in the concentrate. This product was characterized by very high

  12. Lab-scale demonstration of recuperative thickening technology for enhanced biogas production and dewaterability in anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Aubry, Nicholas; Zhang, Victor; Rollings-Scattergood, Sasha; Latulippe, David R

    2016-05-15

    There is growing interest in the use of high performance anaerobic digestion (AD) processes for the production of biogas at wastewater treatment facilities to offset the energy demands associated with wastewater treatment. Recuperative thickening (RT) is a promising technique which involves recycling a portion of the digested solids back to the incoming feed. In general there exists a significant number of knowledge gaps in the field of RT because the studies that have been conducted to date have almost exclusively occurred in pilot plant or full scale trials; this approach greatly limits the amount of process optimization that can be done in a given trial. In this work, a detailed and comprehensive study of RT was conducted at the lab scale; two custom designed digesters (capacity = 1.5 L) were operated in parallel with one acting as a 'control' digester and the other operating under a semi-batch RT mode. There was no significant change in biogas methane composition for the two digesters, however the RT digester had an average biogas productivity over two times higher than the control one. It was found that the recycling of the polymer flocculant back into the RT digester resulted in a significant improvement in dewatering performance. At the highest polymer concentration tested, the capillary suction time (CST) values for flocculated samples for the RT digester were over 6 times lower than the corresponding values for the control digester. Thus, there exists an opportunity to decrease the overall consumption of polymer flocculants through judicious selection of the dose of polymer flocculant that is used both for the thickening and end-stage dewatering steps in RT processes. PMID:26986495

  13. Advanced laser processing of glass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Obata, Kotaro; Cheng, Ya; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2003-09-01

    Three kinds of advanced technologies using lasers for glass microprocessing are reviewed. Simultaneous irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser beam, which possesses extremely small laser fluence, with ultraviolet (UV) laser achieves enhanced high surface and edge quality ablation in fused silica and other hard materials with little debris deposition as well as high-speed and high-efficiency refractive index modification of fused silica (VUV-UV multiwavelength excitation processing). Metal plasma generated by the laser beam effectively assists high-quality ablation of transparent materials, resulting in surface microstructuring, high-speed holes drilling, crack-free marking, color marking, painting and metal interconnection for the various kinds of glass materials (laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA)). In the meanwhile, a nature of multiphoton absorption of femtosecond laser by transparent materials realizes fabrication of true three-dimensional microstructures embedded in photosensitive glass.

  14. Novel imazethapyr detoxification applying advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Stathis, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra G; Scrano, Laura; Lelario, Filomena; Emanuele, Lucia; Bufo, Sabino A

    2011-01-01

    Different degradation methods have been applied to assess the suitability of advanced oxidation process (AOPs) to promote mineralization of imazethapyr [(RS)-5-ethyl-2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)nicotinic acid], a widely used imidazolinone class herbicide, the persistence of which has been demonstrated in surface and ground waters destined to human uses. Independent of the oxidation process assessed, the decomposition of imazethapyr always followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. The direct UV-irradiation (UV) of the herbicide as well as its oxidation with ozone (O₃), and hydrogen peroxide tied to UV-irradiation (H₂O₂/UV) were sufficiently slow to permit the identification of intermediate products, the formation pathway of which has been proposed. Ozonation joined to UV-irradiation (O₃/UV), ozonation joined to titanium dioxide photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV+O₃), sole photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV), and photo-catalysis reinforced with hydrogen peroxide-oxidation (TiO₂/UV+H₂O₂) were characterized by a faster degradation and rapid formation of a lot of small molecules, which were quickly degraded to complete mineralization. The most effective oxidation methods were those using titanium dioxide photo-catalysis enhanced either by ozonation or hydrogen peroxide. Most of all, these last processes were useful to avoid the development of dangerous by-products. PMID:21726140

  15. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes. PMID:26676001

  16. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  17. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Veldkamp, T; Binnendijk, G P; de Veer, R

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP was determined in Lohmann Brown layers. Hens (n = 132) were housed in 22 cages (6 hens/cage) and allotted to 5 dietary treatments. In the PAP diets (4 replicates/treatment), 100 g/kg of CP of animal origin was added, replacing soybean meal and corn (Zea mays) in the basal diet (6 replicates/treatment). The PAP sources differed largely in chemical composition and digestibility coefficients. Energy content (AME(n)) varied from 1,817 (Daka-40) to 3,107 kcal/kg (Sonac-60), and digestible lysine varied from 15.4 (Daka-40) to 28.3 g/kg (Sonac-50). Subsequently, the effect of a control diet (without PAP) vs. 4 PAP diets (50 g/kg of CP of animal origin from the same batches as used in the digestibility study) on performance was determined. All diets were isocaloric (AME(n) = 2,825 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (digestible lysine = 6.8 g/kg). Hens were housed in 40 floor pens (12 hens/pen, 8 pens/treatment) from 20 to 40 wk of age. Feed intake levels of the hens fed the meat and bone meal diets were reduced compared with those of hens fed the meat meal diets, whereas the feed intake level of hens fed the control diet was intermediate. Laying hen performance differed between treatments, being was most favorable for the Sonac-50 treatment and most adverse for the Daka-40 treatment. Differences in laying hen performance seemed to be related partly to differences in feed intake and corresponding amino acid intake.

  18. Molecular motors that digest their track to rectify Brownian motion: processive movement of exonuclease enzymes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping

    2009-09-16

    A general model is presented for the processive movement of molecular motors such as λ-exonuclease, RecJ and exonuclease I that use digestion of a DNA track to rectify Brownian motion along this track. Using this model, the translocation dynamics of these molecular motors is studied. The sequence-dependent pausing of λ-exonuclease, which results from a site-specific high affinity DNA interaction, is also studied. The theoretical results are consistent with available experimental data. Moreover, the model is used to predict the lifetime distribution and force dependence of these paused states.

  19. Evaluation of thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes for full-scale Class A biosolids disinfection at Hyperion Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, R; Cox, H H J

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes 5 phases of full-scale testing at the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) for producing Class A biosolids (U.S. EPA Part 503 Biosolids Rule) by thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Phases I and II were tests with a two-stage continuous-batch process in a thermophilic battery of six digesters and a designated post-digestion train that was isolated from mesophilic operations. These tests demonstrated that digester outflow biosolids met the Class A limits for fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp. However, fecal coliform densities sharply increased during post-digestion. The recurrence was possibly related to a combination of a large drop of the biosolids temperature after the dewatering centrifuges and contamination of thermophilically digested biosolids from mesophilic operations. Phase III was conducted after insulation and electrical heat-tracing of the post-digestion train to maintain a biosolids temperature throughout post-digestion at about the same level as in the digester outflow. Biosolids monitoring at the last points of plant control (silos at Truck Loading Facility and farm for land application) indicated that fecal coliform recurrence was prevented. After completing the conversion of HTP to thermophilic operation, certification tests of Phases IV and V demonstrated Class A compliance of a two-stage continuous-batch process under Alternatives 1 and 3 of the Part 503 Biosolids Rule, respectively. HTP received the permit for Class A (indeed exceptional quality) biosolids land application in Kern County, California, in December 2002 under Alternative 3. Since 2003, HTP has consistently complied with the federal and local standards for Class A biosolids, indicating that Class A limits can be met under conditions less stringent than defined by the Alternative 1 time-temperature requirement for batch treatment. PMID:17054113

  20. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract. PMID:27507502

  1. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract.

  2. Recent advances in EEG data processing.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, L H

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that the most interesting advances in EEG signal processing are with methods based on descriptive mathematical models of the process. Formulation of auto-regressive (AR) and mixed autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) models is reviewed for the scalar and the multidimensional cases and extensions to allow time-varying coefficients are pointed out. Data processing with parametric models, DPPM, involves parameter estimation and a large number of algorithms are available. Emphasis is put on those that are simple to apply and require a modest amount of computation. A recursive algorithm by Levinson, Robinson and Durbin is well suited for estimation of the coefficients in the AR model and for tests of model order. It is applicable to both the scalar and multidimensional cases. The ARMA model can be handled by approximation of an AR model or by nonlinear optimization. Recursive estimation with AR and ARMA models is reviewed and the connection with the Kalman filter pointed out. In this way processes with time-varying properties may be handled and a stationarity index is defined. The recursive algorithms can deal with AR or ARMA models in the same way. A reformulation of the algorithm to include sparsely updated parameter estimates significantly speeds up the calculations. It will allow several EEG channels to be handled simultaneously in real time on a modern minicomputer installation. DPPM has been particularly successful in the areas of spectral analysis and detection of short transients such as spikes and sharp waves. Recently some interesting attempts have been made to apply classification algorithms to estimated parameters. A brief review is made of the main results in these areas.

  3. Suitability of anaerobic digestion effluent as process water for corn fuel ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-01-01

    A corn fuel ethanol plant integrated with anaerobic digestion treatment of thin stillage increases the net energy balance. Furthermore, the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) can be reused as a potential substitute for process water in the ethanol fermentation. In this study, the suitability of ADE as process water for corn ethanol fermentation was investigated by analyzing the potential inhibitory components in the ADE. It was found that ammonium influenced the growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum ethanol production was obtained when the concentration of ammonium nitrogen was 200 mg/L, and ammonium could replace urea as the nitrogen source for S. cerevisiae under this concentration. In the ethanol fermentation with a higher concentration of ammonium, more glycerol was produced, thereby resulting in the decrease of ethanol production. In addition, components except ammonium in the ADE caused no inhibition to ethanol production. These results suggest that ADE could be reused as process water for corn ethanol fermentation without negative effect when ammonium concentration is well controlled.

  4. Modelling inhibitory effects of long chain fatty acids in the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zonta, Z; Alves, M M; Flotats, X; Palatsi, J

    2013-03-01

    Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion process has been used to give new insights regarding dynamics of the long chain fatty acids (LCFA) inhibition. Previously published experimental data, including batch tests with clay mineral bentonite additions, were used for parameter identification. New kinetics were considered to describe the bio-physics of the inhibitory process, including: i) adsorption of LCFA over granular biomass and ii) specific LCFA substrate (saturated/unsaturated) and LCFA-degrading populations. Furthermore, iii) a new variable was introduced to describe the state of damage of the acetoclastic methanogens in order to account for the loss of cell-functionality (inhibition) induced by the adsorbed LCFAs. The proposed model modifications are state compatible and easy to be integrated into the International Water Association's Anaerobic Digestion Model N°1 (ADM1) framework. Practical identifiability of model parameters was assessed with a global sensitivity analysis, while calibration and model structure validation were performed on independent data sets. A reliable simulation of the LCFA-inhibition process can be achieved, if the model includes the description of the adsorptive nature of the LCFAs and the LCFA-damage over specific biomass. The importance of microbial population structure (saturated/unsaturated LCFA-degraders) and the high sensitivity of acetoclastic population to LCFA are evidenced, providing a plausible explanation of experimental based hypothesis. PMID:23276428

  5. Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone.

  6. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  7. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-01-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields. PMID:24503715

  8. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality.

  9. Process performance of high-solids batch anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaocong; Li, Huan; Cheng, Yingchao; Chen, Nan; Li, Chenchen; Yang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of high-solids anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge were investigated by comparison with conventional low-solids processes. A series of batch experiments were conducted under mesophilic condition and the initial solid contents were controlled at four levels of 1.79%, 4.47%, 10.28% and 15.67%. During these experiments, biogas production, organic degradation and intermediate products were monitored. The results verified that high-solids batch AD of sewage sludge was feasible. Compared with the low-solids AD with solid contents of 1.79% or 4.47%, the high-solids processes decreased the specific biogas yield per gram of sludge volatile solids slightly, achieved the same organic degradation rate of about 40% within extended degradation time, but increased the volumetric biogas production rate and the treatment capability of digesters significantly. The blocked mass and energy transfer, the low substrate to inoculum rate and the excessive cumulative free ammonia were the main factors impacting the performance of high-solids batch AD.

  10. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality. PMID:26190827

  11. Anaerobic digestion of poplar processing residues for methane production after alkaline treatment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiqing; He, Mulan; Ren, Yubing; Ma, Liying; Luo, Yang; Sheng, Hongmei; Xiang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Li, Qien; An, Lizhe

    2013-04-01

    Poplar processing residues were used for methane production by anaerobic digestion after alkaline treatment and methane production was measured. The highest methane production of 271.9 L/kg volatile solid (VS) was obtained at conditions of 35 g/L and 5.0% NaOH, which was 113.8% higher than non-alkaline treated samples, and 28.9% higher than that of corn straw, which is the conventional anaerobic digestion material in China. The maximal enhancement of 275.5% obtained at conditions of 50 g/L and 7.0% NaOH. Degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after treatment increased by 4.0-9.0%, 3.3-6.2%, and 11.1-20.5%, respectively, with NaOH dose ranged from 3.0% to 7.0%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR spectra and Crystallinity measurements showed that the lignocellulosic structures were disrupted by NaOH. The results indicate poplar processing residues might be an efficient substrate for methane production after alkaline treatment.

  12. Identification and quantification of microbial populations in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M; Borrás, L; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-01-01

    Eight different phenotypes were studied in an activated sludge process (AeR) and anaerobic digester (AnD) in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated FISH quantification software. The phenotypes were ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanotrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Some findings were unexpected: (a) Presence of PAO, GAO and denitrifiers in the AeR possibly due to unexpected environmental conditions caused by oxygen deficiencies or its ability to survive aerobically; (b) presence of SRB in the AeR due to high sulphate content of wastewater intake and possibly also due to digested sludge being recycled back into the primary clarifier; (c) presence of methanogenic archaea in the AeR, which can be explained by the recirculation of digested sludge and its ability to survive periods of high oxygen levels; (d) presence of denitrifying bacteria in the AnD which cannot be fully explained because the nitrate level in the AnD was not measured. However, other authors reported the existence of denitrifiers in environments where nitrate or oxygen was not present suggesting that denitrifiers can survive in nitrate-free anaerobic environments by carrying out low-level fermentation; (e) the results of this paper are relevant because of the focus on the identification of nearly all the significant bacterial and archaeal groups of microorganisms with a known phenotype involved in the biological wastewater treatment.

  13. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  14. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  15. Advanced reburning with new process enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, B.; Payne, R.; Moyeda, D.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced Reburning (AR) is a synergistic integration of reburning and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) which can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by over 85% from boilers and furnaces. Reburning is used to set up conditions which optimize the performance of SNCR including broadening of the temperature window and reduction of ammonia slip. AR has been tested extensively at pilot scale as part of two DOE projects. Recently, two AR improvements have been developed and tested at bench scale: reagent injection into the reburning zone and specific promoters which enhance NO{sub x} control, broaden the SNCR temperature window, and further reduce ammonia slip. The reburning zone reagent injection can be used to eliminate the injection of urea or ammonia SNCR agents thus significantly reducing total capital cost. Alternately, two injection stages can be used to increase NO{sub x} control to 95%. This paper presents the results of pilot and bench scale tests of both the AR and the new process enhancements. Plans for additional development and a full scale field evaluation are discussed.

  16. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  17. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  18. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY'S (DWPF) PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.; Edwards, T.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-03-14

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO{sub 3} acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  19. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.; Jones, M.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) confirms applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples.1 DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem (CC) Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). In addition to the CC method confirmation, the DWPF lab's mercury (Hg) digestion method was also evaluated for applicability to SB6 (see DWPF procedure 'Mercury System Operating Manual', Manual: SW4-15.204. Section 6.1, Revision 5, Effective date: 12-04-03). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples. For validation of the DWPF lab's Hg method, only SRAT receipt material was used and compared to AR digestion results. The SB6 SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB6 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), to form the SB6 Blend composition. In addition to the 16 elements currently measured by the DWPF, this report includes Hg and thorium (Th) data (Th comprising {approx}2.5 - 3 Wt% of the total solids in SRAT Receipt and SRAT Product, respectively) and provides specific details of ICP-AES analysis of Th. Thorium was found to interfere with the U 367.007 nm emission line, and an inter-element correction (IEC) had to be applied to U data, which is also

  20. Solving fecal coliform growth/reactivation in biosolids during full-scale post-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, R; Palacios, R; Cox, H H J; Abkian, V

    2005-01-01

    Fecal coliform recurrence has been observed at the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant during pilot-scale experiments with a designated thermophilic battery of six anaerobic digesters, while other digesters were still at a mesophilic temperature. Several lab and full-scale experiments indicated the following possible causes of the growth/reactivation of fecal coliforms in post-digestion: a) contamination of thermophilically digested biosolids with mesophilically digested biosolids; b) a large drop in the biosolids temperature between the centrifuges and silos, which could have allowed the reactivation and/or growth of fecal coliforms. These were resolved by the full plant conversion to thermophilic anaerobic digestion and design modifications of the post-digestion train.

  1. A critical review on inhibition of anaerobic digestion process by excess ammonia.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Massé, Daniel I; Singh, Gursharan

    2013-09-01

    Ammonia plays a vital role in the performance and stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) of N-rich organic-feedstock. Several research works were carried-out to study the effect of ammonia on the efficiency of AD of agro-food, industrial and livestock wastes/wastewater. However, excess ammonia remains a critical hitch in AD process. The mechanism of ammonia-inhibition has also been studied and there is no simple strategy available to mitigate ammonia-toxicity, when it exceeds threshold inhibition-level. For successful operation of AD systems at higher ammonia-level, adequate choice of temperature, control of pH and C/N ratio, and utilization of acclimatized-microflora to higher ammonia concentrations may ensure a stable and undisturbed digestion. This review provides a critical summary of earlier and recent research conducted on ammonia-inhibition during the anaerobic degradation of organic substrates, especially, at high ammonia concentrations. This article emphasizes that more profound knowledge on parameters influencing ammonia-inhibition is needed to apply appropriate control strategies.

  2. Effects of storage, processing and proteolytic digestion on microcystin-LR concentration in edible clams.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Carvalho, António Paulo; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2014-04-01

    Accumulation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in edible aquatic organisms, particularly in bivalves, is widely documented. In this study, the effects of food storage and processing conditions on the free MC-LR concentration in clams (Corbicula fluminea) fed MC-LR-producing Microcystisaeruginosa (1×10(5) cell/mL) for four days, and the bioaccessibility of MC-LR after in vitro proteolytic digestion were investigated. The concentration of free MC-LR in clams decreased sequentially over the time with unrefrigerated and refrigerated storage and increased with freezing storage. Overall, cooking for short periods of time resulted in a significantly higher concentration (P<0.05) of free MC-LR in clams, specifically microwave (MW) radiation treatment for 0.5 (57.5%) and 1 min (59%) and boiling treatment for 5 (163.4%) and 15 min (213.4%). The bioaccessibility of MC-LR after proteolytic digestion was reduced to 83%, potentially because of MC-LR degradation by pancreatic enzymes. Our results suggest that risk assessment based on direct comparison between MC-LR concentrations determined in raw food products and the tolerable daily intake (TDI) value set for the MC-LR might not be representative of true human exposure. PMID:24491263

  3. Implications of full-scale implementation of an anammox-based process as post-treatment of a municipal anaerobic sludge digester operated with co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Padín, J R; Morales, N; Gutiérrez, R; Fernández, R; Rogalla, F; Barrio, J P; Campos, J L; Mosquera-Corral, A; Méndez, R

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of treating the supernatant of a municipal sludge digester supplemented with co-substrates by means of an anammox-based process (ELAN(®)) was tested in Guillarei (NW of Spain). Ammonia concentration measured in the supernatant of the sludge digester varied in the range 800-1,500 g N/m(3) due to the fact that the sludge produced in the plant was co-digested with wastes coming from surrounding food industries. Treating this supernatant in the ELAN(®) reactor, nitrogen removal rates up to 1.1 kg N/(m(3) d) were reached in experiments run in a pilot plant reactor operated in batch mode. No nitrite oxidation was registered after several months of operation despite the average dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations being 1.5 g O2/m(3) and the temperature reaching values as low as 18 °C. By keeping the DO set point at 1-2 g O2/m(3) and tuning the hydraulic retention time, the stability of the process was guaranteed and the presence of co-substrates in the anaerobic digester did not affect negatively the operation of the autotrophic nitrogen removal process. Due to the success of the pilot plant experiment, an upscale of the process to full scale is proposed. Mass balances applied to Guillarei wastewater treatment plant revealed that in the main stream line the average denitrification rate calculated with the data of year 2011 was 226 kg N/d. Since the nitrogen removal efficiency is limited by the amount of readily biodegradable organic matter available to carry out denitrification in the water line, the implementation of an anammox-based process to treat the supernatant seems the best option to improve the effluent quality in terms of nitrogen content. The nitrogen removal rate in the sludge line would be 30 times higher than the one in the water line. The implementation of the process would improve the energetic balance and the nitrogen removal performance of the plant. PMID:24647178

  4. Implications of full-scale implementation of an anammox-based process as post-treatment of a municipal anaerobic sludge digester operated with co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Padín, J R; Morales, N; Gutiérrez, R; Fernández, R; Rogalla, F; Barrio, J P; Campos, J L; Mosquera-Corral, A; Méndez, R

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of treating the supernatant of a municipal sludge digester supplemented with co-substrates by means of an anammox-based process (ELAN(®)) was tested in Guillarei (NW of Spain). Ammonia concentration measured in the supernatant of the sludge digester varied in the range 800-1,500 g N/m(3) due to the fact that the sludge produced in the plant was co-digested with wastes coming from surrounding food industries. Treating this supernatant in the ELAN(®) reactor, nitrogen removal rates up to 1.1 kg N/(m(3) d) were reached in experiments run in a pilot plant reactor operated in batch mode. No nitrite oxidation was registered after several months of operation despite the average dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations being 1.5 g O2/m(3) and the temperature reaching values as low as 18 °C. By keeping the DO set point at 1-2 g O2/m(3) and tuning the hydraulic retention time, the stability of the process was guaranteed and the presence of co-substrates in the anaerobic digester did not affect negatively the operation of the autotrophic nitrogen removal process. Due to the success of the pilot plant experiment, an upscale of the process to full scale is proposed. Mass balances applied to Guillarei wastewater treatment plant revealed that in the main stream line the average denitrification rate calculated with the data of year 2011 was 226 kg N/d. Since the nitrogen removal efficiency is limited by the amount of readily biodegradable organic matter available to carry out denitrification in the water line, the implementation of an anammox-based process to treat the supernatant seems the best option to improve the effluent quality in terms of nitrogen content. The nitrogen removal rate in the sludge line would be 30 times higher than the one in the water line. The implementation of the process would improve the energetic balance and the nitrogen removal performance of the plant.

  5. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  6. Correlations between bacterial populations and process parameters in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Gu; Koo, Taewoan; Lee, Joonyeob; Han, Gyuseong; Cho, Kyungjin; Kim, Woong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-08-01

    Process parameters and bacterial populations were investigated in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge. Although the four digesters were operated under similar conditions, digesters A and B had higher pH (7.2-7.4) and lipid removal efficiencies (>50%) than C and D (pH 6.1-6.4; average lipid removal <16%). Bacterial richness, diversity, and evenness were higher in digesters C and D. Among the top-populated genera, ten (group I) were more abundant in digesters A and/or B; they were putative syntrophic fatty acid or protein/amino acid-utilizers. In contrast, fifteen others (group II) were less abundant in A and/or B and included potentially dormant/dead cells originated from activated sludge. Despite the overall richness trend, the presence of the 25 genera in groups I/II was greater in digesters A and B (24) than in C and D (17); this observation suggests that group I bacteria might be essential in AD of sewage sludge.

  7. Deterministic processes guide long-term synchronised population dynamics in replicate anaerobic digesters

    PubMed Central

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D; Dennis, Paul G; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W

    2014-01-01

    A replicate long-term experiment was conducted using anaerobic digestion (AD) as a model process to determine the relative role of niche and neutral theory on microbial community assembly, and to link community dynamics to system performance. AD is performed by a complex network of microorganisms and process stability relies entirely on the synergistic interactions between populations belonging to different functional guilds. In this study, three independent replicate anaerobic digesters were seeded with the same diverse inoculum, supplied with a model substrate, α-cellulose, and operated for 362 days at a 10-day hydraulic residence time under mesophilic conditions. Selective pressure imposed by the operational conditions and model substrate caused large reproducible changes in community composition including an overall decrease in richness in the first month of operation, followed by synchronised population dynamics that correlated with changes in reactor performance. This included the synchronised emergence and decline of distinct Ruminococcus phylotypes at day 148, and emergence of a Clostridium and Methanosaeta phylotype at day 178, when performance became stable in all reactors. These data suggest that many dynamic functional niches are predictably filled by phylogenetically coherent populations over long time scales. Neutral theory would predict that a complex community with a high degree of recognised functional redundancy would lead to stochastic changes in populations and community divergence over time. We conclude that deterministic processes may play a larger role in microbial community dynamics than currently appreciated, and under controlled conditions it may be possible to reliably predict community structural and functional changes over time. PMID:24739627

  8. Dynamic evaluation of a fixed bed anaerobic digestion process in response to organic overloads and toxicant shock loads.

    PubMed

    Dupla, M; Conte, T; Bouvier, J C; Bernet, N; Steyer, J P

    2004-01-01

    This paper details a dynamic evaluation of a 1 m3 fixed bed anaerobic digestion reactor in response to organic overloads and toxicant shock loads. Raw industrial wine distillery wastewater was used as a reference substrate and several disturbances were applied to the process: (i) organic overloads with and without pH regulation in the feeding line, (ii) adding of ammonia in the input wastewater. The purpose of this study was to assess, using on-line instrumentation, the robustness of a fixed bed anaerobic digester. Anaerobic digestion processes have the reputation of being difficult to operate and prone to process instability due to external disturbances and the objective of this study was to demonstrate the possibility of such a reactor configuration for industrial use.

  9. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  10. Advanced Reduction Processes: A New Class of Treatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP. PMID:23840160

  11. A Spatially Continuous Model of Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport Processes in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Arun S; Brooks, Stephen P J; Kalmokoff, Martin; Eberl, Hermann J

    2015-01-01

    A spatially continuous mathematical model of transport processes, anaerobic digestion and microbial complexity as would be expected in the human colon is presented. The model is a system of first-order partial differential equations with context determined number of dependent variables, and stiff, non-linear source terms. Numerical simulation of the model is used to elucidate information about the colon-microbiota complex. It is found that the composition of materials on outflow of the model does not well-describe the composition of material in other model locations, and inferences using outflow data varies according to model reactor representation. Additionally, increased microbial complexity allows the total microbial community to withstand major system perturbations in diet and community structure. However, distribution of strains and functional groups within the microbial community can be modified depending on perturbation length and microbial kinetic parameters. Preliminary model extensions and potential investigative opportunities using the computational model are discussed. PMID:26680208

  12. A Spatially Continuous Model of Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport Processes in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Arun S.; Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Kalmokoff, Martin; Eberl, Hermann J.

    2015-01-01

    A spatially continuous mathematical model of transport processes, anaerobic digestion and microbial complexity as would be expected in the human colon is presented. The model is a system of first-order partial differential equations with context determined number of dependent variables, and stiff, non-linear source terms. Numerical simulation of the model is used to elucidate information about the colon-microbiota complex. It is found that the composition of materials on outflow of the model does not well-describe the composition of material in other model locations, and inferences using outflow data varies according to model reactor representation. Additionally, increased microbial complexity allows the total microbial community to withstand major system perturbations in diet and community structure. However, distribution of strains and functional groups within the microbial community can be modified depending on perturbation length and microbial kinetic parameters. Preliminary model extensions and potential investigative opportunities using the computational model are discussed. PMID:26680208

  13. Low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of dairy waste activated sludge for anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Rani, R Uma; Kumar, S Adish; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    An investigation into the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment on sludge reduction in a semi-continuous anaerobic reactor was performed. Firstly, effect of sludge pretreatment was evaluated by COD solubilization, suspended solids reduction and biogas production. At optimized condition (60 °C with pH 12), COD solubilization, suspended solids, reduction and biogas production was 23%, 22% and 51% higher than the control, respectively. Secondly, semi-continuous process performance was studied in a lab-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactor (5 L), with 4 L working volume. With three operated SRTs, the SRT of 15 days was found to be most appropriate for economic operation of the reactor. Combining pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 80.5%, 117% and 90.4% of TS, SS and VS reduction respectively, with an improvement of 103% in biogas production. Thus, low temperature thermo-chemical can play an important role in reducing sludge production.

  14. Microbial fuel cell based biosensor for in situ monitoring of anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhidan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Songping; Xing, Xin-Hui; Su, Zhiguo

    2011-11-01

    A wall-jet microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion (AD). This biofilm based MFC biosensor had a character of being portable, short hydraulic retention time (HRT) for sample flow through and convenient for continuous operation. The MFC was installed in the recirculation loop of an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed (UAFB) reactor in bench-scale where pH of the fermentation broth and biogas flow were monitored in real time. External disturbances to the AD were added on purpose by changing feedstock concentration, as well as process configuration. MFC signals had good correlations with online measurements (i.e. pH, gas flow rate) and offline analysis (i.e. COD) over 6-month operation. These results suggest that the MFC signal can reflect the dynamic variation of AD and can potentially be a valuable tool for monitoring and control of bioprocess.

  15. Liquefaction and methanization of solid and liquid coffee wastes by two phase anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Houbron, E; Larrinaga, A; Rustrian, E

    2003-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the feasibility of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from coffee pulp hydrolyse, and further to determine the potential of methanization of both the pre-acidified effluent and the coffee wastewater. The experiments were carried out in 2 completely mixed reactors, each one with a working volume of 4 litres. Coffee pulp was used as substrate in the acidogenic reactor and different mixtures of pulper and wash-water and pre-acidified effluent in the methanogenic one. The acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1) and 0.5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1). The total, soluble and VFA's effluent COD concentrations of the acidogenic reactor present average values of 57.75, 17.00 and 13.92 g x l(-1) respectively. Under these experimental conditions, 23% (COD based) of coffee pulp was hydrolysed with a rate of 1.32 gCOD x l(-1) x d(-1) and the soluble fraction was transformed to VFA's with an acidification efficiency of 82%. Total VFA's concentration reached a value of 13.9 gCOD x l(-1), and acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate represented 52%, 28%, 9% and 11% respectively of the liquid phase COD. In the methanogenic reactor, COD removal and methanization of fresh coffee wastewater, pre-acidified effluent and both combined occur with an efficiency of 85% to 95% respectively, with a characteristic biogas composition of 80% CH4 and 20% CO2. These results show that a humid coffee "Beneficio" processing daily 23 tons of cherry coffee (fresh fruit), equipped with a two stage anaerobic digestion process could generate at least 1,886 CH4 m3 x d(-1). This represents an increase in methane production by a factor 3 to 5 compared to a "Beneficio" using anaerobic digestion only for the treatment of its wastewater.

  16. Oxidation of sarcoplasmic proteins during processing of Cantonese sausage in relation to their aggregation behaviour and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weizheng; Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Bao; Zhao, Haifeng; Cui, Chun

    2011-07-01

    The physicochemical changes of sarcoplasmic proteins, especially oxidation behaviour, were measured to determine their mechanism of action on in vitro protein digestibility during Cantonese sausage processing. The results indicated that carbonyl level increased (p<0.05) during the process. The fluorescence loss of tryptophan residues was a direct consequence of the oxidative degradation. All the parameters of protein aggregation were highly (p<0.05) correlated with carbonyl level and protein surface hydrophobicity (H(0)), indicating that protein oxidation and thermal denaturation could induce protein aggregation, leading to secondary structural changes. The analysis of in vitro digestibility showed no correlation between pepsin activity and protein oxidation, due to the biphasic response of sarcoplasmic proteins toward proteolysis. However, a highly significant (p<0.05) correlation was observed with trypsin and α-chymotrypsin activity, indicating that protein oxidation induced the changes in H(0), protein aggregation and secondary structure, which further influenced in vitro digestibility. PMID:21353394

  17. Nutrient digestibility and colonic fermentation processes in species of the families Mustelidae and Canidae fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient digestibility was compared and the influence of colonic fermentation processes on nutrient digestibility was determined in the American mink (Neovison vison) and the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). It was hypothesized that gut microbiota exert varied effects on digestion processes in the analyzed species. The experiment was performed in December, on a group of 10 male mink and 10 male foxes. All animals were fed identical diets for fur-bearing carnivores, with the following chemical composition (%): dry matter (DM)-33.12, total protein (TP)-12.01, ether extract (EE)-8.64, crude fiber (CF)-12.01, N-free extracts (N-FE)-9.32, and gross energy (GE)-7.313 MJ/kg(-1) . The coefficients of DM, OM, TP and EE digestibility were significantly higher in foxes than in mink. Mink were characterized by significantly higher utilization of N-FE. In foxes, as compared with mink, fermentation rates were higher in the final section of the gastrointestinal tract, which improved nutrient digestibility. In mink, characterized by lower fermentation rates in the colon, increased enzyme secretion by bacterial cells is one of the physiological mechanisms that enable to optimize nutrient absorption in the large intestine.

  18. Enzyme use in kibble diets formulated with wheat bran for dogs: effects on processing and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sá, F C; Vasconcellos, R S; Brunetto, M A; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there is an interest in technologies that favour the use of coproducts for animal nutrition. The effect of adding two enzyme mixtures in diets for dogs formulated with wheat bran (WB) was evaluated. Two foods with similar compositions were formulated: negative control (NC; without WB) and test diet (25% of WB). The test diet was divided into four treatments: without enzyme (positive control), enzyme mixture 1 (ENZ1; added before extrusion β-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, glucoamylase, phytase); enzyme mixture 2 (ENZ2; added before extrusion the ENZ1 more α-amylase); enzyme mixture 2 added after the extrusion (ENZ2ex). ENZ1 and ENZ2 were used to evaluate the enzyme effect on extruder pre-conditioner (processing additive) and ENZ2ex to evaluate the effect of enzyme supplementation for the animal. Digestibility was measured through total collection of faeces and urine. The experiment followed a randomized block design with five treatments (diets) and six dogs per diet, totalling 30 dogs (7.0 ± 1.2 years old and 11.0 ± 2.2 kg of body weight). Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey's test and orthogonal contrasts (p < 0.05). Reducing sugars showed an important reduction after extrusion, suggesting the formation of carbohydrate complexes. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid-hydrolysed fat and energy was higher in NC than in diets with WB (p < 0.001), without effects of enzyme additions. WB diets resulted in higher faecal production and concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and reduced pH and ammonia concentration (p < 0.01), with no effect of enzyme addition. The enzyme addition did not result in improved digestibility of a diet high in non-starch polysaccharides; however, only ATTD was measured and nutrient fermentation in the large intestine may have interfered with the results obtained. WB modified fermentation product formation in the colon of dogs.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of different feedstocks: impact on energetic and environmental balances of biogas process.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; González-García, Sara

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of limiting the global warming is strictly linked to the reduction of GHG emissions. Renewable energy both allows reducing emissions and permits to delay fossil fuel depletion. The anaerobic digestion of animal manure and energy crops is a promising way of reducing GHG emissions. In Italy agricultural biogas production was considerably increased; nowadays there are about 520 agricultural biogas plants. The increasing number of biogas plants, especially of those larger than 500 kW(e) (electrical power), involves a high consumption of energy crops, large transport distances of biomass and digestate and difficulties on thermal energy valorization. In this study the energetic (CED) and environmental (GHG emissions) profiles associated with the production of electricity derived from biogas have been identified. Three biogas plants located in Northern Italy have been analyzed. The study has been carried out considering a cradle-to-grave perspective and thus, special attention has been paid on the feedstock production and biogas production process. The influences on the results taking into account different plant sizes and feeding rate has been assessed in detail. Energy analysis was performed using the Cumulative Energy Demand method (CED). The climate change was calculated for a 100-year time frame based on GHG emissions indicated as CO2 equivalents (eq) and defined by the IPCC (2006). In comparison to the fossil reference system, the electricity production using biogas saves GHG emissions from 0.188 to 1.193 kg CO2eq per kWh(e). Electricity supply from biogas can also contribute to a considerable reduction of the use of fossil energy carriers (from -3.97 to 10.08 MJ(fossil) per kWh(e)). The electricity production from biogas has a big potential for energy savings and reduction of GHG emissions. Efficient utilization of the cogenerated heat can substantially improve the GHG balance of electricity production from biogas.

  20. Multiband mucosectomy for advanced dysplastic lesions in the upper digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic resection (ER) is at present an accepted treatment for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasia. ER provides similar efficacy to surgery; however, it is minimally invasive and less expensive. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is superior to biopsy for diagnosing advanced dysplasia and can change the diagnostic grade and the management. Several EMR techniques have been described that are alternatively used dependent upon the endoscopist personal experience, the anatomic conditions and the endoscopic appearance of the lesion to be resected. The literature suggests that EMR offers comparable outcomes to surgery for selected indications. EMR techniques using a cap fitted endoscope and EMR using a ligation device [multiband mucosectomy (MBM)] are the most frequently use. MBM technique does not require submucosal injection as with the endoscopic resection-cap technique, multiple resections can be performed with the same snare, pre-looping the endoscopic resection-snare in the ridge of the cap is not necessary, MBM does not require withdrawal of the endoscope between resections and up to six consecutive resections can be performed. This reduces the time and cost required for the procedure, while also reducing patient discomfort. Despite the increasing popularity of MBM, data on the safety and efficacy of this technique in upper gastrointestinal lesions with advanced dysplasia, defined as those lesions that have high-grade dysplasia or early cancer, is limited. PMID:25901216

  1. Activated zeolite--suitable carriers for microorganisms in anaerobic digestion processes?

    PubMed

    Weiß, S; Lebuhn, M; Andrade, D; Zankel, A; Cardinale, M; Birner-Gruenberger, R; Somitsch, W; Ueberbacher, B J; Guebitz, G M

    2013-04-01

    Plant cell wall structures represent a barrier in the biodegradation process to produce biogas for combustion and energy production. Consequently, approaches concerning a more efficient de-polymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars are required. Here, we show that natural activated zeolites (i.e. trace metal activated zeolites) represent eminently suitable mineral microhabitats and potential carriers for immobilisation of microorganisms responsible for anaerobic hydrolysis of biopolymers stabilising related bacterial and methanogenic communities. A strategy for comprehensive analysis of immobilised anaerobic populations was developed that includes the visualisation of biofilm formation via scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, community and fingerprint analysis as well as enzyme activity and identification analyses. Using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, hydrolytical active protein bands were traced by congo red staining. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy revealed cellulolytical endo- and exoglucanase (exocellobiohydrolase) as well as hemicellulolytical xylanase/mannase after proteolytic digestion. Relations to hydrolytic/fermentative zeolite colonisers were obtained by using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) based on amplification of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA fragments. Thereby, dominant colonisers were affiliated to the genera Clostridium, Pseudomonas and Methanoculleus. The specific immobilisation on natural zeolites with functional microbes already colonising naturally during the fermentation offers a strategy to systematically supply the biogas formation process responsive to population dynamics and process requirements. PMID:23435898

  2. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  3. Impacts of trace element supplementation on the performance of anaerobic digestion process: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Choong, Yee Yaw; Norli, Ismail; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Yhaya, Mohd Firdaus

    2016-06-01

    This paper critically reviews the impacts of supplementing trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance. The in-depth knowledge of trace elements as micronutrients and metalloenzyme components justifies trace element supplementation into the anaerobic digestion system. Most of the earlier studies reported that trace elements addition at (sub)optimum dosages had positive impacts mainly longer term on digester stability with greater organic matter degradation, low volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and higher biogas production. However, these positive impacts and element requirements are not fully understood, they are explained on a case to case basis because of the great variance of the anaerobic digestion operation. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are the most studied and desirable elements. The right combination of multi-elements supplementation can have greater positive impact. This measure is highly recommended, especially for the mono-digestion of micronutrient-deficient substrates. The future research should consider the aspect of trace element bioavailability.

  4. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

  5. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology.

  6. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. PMID:25540943

  7. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as

  8. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  9. Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by combined process electro-Fenton reaction and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we investigated an integrated technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of olive mill wastewaters (OMW), allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. The method involves an electrochemical pre-treatment step of the wastewater using the electro-Fenton reaction followed by an anaerobic bio-treatment. The electro-Fenton process removed 65.8% of the total polyphenolic compounds and subsequently decreased the OMW toxicity from 100% to 66.9%, which resulted in improving the performance of the anaerobic digestion. A continuous lab-scale methanogenic reactor was operated at a loading rate of 10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)l(-1) d(-1) without any apparent toxicity. Furthermore, in the combined process, a high overall reduction in COD, suspended solids, polyphenols and lipid content was achieved by the two successive stages. This result opens promising perspectives since its conception as a fast and cheap pre-treatment prior to conventional anaerobic post-treatment. The use of electro-coagulation as post-treatment technology completely detoxified the anaerobic effluent and removed its toxic compounds. PMID:16678883

  10. Two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for biohythane production treating biowaste: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Giuliano, A; Pavan, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of a two-phase anaerobic process treating biowaste for hydrogen and methane production. Neither physical nor chemical pre-treatments were used to optimize the process. The work was carried out at pilot scale, using two CSTRs (200 and 380 L working volume respectively) both maintained at thermophilic temperature (55 C) and fed semi-continuously with biowaste. The experiment was divided into three periods; during the first two periods the organic loading rate was maintained at 20 kg TVS/m3 d and the hydraulic retention time was changed from 6.6 to 3.3 days, while in the last period the digestate of the second reactor was recirculated to the first reactor in order to buffer the system and control pH at levels around 5. The HRT was maintained at 3.3 days and the OLR was decreased at 16.5 kg TVS/m3 d. The best yield was obtained in the last period where a specific hydrogen production of 50.9 L/kg VSfed was reached, with a H2 content in biogas from the first reactor of 36%. The methanogenic stage after the hydrogen conversion reached a specific biogas production of 0.62 m3/kg VSfed and an overall organic removal above 70%, without any stability problem. The overall biogas production was some 1.5 m3 per day with a gas composition of 10% H2 and 50% CH4.

  11. Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by combined process electro-Fenton reaction and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we investigated an integrated technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of olive mill wastewaters (OMW), allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. The method involves an electrochemical pre-treatment step of the wastewater using the electro-Fenton reaction followed by an anaerobic bio-treatment. The electro-Fenton process removed 65.8% of the total polyphenolic compounds and subsequently decreased the OMW toxicity from 100% to 66.9%, which resulted in improving the performance of the anaerobic digestion. A continuous lab-scale methanogenic reactor was operated at a loading rate of 10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)l(-1) d(-1) without any apparent toxicity. Furthermore, in the combined process, a high overall reduction in COD, suspended solids, polyphenols and lipid content was achieved by the two successive stages. This result opens promising perspectives since its conception as a fast and cheap pre-treatment prior to conventional anaerobic post-treatment. The use of electro-coagulation as post-treatment technology completely detoxified the anaerobic effluent and removed its toxic compounds.

  12. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas.

  13. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas. PMID:25249492

  14. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge pretreated by a combined ultrasound and chemical process.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2010-03-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) requires a long digestion time because of a rate-limiting hydrolysis step - the first phase of anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment of WAS facilitates the hydrolysis step and improves the digestibility. This study examined the effects of ultrasonic, chemical, and combined chemical-ultrasonic pretreatments on WAS disintegration and its subsequent digestion at different solids retention times (SRTs). The efficient conditions for each pretreatment were evaluated based on per cent soluble chemical oxygen demand (%SCOD). The results showed that the combined chemical-ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in better WAS disintegration, based on %SCOD release, compared with individual chemical and ultrasonic pretreatments. At the optimum operating conditions of the combined chemical-ultrasonic pretreatment (NaOH dose of 10 mg g(-1) TS (total solids) and specific energy input of 3.8 kJ g(-1)TS), the %SCOD release was 18.1% +/- 0.5%, whereas 13.5% +/- 0.9%, 13.0% +/- 0.5% and 1.1% +/- 0.1% corresponded to individual chemical (50 mg g(-1) TS) and ultrasonic (3.8 kJ g(-1) TS) pretreatments and control (without pretreatment), respectively. The anaerobic digestion studies in continuous stirred tank reactors showed an increase in methane production of 23.4% +/- 1.3% and 31.1 +/- 1.2% for digesters fed with WAS pretreated with ultrasonic and combined chemical-ultrasonic, respectively, with respect to controls at the effective SRT of 15 days. The highest total solids removal was achieved in the digester fed with ultrasonic pretreated WAS (16.6% +/- 0.3%), whereas the highest volatile solids removal was achieved from the digester fed with combined chemical-ultrasonic pretreated WAS (24.8 +/- 0.4%). The findings from this study are a useful contribution to new pretreatment techniques in the field of sludge treatment technology through anaerobic digestion.

  15. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  16. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  17. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  18. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  19. The role of biological processes in reducing both odor impact and pathogen content during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Orzi, Valentina; Scaglia, Barbara; Lonati, Samuele; Riva, Carlo; Boccasile, Gabriele; Alborali, Giovanni Loris; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) produces renewable energy, but it also plays a role in reducing the impact of digestates, both by reducing odor and pathogen content. Ten full-scale biogas plants characterized by different plant designs (e.g. single digesters, parallel or serial digesters), plant powers (ranging from 180 to 999 kWe), hydraulic retention time (HRT) (ranging between 20 to 70 days) and feed mixes were monitored and odors and pathogens were observed in both ingestates and digestates. Results obtained indicated that MAD reduced odors (OU) from, on average, OUingestate=99,106±149,173 OU m(-2) h(-1) (n=15) to OU digestate=1106±771 OU m(-2) h(-1) (n=15). Pathogens were also reduced during MAD both because of ammonia production during the process and competition for substrate between pathogens and indigenous microflora, i.e. Enterobacteriaceae from 6.85∗10(3)±1.8∗10(1) to 1.82∗10(1)±3.82∗10(1); fecal Coliform from 1.82∗10(4)±9.09 to 2.45∗10(1)±3.8∗10(1); Escherichia coli from 8.72∗10(3)±2.4∗10(1) to 1.8∗10(1)±2.94∗10(1); Clostridium perfringens from 6.4∗10(4)±7.7 to 5.2∗10(3)±8.1 (all data are expressed as CFU g(-1) ww). Plants showed different abilities to reduce pathogen indicators, depending on the pH value and toxic ammonia content.

  20. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa using anaerobic digested starch processing wastewater in the outdoors.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hua-Qiang; Tan, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Yang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Fang-Chao; Guo, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Microalgae cultivation using wastewater might be a suitable approach to support sustainable large-scale biomass production. Its compelling characteristics included the recycling of nutrients and water resources, reducing carbon emissions and harvesting available biomass. In outdoor batch and continuous cultures, Chlorella pyrenoidosa completely adapted to anaerobic digested starch processing wastewater and was the dominant microorganism in the photobioreactor. However, seasonal changes of environmental conditions significantly influenced biomass growth and lipid production. The long-term outdoor operation demonstrated that the biomass concentration and productivity in continuous operations at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) can be successfully predicted using the kinetic growth parameters obtained from the batch culture. A moderate HRT (4days) in the summer provided the best microalgae and lipid production and achieved relatively high biomass concentrations of 1.29-1.62g/L, biomass productivities of 342.6±12.8mg/L/d and lipids productivities of 43.37±7.43mg/L/d.

  1. Physicothermochemical pretreatments of food processing waste for enchancing anaerobic digestion and biogas generation

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, A.M. Menoufia Univ., Sadat City ); Nasr, M.I. )

    1993-10-01

    This paper was conducted to evaluate the effect of milling and alkali lime cooking pretreatments on the rate and extent of methane generation from sugar Cane bagasse. The effect of pretreatment process variables (Particle size 8.0.003 mm, temperature between 100 and 250[degree]C and alkaline dosage between 0 and 8g CaO/kg VS) on the biogas generation from Sugar Cane bagasse has been investigated. Methane generation from the pretreated cane bagasse was studied using serum bottle technique and an upflow anaerobic filter bioreactor. The optimum condition involves alkali-cooking of cane bagasse (0.5 mm) with 4% CaO at 200[degree]C, dissolving most of the cellulose and converting it in a mixture of organic acids, including formic, acetic, lactic, and succinic acids. About 80% of the COD content of the cellulose was retained in the cooked liquor. A very rapid biogas were observed in the first three days of 70% methane content from the pretreated cane bagasse and the digestion was completed within 8 days. It has been concluded, that the lime-cooking of CB could produce methane as much as 70% of that from glucose. Inhibition did not seems to be serious problem in the biogas generation from the alkali-cooking cane bagasse. 29 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Supplementation of ammonium bicarbonates for the treatment of fruit cordial wastewater by anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Redzwan, Ghufran; Banks, Charles J

    2010-02-01

    Lack of nitrogenous substrate and buffering capacity have been identified as causing failure in previous work on the treatment of fruit cordial wastewater using anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors. In this study, ammonium bicarbonate was proposed to be used as the substrate for nitrogenous and buffering resources. In order to determine the toxicity effect of the ammonium salts on the anaerobic system, a series of concentration from 0 to 40 mg L(-1) was tested. Biogas production was used as the indicator for NH4+ toxicity. The results showed no indication that methanogen was affected by the additional ammonium salt within the dosing regime. Application of the specific mathematical function (G=G(m)(k)(/t)) to describe the kinetic of biogas production, suggested that the optimal concentration of ammonium bicarbonate that can be used is 10 mg L(-1). This study also shows that the dosage regime up to 40 mg L(-1) can be used to supplement the lack of nitrogenous and buffering capacity for the anaerobic digestion process of the fruit cordial wastewater using CSTR. PMID:19450700

  3. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa using anaerobic digested starch processing wastewater in the outdoors.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hua-Qiang; Tan, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Yang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Fang-Chao; Guo, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Microalgae cultivation using wastewater might be a suitable approach to support sustainable large-scale biomass production. Its compelling characteristics included the recycling of nutrients and water resources, reducing carbon emissions and harvesting available biomass. In outdoor batch and continuous cultures, Chlorella pyrenoidosa completely adapted to anaerobic digested starch processing wastewater and was the dominant microorganism in the photobioreactor. However, seasonal changes of environmental conditions significantly influenced biomass growth and lipid production. The long-term outdoor operation demonstrated that the biomass concentration and productivity in continuous operations at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) can be successfully predicted using the kinetic growth parameters obtained from the batch culture. A moderate HRT (4days) in the summer provided the best microalgae and lipid production and achieved relatively high biomass concentrations of 1.29-1.62g/L, biomass productivities of 342.6±12.8mg/L/d and lipids productivities of 43.37±7.43mg/L/d. PMID:25746477

  4. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Results Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%), based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%). Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L), including the reference case. Conclusions Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat. PMID:20843330

  5. Study on advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Kang G.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

    1992-01-01

    Issues related to the reliability of a redundant system with large main memory are addressed. In particular, the Fault-Tolerant Processor (FTP) for Advanced Launch System (ALS) is used as a basis for our presentation. When the system is free of latent faults, the probability of system crash due to nearly-coincident channel faults is shown to be insignificant even when the outputs of computing channels are infrequently voted on. In particular, using channel error maskers (CEMs) is shown to improve reliability more effectively than increasing the number of channels for applications with long mission times. Even without using a voter, most memory errors can be immediately corrected by CEMs implemented with conventional coding techniques. In addition to their ability to enhance system reliability, CEMs--with a low hardware overhead--can be used to reduce not only the need of memory realignment, but also the time required to realign channel memories in case, albeit rare, such a need arises. Using CEMs, we have developed two schemes, called Scheme 1 and Scheme 2, to solve the memory realignment problem. In both schemes, most errors are corrected by CEMs, and the remaining errors are masked by a voter.

  6. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  7. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    PubMed

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. PMID:27283689

  8. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  9. Process Technology and Advanced Concepts: Organic Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts: Organic Solar Cell that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  10. Cold plasma processing technology makes advances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma (AKA nonthermal plasma, cool plasma, gas plasma, etc.) is a rapidly maturing antimicrobial process being developed for applications in the food industry. A wide array of devices can be used to create cold plasma, but the defining characteristic is that they operate at or near room temper...

  11. Mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and lipid rich solid slaughterhouse wastes: process efficiency, limitations and floating granules formation.

    PubMed

    Pitk, Peep; Palatsi, Jordi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Fernández, Belén; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-08-01

    Lipid and protein rich solid slaughterhouse wastes are attractive co-substrates to increase volumetric biogas production in co-digestion with dairy manure. Addition of decanter sludge (DS), containing 42.2% of lipids and 35.8% of proteins (total solids basis), up to 5% of feed mixture resulted in a stable process without any indication of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) or free ammonia (NH3) inhibition and in 3.5-fold increase of volumetric biogas production. Contrary, only lipids addition as technical fat (TF) at over 2% of feed mixture resulted in formation of floating granules (FG) and process efficiency decrease. Formed FG had low biodegradability and its organic part was composed of lipids and calcium salts of LCFAs. Anaerobic digestion process intentionally directed to FG formation, could be a viable option for mitigation and control of lipids overload and derived LCFA inhibition. PMID:24907576

  12. Trapped rubber processing for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Trapped rubber processing is a molding technique for composites in which precast silicone rubber is placed within a closed cavity where it thermally expands against the composite's surface supported by the vessel walls. The method has been applied by the Douglas Aircraft Company, under contract to NASA-Langley, to the design and fabrication of 10 DC-10 graphite/epoxy upper aft rudder assemblies. A three-bay development tool form mold die has been designed and manufactured, and tooling parameters have been established. Fabrication procedures include graphite layup, assembly of details in the tool, and a cure cycle. The technique has made it possible for the cocured fabrication of complex primary box structures otherwise impracticable via standard composite material processes.

  13. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  14. Two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for biohythane production treating biowaste: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Giuliano, A; Pavan, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of a two-phase anaerobic process treating biowaste for hydrogen and methane production. Neither physical nor chemical pre-treatments were used to optimize the process. The work was carried out at pilot scale, using two CSTRs (200 and 380 L working volume respectively) both maintained at thermophilic temperature (55 C) and fed semi-continuously with biowaste. The experiment was divided into three periods; during the first two periods the organic loading rate was maintained at 20 kg TVS/m3 d and the hydraulic retention time was changed from 6.6 to 3.3 days, while in the last period the digestate of the second reactor was recirculated to the first reactor in order to buffer the system and control pH at levels around 5. The HRT was maintained at 3.3 days and the OLR was decreased at 16.5 kg TVS/m3 d. The best yield was obtained in the last period where a specific hydrogen production of 50.9 L/kg VSfed was reached, with a H2 content in biogas from the first reactor of 36%. The methanogenic stage after the hydrogen conversion reached a specific biogas production of 0.62 m3/kg VSfed and an overall organic removal above 70%, without any stability problem. The overall biogas production was some 1.5 m3 per day with a gas composition of 10% H2 and 50% CH4. PMID:22097052

  15. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  16. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  17. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  18. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  19. Shotgun metaproteomic profiling of biomimetic anaerobic digestion processes treating sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bize, Ariane; Cardona, Laëtitia; Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Battimelli, Audrey; Badalato, Nelly; Bureau, Chrystelle; Madigou, Céline; Chevret, Didier; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bouchez, Théodore

    2015-10-01

    Two parallel anaerobic digestion lines were designed to match a "bovid-like" digestive structure. Each of the lines consisted of two continuous stirred tank reactors placed in series and separated by an acidic treatment step. The first line was inoculated with industrial inocula whereas the second was seeded with cow digestive tract contents. After 3 months of continuous sewage sludge feeding, samples were recovered for shotgun metaproteomic and DNA-based analysis. Strikingly, protein-inferred and 16S ribosomal DNA tags based taxonomic community profiles were not consistent. PCA however revealed a similar clustering pattern of the samples, suggesting that reproducible methodological and/or biological factors underlie this observation. The performances of the two digestion lines did not differ significantly and the cow-derived inocula did not establish in the reactors. A low throughput metagenomic dataset (3.4 × 10(6) reads, 1.1 Gb) was also generated for one of the samples. It allowed a substantial increase of the analysis depth (11 vs. 4% of spectral identification rate for the combined samples). Surprisingly, a high proportion of proteins from members of the "Candidatus Competibacter" group, a key microbial player usually found in activated sludge plants, was retrieved in our anaerobic digester samples. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002420 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002420).

  20. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

  1. Influence of processing and in vitro digestion on the allergic cross-reactivity of three mealworm species.

    PubMed

    van Broekhoven, Sarah; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-04-01

    Edible insects are currently being evaluated as an alternative and more sustainable protein source for humans. The introduction of new food sources can lead to development of novel allergies. Because in the Western world, insects are unlikely to be consumed raw, it is important to know how processing and in vitro digestion might influence their allergenicity. Three edible mealworm species (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas atratus and Alphitobius diaperinus) subjected to processing and in vitro digestion were analysed for IgE cross-reactivity. Immunoblot and MALDI-MS/MS analyses revealed that IgE from crustaceans or House dust mite (HDM) allergic patients showed cross-reactivity to mealworm tropomyosin or α-amylase, hexamerin 1B precursor and muscle myosin, respectively. Heat processing as well as in vitro digestion did diminish, but not eliminate, HDM or tropomyosin IgE cross-reactivity. Results show that individuals allergic to HDM or crustaceans might be at risk when consuming mealworms, even after heat processing. PMID:26593591

  2. Combined process for ethanol fermentation at high-solids loading and biogas digestion from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Lv, Zhe; Du, Jiliang; Mo, Chunling; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

    2014-08-01

    A combined process was designed for the co-production of ethanol and methane from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover. A terminal ethanol titer of 69.8 g/kg mass weight (72.5%) was achieved when the fed-batch mode was performed at a final solids loading of 35.5% (w/w) dry matter (DM) content. The whole stillage from high-solids ethanol fermentation was directly transferred in a 3-L anaerobic digester. During 52-day single-stage digester operation, the methane productivity was 320 mL CH₄/g volatile solids (VS) with a maximum VS reduction efficiency of 55.3%. The calculated overall product yield was 197 g ethanol + 96 g methane/kg corn stover. This indicated that the combined process was able to improve overall content utilization and extract a greater yield of lignocellulosic biomass compared to ethanol fermentation alone.

  3. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  5. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities.

  6. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  7. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  8. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  9. New concepts of ammonia removal from digested swine effluents using anammox based deammonification process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of biogas from swine manure using anaerobic digesters (AD) is projected to be important in the future. However, surplus nitrogen (N) in AD effluents is difficult to remove using current technology (nitrification/denitrification) because low carbon availability after biogas production. W...

  10. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007447.htm Digestive diseases To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which ...

  11. Differential effects of processing time and duration of collagenase digestion on human and murine fat grafts

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, SA; Tannan, ST; Cao, Y; Peirce, SM; Lin, KY

    2015-01-01

    Background Autologous fat graft retention is unpredictable and mechanisms of optimization are poorly understood. Attempts at improving retention utilize collagenase experimentally and clinically to isolate the stromal vascular fraction to “enhance” fat grafts. However, no standardized duration for collagenase digestion or time following fat graft harvest has been established. This study investigates the effect of 1.) time after fat graft harvest and 2.) collagenase digestion time on interstitial cell and adipocyte viability in murine fat and human lipoaspirate. Methods Murine fat and human lipoaspirate were incubated ex vivo after harvest at room temperature for 120 minutes. Additional groups were incubated with collagenase for increasing five minute intervals from 30-60 minutes. Samples from each group were stained with BODIPY to quantify intact adipocytes and LIVE/DEAD kit to quantify interstitial cell viability. Results With increased time post-harvest, the number of intact adipocytes in murine fat and human lipoaspirate remained unchanged. Human interstitial cells were resistant to the effect of increased time ex vivo, while murine interstitial cells decreased in viability. In both populations, increased collagenase digestion time significantly decreased the number of viable adipocytes (murine: p-value ≤ 0.001, human: p-value ≤ 0.001) and interstitial cells (murine: p-value ≤ 0.001, human: p-value ≤ 0.001). Conclusions Human and murine adipocytes and human interstitial cells appear resistant to deleterious effects of increasing time following harvest. However, murine interstitial cells including are sensitive to increased time and prolonged collagenase digestion. These studies highlight the complex cellular components of fat grafts and how they respond differentially to time and collagenase digestion. PMID:26218393

  12. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and Carica papaya peels: Modelling and process parameter optimization study.

    PubMed

    Dahunsi, S O; Oranusi, S; Owolabi, J B; Efeovbokhan, V E

    2016-09-01

    The study evaluated anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and pawpaw peels and the optimization of important process parameters. The physic-chemical analyses of the substrates were done using standard methods after application of mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatments methods. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the gas composition to be within the range of 66-68% methane and 18-23% carbon dioxide. The study equally revealed that combination of the different pre-treatment methods enhanced enormous biogas yield from the digestion. Optimization of the generated biogas data were carried out using the Response Surface Methodology and the Artificial Neural Networks. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for RSM (0.9181) was lower compare to that of ANN (0.9828). This shows that ANN model gives higher accuracy than RSM model for the current. Further usage of Carica papaya peels for biogas generation is advocated.

  13. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and Carica papaya peels: Modelling and process parameter optimization study.

    PubMed

    Dahunsi, S O; Oranusi, S; Owolabi, J B; Efeovbokhan, V E

    2016-09-01

    The study evaluated anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and pawpaw peels and the optimization of important process parameters. The physic-chemical analyses of the substrates were done using standard methods after application of mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatments methods. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the gas composition to be within the range of 66-68% methane and 18-23% carbon dioxide. The study equally revealed that combination of the different pre-treatment methods enhanced enormous biogas yield from the digestion. Optimization of the generated biogas data were carried out using the Response Surface Methodology and the Artificial Neural Networks. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for RSM (0.9181) was lower compare to that of ANN (0.9828). This shows that ANN model gives higher accuracy than RSM model for the current. Further usage of Carica papaya peels for biogas generation is advocated. PMID:27285574

  14. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  15. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-03-18

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition.

  16. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  17. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  18. Archaeal community dynamics and abiotic characteristics in a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process treating fruit and vegetable processing waste sludge with chopped fresh artichoke waste.

    PubMed

    Ros, M; Franke-Whittle, I H; Morales, A B; Insam, H; Ayuso, M; Pascual, J A

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of obtaining methane in anaerobic digestion (AD) from the waste products generated by the processing of fruit and vegetables. During the first phase (0-55 d) of the AD using sludge from fruit and vegetable processing, an average value of 244±88 L kg(-1) dry matter d(-1)of biogas production was obtained, and methane content reached 65% of the biogas. Co-digestion with chopped fresh artichoke wastes in a second phase (55-71 d) enhanced biogas production, and resulted in an average value of 354±68 L kg(-1) dry matter d(-1), with higher methane content (more than 70%). The archaeal community involved in methane production was studied using the ANAEROCHIP microarray and real-time PCR. Results indicated that species of Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina were important during the AD process. Methanosarcina numbers increased after the addition of chopped fresh artichoke, while Methanosaeta numbers decreased. PMID:23548398

  19. Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing. PMID:20948933

  20. Evaluation of the removal of indicator bacteria from domestic sludge processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD).

    PubMed

    Piterina, Anna V; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J

    2010-09-01

    The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing.

  1. Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-02-01

    The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

  2. Effect of cooking and in vitro digestion on the stability of co-enzyme Q10 in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian D; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph P

    2014-05-01

    The use of CoQ10 fortification in the production of a functional food has been demonstrated in the past but primarily for dairy products. This study aimed to determine the bio-accessibility of CoQ10 in processed meat products, beef patties and pork breakfast sausages, fortified with CoQ10. Both the patties and sausages were fortified with a micellarized form of CoQ10 to enhance solubility to a concentration of 1mg/g of sample (NovaSolQ®). An assay was developed combining in vitro digestion and HPLC analysis to quantify the CoQ10 present in fortified products (100mg/g). The cooking retention level of CoQ10 in the products was found to be 74±1.42% for patties and 79.69±0.75% for sausages. The digestibility for both products ranged between 93% and 95%, sausages did have a higher digestibility level than patties but this was not found to be significant (P<0.01).

  3. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight.

  4. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight. PMID:27393834

  5. Effect of heat processing on in vitro protein digestibility and some chemical properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seeds.

    PubMed

    Giami, S Y; Adindu, M N; Hart, A D; Denenu, E O

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dry heat (roasting) and moist heat (boiling) on in vitro protein digestibility, protein fractions and other chemical properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seed that affect their utilization as a source of human food were investigated. Chemical analyses showed that the crude protein and fat contents of the unprocessed (raw) seeds were 20. 1% and 13.7%, respectively. The level of phytic acid in the raw seed (1.19 mg/g) was lower than the levels found in some commonly consumed pulses in Nigeria. Albumin and globulin protein fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of African breadfruit seed, constituting 67.8% of the total protein of the raw seed. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between crude protein, ash and fat contents of the raw and heat processed samples. Boiling proved more effective than roasting for improving protein digestibility and for reducing the levels of trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and polyphenols of the samples. The complete removal of these antinutrients, however, would require a more severe heat treatment of the seed, which in turn would profoundly reduce the nutritional value and availability of proteins, as demonstrated by the low values obtained for in vitro protein digestibility, protein fractions and protein extractability.

  6. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit; Saunders, Chris B.; Barnard, John W.; Lopata, Vince J.; Kremers, Walter; McDougall, Tom E.; Chung, Minda; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-08-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres, and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties.

  7. Microbial community composition is consistent across anaerobic digesters processing wheat-based fuel ethanol waste streams.

    PubMed

    Town, Jennifer; Annand, Holly; Pratt, Dyan; Dumonceaux, Tim; Fonstad, Terrance

    2014-04-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted on byproducts from dry-grind wheat-based ethanol plants amended with feedlot manure at two input ratios. Whole stillage (WST), thin stillage (TST) and wet cake (WCK) were tested alone and with 1:1 and 2:1 ratios (VS basis) of byproduct:feedlot manure in bench-scale batch reactors. The addition of manure increased both the rate and consistency of methane production in triplicate reactors. In addition, digesters co-digesting thin stillage and cattle manure at 1:1 and 2:1 stillage:manure produced 125% and 119% expected methane based on the biomethane potential of each substrate digested individually. Bacterial community analysis using universal target amplification and pyrosequencing indicated there was a numerically dominant core of 42 bacteria that was universally present in the reactors regardless of input material. A smaller-scale analysis of the archaeal community showed that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens were present in significant quantities.

  8. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  9. Characterization and single-stage denitrification anaerobic digestion of spent stream from the hydrolysis-fermentation-combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramnik

    The demand for ethanol as an oxygenate and octane booster in automobile fuel is growing. A number of processes are being investigated for conversion of biomass to ethanol. The Hydrolysis-Fermentation-Combustion (HFC) process for fuel ethanol production developed at the University of California Forest Products Laboratory, Richmond, California is at the stage of technology transfer following over two decades of research and development. This study addresses the technology to be used in treatment of spent streams to be discharged from this process. The treatment design combines a single stage denitrification and anaerobic digestion (SSDAD) for the biological treatment of a representative stream from this process. A typical spent stream contained a wide range of soluble organic materials including: unfermented sugars, components of the feedstocks solubilized in the hydrolysis, acid degradation products of carbohydrates, cleavage products of lignin, water-soluble extractives and phenolics, terpenes and other unfermented organic material, and nitrate ion from the nitric acid used as a catalyst in the hydrolysis reaction. Three sets of experiments were conducted in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Commonly available anaerobic sludge from local sewage treatment plants was used as a starter seed and was successfully acclimated to the high nitrate substrate leading to enrichment of denitrifiers. Necessary nutrients and trace elements were identified and supplied to satisfy the obligatory requirements of different groups of bacterial groups present. A major finding was the unique role of ammonium hydroxide in controlling pH leading to steady-state operation of the digester. At steady state operation the reduction in COD was 65%, the nitrate reduction was 88% and the nitrite reduction was 100%. Nitrate was reduced to safe nitrogen gas without buildup of any intermediate products. Organic material was converted to useful methane gas and carbon dioxide. The SSDAD system was

  10. Advanced Instruction: Facilitation of Individual Learning Processes in Large Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putz, Claus; Intveen, Geesche

    2009-01-01

    By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best. The fundamentals of our class "Introduction to spatial-geometric cognition using CAD" are constructional inputs, which systematically induce the…

  11. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  12. Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  13. Evaluation of advanced oxidation process for the treatment of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, S.B. II ); Peyton, G.R. ); Rice, L.E. . Kansas City Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide was selected for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly trichlorethene and 1,2-dichlorethene, from groundwater underlying the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Since the performance of this process for the removal of organics from groundwater is not well-documented, an evaluation was initiated to determine the performance of the treatment plant, document the operation and maintenance costs experience, and evaluate contaminant removal mechanisms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Effect of process temperature, pH and suspended solids content upon pasteurization of a model agricultural waste during thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J O; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    1999-09-01

    Thermophilic aerobic digestion(TAD), or liquid composting, is a versatile new process for the treatment and stabilization of high strength wastes of liquid or, perhaps more importantly, slurry consistency. The pattern of inactivation of various pathogenic and indicator organisms was studied using batch digestions under conditions that may be expected to be found in full-scale TAD processes. Rapid inactivation of test populations occurred within the first 10 min from the start of digestion. The inactivation rate was slightly lower when digestions were conducted below 60 degrees C. In some instances, a 'tail' was apparent, possibly indicating the survival of relatively resistant sub-populations particularly in the case of Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus faecalis, or of clumping or attachment of cells to particulate materials. The effect of pH on the inactivation of the test populations depended on the temperature of digestion, but varied with the test population. At 55 degrees C Escherichia coli was more sensitive to temperature effects at pH 7 than at pH 8, but was more sensitive at pH 8, 60 degrees C. The reverse was the case at 60 degrees C for Ent. faecalis. An increase in the solid content of the digesting waste caused a progressive increase in the protection of test organisms from thermal inactivation. Challenging a TAD process with test strains allows (via estimation of D-values) a quantification of the cidal effects of such processes, with a view to manipulating process variables to enhance such effects.

  15. Correlation of Process Data and Electrocheical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Second Year at Spring Grove

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2004-04-27

    Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in the carbon steel continuous kraft digester at Spring Grove at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank for a second consecutive year of a corrosion study. The probes contained dual electrodes of 309LSi stainless steel overlay--representing a field repair material applied to a portion of the vessel--and dual electrodes of 312 stainless steel overlay. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of 23 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were again monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare EN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate EN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the corrosion conditions aggressive to mild steel persist within the digester, as post-test inspection of the vessel revealed localized corrosion of mild steel in locations previously free of attack. Further, there was evidence that the depth of localized attack of exposed steel had increased in some locations. Nevertheless, the stainless steel overlay in the digester was essentially immune to corrosion, as evidenced by retained surface relief and heat tint associated with the original deposition process. The 309LSi electrodes also appeared visually pristine, and post-exposure metallographic examination of the 309LSi electrode materials revealed no attack. The 312 electrode materials were similar in appearance, but exhibited very minor interdendritic attack over the exposed surface. The silver electrodes in the probes were consumed (to Ag{sub 2}S) to variable degree over the course of the exposure indicating a useful life of not more than a year in digester service in this vessel

  16. Advanced biorefinery in lower termite-effect of combined pretreatment during the chewing process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the major barrier in biomass utilization is the lack of an effective pretreatment of plant cell wall so that the carbohydrates can subsequently be hydrolyzed into sugars for fermentation into fuel or chemical molecules. Termites are highly effective in degrading lignocellulosics and thus can be used as model biological systems for studying plant cell wall degradation. Results We discovered a combination of specific structural and compositional modification of the lignin framework and partial degradation of carbohydrates that occurs in softwood with physical chewing by the termite, Coptotermes formosanus, which are critical for efficient cell wall digestion. Comparative studies on the termite-chewed and native (control) softwood tissues at the same size were conducted with the aid of advanced analytical techniques such as pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The results strongly suggest a significant increase in the softwood cellulose enzymatic digestibility after termite chewing, accompanied with utilization of holocellulosic counterparts and an increase in the hydrolysable capacity of lignin collectively. In other words, the termite mechanical chewing process combines with specific biological pretreatment on the lignin counterpart in the plant cell wall, resulting in increased enzymatic cellulose digestibility in vitro. The specific lignin unlocking mechanism at this chewing stage comprises mainly of the cleavage of specific bonds from the lignin network and the modification and redistribution of functional groups in the resulting chewed plant tissue, which better expose the carbohydrate within the plant cell wall. Moreover, cleavage of the bond between the holocellulosic network and lignin molecule during the chewing process results in much better exposure of the biomass carbohydrate. Conclusion Collectively, these data indicate the

  17. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  18. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  19. Advanced titanium alloys and processes for minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, H. J.; Qazi, Javaid

    2005-11-01

    Major advances continue to be made in enhancing patient care while at the same time attempting to slow ever-rising health costs. Among the most innovative of these advances are minimally invasive surgical techniques, which allow patients to undergo life-saving and quality-of-life enhancing surgery with minimized risk and substantially reduced hospital stays. Recently this approach was introduced for orthopedic procedures (e.g., during total hip replacement surgery). In this instance, the implantable devices will bear the same loads and will therefore be subject to higher stress. This paper provides a brief overview of several potential approaches for developing new advanced titanium alloys and processes that should provide substantial benefit for this application in minimally invasive devices.

  20. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production.

  1. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production. PMID:27474953

  2. Comparison of static, in-vessel composting of MSW with thermophilic anaerobic digestion and combinations of the two processes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lee; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    The biological stabilisation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into a form stable enough for land application can be achieved via aerobic or anaerobic treatments. To investigate the rates of degradation (e.g. via electron equivalents removed, or via carbon emitted) of aerobic and anaerobic treatment, OFMSW samples were exposed to computer controlled laboratory-scale aerobic (static in-vessel composting), and anaerobic (thermophilic anaerobic digestion with liquor recycle) treatment individually and in combination. A comparison of the degradation rates, based on electron flow revealed that provided a suitable inoculum was used, anaerobic digestion was the faster of the two waste conversion process. In addition to faster maximum substrate oxidation rates, anaerobic digestion (followed by post-treatment aerobic maturation), when compared to static composting alone, converted a larger fraction of the organics to gaseous end-products (CO2 and CH4), leading to improved end-product stability and maturity, as measured by compost self-heating and root elongation tests, respectively. While not comparable to windrow and other mixed, highly aerated compost systems, our results show that in the thermophilic, in-vessel treatment investigated here, the inclusion of a anaerobic phase, rather than using composting alone, improved hydrolysis rates as well as oxidation rates and product stability. The combination of the two methods, as used in the DiCOM process, was also tested allowing heat generation to thermophilic operating temperature, biogas recovery and a low odour stable end-product within 19 days of operation. PMID:19345576

  3. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD.

  4. Meta-analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic digestion processes in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Nicole D; Tuomisto, Hanna L; McCulloch, Malcolm D

    2015-04-21

    This meta-analysis quantifies the changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms, caused by anaerobically digesting (AD) cattle manure. As this is a novel quantifiable synthesis of the literature, a database of GHG emissions from dairy farms is created. Each case in the database consists of a baseline (reference with no AD system) and an AD scenario. To enable interstudy comparison, emissions are normalized by calculating relative changes (RCs). The distributions of RCs are reported by specific GHGs and operation units. Nonparametric tests are applied to the RCs in order to identify a statistical difference of AD with respect to baseline scenarios (Wilcoxon rank test), correlations (Spearman test), and best estimation for changes in emissions (Kernel density distribution estimator). From 749 studies identified, 30 papers yield 89 independent cases. The median reductions in emissions from the baseline scenarios, according to operation units, are -43.2% (n.s.) for storage, -6.3% for field application of slurries, -11.0% for offset of energy from fossil fuel, and +0.4% (n.s.) for offset of inorganic fertilizers. The leaks from digesters are found to significantly increase the emissions from baseline scenarios (median = +1.4%). PMID:25790272

  5. Changes in molecular characteristics of cereal carbohydrates after processing and digestion.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Mirosław Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2012-12-10

    Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF) rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF), whole meal rye bread (GR), rye bread with kernels (RK), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan concentrate (AX) and wheat bread supplemented with oat β-glucan concentrate (BG). The weight average molecular weight (M(w)) of extractable carbohydrates in β-glucan concentrate decreased eight-fold after inclusion in the BG bread when exposed to in vitro digestion, while the M(w) of purified extractable carbohydrates in AX bread was reduced two-fold, and remained almost unaffected until reaching the terminal ileum of pigs. Similarly, the M(w) of purified extractable carbohydrates in GR and RK bread was not significantly changed in the ileum. The AX bread resulted in the highest concentration of dissolved arabinoxylan in the ileum among all the breads that caused a substantial increased in ileal AX viscosity. Nevertheless, for none of the breads, the M(w) of extractable carbohydrates was related neither to the bread extract nor ileal viscosity.

  6. Effects of Industrial Heating Processes of Milk-Based Enteral Formulas on Site-Specific Protein Modifications and Their Relationship to in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Heat treatments are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. Types of heating processes may have different effects on protein modifications, leading to different protein digestibility. In this study, milk-based liquid nutritional formulas (simulating enteral formulas) were subjected to steam injection ultra-high-temperature treatment or in-can sterilization, and the formulas were investigated by proteomic methods and in vitro and in vivo digestion assays. Proteomic analyses revealed that in-can sterilization resulted in higher signals for N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine and dephosphorylation of Ser residues in major milk proteins than in steam-injected formula, reflecting the more severe thermal process of in-can sterilization. In vitro and in vivo digestion assays indicated that steam injection improved protein digestibility, supposedly by denaturation, while the improvement seemed to be overwhelmed by formation of aggregates that showed resistance to digestion in in-can sterilized formula. Adverse effects of heat treatment on protein digestibility are more likely to be manifested in milk-based formulas than in cow's milk. Although the differences might be of limited significance in terms of amino acid bioavailability, these results emphasize the importance of protein quality of raw materials and selection of heating processes.

  7. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  8. Model-based advanced process control of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C W; Shariff, R; Stanley, S J; Smith, D W; Zhang, Q; Saumer, E D

    2002-01-01

    The drinking water treatment industry has seen a recent increase in the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for process modelling and offline process control tools and applications. While conceptual frameworks for integrating the ANN technology into the real-time control of complex treatment processes have been proposed, actual working systems have yet to be developed. This paper presents development and application of an ANN model-based advanced process control system for the coagulation process at a pilot-scale water treatment facility in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The system was successfully used to maintain a user-defined set point for effluent quality, by automatically varying operating conditions in response to changes in influent water quality. This new technology has the potential to realize significant operational cost saving for utilities when applied in full-scale applications.

  9. Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, S; Luste, S; Sillanpää, M

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35 degrees C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918 m(3)/tVS(added)), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the two materials was found feasible up to grease trap sludge addition of 46% of feed volatile solids (hydraulic retention time 16d; maximum organic loading rate 3.46 kgVS/m(3)d). Methane production was significantly higher and no effect on the characteristics of the digested material was noticed as compared to digesting sewage sludge alone. At higher grease trap sludge additions (55% and 71% of feed volatile solids), degradation was not complete and methane production either remained the same or decreased. PMID:18707877

  10. Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of orange pomace including anaerobic digestibility of process liquor.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ezgi; Atila, Buse; Mumme, Jan; Reza, M Toufiq; Toptas, Asli; Elibol, Murat; Yanik, Jale

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of the temperature and reaction time on hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of orange pomace was investigated. In addition, a set of anaerobic batch tests were performed to determine the resulting biogas and methane potential of the spent liquor. Hydrochar yields followed a decreasing trend with the increasing temperature, whereas reaction time had no considerably effect on the yield. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios from the raw material to the hydrochars suggested that dehydration reactions prevail during HTC. The hydrochars tended to become enriched in Ca, Mg and P minerals by increasing HTC temperature. The heavy metal contents in hydrochars were found below limits and no PAH compound was detected. Anaerobic digestion tests showed that the aqueous phase from HTC can be used as feedstocks for biogas production. PMID:26226579

  11. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins.

  12. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  13. Smelting Associated with the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, J-M.; Jeong, M-S.; Lee, W-K.; Cho, S-H.; Seo, C-S.; Park, S-W.

    2004-10-03

    The smelting process associated with the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was studied by using surrogate materials. Considering the vaporization behaviors of input materials, the operation procedure of smelting was set up as (1) removal of residual salts, (2) melting of metal powder, and (3) removal of dross from a metal ingot. The behaviors of porous MgO crucible during smelting were tested and the chemical stability of MgO in the salt-being atmosphere was confirmed.

  14. Metabolic and microbial community dynamics during the anaerobic digestion of maize silage in a two-phase process.

    PubMed

    Sträuber, Heike; Lucas, Rico; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Two-phasic anaerobic digestion processes (hydrolysis/acidogenesis separated from acetogenesis/methanogenesis) can be used for biogas production on demand or a combined chemicals/bioenergy production. For an effective process control, detailed knowledge about the microbial catalysts and their correlation to process conditions is crucial. In this study, maize silage was digested in a two-phase process and interrelationships between process parameters and microbial communities were revealed. In the first-phase reactor, alternating metabolic periods were observed which emerged independently from the feeding frequency. During the L-period, up to 11.8 g L(-1) lactic acid was produced which significantly correlated to lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus as the most abundant community members. During the alternating G-period, the production of volatile fatty acids (up to 5.3, 4.0 and 3.1 g L(-1) for propionic, n-butyric and n-caproic acid, respectively) dominated accompanied by a high gas production containing up to 28 % hydrogen. The relative abundance of various Clostridiales increased during this metabolic period. In the second-phase reactor, the metabolic fluctuations of the first phase were smoothed out resulting in a stable biogas production as well as stable bacterial and methanogenic communities. However, the biogas composition followed the metabolic dynamics of the first phase: the hydrogen content increased during the L-period whereas highest CH4/CO2 ratios (up to 2.8) were reached during the G-period. Aceticlastic Methanosaeta as well as hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus and Methanobacteriaceae were identified as dominant methanogens. Consequently, a directed control of the first-phase stabilizing desired metabolic states can lead to an enhanced productivity regarding chemicals and bioenergy.

  15. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  16. Effect of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to determine the influence of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods, dietary starch, rumen-digestible starch, and forage NDF concentrations on intake, digestion, and lactation performance by dairy cows using a data set comprising 414 treatment means from 102 peer-reviewed journal reports from 2000 to 2011. Categories for corn processing were dry ground, cracked or rolled corn (DRY), high-moisture shelled or ear corn (ENS), and steam-flaked or -rolled corn (STM); categories for kernel mean particle size were 500 to 1,000, 1,000 to 1,500, 1,500 to 2,000, 3,000 to 3,500, and 3,500 to 4,000 µm for dry corn and <2,000 and ≥2,000 µm for ensiled corn. Dietary starch and forage NDF concentrations were used as continuous variables. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), with treatment as fixed and trial as random effects. Total-tract starch digestibility was reduced and milk fat content was greater for DRY compared with ENS or STM. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was reduced for both DRY and ENS as particle size increased. Increased dietary starch concentrations increased milk yield and protein content, but decreased ruminal and total-tract NDF digestibilities and milk fat content. Dry matter intake, total-tract starch digestibility, and milk protein concentration decreased as forage NDF in the diet increased. Total-tract starch digestibility was positively related to ruminal (percentage of starch intake) and postruminal (percentage of duodenal flow) starch digestibilities.

  17. Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2007-02-09

    The principal objective of this two-year study is to develop and test a new advanced, automatic approach to seismic detection/location using array processing. We address a strategy to obtain significantly improved precision in the location of low-magnitude events compared with current fully-automatic approaches, combined with a low false alarm rate. We have developed and evaluated a prototype automatic system which uses as a basis regional array processing with fixed, carefully calibrated, site-specific parameters in conjuction with improved automatic phase onset time estimation. We have in parallel developed tools for Matched Field Processing for optimized detection and source-region identification of seismic signals. This narrow-band procedure aims to mitigate some of the causes of difficulty encountered using the standard array processing system, specifically complicated source-time histories of seismic events and shortcomings in the plane-wave approximation for seismic phase arrivals at regional arrays.

  18. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes critical to process intensification and implementation in commercial applications. Physics of the heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics and how these processes are ultimately scaled were investigated. Specifically, we progressed the knowledge and tools required to scale a multifunctional reactor for acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation to industrial dimensions. Understanding such process intensification strategies is crucial to improving the energy efficiency and profitability of multifunctional reactors, resulting in a projected energy savings of 100 trillion BTU/yr by 2020 and a substantial reduction in the accompanying emissions.

  19. Acidification of In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) process to reduce ammonia volatilization: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Madani-Hosseini, Mahsa; Mulligan, Catherine N; Barrington, Suzelle

    2016-06-01

    In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) is an ambient temperature treatment system for wastewaters stored for over 100days under temperate climates, which produces a nitrogen rich digestate susceptible to ammonia (NH3) volatilization. Present acidification techniques reducing NH3 volatilization are not only expensive and with secondary environmental effects, but do not apply to ISPAD relying on batch-to-batch inoculation. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate sequential organic loading (OL) strategies producing imbalances in acidogen and methanogen growth, acidifying ISPAD content one week before emptying to a pH of 6, while also preserving the inoculation potential. This acidification process is challenging as wastewaters often offer a high buffering capacity and ISPAD operational practices foster low microbial populations. A model simulating the ISPAD pH regime was used to optimize 3 different sequential OLs to decrease the ISPAD pH to 6.0. All 3 strategies were compared in terms of biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, microbial activity, glucose consumption, and pH decrease. Laboratory validation of the model outputs confirmed that a sequential OL of 13kg glucose/m(3) of ISPAD content over 4days could indeed reduce the pH to 6.0. Such OL competes feasibly with present acidification techniques. Nevertheless, more research is required to explain the 3-day lag between the model results and the experimental data. PMID:27060886

  20. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  1. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties.Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil

  2. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  3. Bridging Microstructure, Properties and Processing of Polymer Based Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a guest editorial for a special issue in Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. The papers collected in this special issue emphasize significant challenges, current approaches and future strategies necessary to advance the development of polymer-based materials. They were partly presented at the symposium of 'Bridging microstructure, properties and processing of polymer based advanced materials' in the TMS 2011 annual conference meeting, which was held in San Diego, US, on Feb 28 to March 3, 2011. This symposium was organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA) and the Institute of Mechanics of Fluids and Solids of the University of Strasbourg (France). The organizers were D.S. Li, S. Ahzi, and M. Khaleel.

  4. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  5. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    PubMed

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  6. Virus Reduction during Advanced Bardenpho and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Kitajima, Masaaki; Campillo, Maria E; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region. The incidence of viruses in wastewater was assessed with respect to absolute abundance, occurrence, and reduction in monthly samples collected throughout a 12 month period in southern Arizona. Samples were concentrated via an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results suggest that Plant D, utilizing an advanced Bardenpho process as secondary treatment, effectively reduced pathogenic viruses better than facilities using conventional processes. However, the absence of cell-culture assays did not allow an accurate assessment of infective viruses. On the basis of these data, the Aichi virus is suggested as a conservative viral marker for adequate wastewater treatment, as it most often showed the best correlation coefficients to viral pathogens, was always detected at higher concentrations, and may overestimate the potential virus risk. PMID:27447291

  7. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  8. A study of starch gelatinisation behaviour in hydrothermally-processed plant food tissues and implications for in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Warren, Frederick J; Campbell, Grant M; Gaisford, Simon; Royall, Paul G; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the plant food matrix in influencing the extent of starch gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing, and its implications for starch digestibility. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to provide a detailed examination of the gelatinisation behaviour of five distinct size fractions (diameters <0.21 to 2.58 mm) of milled chickpea and durum wheat. Gelatinisation parameters were obtained from the DSC thermograms and concomitant microscopy analyses were performed. The estimated terminal extent of gelatinisation (TEG) was compared with our previously published data for in vitro starch digestibility of the same food materials. We observed clear differences in the gelatinisation behaviour of matched size-fractions of chickpeas and durum wheat. In chickpea materials, the TEG values (34-100%) were inversely related to particle size, whereas in durum wheat, no size-dependent limitations on TEG were observed. The TEG values were completely consistent with the extent of starch amylolysis in all size fractions of both durum wheat and chickpea. Microstructural analysis following hydrothermal processing confirmed the presence of some partially gelatinised birefringent starch within intact chickpea cells. Birefringent starch granules were not present in any of the processed fractions of durum wheat. The differences in gelatinisation behaviour of these plant species seem to reflect the individual cell wall properties of these materials. These findings demonstrate the applicability of DSC to real food materials to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the food matrix (particularly the plant cell walls) influences gelatinisation, and consequently, starch amylolysis.

  9. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  10. Co-digestion of polylactide and kitchen garbage in hyperthermophilic and thermophilic continuous anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Two series of two-phase anaerobic systems, consisting of a hyperthermophilic (80°C) reactor and a thermophilic (55°C) reactor, fed with a mixture of kitchen garbage (KG) and polylactide (PLA), was compared with a single-phase thermophilic reactor for the overall performance. The result indicated that ammonia addition under hyperthermophilic condition promoted the transformation of PLA particles to lactic acid. The systems with hyperthermophilic treatment had advantages on PLA transformation and methane conversion ratio to the control system. Under the organic loading rate (OLR) of 10.3 g COD/(L day), the PLA transformation ratios of the two-phase systems were 82.0% and 85.2%, respectively, higher than that of the control system (63.5%). The methane conversion ratios of the two-phase systems were 82.9% and 80.8%, respectively, higher than 70.1% of the control system. The microbial community analysis indicated that hyperthermophilic treatment is easily installed to traditional thermophilic anaerobic digestion plants without inoculation of special bacteria.

  11. Co-digestion of polylactide and kitchen garbage in hyperthermophilic and thermophilic continuous anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Two series of two-phase anaerobic systems, consisting of a hyperthermophilic (80°C) reactor and a thermophilic (55°C) reactor, fed with a mixture of kitchen garbage (KG) and polylactide (PLA), was compared with a single-phase thermophilic reactor for the overall performance. The result indicated that ammonia addition under hyperthermophilic condition promoted the transformation of PLA particles to lactic acid. The systems with hyperthermophilic treatment had advantages on PLA transformation and methane conversion ratio to the control system. Under the organic loading rate (OLR) of 10.3 g COD/(L day), the PLA transformation ratios of the two-phase systems were 82.0% and 85.2%, respectively, higher than that of the control system (63.5%). The methane conversion ratios of the two-phase systems were 82.9% and 80.8%, respectively, higher than 70.1% of the control system. The microbial community analysis indicated that hyperthermophilic treatment is easily installed to traditional thermophilic anaerobic digestion plants without inoculation of special bacteria. PMID:22409980

  12. Advanced process control with design-based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjo; Kim, Jungchan; Hong, Jongkyun; Yim, Donggyu; Kim, Jinwoong; Hasebe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    K1 factor for development and mass-production of memory devices has been decreased down to below 0.30 in recent years. Process technology has responded with extreme resolution enhancement technologies (RET) and much more complex OPC technologies than before. ArF immersion lithography is expected to remain the major patterning technology through under 35 nm node, where the degree of process difficulties and the sensitivity to process variations grow even higher. So, Design for manufacturing (DFM) is proposed to lower the degree of process difficulties and advanced process control (APC) is required to reduce the process variations. However, both DFM and APC need much feed-back from the wafer side such as hot spot inspection results and total CDU measurements at the lot, wafer, field and die level. In this work, we discuss a new design based metrology which can compare SEM image with CAD data and measure the whole CD deviations from the original layouts in a full die. It can provide the full information of hot spots and the whole CD distribution diagram of various transistors in peripheral regions as well as cell layout. So, it is possible to analyze the root cause of the CD distribution of some specific transistors or cell layout, such as OPC error, mask CDU, lens aberrations or etch process variation and so on. The applications of this new inspection tool will be introduced and APC using the analysis result will be presented in detail.

  13. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, S.; Valladares, M.R.S. de

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  14. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  15. Metrology aspects of SIMS depth profiling for advanced ULSI processes

    SciTech Connect

    Budrevich, Andre; Hunter, Jerry

    1998-11-24

    As the semiconductor industry roadmap passes through the 0.1 {mu}m technology node, the junction depth of the transistor source/drain extension will be required to be less than 20 nm and the well doping will be near 1.0 {mu}m in depth. The development of advanced ULSI processing techniques requires the evolution of new metrology tools to ensure process capability. High sensitivity (ppb) coupled with excellent depth resolution (1 nm) makes SIMS the technique of choice for measuring the in-depth chemical distribution of these dopants with high precision and accuracy. This paper will discuss the issues, which impact the accuracy and precision of SIMS measurements of ion implants (both shallow and deep). First this paper will discuss common uses of the SIMS technique in the technology development and manufacturing of advanced ULSI processes. In the second part of this paper the ability of SIMS to make high precision measurements of ion implant depth profiles will be studied.

  16. Effective ethanol production by reutilizing waste distillage anaerobic digestion effluent in an integrated fermentation process coupled with both ethanol and methane fermentations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng Ming; Mao, Zhong Gui; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Jian Hua; Sun, Fu Bao; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hong Jian

    2010-11-01

    An integrated ethanol-methane fermentation coupled system characterized with full wastewater reutilization was proposed. The waste distillage originated from ethanol distillation was treated with anaerobic digestion and then recycled for medium preparation in the next ethanol fermentation run. This process could enhance wastewater reutilization, save fresh water and reduce energy consumption in the cassava-based ethanol production. The results indicated that, when using anaerobic effluents from the digestion process with only one tank, an ethanol concentration of 10.5% (v/v) compatible with that of conventional one could be achieved, but ethanol fermentation was partially inhibited and operation time gradually prolonged from 48 to 105 h. Using anaerobic effluents from the digestion process with two subsequently connected tanks, ethanol fermentation performance could be largely improved, and the fermentation lag could be completely eliminated. The performance enhancement was due to the concentrations reduction in organic acids, such as acetic and propionic acids in the digestion effluents using two digestion tanks in-series.

  17. Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases.

    PubMed

    Lončar, Nikola; Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2015-10-23

    Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is known as a potent enzyme for raw starch hydrolysis. In this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ resin is examined with the aim to improve the downstream processing of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This resin combines hydrophobic interactions with cation exchange groups and as such the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions while the ion-exchange groups enable proper selectivity. α-Amylase was produced using an optimized fed-batch approach in a defined media and significant overexpression of 1.2 g L(-1) was achieved. This single step procedure enables simultaneous concentration, pigment removal as well as purification of amylase with yields of 96% directly from the fermentation broth.

  18. Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Nikola; Slavić, Marinela Šokarda; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is known as a potent enzyme for raw starch hydrolysis. In this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ resin is examined with the aim to improve the downstream processing of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This resin combines hydrophobic interactions with cation exchange groups and as such the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions while the ion-exchange groups enable proper selectivity. α-Amylase was produced using an optimized fed-batch approach in a defined media and significant overexpression of 1.2 g L−1 was achieved. This single step procedure enables simultaneous concentration, pigment removal as well as purification of amylase with yields of 96% directly from the fermentation broth. PMID:26492875

  19. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production. PMID:26897414

  20. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production.

  1. A flexible architecture for advanced process control solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faron, Kamyar; Iourovitski, Ilia

    2005-05-01

    Advanced Process Control (APC) is now mainstream practice in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Over the past decade and a half APC has evolved from a "good idea", and "wouldn"t it be great" concept to mandatory manufacturing practice. APC developments have primarily dealt with two major thrusts, algorithms and infrastructure, and often the line between them has been blurred. The algorithms have evolved from very simple single variable solutions to sophisticated and cutting edge adaptive multivariable (input and output) solutions. Spending patterns in recent times have demanded that the economics of a comprehensive APC infrastructure be completely justified for any and all cost conscious manufacturers. There are studies suggesting integration costs as high as 60% of the total APC solution costs. Such cost prohibitive figures clearly diminish the return on APC investments. This has limited the acceptance and development of pure APC infrastructure solutions for many fabs. Modern APC solution architectures must satisfy the wide array of requirements from very manual R&D environments to very advanced and automated "lights out" manufacturing facilities. A majority of commercially available control solutions and most in house developed solutions lack important attributes of scalability, flexibility, and adaptability and hence require significant resources for integration, deployment, and maintenance. Many APC improvement efforts have been abandoned and delayed due to legacy systems and inadequate architectural design. Recent advancements (Service Oriented Architectures) in the software industry have delivered ideal technologies for delivering scalable, flexible, and reliable solutions that can seamlessly integrate into any fabs" existing system and business practices. In this publication we shall evaluate the various attributes of the architectures required by fabs and illustrate the benefits of a Service Oriented Architecture to satisfy these requirements. Blue

  2. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  3. Overview: full scale experience of the SHARON process for treatment of rejection water of digested sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, R; Mulder, J W; Uijterlinde, C A; Loosdrecht, M C

    2001-01-01

    A SHARON system has been constructed at the Utrecht WWTP and at the Rotterdam Dokhaven WWTP. In the SHARON process rejection water from dewatering of digested sludge is treated for N-removal. It concerns a high active process operating without sludge retention. Due to differences in growth rate nitrite oxidisers can be washed out of the system while ammonia oxidisers are maintained, resulting in N-removal over nitrite. The SHARON process was selected in competition with several other techniques. The feed of a SHARON system is concentrated, with ammonia concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 g N/l. The results show that conversion rates of 90% are well possible with N-removal mainly via the nitrite route. The process was shown to be stable. Due to the high ammonium influent concentrations pH control is of great importance, preventing process inhibitions. The acidifying effect of nitrification can be compensated completely by CO2 stripping during aeration and by denitrification. Heat production by biological conversions is significant, due to the high inlet concentrations, and contributes to the optimal operating temperature of 30-40 degrees C. PMID:11496665

  4. Treatment process and toxicities assessment of wastewater issued from anaerobic digestion of household wastes.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Tahrani, Leyla; Fathallah, Salem; Cabrol, Audrey; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2014-02-01

    Modern society grapples with large amounts of household waste. The anaerobic digestion of this waste offers a promising source for energy-rich biogas production but generates high toxic effluents that require treatment before reuse or disposal into the environment. This study aimed to investigate three techniques, namely coagulation/flocculation, electro-coagulation, and activated sludge, in terms of efficiency in the treatment of these effluents. It also aimed to assess their toxicity effects on the germination and growth of durum wheat Triticum aestivum L. seeds before and after 6 days of treatment. Activated sludge was most efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and conductivity (95.7 %, 15.8 %, and 37.5 %, respectively). The effluent treated with this technique induced a marked delay in germination (low mean time of germination) and a significant reduction in the percentages of seed germination and root and leaf growths. It was also noted to strongly induce lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves, which presumably explained the germination/growth inhibition of the wheat seeds. The effluent also induced marked lipid peroxidation effects and strongly inhibited the activities of butyrylcholinesterase in mice bone marrows. The effluent shows a high ability to inhibit the growth of three microalgae; these endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physico-chemical quality of this wastewater. Overall, while no significant alterations were observed in terms of animal and vegetable toxicities when the effluent was treated by coagulation/flocculation, activated sludge treatment proved efficient in reducing the toxicities induced by the untreated effluents. The results indicate that the application of this technique is promising with regards to attaining efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective strategies for the management and treatment of household waste. PMID:24072641

  5. Treatment process and toxicities assessment of wastewater issued from anaerobic digestion of household wastes.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Tahrani, Leyla; Fathallah, Salem; Cabrol, Audrey; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2014-02-01

    Modern society grapples with large amounts of household waste. The anaerobic digestion of this waste offers a promising source for energy-rich biogas production but generates high toxic effluents that require treatment before reuse or disposal into the environment. This study aimed to investigate three techniques, namely coagulation/flocculation, electro-coagulation, and activated sludge, in terms of efficiency in the treatment of these effluents. It also aimed to assess their toxicity effects on the germination and growth of durum wheat Triticum aestivum L. seeds before and after 6 days of treatment. Activated sludge was most efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and conductivity (95.7 %, 15.8 %, and 37.5 %, respectively). The effluent treated with this technique induced a marked delay in germination (low mean time of germination) and a significant reduction in the percentages of seed germination and root and leaf growths. It was also noted to strongly induce lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves, which presumably explained the germination/growth inhibition of the wheat seeds. The effluent also induced marked lipid peroxidation effects and strongly inhibited the activities of butyrylcholinesterase in mice bone marrows. The effluent shows a high ability to inhibit the growth of three microalgae; these endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physico-chemical quality of this wastewater. Overall, while no significant alterations were observed in terms of animal and vegetable toxicities when the effluent was treated by coagulation/flocculation, activated sludge treatment proved efficient in reducing the toxicities induced by the untreated effluents. The results indicate that the application of this technique is promising with regards to attaining efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective strategies for the management and treatment of household waste.

  6. A comparison of product yields and inorganic content in process streams following thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of microalgae, manure and digestate.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Williams, P T

    2016-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing show promise for converting biomass into higher energy density fuels. Both approaches facilitate the extraction of inorganics into the aqueous product. This study compares the behaviour of microalgae, digestate, swine and chicken manure by thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing at increasing process severity. Thermal hydrolysis was performed at 170°C, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) was performed at 250°C, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was performed at 350°C and supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was performed at 500°C. The level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the product streams was measured for each feedstock. Nitrogen is present in the aqueous phase as organic-N and NH3-N. The proportion of organic-N is higher at lower temperatures. Extraction of phosphorus is linked to the presence of inorganics such as Ca, Mg and Fe in the feedstock. Microalgae and chicken manure release phosphorus more easily than other feedstocks.

  7. A comparison of product yields and inorganic content in process streams following thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of microalgae, manure and digestate.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Williams, P T

    2016-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing show promise for converting biomass into higher energy density fuels. Both approaches facilitate the extraction of inorganics into the aqueous product. This study compares the behaviour of microalgae, digestate, swine and chicken manure by thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing at increasing process severity. Thermal hydrolysis was performed at 170°C, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) was performed at 250°C, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was performed at 350°C and supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was performed at 500°C. The level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the product streams was measured for each feedstock. Nitrogen is present in the aqueous phase as organic-N and NH3-N. The proportion of organic-N is higher at lower temperatures. Extraction of phosphorus is linked to the presence of inorganics such as Ca, Mg and Fe in the feedstock. Microalgae and chicken manure release phosphorus more easily than other feedstocks. PMID:26615335

  8. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  9. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  10. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  11. Advanced biological unit processes for domestic water recycling.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, B; Laine, A L; Stephenson, T; Judd, S J

    2001-01-01

    The potential of advanced biological unit operations for the recycling of grey and black waters has been evaluated. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstrated the greatest efficacy towards water recycling in terms of all the quality determinants. Both the biologically aerated filter (BAF) and the MBR were able to effectively treat the organic and physical pollutants in all the types of wastewater tested. The main difference was observed in terms of the microbiological quality, measured as total coliforms. The open bed structure of the BAF enabled passage of coliforms whereas the complete barrier of the MBR produced a non detectable level in the effluent. The MBR process complied with commonly adopted water recycling quality standards for the all determinants during the grey water trials and failed only in terms of total coliform counts once black water had been introduced into the feed. The MBR was seen as a particularly suitable advanced biological process as it was very effective at stabilising out the considerable load variations encountered during the trial.

  12. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually.

  13. Application of advanced oxidation processes for TNT removal: A review.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Kaidar; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Cassir, Michel; Bermond, Alain

    2010-06-15

    Nowadays, there are increasingly stringent regulations requiring drastic treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated waters to generate treated waters which could be easily reused or released into the environment without any harmful effects. TNT is among the most highly suspected explosive compounds that interfere with groundwater system due to its high toxicity and low biodegradability. The present work is an overview of the literature on TNT removal from polluted waters and soils and, more particularly, its treatability by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Among the remediation technologies, AOPs constitute a promising technology for the treatment of wastewaters containing non-easily biodegradable organic compounds. Data concerning the degradation of TNT reported during the period 1990-2009 are evaluated in this review. Among the AOPs, the following techniques are successively debated: processes based on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)+UV, Fenton, photo-Fenton and Fenton-like processes), photocatalysis, processes based on ozone (O(3), O(3)+UV) and electrochemical processes. Kinetic constants related to TNT degradation and the different mechanistic degradation pathways are discussed. Possible future treatment strategies, such as, coupling AOP with biological treatment is also considered as a mean to improve TNT remediation efficiency and kinetic.

  14. Differentiating Instruction for Advanced Learners in the Mixed-Ability Middle School Classroom. ERIC Digest E536.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    This brief paper summarizes guidelines for adapting instruction for advanced learners in inclusive, mixed-ability middle school classrooms. A rationale for differentiating instruction is followed by consideration of what differentiation is and is not. Characteristics of a differentiated class are enumerated, including: instruction is concept…

  15. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt; Groten, Will; Judzis, Arvids; Foley, Richard; Smith, Larry; Cross, Will; Vogt, T.

    2011-06-27

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  16. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  17. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  18. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. PMID:27452170

  19. The effects of processing and mastication on almond lipid bioaccessibility using novel methods of in vitro digestion modelling and micro-structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Grundy, Myriam M-L; Grassby, Terri; Parker, Mary L; Cross, Kathryn L; Chessa, Simona; Bisignano, Carlo; Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Laganà, Giuseppina; Butterworth, Peter J; Faulks, Richard M; Wilde, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R; Waldron, Keith W

    2014-11-14

    A number of studies have demonstrated that consuming almonds increases satiety but does not result in weight gain, despite their high energy and lipid content. To understand the mechanism of almond digestion, in the present study, we investigated the bioaccessibility of lipids from masticated almonds during in vitro simulated human digestion, and determined the associated changes in cell-wall composition and cellular microstructure. The influence of processing on lipid release was assessed by using natural raw almonds (NA) and roasted almonds (RA). Masticated samples from four healthy adults (two females, two males) were exposed to a dynamic gastric model of digestion followed by simulated duodenal digestion. Between 7·8 and 11·1 % of the total lipid was released as a result of mastication, with no significant differences between the NA and RA samples. Significant digestion occurred during the in vitro gastric phase (16·4 and 15·9 %) and the in vitro duodenal phase (32·2 and 32·7 %) for the NA and RA samples, respectively. Roasting produced a smaller average particle size distribution post-mastication; however, this was not significant in terms of lipid release. Light microscopy showed major changes that occurred in the distribution of lipid in all cells after the roasting process. Further changes were observed in the surface cells of almond fragments and in fractured cells after exposure to the duodenal environment. Almond cell walls prevented lipid release from intact cells, providing a mechanism for incomplete nutrient absorption in the gut. The composition of almond cell walls was not affected by processing or simulated digestion.

  20. Influence of processing method on comparative digestion of white corn versus conventional steam-flaked yellow dent corn in finishing diets for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Bermúdez, R M; Cervantes, M; Corona, L; Dávila-Ramos, H; López-Soto, M A; May, D; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2011-01-01

    Four Holstein steers (137 ± 2 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the influence of processing method on comparative digestion of white corn. Treatments consisted of a basal finishing diet containing 80% corn grain (DM basis) as 1) dry-rolled white corn (DRWC), 2) steam-flaked white corn (SFWC) with 0.36 kg/L flake density (SFWC36), 3) SFWC, 0.31 kg/L flake density (SFWC31), and 4) steam-flaked yellow corn (SFYC) with 0.31 kg/L flake density (SFYC31). Characteristics of ruminal, postruminal, and apparent total tract digestion of OM, starch, and N were similar (P ≥ 0.08) for SFYC31 and SFWC31 treatments. Decreasing flake density of white corn (from 0.36 to 0.31 kg/L) did not affect (P = 0.22) ruminal OM digestion, but increased (1.9%, P = 0.07) apparent total tract OM digestion. Compared with dry rolling, steam flaking white corn increased ruminal (9.4%, P = 0.05), postruminal (14.4%, P < 0.01), and apparent total tract OM digestion (8.2%, P < 0.01), reflecting corresponding increases in ruminal (13.3%, P < 0.01), postruminal (43%, P < 0.01), and apparent total tract (12.3%, P < 0.01) starch digestion. Apparent postruminal and apparent total-tract N digestion also were greater (6.5 and 5.6%, respectively, P = 0.04) for SFWC than for DRWC. The DE value of SFWC and SFYC diets was similar, averaging 3.39 Mcal/kg. The DE value of SFWC was greater (8.1%, P < 0.01) than that of DRWC. Ruminal pH (4 h postprandial) averaged 5.74 and was not affected (P ≥ 0.48) by dietary treatments. Compared with dry rolling, steam flaking markedly enhances the feeding value of white corn, with optimal flake density being less than 0.36 kg/L. Although white corn has greater vitreous endosperm content, characteristics of ruminal starch digestion and undegradable intake protein are similar to conventional yellow dent corn when processed to a similar flake density (0.31 kg/L). However, postruminal and apparent total

  1. [Application of BAF-BAC process in advanced treatment of secondary effluent of refinery processing factory].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangjin; Sun, Changhong; Ma, Jianju; Qin, Yongsheng

    2003-11-01

    To find a new advanced technology for wastewater reuse in refinery processing factory, a pilot test using BAF-BAC process was carried out. The results revealed that when the COD concentration of the influent was less than 130 mg/L and BAF filtration rate was lower than 4.24 m/h, the average effluent COD concentration of BAF-BAC process was less than 50 mg/L, average turbidity was 4.46 NTU. At the same time this process has some effective removal rate on ammonia-nitrogen.

  2. Combining Advanced Oxidation Processes: Assessment Of Process Additivity, Synergism, And Antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Robert W.; Sharma, M.P.; Gbadebo Adewuyi, Yusuf

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the process interactions from combining integrated processes (such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), biological operations, air stripping, etc.). AOPs considered include: Fenton's reagent, ultraviolet light, titanium dioxide, ozone (O{sub 3}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sonication/acoustic cavitation, among others. A critical review of the technical literature has been performed, and the data has been analyzed in terms of the processes being additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Predictions based on the individual unit operations are made and compared against the behavior of the combined unit operations. The data reported in this paper focus primarily on treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. (authors)

  3. Processing and Preparation of Advanced Stirling Convertors for Extended Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Cornell, Paggy A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Company (LMSC), Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science missions. This generator will make use of the free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. NASA GRC is supporting the development of the ASRG by providing extended operation of several Sunpower Inc. Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs). In the past year and a half, eight ASCs have operated in continuous, unattended mode in both air and thermal vacuum environments. Hardware, software, and procedures were developed to prepare each convertor for extended operation with intended durations on the order of tens of thousands of hours. Steps taken to prepare a convertor for long-term operation included geometry measurements, thermocouple instrumentation, evaluation of working fluid purity, evacuation with bakeout, and high purity charge. Actions were also taken to ensure the reliability of support systems, such as data acquisition and automated shutdown checkouts. Once a convertor completed these steps, it underwent short-term testing to gather baseline performance data before initiating extended operation. These tests included insulation thermal loss characterization, low-temperature checkout, and full-temperature and power demonstration. This paper discusses the facilities developed to support continuous, unattended operation, and the processing results of the eight ASCs currently on test.

  4. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  5. Modelling phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) interactions for dynamic simulations of anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Solon, Kimberly; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Gernaey, Krist V; Jeppsson, Ulf; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-05-15

    This paper proposes a series of extensions to functionally upgrade the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to allow for plant-wide phosphorus (P) simulation. The close interplay between the P, sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) cycles requires a substantial (and unavoidable) increase in model complexity due to the involved three-phase physico-chemical and biological transformations. The ADM1 version, implemented in the plant-wide context provided by the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2), is used as the basic platform (A0). Three different model extensions (A1, A2, A3) are implemented, simulated and evaluated. The first extension (A1) considers P transformations by accounting for the kinetic decay of polyphosphates (XPP) and potential uptake of volatile fatty acids (VFA) to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (XPHA) by phosphorus accumulating organisms (XPAO). Two variant extensions (A2,1/A2,2) describe biological production of sulfides (SIS) by means of sulfate reducing bacteria (XSRB) utilising hydrogen only (autolithotrophically) or hydrogen plus organic acids (heterorganotrophically) as electron sources, respectively. These two approaches also consider a potential hydrogen sulfide ( [Formula: see text] inhibition effect and stripping to the gas phase ( [Formula: see text] ). The third extension (A3) accounts for chemical iron (III) ( [Formula: see text] ) reduction to iron (II) ( [Formula: see text] ) using hydrogen ( [Formula: see text] ) and sulfides (SIS) as electron donors. A set of pre/post interfaces between the Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and ADM1 are furthermore proposed in order to allow for plant-wide (model-based) analysis and study of the interactions between the water and sludge lines. Simulation (A1 - A3) results show that the ratio between soluble/particulate P compounds strongly depends on the pH and cationic load, which determines the capacity to form (or not) precipitation products. Implementations A1 and A2,1/A2,2 lead to a reduction in

  6. Modelling phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) interactions for dynamic simulations of anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Solon, Kimberly; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Gernaey, Krist V; Jeppsson, Ulf; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-05-15

    This paper proposes a series of extensions to functionally upgrade the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to allow for plant-wide phosphorus (P) simulation. The close interplay between the P, sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) cycles requires a substantial (and unavoidable) increase in model complexity due to the involved three-phase physico-chemical and biological transformations. The ADM1 version, implemented in the plant-wide context provided by the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2), is used as the basic platform (A0). Three different model extensions (A1, A2, A3) are implemented, simulated and evaluated. The first extension (A1) considers P transformations by accounting for the kinetic decay of polyphosphates (XPP) and potential uptake of volatile fatty acids (VFA) to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (XPHA) by phosphorus accumulating organisms (XPAO). Two variant extensions (A2,1/A2,2) describe biological production of sulfides (SIS) by means of sulfate reducing bacteria (XSRB) utilising hydrogen only (autolithotrophically) or hydrogen plus organic acids (heterorganotrophically) as electron sources, respectively. These two approaches also consider a potential hydrogen sulfide ( [Formula: see text] inhibition effect and stripping to the gas phase ( [Formula: see text] ). The third extension (A3) accounts for chemical iron (III) ( [Formula: see text] ) reduction to iron (II) ( [Formula: see text] ) using hydrogen ( [Formula: see text] ) and sulfides (SIS) as electron donors. A set of pre/post interfaces between the Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and ADM1 are furthermore proposed in order to allow for plant-wide (model-based) analysis and study of the interactions between the water and sludge lines. Simulation (A1 - A3) results show that the ratio between soluble/particulate P compounds strongly depends on the pH and cationic load, which determines the capacity to form (or not) precipitation products. Implementations A1 and A2,1/A2,2 lead to a reduction in

  7. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Arzner, K.; Benz, A. O.; Browning, P.; Dauphin, C.; Emslie, A. G.; Fletcher, L.; Kontar, E. P.; Mann, G.; Onofri, M.; Petrosian, V.; Turkmani, R.; Vilmer, N.; Vlahos, L.

    2011-09-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  8. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  9. Evaluation methodologies for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schabowsky, R. S., Jr.; Gai, E.; Walker, B. K.; Lala, J. H.; Motyka, P.

    1984-01-01

    The system concept and requirements for an Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are briefly described, but the emphasis of this paper is on the evaluation methodologies being developed and utilized in the AIPS program. The evaluation tasks include hardware reliability, maintainability and availability, software reliability, performance, and performability. Hardware RMA and software reliability are addressed with Markov modeling techniques. The performance analysis for AIPS is based on queueing theory. Performability is a measure of merit which combines system reliability and performance measures. The probability laws of the performance measures are obtained from the Markov reliability models. Scalar functions of this law such as the mean and variance provide measures of merit in the AIPS performability evaluations.

  10. Advanced information processing system: Input/output system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Alger, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Input/Output (I/O) Systems Services of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are discussed. The introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS system. Section 1.1 gives a brief overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a detailed description of the AIPS fault tolerant network architecture, while section 1.2 provides an introduction to the AIPS systems software. Sections 2 and 3 describe the functional requirements and design and detailed specifications of the I/O User Interface and Communications Management modules of the I/O System Services, respectively. Section 4 illustrates the use of the I/O System Services, while Section 5 concludes with a summary of results and suggestions for future work in this area.

  11. Treatment of anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater through chemical precipitation and a sequencing batch reactor process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiming; Song, Qianwu; Wang, Wenjun; Wu, Shaowei; Dai, Jiankun

    2012-06-30

    Chemical precipitation, in combination with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process, was employed to remove pollutants from anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater. The effects of the chemicals along with various Mg:N:P ratios on the chemical precipitation (struvite precipitation) were investigated. When brucite and H(3)PO(4) were applied at an Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3:1:1, an ammonia-removal rate of 81% was achieved, which was slightly more than that (80%) obtained with MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O at Mg:N:P molar ratios greater than the stoichiometric ratio. To further reduce the ammonia loads of the successive biotreatment, an overdose of phosphate with brucite and H(3)PO(4) was applied during chemical precipitation. The ammonia-removal rate at the Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3.5:1:1.05 reached 88%, with a residual PO(4)-P concentration of 16 mg/L. The economic analysis showed that the chemical cost of chemical precipitation could be reduced by about 41% when brucite and H(3)PO(4) were used instead of MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O. The subsequent biological process that used a sequencing batch reactor showed high removal rates of contaminants. The quality of the final effluent met the requisite effluent-discharging standards.

  12. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  13. Role of pyro-chemical processes in advanced fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawada, Hosadu Parameswara; Fukuda, Kosaku

    2005-02-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of Minor Actinides (MAs) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) arising out of the back-end of the fuel cycle would be one of the key-steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Pyro-chemical separation methods would form a critical stage of P&T by recovering long-lived elements and thus reducing the environmental impact by the back-end of the fuel-cycle. This paper attempts to overview global developments of pyro-chemical process that are envisaged in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Research and development needs for molten-salt electro-refining as well as molten salt extraction process that are foreseen as partitioning methods for spent nuclear fuels such as oxide, metal and nitride fuels from thermal or fast reactors; high level liquid waste from back-end fuel cycle as well as targets from sub-critical Accelerator Driven Sub-critical reactors would be addressed. The role of high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides in defining efficiency of recovery or separation of minor actinides from other fission products such as lanthanides will also be illustrated. In addition, the necessity for determination of accurate high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides would be discussed.

  14. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  15. The influence of advanced processing on PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.; Schnittgrund, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    High thermal gradient casting of PWA 1480 was evaluated as an avenue for reducing the size of casting porosity. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was also employed for the elimination of casting pores. An alternate to the standard PWA 1480 coating plus diffusion bonding aging heat treatment cycle was also evaluated for potential improvements in the properties of interest to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) application. Microstructural changes associated with the high thermal gradient casting process were quantified by measurement of the size and density of the casting porosity, the amount of retained casting eutectic, and dendrite arm spacings. The results of the advanced processing have shown an improvement in material microstructure due to high thermal gradient casting. Improved homogeneity of PWA 1480 is advantageous in providing an improved solution heat treatment window and, potentially, easier HIP. High thermal gradient casting improves fatigue life by reducing casting pore size. The alternate heat treatment improves the balance of strength and ductility which appears to improve low cycle fatigue life, but with a reduction in short time stress rupture life. Based upon these tests, hot isostatic pressing appears to afford further improvements in cyclic life, though additional evaluation is suggested. Development of the alternate heat treatment is not recommended due to the reduced stress rupture capability and the need to develop a new properties data base. High thermal gradient casting and HIP are recommended for application to single crystal castings.

  16. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  17. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  18. PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE OF ADVANCED SPENT FUEL CONDITIONING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    MARLOW, JOHNNA B.; LEE, SANG Y.; THOMAS, KENNETH E.; MILLER, MICHAEL C.; KIM, H.D.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is a pyro-metallurgical spent fuel conditioning technology that is under development by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). KAERl has been developing this technology to resolve the high-level waste (HLW) disposition problem since 1997 and is planning to perform a lab-scale demonstration in 2008. The proposed concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique that converts spent nuclear fuels into a single set of disposal metal forms to reduce the volume and simplify the qualification process. The goal of the project is to recover more than 99% of the actinides in metallic form from oxide spent fuel in a proliferation-resistant manner. With this technology, a significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected, decreasing the burden of the final disposal in terms of size, safety, and cost. The success of the ACP will depend on a number of factors. One key factor is 'proliferation resistance,' and it should be judged by the manner in which it addresses issues of proliferation concern. In this paper, the proliferation resistance of the ACP technology has been analyzed. The intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation resistance features of the ACP technology were examined for the pilot-scale ACP facility based on the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee's TOPS (Task Force on Technology Opportunities for Increasing the Proliferation Resistance of Global Civilian Nuclear Power System) metrics. It was found that the ACP system was more proliferation-resistant than aqueous technologies. The ACP as envisioned in current process flow is not capable of separating plutonium, and significant additional steps would be required to create a pathway to produce plutonium. However, like other processes, it could be modified to directly obtain weapon-usable materials. In this paper, several options are suggested for modification of the process or facility design in order to reduce the

  19. Advances in nanomaterial-based microwaves and infrared wave-assisted tryptic digestion for ultrafast proteolysis and rapid detection by MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The unique physical/chemical properties of nanomaterials have significant impacts in electromagnetic waves (microwave and infrared waves)-assisted tryptic digestion approaches by using them as heat absorbers to expedite digestion and as affinity probes to enrich digested proteins prior to MALDI-MS analysis. We review recent developments in electromagnetic waves (microwaves and infrared waves)-assisted proteolysis using nanomaterials as heat absorbers and as affinity probes for analysis of digested proteins in MALDI-MS. New trends in ultrafast proteolysis (nonphosphoproteins- lysozyme, cytochrome c, myoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA); phosphoproteins- α- and β- caseins) using nanomaterials based microwaves and infrared (IR) waves assisted digestion approaches for rapid identification of digested proteins in the MALDI-MS.

  20. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  1. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Niely, Hania F. G.

    2007-06-01

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas ( Pisum satinum L), cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils ( Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly ( p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  2. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV S{sub in} in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages.

  3. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank.

  4. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  5. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, C. H.; Vu, C. C.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  6. Enhanced methane production from rice straw co-digested with anaerobic sludge from pulp and paper mill treatment process.

    PubMed

    Mussoline, Wendy; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet; Spagni, Alessandro; Giordano, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    Rice straw is a widely available lignocellulosic waste with potential for energy recovery through anaerobic digestion. Lignin slows the hydrolysis phase, resulting in low methane recovery and long digestion periods. Although pretreatment is effective, it often requires high energy inputs or chemicals that are not feasible for farm-scale systems. This study investigates a unique co-digestion strategy to improve methane yields and reduce digestion times for farm-scale systems. By adding both piggery wastewater and paper mill sludge, specific methane yields in laboratory-scale digesters reached the theoretical value for rice straw (i.e. 330LNCH4/kgVS) over the 92-day period. Accelerated hydrolysis of the straw was directly related to the quantity of sludge added. The most stable digester, with sufficient buffering capacity and nutrients, contained equal parts of straw, wastewater and sludge. This approach is feasible for farm-scale applications since it requires no additional energy inputs or changes to existing infrastructure for dry systems.

  7. Evaluation of an Anaerobic Digestion System for Processing CELSS Crop Residues for Resource Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw/day) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO2 and "volatile fatty acids" (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH4(+)-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH4(+) volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH4(+)-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH4(+)-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  8. Evaluation of an anaerobic digestion system for processing CELSS crop residues for resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Strayer, R F; Finger, B W; Alazraki, M P

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw day-1) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO2 and "volatile fatty acids" (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH4(+)-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH4+ volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH4(+)-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 23 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH4(+)-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  9. Evaluation of an anaerobic digestion system for processing CELSS crop residues for resource recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw day^-1) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO_2 and ``volatile fatty acids'' (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH_4^+-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH_4^+ volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH_4^+-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH_4^+-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  10. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  11. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  12. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented. PMID:23624242

  13. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  14. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  15. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  16. Diets high in resistant starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina S; Lærke, Helle N; Theil, Peter K; Sørensen, Jens F; Saarinen, Markku; Forssten, Sofia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach

    2014-12-14

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total of thirty female pigs (body weight 63.1 (sem 4.4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (P< 0.001). AXD feeding resulted in a higher number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the faeces sampled at week 3 of the experimental period (P< 0.05). In the caecum, proximal and mid colon, AXD feeding resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P <0.001). In conclusion, the RSD and AXD differently affected digestion processes compared with the WSD, and the AXD most efficiently shifted the microbial composition towards butyrogenic species in the faeces and increased the large-intestinal butyrate pool size.

  17. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Two multicell, liquid-cooled, advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator modules were fabricated. The cells utilized advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collectors, internal liquid cooling and lightweight cell frames. Both were designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one-person, i.e., 1.0 kg/d (2.2 lb/d).

  18. Effects of various LED light wavelengths and intensities on microalgae-based simultaneous biogas upgrading and digestate nutrient reduction process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongjun; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Yuejin

    2013-05-01

    Biogas is a well-known, primary renewable energy source, but its utilizations are possible only after upgrading. The microalgae-based bag photo-bioreactor utilized in this research could effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. Red light was determined as the optimal light wavelength for microalgae growth, biogas upgrading, and digestate nutrient reduction. In the range of moderate light intensities (i.e., 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), higher light intensities achieved higher biogas upgrade and larger digestate nutrient reduction. Methane content attained the highest value of 92.74±3.56% (v/v). The highest chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reduction efficiency of digestate were 85.35±1.04%, 77.98±1.84%, and 73.03±2.14%, respectively. Considering the reduction and economic efficiencies of the carbon dioxide content of biogas and digestate nutrient as well as the biogas upgrading standard, the optimal light intensity range was determined to be from 1200 to 1600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). PMID:23567717

  19. [Effect of the digestive process on the survival of the plague agent in Xenopsylla gerbilli Minax fleas].

    PubMed

    Vashchenok, V S; Tarakanov, N F

    1977-01-01

    Hystological investigations of experimentally infected X. gerbilli minax have shown that at the early stages of the digestion, while in the intestine compact clots of non-digested blood, are preserved, proceeds the reproduction of the plague agent. With the decay of the alimentary clot it changes into the dying off of the microbe population and after the ceasing of digestion the accumulation of bacteria renews again. Simultaneously with the changes in the number of microbes their morphology varies. At the initial stage of blood digestion bacilli typical for the agent are dominant. With the decay of the alimentary clot they are replaced by ovoid and spheroid forms. After the ceasing of the digestion cycle the microbe mass is represented by small coccobacteria. During the decrease in the plague agent abundance bacteria are absent mostly often from the midgut and posterior parts of the alimentary canal. Most favourable conditions for their preservation exist in this period in the proventriculus and in adjoining to it oesophagus part. PMID:593719

  20. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  1. Modular Advanced Oxidation Process Enabled by Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO•) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d–1. The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO• scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m–3, with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  2. Modular advanced oxidation process enabled by cathodic hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Barazesh, James M; Hennebel, Tom; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

    2015-06-16

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d(-1). The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO(•) scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m(-3), with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices.

  3. Modular advanced oxidation process enabled by cathodic hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Barazesh, James M; Hennebel, Tom; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

    2015-06-16

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d(-1). The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO(•) scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m(-3), with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  4. Numerical approach for the voloxidation process of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byung Heung; Jeong, Sang Mun; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2007-07-01

    A voloxidation process is adopted as the first step of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process in order to prepare the SF oxide to be reduced in the following electrolytic reduction process. A semi-batch type voloxidizer was devised to transform a SF pellet into powder. In this work, a simple reactor model was developed for the purpose of correlating a gas phase flow rate with an operation time as a numerical approach. With an assumption that a solid phase and a gas phase are homogeneous in a reactor, a reaction rate for an oxidation was introduced into a mass balance equation. The developed equation can describe a change of an outlet's oxygen concentration including such a case that a gas flow is not sufficient enough to continue a reaction at its maximum reaction rate. (authors)

  5. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000. PMID:27109500

  6. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES- ACS MEETING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies for the destruction of environmentally toxic chemicals in wastewater, industrial water, groundwater and sources of water supply. The paper will include fundamental aspects of the generati...

  7. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    SciTech Connect

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio; Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the degradation

  8. Modeling of cooked starch digestion process using recombinant human pancreatic α-amylase and maltase-glucoamylase for in vitro evaluation of α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaofang; Zhang, Chen; Dong, Yangyang; Geng, Peng; Bai, Fang; Bai, Gang

    2015-09-23

    In human, digestion of cooked starch mainly involves breaking down of α-amylase to α-limit dextrins and small linear malto-oligosaccharides, which are in turn hydrolyzed to glucose by the gut mucosal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM). Human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA), amino- and carboxyl-terminal portions of MGAM (ntMGAM and ctMGAM) catalyze the hydrolysis of α-D-(1,4) glycosidic linkages in starch, playing a crucial role in the production of glucose in the human lumen. Accordingly, these enzymes are effective drug targets for the treatments of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this study, a Plackett-Burman based statistical screening procedure was adopted to determine the most critical factors affecting cooked starch digestion by the combination of HPA, ctMGAM and ntMGAM. Six factors were tested and experimental results showed that pH and temperature were the major influencing factors, with optimal pH and temperature at 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. Surprisingly, ntMGAM had no significant contribution to the glucose production from starch digestion compared to the HPA and ctMGAM. The optimal proportion of HPA and ctMGAM in a starch digestion system was further determined by response surface methodology. Results showed a maximum starch digestion (88.05%) within 0.5 h when used HPA:ctMGAM=1:9 (U). The inhibitory effects of various inhibitors on the cooked starch digestion by HPA1/ctMGAM9 were evaluated by determining their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Acarviostatin II03 showed the highest inhibitory activity, with 67 times higher potency than acarbose. Moreover, acarviostatin II03 could significantly depress postprandial blood glucose levels in mice, better than that by acarbose. These findings suggest that our in vitro enzymatic system can simulate in vivo starch digestion process, and thus can be used to screen and evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitors.

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  10. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    A five-cell, liquid-cooled advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module was fabricated. The cells utilized the advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collector concept and internal liquid-cooling. The five cell module was designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one man and was assembled using plexiglass endplates. This one-man module was tested as part of an integrated oxygen generation and recovery subsystem.

  11. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  12. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  13. Comparisons of in vitro fermentation and high moisture forage processing methods for determination of neutral detergent fiber digestibility.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro fermentation systems are widely used to measure fiber digestibility of feedstuffs in order to assess feeding values for use in diet formulation and feed valuation. In this study, an in vitro fermentation method with the potential to improve sample throughput and ease of handling was investi...

  14. Thermal hydrolysis integration in the anaerobic digestion process of different solid wastes: energy and economic feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-09-01

    An economic assessment of thermal hydrolysis as a pretreatment to anaerobic digestion has been achieved to evaluate its implementation in full-scale plants. Six different solid wastes have been studied, among them municipal solid waste (MSW). Thermal hydrolysis has been tested with batch lab-scale tests, from which an energy and economic assessment of three scenarios is performed: with and without energy integration (recovering heat to produce steam in a cogeneration plant), finally including the digestate management costs. Thermal hydrolysis has lead to an increase of the methane productions (up to 50%) and kinetics parameters (even double). The study has determined that a proper energy integration design could lead to important economic savings (5 €/t) and thermal hydrolysis can enhance up to 40% the incomes of the digestion plant, even doubling them when digestate management costs are considered. In a full-scale MSW treatment plant (30,000 t/year), thermal hydrolysis would provide almost 0.5 M€/year net benefits.

  15. Comparison of the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in thermally processed peanuts and in pure form

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting, and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and ...

  16. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: Influence of aggregate formation on process stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kleyboecker, A.; Liebrich, M.; Kasina, M.; Kraume, M.; Wittmaier, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of process recovery with calcium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids and phosphate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of VFAs by the precipitates resulting in the formation of aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid uptake and phosphate release by the phosphate-accumulating organisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbial degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. - Abstract: Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH > 7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4

  17. Evaluation of methane generation and process stability from anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet by-product and cow manure.

    PubMed

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2016-05-01

    The effect of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of dried pellets of exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC-DP) and cow manure (CM) on the enhancement of methane generation and process stability were studied with the aim to select the best substrate mixture ratio. A series of batch experiments was conducted using the following five mixture ratios of ESBC-DP:CM: 0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25 and 100:0. Best results were obtained from mixture ratios with ESBC-DP proportions in the range of 25-50%. Mixture ratio of 50:50 showed a specific methane production (SMP) increase of 81.4% and 25.5%, respectively, in comparison with mono-digestion of ESBC-DP and CM. Evolution of the indirect parameter named acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC) could be used to provide more insight about the process stability of anaerobic digestion. ASC accumulation was observed in reactors with higher ESBC-DP proportions leading to a delay in VFAs consumption and conversion into methane.

  18. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut.

  19. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut. PMID:26696120

  20. Size distribution of airborne particulate matter emitted by the front-end processing of municipal solid waste feed material for large-scale anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrish, H.P.; Narasimhan, R.; Daly, E.L. Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Nemerow, N.L.; Wong, K.V.

    1984-07-01

    A 100-ton/day proof-of-concept facility has been constructed in Pompano Beach, Florida, to examine the feasibility of producing methane-rich gas from the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. One of the possible environmental impacts is from the particulate matter emitted into the atmosphere by the secondary shredding and conveying of light fraction feed material to the digesters. It has been found that the amount of particulate matter emitted into the atmosphere by the front-end processing is an order of magnitude higher when the plant is operating compared to when it is not operating. It has been found that the particle size distribution is bimodal both when the plant is operating as well as when it is not operating. Particle concentrations of episodic nature were found in July 1981 which were four times the concentration found during normal plant operation.

  1. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  2. Three-reaction model for the anaerobic digestion of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Mairet, Francis; Bernard, Olivier; Cameron, Elliot; Ras, Monique; Lardon, Laurent; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Chachuat, Benoît

    2012-02-01

    Coupling an anaerobic digester to a microalgal culture has received increasing attention as an alternative process for combined bioenergy production and depollution. In this article, a dynamic model for anaerobic digestion of microalgae is developed with the aim of improving the management of such a coupled system. This model describes the dynamics of inorganic nitrogen and volatile fatty acids since both can lead to inhibition and therefore process instability. Three reactions are considered: Two hydrolysis-acidogenesis steps in parallel for sugars/lipids and for proteins, followed by a methanogenesis step. The proposed model accurately reproduces experimental data for anaerobic digestion of the freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris with an organic loading rate of 1 gCOD L(-1) d(-1). In particular, the three-reaction pathway allows to adequately represent the observed decoupling between biogas production and nitrogen release. The reduced complexity of this model makes it suitable for developing advanced, model-based control and monitoring strategies.

  3. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  4. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  5. Radiation processing of carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit

    2001-12-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites are being used for a variety of structural applications, because of their useful mechanical properties, including high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Thermal curing of composite products results in internal stresses, due to the mismatch of the coefficients of expansion of the tools and the composite products. Because radiation curing can be done at ambient temperatures, the possibility that the residual stresses might be absent, or much lower in the radiation-cured products, originally led to the start of work on radiation curing of advanced composites at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Canada, in 1985. Research work during the last two decades has shown that advanced composites can be radiation-cured with electron beams or γ radiation. Many of the advantages of radiation curing, as compared to thermal curing, which include curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing time, improved resin stability and reduced volatile emissions, have now been demonstrated. The initial work focussed on electron curing of acrylated epoxy matrices. Since then, procedures have been developed to radiation cure conventional aerospace epoxies, as well. Electron beam cured advanced composites are now being developed for use in the aircraft and aerospace industry. Repair of advanced composite structures is also possible using radiation curing technology. Radiation curing work is continuing at Pinawa and has also been done by Aerospatiale, who have facilities for electron curing composite rocket motor casings and by Chappas and co-workers who have electron cured part of a boat hull. In this paper, the work done on this emerging new technology by the various groups is briefly reviewed.

  6. Contexts of Reading. Advances in Discourse Processes Series. Volume XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Baratta, Anthony N., Ed.

    Focusing on the reading-thinking-learning process, the classrooms in which such processes occur, and the means for studying these processes, this book presents essays on teaching, learning, and assessing the reading process. The first section contains essays on learning contexts that are interactive and participatory, while essays in the second…

  7. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  8. Effects of food processing and fibre content on the digestibility, energy intake and biochemical parameters of Blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna L. - Aves, Psittacidae).

    PubMed

    Veloso, R R; Sakomura, N K; Kawauchi, I M; Malheiros, E B; Carciofi, A C

    2014-04-01

    Considering the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases in caged psittacines, the effect of fibre and food processing was evaluated in the Blue-and-gold macaw. Four food formulations (0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of sugarcane fibre) processed by pelleting or extrusion were studied, resulting in eight diets. To study digestibility, 48 macaws housed in pairs in cages was used in a block design. Subsequently, diets containing 0% or 21% sugarcane fibre, pelleted or extrude was fed for 4 months to evaluate energy intake and blood metabolites. A 2 × 2 × 2 (two fibre levels, two food processing methods and two genders) factorial arrangement with subplots (beginning and end) was used. When differences were detected in anova's F test, data were submitted to polynomial contrasts in the first experiment and to orthogonal contrasts in the second experiment (p < 0.05). Fibre addition reduced protein, fat and energy (p < 0.001) digestibility in both food processing. Pelleted foods presented higher dry matter digestibility and food metabolisable energy (ME) than the extruded ones (p < 0.05). Fibre addition or the type of processing did not change ME ingestion (p > 0.05). The macaws gained body weight (p < 0.05) regardless of the diet (p > 0.05), but females fed with the high-fibre diets did not gain weight (p > 0.05), suggesting a low food ME (12.5 kJ/g).The substitution of the original diet (sunflower seeds, fruits and cooked maize) by the experimental foods decreased the basal (12-h fast) concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.001). The consumption of pelleted diets reduced serum glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.05). Results suggest that the pelleted diets were more beneficial and can be used to reduce blood metabolites related to metabolic disorders that are commonly observed in macaws.

  9. Impact of the Fenton process in meat digestion as assessed using an in vitro gastro-intestinal model.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Khaled; de La Pomélie, Diane; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Gatellier, Philippe

    2016-10-15

    The production of oxygen free radicals catalysed by non-haem iron was investigated in an in vitro mimetic model of the digestive tract using specific chemical traps. Superoxide radicals (O2(∗-)) and their protonated form (hydroperoxyl radicals, HO2(∗)) were detected by the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium into formazan, and hydroxyl radicals (OH(∗)) were detected by the hydroxylation of terephthalate. Under gastric conditions, O2(∗-)/HO2(∗) were detected in higher quantity than OH(∗). Increasing the pH from 3.5 to 6.5 poorly affected the kinetics of free radical production. The oxidations generated by these free radicals were estimated on myofibrils prepared from pork rectus femoris muscle. Myofibrillar lipid and protein oxidation increased with time and oxidant concentration, with a negative impact on the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins. Plant food antioxidants considerably decreased free radical production and lipid oxidation but not protein oxidation. PMID:27173532

  10. Effects of metal salt addition on odor and process stability during the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Timothy; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to recover energy and nutrients from organic waste; however, several issues including the solubilization of bound nutrients and the production of corrosive, highly odorous and toxic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in AD biogas can limit its wider adoption. This study explored the effects of adding two different doses of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide directly to the feed of complete mix semi-continuously fed mesophilic ADs on eight of the most odorous VSCs in AD biogas at three different organic loading rates (OLR). Ferric chloride was shown to be extremely effective in reducing VSCs by up to 87%, aluminum sulfate had the opposite effect and increased VSC levels by up to 920%, while magnesium hydroxide was not shown to have any significant impact. Ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide were effective in reducing the concentration of orthophosphate in AD effluent although both levels of alum addition caused digester failure at elevated OLRs. Extensive foaming was observed within the magnesium hydroxide dosed digesters, particularly at higher doses and high OLRs. Certain metal salt additions may be a valuable tool in overcoming barriers to AD and to meet regulatory targets. PMID:26260964

  11. Online monitoring of concentration and dynamics of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion processes with mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Falk, Harry Michael; Reichling, Peter; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

    2015-02-01

    An ATR-MIR-FTIR spectrometer was integrated into a laboratory scale anaerobic digestion setup. Automatically, a sludge sample from the digester was transferred to a measurement cell; an IR spectrum was recorded and evaluated by chemometric models to estimate the concentration of the individual volatile fatty acids (VFA). The calibration set included semi-artificial samples spiked with known concentrations of the VFA as well as original samples from a continuous fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference analysis of the samples. The models were optimized for a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). R(2) for acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid were 0.94, 0.88, 0.83, 0.75, 0.59, and 0.90, respectively. The accuracy of the models was validated in a second experiment. Considering the complex and heterogeneous sludge composition and the chemical similarity of VFA, absolute concentration and dynamic (increasing and decreasing concentration of VFA) was predicted well for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid (in their respective concentration range); Butyric acid could not be detected. The installed setup was able to gather and measure native samples from the digester (every 2 h) automatically over a period of 6 months without problems of clogging or biofouling. The instant and continuous analysis of the concentration of the VFA made it possible to evaluate the current bioprocess status and adjust the organic loading rate accordingly.

  12. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:27209038

  13. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A.; Gates, Fred K.; Wickham, Martin S. J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2015-01-01

    Scope Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune‐mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Methods and results Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS‐PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac‐toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. Conclusion The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten‐starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. PMID:26202208

  14. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  15. Processing of cellulose for the advancement of biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Brian James

    2011-12-01

    -like cellulose nanostructures suggested the presence of intra and interpolymer hydrogen bonding. Characterization of the hydrogen bonding network by Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) indicated the gel-like material formed by ethanol washes was the result of heterogeneous interpolymer hydrogen bond cross-links. The interactions leading to gel-like materials were evaluated using Hansen solubility parameters, which predicted mixtures of ethanol and water may be most effective for disrupting cellulose nanostructure. Fractal analysis by SANS indicated 40 % ethanol/water was most effective. Similar results were obtained when 40 % ethanol was used to disrupt the cellulose nanostructure in municipal office waste (MOW). Ethanol washes increased the degradability of MOW by at least 30 % relative to conventional water washing. This is significant because increased degradability of MOW could further the development of cellulosic biofuels by reducing the amount of enzyme required to digest the material.

  16. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  17. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  18. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  19. Demonstration-scale evaluation of a novel high-solids anaerobic digestion process for converting organic wastes to fuel gas and compost.

    PubMed

    Rivard, C J; Duff, B W; Dickow, J H; Wiles, C C; Nagle, N J; Gaddy, J L; Clausen, E C

    1998-01-01

    Early evaluations of the bioconversion potential for combined wastes such as tuna sludge and sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) were conducted at laboratory scale and compared conventional low-solids, stirred-tank anaerobic systems with the novel, high-solids anaerobic digester (HSAD) design. Enhanced feedstock conversion rates and yields were determined for the HSAD system. In addition, the HSAD system demonstrated superior resiliency to process failure. Utilizing relatively dry feedstocks, the HSAD system is approximately one-tenth the size of conventional low-solids systems. In addition, the HSAD system is capable of organic loading rates (OLRs) on the order of 20-25 g volatile solids per liter digester volume per d (gVS/L/d), roughly 4-5 times those of conventional systems. Current efforts involve developing a demonstration-scale (pilot-scale) HSAD system. A two-ton/d plant has been constructed in Stanton, CA and is currently in the commissioning/startup phase. The purposes of the project are to verify laboratory- and intermediate-scale process performance; test the performance of large-scale prototype mechanical systems; demonstrate the long-term reliability of the process; and generate the process and economic data required for the design, financing, and construction of full-scale commercial systems. This study presents conformational fermentation data obtained at intermediate-scale and a snapshot of the pilot-scale project. PMID:18576033

  20. Processing of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal reduces protein digestibility and pig growth performance but does not affect nitrogen solubilization along the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM) as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Fifty-four growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 6 experimental diets. Four of the diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM as the sole protein source. The remaining 2 experimental diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to the same standardized ileal digestible AA levels as the SBM or RSM diet. Pigs were slaughtered at 40 kg, and organ weights were recorded. The organs plus blood and empty carcass were analyzed for CP content. The small intestine was divided into 3 segments, and chyme samples were taken from the last meter of each segment. Chyme of the SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM diets was centrifuged to separate the soluble and insoluble fractions, and N content was determined in the latter. The amount of insoluble N as a fraction of N in chyme at each small intestinal segment was not affected by processing. Diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, affected ( < 0.05) the G:F and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP. Processing reduced G:F from 0.56 to 0.38 for SBM and 0.49 to 0.40 for RSM, whereas supplementing crystalline AA increased G:F to the level of the SBM and RSM diets. Processing reduced the SID of CP from 87.2% to 69.2% for SBM and 71.0% to 52.2% for RSM. Diet type affected ( < 0.05) the CP content in the empty body, with processing reducing this content from 170 to 144 g/kg empty BW for SBM and 157 to 149 g/kg empty BW for RSM and supplementing crystalline AA restoring this content

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  2. Advances in soil erosion research: processes, measurement, and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by the environmental agents of water and wind is a continuing global menace that threatens the agricultural base that sustains our civilization. Members of ASABE have been at the forefront of research to understand erosion processes, measure erosion and related processes, and model very...

  3. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  4. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  5. Recent advances in the deformation processing of titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamirisakandala, S.; Bhat, R. B.; Vedam, B. V.

    2003-12-01

    Titanium (Ti) alloys are special-purpose materials used for several critical applications in aerospace as well as non-aerospace industries, and extensive deformation processing is necessary to shape-form these materials, which poses many challenges due to the microstructural complexities. Some of the recent developments in the deformation processing of Ti alloys and usefulness of integrating the material behavior information with simulation schemes while designing and optimizing manufacturing process schedules are discussed in this paper. Discussions are primarily focused on the most important alloy, Ti-6Al-4V and on developing a clear understanding on the influence of key parameters (e.g., oxygen content, starting microstructure, temperature, and strain rate) on the deformation behavior during hot working. These studies are very useful not only for obtaining controlled microstructures but also to design complex multi-step processing sequences to produce defect-free components. Strain-induced porosity (SIP) has been a serious problem during titanium alloy processing, and improved scientific understanding helps in seeking elegant solutions to avoid SIP. A novel high-speed processing technique for microstructural conversion in titanium has been described, which provides several benefits over the conventional slow-speed practices. The hot working behavior of some of the affordable α+β and β titanium alloys being developed recently—namely, Ti-5.5Al-1Fe, Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al, Ti-6.8Mo-4.5Fe-1.5Al, and Ti-10V-4.5Fe-1.5Al—has been analyzed, and the usefulness of the processing maps in optimizing the process parameters and design of hot working schedules in these alloys is demonstrated. Titanium alloys modified with small additions of boron are emerging as potential candidates for replacing structural components requiring high specific strength and stiffness. Efforts to understand the microstructural mechanisms during deformation processing of Ti-B alloys and the issues

  6. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objectives of the present program are to: (1) improve the performance of the electrochemical CO2 removal technique by increasing CO2 removal efficiencies at pCO2 levels below 400 Pa, increasing cell power output and broadening the tolerance of electrochemical cells for operation over wide ranges of cabin relative humidity; (2) design, fabricate, and assemble development hardware to continue the evolution of the electrochemical concentrating technique from the existing level to an advanced level able to efficiently meet the CO2 removal needs of a spacecraft air revitalization system (ARS); (3) develop and incorporate into the EDC the components and concepts that allow for the efficient integration of the electrochemical technique with other subsystems to form a spacecraft ARS; (4) combine ARS functions to enable the elimination of subsystem components and interfaces; and (5) demonstrate the integration concepts through actual operation of a functionally integrated ARS.

  7. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  8. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  9. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles.

  10. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles. PMID:27265244

  11. Recent advancements in low cost solar cell processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    A proof-of-concept solar cell process has been developed that is adaptable to automation. This involved the development of a new contact system, a new antireflection coating system, a drift field cell design and a new contoured surface treatment. All these processes are performed without the use of vacuum chambers and expensive masking techniques, thus providing the possibility of reduced costs by automation using conventional semiconductor processing machinery. The contacts were printed on the cells by conventional silk screen machinery. The P(+) back field was formed by diffusing in aluminum from a printed aluminum back contact. The antireflection coating was formed by spinning on and baking a TiO2-SiO2 glass film. Air-mass-zero efficiencies of over 10% were achieved using this completely vacuum-free process.

  12. Data processing 1: Advancements in machine analysis of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data processing procedures are outlined beginning with the data display process used to accomplish data editing and proceeding through clustering, feature selection criterion for error probability estimation, and sample clustering and sample classification. The effective utilization of large quantities of remote sensing data by formulating a three stage sampling model for evaluation of crop acreage estimates represents an improvement in determining the cost benefit relationship associated with remote sensing technology.

  13. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  14. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  15. Treatment of petroleum refinery sourwater by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alessandra; Castro, Antonio V; Dezotti, Márcia; Sant'Anna, G L

    2006-09-01

    The performance of several oxidation processes to remove organic pollutants from sourwater was investigated. Sourwater is a specific stream of petroleum refineries, which contains slowly biodegradable compounds and toxic substances that impair the industrial biological wastewater treatment system. Preliminary experiments were conducted, using the following processes: H2O2, H2O2/UV, UV, photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton and photo-Fenton. All processes, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not lead to satisfactory results, reducing at most 35% of the sourwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, further experiments were performed with these two techniques to evaluate process conditions and organic matter removal kinetics. Batch experiments revealed that the Fenton reaction is very fast and reaches, in a few minutes, an ultimate DOC removal of 13-27%, due to the formation of iron complexes. Radiation for an additional period of 60 min can increase DOC removal up to 87%. Experiments were also conducted in a continuous mode, operating one 0.4L Fenton stirred reactor and one 1.6L photo-Fenton reactor in series. DOC removals above 75% were reached, when the reaction system was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) higher than 85 min. An empirical mathematical model was proposed to represent the DOC removal kinetics, allowing predicting process performance quite satisfactorily.

  16. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  17. Advancements in organic antireflective coatings for dual-damascene processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shreeram V.; Shao, Xie; Lamb, James E., III; Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Johnson, Joe; Wu, Xiaoming; Xu, Gu; Simmons, William J.

    2000-06-01

    Dual Damascene (DD) process has been implemented in manufacturing semiconductor devices with smaller feature sizes (process is the most commonly used process for manufacturing semiconductor devices since it requires less number of processing steps and also it can make use of a via fill material to minimize the resist thickness variations in the trench patterning photolithography step. Absence of via fill material results in non-uniform fill of vias (in isolated and dense via regions) thus leading to non-uniform focus and dose for exposure of the resist in the deep vias. This results in poor resolution and poor critical dimension (CD) control in the trench-patterning step. When a via fill organic material such as a bottom anti- reflective coating (BARC) is used, then the resist thickness variations are minimized thus enhancing the resolution and CD control in trench patterning. Via fill organic BARC materials can also act as etch blocks at the base of the via to protect the substrate from over etch. In this paper we review the important role of via fill organic BARCs in improving the efficiency of via first DD process now being implemented in semiconductor manufacturing.

  18. IR camera system with an advanced image processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Syuichi; Tamura, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    We have developed image processing technologies for resolving issues caused by the inherent UFPA (uncooled focal plane array) sensor characteristics to spread its applications. For example, large time constant of an uncooled IR (infra-red) sensor limits its application field, because motion blur is caused in monitoring the objective moving at high speed. The developed image processing technologies can eliminate the blur and retrieve almost the equivalent image observed in still motion. This image processing is based on the idea that output of the IR sensor is construed as the convolution of radiated IR energy from the objective and impulse response of the IR sensor. With knowledge of the impulse response and moving speed of the objective, the IR energy from the objective can be de-convolved from the observed images. We have successfully retrieved the image without blur using the IR sensor of 15 ms time constant under the conditions in which the objective is moving at the speed of about 10 pixels/60 Hz. The image processing for reducing FPN (fixed pattern noise) has also been developed. UFPA having the responsivity in the narrow wavelength region, e.g., around 8 μm is appropriate for measuring the surface of glass. However, it suffers from severe FPN due to lower sensitivity compared with 8-13 μm. The developed image processing exploits the images of the shutter itself, and can reduce FPN significantly.

  19. Development of a combined piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor using a chemical protective coating for Kraft pulp digester process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza R.; Bennington, Chad P. J.; Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor for multiphase chemical reactors, primarily Kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures up to 175 °C, reaching a local maximum of 180 °C and pressures up to 2 MPa). The absolute piezoresistive pressure sensor consisted of a large square silicon diaphragm (1000 × 1000 µm2) and high resistance piezoresistors (10 000 Ω). A 4500 Ω buried piezoresistive wire was patterned on the silicon chip to form a piezoresistive temperature sensor which was used for pressure sensor compensation and temperature measurement. A 4 µm thick Parylene HT® coating, a chemically resistant epoxy and a silicone conformal coating were deposited to passivate the pressure sensor against the caustic environment in Kraft digesters. The sensors were characterized up to 2 MPa and 180 °C in an environment chamber. A maximum thermal error of ±0.72% full-scale output (FSO), an average sensitivity of 0.116 mV (V kPa)-1 and a power consumption of 0.3 mW were measured in the pressure sensor. The sensors' resistances were measured before and after test in a Kraft pulping cycle and showed no change in their values. SEM pictures and topographical surfaces were also analyzed before and after pulp liquor exposure and showed no observable changes.

  20. Cultivar and processing effects on the pasting characteristics, tannin content and protein quality and digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Plahar, W A; Annan, N T; Nti, C A

    1997-01-01

    Four popular West African local cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), with distinctly different seed coat colors, were evaluated for their relative amylograph pasting characteristics, condensed tannin content, in vitro protein digestibility and Tetrahymena protein efficiency ratio (t-PER). The effects of roasting and dehulling on these properties were also determined. There were wide variations in the hot paste viscosity characteristics of the different cultivars studied. The raw cowpea flour samples exhibited maximum paste viscosities ranging between 260 Brabender Units (BU) for the Mottled cultivar and 460 BU for the cream-colored Blackeye cultivar. Cowpea cultivars with the greatest peak viscosities showed low stabilities to extended cooking. Roasting depressed paste viscosity properties of all the cowpea cultivars studied. Tannin concentrations were 0.3-6.9 and 7.2-116 mg CE/g flour from whole cowpea seeds and seed coats respectively, increasing with intensity of seed color. Although dehulling removed 98% of the tannin content of raw cowpeas, improvement in protein quality as a result of dehulling was observed for only the highly-pigmented Maroon-red variety. Roasting significantly improved digestibility and more than doubled the t-PER of all cowpea cultivars studied. Roasted cowpeas possess adequate nutritional and functional qualities as protein supplements in cereal-based weaning foods. However, it appears that dehulling is necessary to enhance the nutritional quality of the highly pigmented cultivars of cowpea.

  1. Heart Cycle: facilitating the deployment of advanced care processes.

    PubMed

    Meneu, T; Traver, V; Guillen, S; Valdivieso, B; Benedi, J; Fernandez-Llatas, C

    2013-01-01

    Current trends in health management improvement demand the standardization of care protocols to achieve better quality and efficiency. The use of Clinical Pathways is an emerging solution for that problem. However, current Clinical Pathways are big manuals written in natural language and highly affected by human subjectivity. These problems make their deployment and dissemination extremely difficult in real practice environments. Furthermore, the intrinsic difficulties for the design of formal Clinical Pathways requires new specific design tools to help making them relly useful and cost-effective. Process Mining techniques can help to automatically infer processes definition from execution samples and, thus, support the automatization of the standardization and continuous control of healthcare processes. This way, they can become a relevant helping tool for clinical experts and healthcare systems for reducing variability in clinical practice and better understand the performance of the system.

  2. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  3. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  4. Advanced processing technology for high-nitrogen steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, John S.; Simmons, John W.; Rawers, James C.

    1994-03-01

    Both high-and low-pressure processing techniques can be employed to add nitrogen to iron-based alloys at levels in excess of the equilibrium, ambient-pressure solubility limits. High-pressure techniques include high-pressure melting-solidification; powder atomization; and high-pressure, solid-state diffusion. Low-pressure techniques are centrifugal powder atomization and mechanical alloying. This article describes U.S. Bureau of Mines research on a range of processing technologies for nitrogen steels and references thermodynamic and materials characterization studies that have been completed on these materials.

  5. Beyond celery and starter culture: advances in natural/organic curing processes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sebranek, J G; Jackson-Davis, A L; Myers, K L; Lavieri, N A

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 10years there has been ongoing development of curing processes with natural ingredients designed to meet consumer demand and regulatory requirements for natural and organic processed meats. Initially, these processes utilized celery concentrates with a high nitrate content combined with a nitrate-reducing starter culture. Subsequent advances included celery concentrates with the nitrate converted to nitrite by suppliers. Further, as questions developed concerning reduced concentration of preservatives and the microbiological safety of these processed meats, additional advances have resulted in a wide variety of ingredients and processes designed to provide supplementary antimicrobial effects for improved product safety.

  6. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  7. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  8. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  9. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  10. High-speed parallel-processing networks for advanced architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.R.

    1988-06-01

    This paper describes various parallel-processing architecture networks that are candidates for eventual airborne use. An attempt at projecting which type of network is suitable or optimum for specific metafunction or stand-alone applications is made. However, specific algorithms will need to be developed and bench marks executed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Also, a conceptual projection of how these processors can be built in small, flyable units through the use of wafer-scale integration is offered. The use of the PAVE PILLAR system architecture to provide system level support for these tightly coupled networks is described. The author concludes that: (1) extremely high processing speeds implemented in flyable hardware is possible through parallel-processing networks if development programs are pursued; (2) dramatic speed enhancements through parallel processing requires an excellent match between the algorithm and computer-network architecture; (3) matching several high speed parallel oriented algorithms across the aircraft system to a limited set of hardware modules may be the most cost-effective approach to achieving speed enhancements; and (4) software-development tools and improved operating systems will need to be developed to support efficient parallel-processor use.

  11. Naturalistic Text Comprehension. Advances in Discourse Processes, Volume LIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostendorp, Herrre van, Ed.; Zwaah, Rolf A., Ed.

    A collection of essays on the comprehension of text brings together perspectives of different disciplines on discourse. Articles include: "Naturalistic Texts and Naturalistic Tasks" (Herre van Oostendorp, Rolf A. Zwaan); "Psychological Studies of Naturalistic Text" (Arthur C. Graesser, Joseph P. Magliano, Karl Haberlandt); "Text Processing in…

  12. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65-75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  13. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  14. Advancing Microwave Technology for Dehydration Processing of Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Cellemme, Stephanie L.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex® syringe filter holder (Millipore™, Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  15. Cereal type and heat processing of the cereal affect nutrient digestibility and dynamics of serum insulin and ghrelin in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Menoyo, D; Serrano, M P; Barrios, V; Valencia, D G; Lázaro, R; Argente, J; Mateos, G G

    2011-09-01

    The effects of feeding corn or rice, either raw or heat processed (HP), on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients and on insulin and ghrelin concentrations in the serum were studied in young pigs. Pigs were weaned at approximately 23 ± 3 d of age and weighed 7.4 ± 1.2 kg. Each of the 4 treatments was replicated 9 times, and the experimental unit was a pig individually housed. Pigs (5 males and 4 females/treatment) were fed their respective diets ad libitum from 23 to 47 d of age. At 37 d of age, the effects of dietary treatments on the fasting and postprandial concentrations of insulin and total and acylated ghrelin were studied. The ATTD of OM, GE, and ether extract were, respectively, 4.3, 5.4, and 3.6% greater (P < 0.05) for the rice than for the corn diets, but CP digestibility was not affected. Similar results were observed for AID. Heat processing of the cereal increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD by 2.1% for OM, 3.2% for GE, 7.1% for ether extract, and 2.2% for CP and tended to increase the AID of CP (P = 0.06) and starch (P = 0.09). The postprandial serum insulin response was greater and was more prolonged in pigs fed raw rice than in pigs fed raw corn (P < 0.05). In addition, the effects of HP on serum insulin response were more pronounced with corn than with rice (cereal × HP, P < 0.05). Total ghrelin concentration was not affected by treatment, but acylated ghrelin was greater (P < 0.05) at 6 h postprandially in pigs fed rice than in pigs fed raw corn. Feeding rice and HP corn increased nutrient digestibility and insulin response in the early postprandial period and increased the acylated ghrelin response in the late postprandial period compared with feeding raw corn.

  16. Advanced system experimental facility: solid waste to methane gas. Background and process description

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, R.; Pfeffer, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Refuse Conversion to Methane Facility in Pompano Beach, Florida, a 100-ton/day experimental plant to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to methane for fuel, has been built and is being tested. The facility has been designed to assess the technical merit of anaerobic digestion of the MSW process. Approximately 40 ton/day of volatile solids are fed to the digesters; of this, about 25 ton/day will be converted to gases. For each pound of volatile solids destroyed, 6.6 std. ft/sup 3/ of methane gas and 6.6 std. ft/sup 3/ of CO/sub 2/ will be produced. Thus, the plant will yield approximately 330,000 std. ft/sup 3//day each of methane and CO/sub 2/. This project provides a critical test of the most important process variables, thus allowing judgments to be made on scale-up considerations. The successful operation of this facility will yield information with a significant impact on potential commercial-scale plant developments. The background and theory involved in applying this technology to MSW, as well as details of the specific process line, are presented.

  17. Constructivist Career Counseling. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavy, R. Vance

    The advance of science and technology, the rise of mass consumerism, the deterioration of families, and other factors have enormous implications for career counseling. This digest outlines a constructivist career counseling perspective. This perspective is based on the following concepts: there are multiple realities and no single "God's eye" view…

  18. Advanced precoat filtration and competitive processes for water purification. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1989-01-28

    An advanced precoat filtration process system is introduced. Also presented and discussed are major competitive processes for water purification, such as conventional precoat filtration, conventional physical-chemical process, lime softening, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis, and packed aeration column.

  19. Advanced metal mirror processing for tactical ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, John P.

    2013-05-01

    Using its patented VQ™ finishing process, Raytheon EO Innovations has been producing low-scatter, low-figure and affordable aluminum 6061-based mirrors for long stand-off intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems in production since 2005. These common aperture multispectral systems require λ/30 root mean square (RMS) surface figure and sub-20Å RMS finishes for optimal visible imaging performance. This paper discusses the process results, scatter performance, and fabrication capabilities of Multispectral Reflective Lightweight Optics Technology (MeRLOT™), a new lightweight substrate material. This new technology enables lightweight, common-aperture, broadband performance that can be put in the hands of the warfighter for precision targeting and surveillance operations.

  20. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  1. Effects of separate urine collection on advanced nutrient removal processes.

    PubMed

    Wilsenach, J A; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2004-02-15

    Municipal wastewater contains a mixture of minerals from different origins. Urine contributes 80% of the nitrogen (N) and 45% of the phosphate (P) load in wastewater. Effects of separate urine collection on BNR processes were evaluated by using a simulation model for an existing state-of-the-art biological nutrient removal process. It was found that increasing urine separation efficiency leads to lower nitrate effluent concentrations, while ammonium and phosphorus concentrations remain more or less the same. The improved nitrate effluent quality is most notable up to 50-60% urine separation. Urine separation allows primary sedimentation without an increase in the nitrate effluent concentration. Furthermore, urine separation increases the potential treatment capacity for raw and settled wastewater by 20% and 60%, respectively. Urine separation provides options for increasing the lifetime of existing treatment works.

  2. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  3. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  4. Interferometric metrology of wafer nanotopography for advanced CMOS process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, John F.; Koliopoulos, Chris L.; Tang, Shouhong

    2001-12-01

    According to industry standards (SEMI M43, Guide for Reporting Wafer Nanotopography), Nanotopography is the non- planar deviation of the whole front wafer surface within a spatial wavelength range of approximately 0.2 to 20 mm and within the fixed quality area (FQA). The need for precision metrology of wafer nanotopography is being actively addressed by interferometric technology. In this paper we present an approach to mapping the whole wafer front surface nanotopography using an engineered coherence interferometer. The interferometer acquires a whole wafer raw topography map. The raw map is then filtered to remove the long spatial wavelength, high amplitude shape contributions and reveal the nanotopography in the filtered map. Filtered maps can be quantitatively analyzed in a variety of ways to enable statistical process control (SPC) of nanotopography parameters. The importance of tracking these parameters for CMOS gate level processes at 180-nm critical dimension, and below, is examined.

  5. Microwave Processing for Advance Electro-Optic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.

    2000-06-01

    This project addressed the technical and scientific goals of developing new methods for the formation of striation-free single crystals of potassium tantalate niobate. This solid-solution system has the potential for serving as a general electro-optic material with a wide range of optical applications. The performance of the material is, however, severely limited by the effects of compositional inhomogeneity that is generally induced during the single crystal growth process due to the nature of the binary phase diagram of the mixed tantalatehiobate system. Single-crystal boules of potassium tantalate niobate (KTa{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} or KTN) with varying tantalum-to-niobium ratios (or values of x) were grown under a variety of experimental conditions. The resulting single crystals were characterized in terms of their compositional homogeneity and optical quality. Single crystals were grown using both the most-favorable established set of growth parameters as well as in the presence of programmed oscillatory temperature variations. The purpose of these deliberately induced variations was to introduce controlled compositional variations and associated optical striations in the solid-solution single crystals. The overall objective of the effort was to utilize microwave heating and processing methods to treat the inhomogeneous single crystals for the purpose of eliminating the compositional variations that lead to striations and the associated varying changes in the refractive index of the material. In order to realize the ultimate goal of the effort, it was necessary to develop methods that would lead to the effective coupling of the microwave field to the KTN single crystals. Achieving the technical and commercial goals of this effort would have made it possible to introduce an important new electro-optic product into the market place, to improve our fundamental understanding of solid-state diffusion processes in general (and of microwave-assisted thermal

  6. Flow measurements in semiconductor processing; New advances in measurement technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tison, S. A.; Calabrese, A. M.

    1998-11-01

    Gas flow measurement, control, and distribution are an integral part in meeting present and future semiconductor processing requirements (1). Changes in processing and environmental concerns have put additional pressure not only on accurate measurement of the gas flow, but also in reducing flows. To address the need for more accurate metering of gas flows, NIST has developed primary flow standards which have uncertainties of 0.1% of reading or better over the flow range of 10-9 mol/s to 10-3 mol/s (0.001 sccm to 1000 sccm). These standards have been used to test NIST-designed high repeatability flow transfer standards (2) which can be used to document and improve flow measurements in the semiconductor industry (3). In particular two flowmeters have been developed at NIST; the first is a pressure-based flow sensor and the second a Doppler-shift flowmeter, both of which can be used for in-situ calibration of thermal mass flow controllers or for direct metering of process gases.

  7. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  8. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  9. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  10. Investigation of Advanced Processed Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. J.; Biondo, C. M.; DeLuca, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation studied the influence of thermal processing and microstructure on the mechanical properties of the single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys PWA 1482 and PWA 1484. The objective of the program was to develop an improved single-crystal turbine blade alloy that is specifically tailored for use in hydrogen fueled rocket engine turbopumps. High-gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and alternate heat treatment (HT) processing parameters were developed to produce pore-free, eutectic-free microstructures with different (gamma)' precipitate morphologies. Test materials were cast in high thermal gradient solidification (greater than 30 C/cm (137 F/in.)) casting furnaces for reduced dendrite arm spacing, improved chemical homogeneity, and reduced interdendritic pore size. The HIP processing was conducted in 40 cm (15.7 in.) diameter production furnaces using a set of parameters selected from a trial matrix study. Metallography was conducted on test samples taken from each respective trial run to characterize the as-HIP microstructure. Post-HIP alternate HT processes were developed for each of the two alloys. The goal of the alternate HT processing was to fully solution the eutectic gamma/(gamma)' phase islands and to develop a series of modified (gamma)' morphologies for subsequent characterization testing. This was accomplished by slow cooling through the (gamma)' solvus at controlled rates to precipitate volume fractions of large (gamma)'. Post-solution alternate HT parameters were established for each alloy providing additional volume fractions of finer precipitates. Screening tests included tensile, high-cycle fatigue (HCF), smooth and notched low-cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and fatigue crack growth evaluations performed in air and high pressure (34.5 MPa (5 ksi)) hydrogen at room and elevated temperature. Under the most severe embrittling conditions (HCF and smooth and notched LCF in 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) hydrogen at 20 C (68 F), screening test

  11. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    DOE PAGES

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-07-05

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yieldedmore » anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  12. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  13. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  14. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  15. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  16. Advanced Silicon Microring Resonator Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Ashok Prabhu

    Chip level optical interconnects has gained momentum with recent demonstrations of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based photonic modules such as lasers, modulators, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filters, etc. A fundamental building block that has enabled many of these silicon photonic modules is the compact, high Q factor microring resonator cavity. However, most of these demonstrations have WDM processing components based on simple add-drop filters that cannot realize the dense WDM systems required for the chip level interconnects. Dense WDM filters have stringent spectral shape requirements such as flat-top filter passband, steep band transition etc. Optical filters that can meet these specifications involve precise placement of the poles and zeros of the filter transfer function. Realization of such filters requires the use of multiple coupled microring resonators arranged in complex coupling topologies. In this thesis we have proposed and demonstrated new multiple coupled resonator topologies based on compact microring resonators in SOI material system. First we explored novel microring architectures which resulted in the proposal of two new coupled microring architectures, namely, the general 2D microring array topology and the general cascaded microring network topology. We also developed the synthesis procedures for these two microring architectures. The second part of this thesis focussed on the demonstration of the proposed architectures in the SOI material system. To accomplish this, a fabrication process for SOI was developed at the UofA Nanofab facility. Using this process, ultra-compact single microring filters with microring radii as small as 1mum were demonstrated. Higher order filter demonstration with multiple microrings necessitated post-fabrication microring resonance tuning. We developed additional fabrication steps to install micro heaters on top of the microrings to thermally tune its resonance. Subsequently, a thermally tuned fourth

  17. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  18. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  19. Hydrogen sulphide removal in the anaerobic digestion of sludge by micro-aerobic processes: pilot plant experience.

    PubMed

    Fdz-Polanco, M; Díaz, I; Pérez, S I; Lopes, A C; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    H(2)S removal from biogas produced in anaerobic digestion of sludge through the introduction of oxygen under micro-aerobic conditions is studied. Research was carried out in two pilot plant reactors (working volume, 200 L each) treating sludge from WWTP with HRT of 20 days. Mixing was provided via sludge or biogas recirculation. Introduction of very low oxygen flow (0.013-0.024 L/L(reactor) d) successfully removed H(2)S content in biogas with an efficiency above 99%. Reactor performance during micro-aerobic operation in terms of biogas production, methane yield and COD removal were not affected by the amount of oxygen supplied, remaining stable and similar to the anaerobic behaviour. Sludge recirculation ( approximately 50 L/h) and biogas recirculation ( approximately 3.5 L/min) as mixing methods were found not significant in H(2)S removal from biogas while biogas recirculation reduced by 10 times dissolved sulphide concentration compared to sludge recirculation.

  20. Advances in Linac-Based Technology for Industrial Radiation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1997-04-01

    Experience with the Industrial Materials Processing Electron Linear Accelerator, IMPELA, over 30,000 hours of 50 kW operation is reported for three irradiators, two of which are in commercial service. Operations are sufficiently mature that research is now concentrated on split beams, photon conversion, dose monitoring, beam scanning, new shielding designs and QA controls. The efficacy of increasing the incident electron energy on bremsstrahlung converters to 7.5 MeV, as proposed by an IAEA committee, is examined experimentally on an IMPELA accelerator over the energy range 7 MeV to 11 MeV to evaluate conversion efficiency, activation of machine components, converter engineering and the activation of red meat. Above 8 MeV the radioactive isotopes ^38Cl and ^24Na, formed primarily by neutrons produced in a tantalum converter, were clearly identified in the meat, while above 10.5 MeV the radiation from ^13N becomes dominant. Implications for the practicality of processing other high density products are discussed.

  1. Advances in the electro-spark deposition coating process

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Sheldon, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. It is one of the few methods available by which a fused, metallurgically bonded coating can be applied with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. The short duration of the electrical pulse allows an extremely rapid solidification of the deposited material and results in an exceptionally fine-grained, homogenous coating that approaches (and with some materials, actually is) an amorphous structure. This structure is believed to contribute to the good tribological and corrosion performance observed for hardsurfacing materials used in the demanding environments of high temperatures, liquid metals, and neutron irradiation. A brief historical review of the process is provided, followed by descriptions of the present state-of-the-art and of the performance and applications of electro-spark deposition coatings in liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactors.

  2. Advances in Coupling of Kinetics and Molecular Scale Tools to Shed Light on Soil Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-02

    Biogeochemical processes in soils such as sorption, precipitation, and redox play critical roles in the cycling and fate of nutrients, metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in soil and water environments. Advanced analytical tools enable soil scientists to track these processes in real-time and at the molecular scale. Our review focuses on recent research that has employed state-of-the-art molecular scale spectroscopy, coupled with kinetics, to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient and metal(loid) reactivity and speciation in soils. We found that by coupling kinetics with advanced molecular and nano-scale tools major advances have been made in elucidating important soil chemical processes including sorption, precipitation, dissolution, and redox of metal(loids) and nutrients. Such advances will aid in better predicting the fate and mobility of nutrients and contaminants in soils and water and enhance environmental and agricultural sustainability.

  3. Effect of different pH-values on process parameters in two-phase anaerobic digestion of high-solid substrates.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Jonas; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In many publications, primary fermentation is described as a limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of fibre-rich biomass [Eastman JA, Ferguson JF. Solubilization of particulacte carbon during the anaerobic digeston. J WPCF. 1981;53:352-366; Noike T, Endo G, Chang J, Yaguchi J, Matsumoto J. Characteristics of carbohydrate degradation and the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1985;27:1482-1489; Arntz HJ, Stoppok E, Buchholz K. Anaerobic hydroysis of beet pulp-discontiniuous experiments. Biotechnol Lett. 1985;7:113-118]. The microorganisms of the primary fermentation process differ widely from the methanogenic microorganisms [Pohland FG, Ghosh S. Developments in anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes-the two-phase concept. Environ Lett. 1971;1:255-266]. To optimize the biogas process, a separation in two phases is suggested by many authors [Fox P, Pohland GK. Anaerobic treatment applications and fundamentals: substrate specificity during phase separation. Water Environ Res. 1994;66:716-724; Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580]. To carry out the examination, a two-phase laboratory-scale biogas plant was established, with a physical phase separation. In previous studies, the regulation of the pH-value during the acid formation was usually carried out by the addition of sodium hydroxide [Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580; Ueno Y, Tatara M, Fukui H, Makiuchi T, Goto M, Sode K. Production of hydrogen and methane from organic solid wastes by phase separation of anaerobic process. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98:1861-1865; Zoetemeyer RJ, van den Heuvel JC, Cohen A. pH influence on acidogenic dissimilation of glucose in an anaerobic digestor. Water Res. 1982;16:303-311]. A new technology

  4. Effect of different pH-values on process parameters in two-phase anaerobic digestion of high-solid substrates.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Jonas; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In many publications, primary fermentation is described as a limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of fibre-rich biomass [Eastman JA, Ferguson JF. Solubilization of particulacte carbon during the anaerobic digeston. J WPCF. 1981;53:352-366; Noike T, Endo G, Chang J, Yaguchi J, Matsumoto J. Characteristics of carbohydrate degradation and the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1985;27:1482-1489; Arntz HJ, Stoppok E, Buchholz K. Anaerobic hydroysis of beet pulp-discontiniuous experiments. Biotechnol Lett. 1985;7:113-118]. The microorganisms of the primary fermentation process differ widely from the methanogenic microorganisms [Pohland FG, Ghosh S. Developments in anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes-the two-phase concept. Environ Lett. 1971;1:255-266]. To optimize the biogas process, a separation in two phases is suggested by many authors [Fox P, Pohland GK. Anaerobic treatment applications and fundamentals: substrate specificity during phase separation. Water Environ Res. 1994;66:716-724; Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580]. To carry out the examination, a two-phase laboratory-scale biogas plant was established, with a physical phase separation. In previous studies, the regulation of the pH-value during the acid formation was usually carried out by the addition of sodium hydroxide [Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580; Ueno Y, Tatara M, Fukui H, Makiuchi T, Goto M, Sode K. Production of hydrogen and methane from organic solid wastes by phase separation of anaerobic process. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98:1861-1865; Zoetemeyer RJ, van den Heuvel JC, Cohen A. pH influence on acidogenic dissimilation of glucose in an anaerobic digestor. Water Res. 1982;16:303-311]. A new technology

  5. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  6. Advanced robotics for in-space vehicle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of spaceborne vehicle processing is described. Generic crew-extravehicular activity tasks are presented for a specific vehicle, the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), with general implications to other on-orbit vehicles. The OMV is examined with respect to both servicing and maintenance. Crew-EVA activities are presented by task and mapped to a common set of generic crew-EVA primitives to identify high-demand areas for robot services. Similarly, a set of robot primitives is presented that can be used to model robot actions for alternative robot reference configurations. The robot primitives are tied to technologies and used for composing robot operations for an automated refueling scenario. Robotics technology issues and design accommodation guidelines (hooks and scars) for Space Station Freedom are described.

  7. Advanced Robotics for In-Space Vehicle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay; Heneghan, Cate; Bosley, John

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of spaceborne vehicle processing is described. Generic crew-EVA tasks are presented for a specific vehicle, the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), with general implications to other on-orbit vehicles. The OMV is examined with respect to both servicing and maintenance. Crew-EVA activities are presented by task and mapped to a common set of generic crew-EVA primitives to identify high-demand areas for telerobot services. Similarly, a set of telerobot primitives is presented that can be used to model telerobot actions for alternative telerobot reference configurations. The telerobot primitives are tied to technologies and used for composting telerobot operations for an automated refueling scenario. Telerobotics technology issues and design accomodation guidelines (hooks and scars) for the Space Station Freedom are described.

  8. Molten metal processing of advanced cast aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivkumar, S.; Wang, L.; Apelian, D.

    1991-01-01

    Premium quality aluminum alloy castings are used extensively in various applications requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio, such as aerospace, automotive and other structural components. The mechanical properties in these structure-sensitive alloys are determined primarily by the secondary dendrite arm spacing and the morphology of interdendritic phases. In addition, the amount of porosity in the casting and the inclusion concentration have a strong influence on fracture, fatigue and impact properties. During the production of the casting, various molten metal processing techniques can be implemented to control these microstructural parameters. These melt treatments include grain refinement with Ti-B, eutectic modification with strontium or sodium, degassing with purge gases and filtration of inclusions. The efficiency of these treatments determines the quality of the cast component.

  9. An advanced microcomputer design for processing of semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoern, L.; Lindkvist, L.; Zaar, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Get Away Special 330 payload two germanium samples doped with gallium will be processed. The aim of the experiments is to create a planar solid/liquid interface, and to study the breakdown of this interface as the crystal growth rate increases. For the experiments a gradient furnace was designed which is heated by resistive heaters. Cooling is provided by circulating gas from the atmosphere in the cannister through cooling channels in the furnace. The temperature along the sample are measured by platinum/rhodium thermocouples. The furnace is controlled by a microcomputer system, based upon the processor 80C88. A data acquisition system is integrated into the system. In order to synchronize the different actions in time, a multitask manager is used.

  10. Optimization of segmented alignment marks for advanced semiconductor fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Lu, Zhijian G.; Williams, Gary; Zach, Franz X.; Liegl, Bernhard

    2001-08-01

    The continued downscaling of semiconductor fabrication ground rule has imposed increasingly tighter overlay tolerances, which becomes very challenging at the 100 nm lithographic node. Such tight tolerances will require very high performance in alignment. Past experiences indicate that good alignment depends largely on alignment signal quality, which, however, can be strongly affected by chip design and various fabrication processes. Under some extreme circumstances, they can even be reduced to the non- usable limit. Therefore, a systematic understanding of alignment marks and a method to predict alignment performance based on mark design are necessary. Motivated by this, we have performed a detailed study of bright field segmented alignment marks that are used in current state-of- the-art fabrication processes. We find that alignment marks at different lithographic levels can be organized into four basic categories: trench mark, metal mark, damascene mark, and combo mark. The basic principles of these four types of marks turn out to be so similar that they can be characterized within the theoretical framework of a simple model based on optical gratings. An analytic expression has been developed for such model and it has been tested using computer simulation with the rigorous time-domain finite- difference (TD-FD) algorithm TEMPEST. Consistent results have been obtained; indicating that mark signal can be significantly improved through the optimization of mark lateral dimensions, such as segment pitch and segment width. We have also compared simulation studies against experimental data for alignment marks at one typical lithographic level and a good agreement is found.

  11. Advanced Research Deposition System (ARDS) for processing CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barricklow, Keegan Corey

    CdTe solar cells have been commercialized at the Gigawatt/year level. The development of volume manufacturing processes for next generation CdTe photovoltaics (PV) with higher efficiencies requires research systems with flexibility, scalability, repeatability and automation. The Advanced Research Deposition Systems (ARDS) developed by the Materials Engineering Laboratory (MEL) provides such a platform for the investigation of materials and manufacturing processes necessary to produce the next generation of CdTe PV. Limited by previous research systems, the ARDS was developed to provide process and hardware flexibility, accommodating advanced processing techniques, and capable of producing device quality films. The ARDS is a unique, in-line process tool with nine processing stations. The system was designed, built and assembled at the Materials Engineering Laboratory. Final assembly, startup, characterization and process development are the focus of this research. Many technical challenges encountered during the startup of the ARDS were addressed in this research. In this study, several hardware modifications needed for the reliable operation of the ARDS were designed, constructed and successfully incorporated into the ARDS. The effect of process condition on film properties for each process step was quantified. Process development to achieve 12% efficient baseline solar cell required investigation of discrete processing steps, troubleshooting process variation, and developing performance correlations. Subsequent to this research, many advances have been demonstrated with the ARDS. The ARDS consistently produces devices of 12% +/-.5% by the process of record (POR). The champion cell produced to date utilizing the ARDS has an efficiency of 16.2% on low cost commercial sodalime glass and utilizes advanced films. The ARDS has enabled investigation of advanced concepts for processing CdTe devices including, Plasma Cleaning, Plasma Enhanced Closed Space Sublimation

  12. Effects of organic loading rates on reactor performance and microbial community changes during thermophilic aerobic digestion process of high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Jae Won; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of single-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process treating high-strength food wastewater (FWW), TAD process was operated at four organic loading rates (OLRs) from 9.2 to 37.2 kg COD/m(3)d. The effects of OLRs on microbial community changes were also examined. The highest volumetric removal rate (13.3 kg COD/m(3)d) and the highest thermo-stable protease activity (0.95 unit/mL) were detected at OLR=18.6 kg COD/m(3)d. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed significant microbial community shifts in response to changes in OLR. In particular, DGGE and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate that the presence of Bacillus sp. (phylum of Firmicutes) was strongly correlated with efficient removal of organic particulates from high-strength food wastewater.

  13. Advanced Signal Processing Methods Applied to Digital Mammography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauduhar, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The work reported here is on the extension of the earlier proposal of the same title, August 1994-June 1996. The report for that work is also being submitted. The work reported there forms the foundation for this work from January 1997 to September 1997. After the earlier work was completed there were a few items that needed to be completed prior to submission of a new and more comprehensive proposal for further research. Those tasks have been completed and two new proposals have been submitted, one to NASA, and one to Health & Human Services WS). The main purpose of this extension was to refine some of the techniques that lead to automatic large scale evaluation of full mammograms. Progress on each of the proposed tasks follows. Task 1: A multiresolution segmentation of background from breast has been developed and tested. The method is based on the different noise characteristics of the two different fields. The breast field has more power in the lower octaves and the off-breast field behaves similar to a wideband process, where more power is in the high frequency octaves. After the two fields are separated by lowpass filtering, a region labeling routine is used to find the largest contiguous region, the breast. Task 2: A wavelet expansion that can decompose the image without zero padding has been developed. The method preserves all properties of the power-of-two wavelet transform and does not add appreciably to computation time or storage. This work is essential for analysis of the full mammogram, as opposed to selecting sections from the full mammogram. Task 3: A clustering method has been developed based on a simple counting mechanism. No ROC analysis has been performed (and was not proposed), so we cannot finally evaluate this work without further support. Task 4: Further testing of the filter reveals that different wavelet bases do yield slightly different qualitative results. We cannot provide quantitative conclusions about this for all possible bases

  14. Delicate visual artifacts of advanced digital video processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Marina M.; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2005-03-01

    With the incoming of digital TV, sophisticated video processing algorithms have been developed to improve the rendering of motion or colors. However, the perceived subjective quality of these new systems sometimes happens to be in conflict with the objective measurable improvement we expect to get. In this presentation, we show examples where algorithms should visually improve the skin tone rendering of decoded pictures under normal conditions, but surprisingly fail, when the quality of mpeg encoding drops below a just noticeable threshold. In particular, we demonstrate that simple objective criteria used for the optimization, such as SAD, PSNR or histogram sometimes fail, partly because they are defined on a global scale, ignoring local characteristics of the picture content. We then integrate a simple human visual model to measure potential artifacts with regard to spatial and temporal variations of the objects' characteristics. Tuning some of the model's parameters allows correlating the perceived objective quality with compression metrics of various encoders. We show the evolution of our reference parameters in respect to the compression ratios. Finally, using the output of the model, we can control the parameters of the skin tone algorithm to reach an improvement in overall system quality.

  15. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  16. Automated angiogenesis quantification through advanced image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charlampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels in tumors, is an interactive process between tumor, endothelial and stromal cells in order to create a network for oxygen and nutrients supply, necessary for tumor growth. According to this, angiogenic activity is considered a suitable method for both tumor growth or inhibition detection. The angiogenic potential is usually estimated by counting the number of blood vessels in particular sections. One of the most popular assay tissues to study the angiogenesis phenomenon is the developing chick embryo and its chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), which is a highly vascular structure lining the inner surface of the egg shell. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an automated image analysis method that would give an unbiased quantification of the micro-vessel density and growth in angiogenic CAM images. The presented method has been validated by comparing automated results to manual counts over a series of digital chick embryo photos. The results indicate the high accuracy of the tool, which has been thus extensively used for tumor growth detection at different stages of embryonic development. PMID:17946107

  17. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of expeller-extracted canola meal subjected to different processing conditions for starter and grower broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Toghyani, M; Rodgers, N; Iji, P A; Swick, R A

    2015-05-01

    Six expeller-extracted canola meal (ECM) samples produced under different seed conditioning temperatures (90, 95, or 100°C) and screw torques in the second press (low or high) were evaluated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of processing on standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SID) in 10 and 24-day-old broilers. A nitrogen-free diet was fed to determine ileal endogenous amino acid flow. Each diet was fed for 5 d to 6 replicate cages of 10 or 7 chicks, and ileal samples were collected at 10 and 24 d, respectively. The endogenous flow (mg/kg DM intake) of CP and all amino acids except Cys decreased (P < 0.01) with age. Conditioning temperature by screw torque interactions were detected (P < 0.05) for apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, Arg, Ile, Lys, Phe, Thr, Ala, Asp, Glu, Pro ,and Ser at d 10, and the same trend was observed at d 24 except for Ile, Phe, Ala, and Pro (P > 0.05). Meals processed under medium conditioning temperature (95°C) at either low or high screw torque had the greatest (P < 0.05) AID of CP and total amino acids. The SID values followed a similar pattern as AID at both ages. When corrected for endogenous losses, the average AID of total amino acids improved approximately 3.5 and 2.0 units, at 10 and 24 d, respectively. The AID and SID values increased (P < 0.05) with age for most AA, but the effect of age was not consistent between ECMs. A negative correlation was detected between NDF and neutral detergent-insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) content of the meals and SID values of Lys at d 24 (r = -0.79, r = -0.76; P = 0.001, respectively). Processing conditions affected CP and amino acid digestibility, likely because of alterations to the chemical composition of ECM and formation of indigestible complexes of amino acids with fiber. The AID and SID values increased with age independent of meal processing conditions.

  18. Changes in microbial community during hydrogen and methane production in two-stage thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion process from biowaste.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, S; Solera, R; Micolucci, F; Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the microbial community in a two-phase thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion process was investigated for its role in hydrogen and methane production, treating waste activated sludge and treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. In the acidogenic phase, in which hydrogen is produced, Clostridium sp. clusters represented 76% of total Firmicutes. When feeding the acidogenic effluent into the methanogenic reactors, these acidic conditions negatively influenced methanogenic microorganisms: Methanosaeta sp., (Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, Methanococcales) decreased by 75%, 50%, 38% and 52%, respectively. At the same time, methanogenic digestion lowered the numbers of Clostridium sp. clusters due to both pH increasing and substrate reduction, and an increase in both Firmicutes genera (non Clostridium) and methanogenic microorganisms, especially Methanosaeta sp. (208%). This was in accordance with the observed decrease in acetic (98%) and butyric (100%) acid contents. To ensure the activity of the acetate-utilizing methanogens (AUM) and the acetogens, high ratios of H2-utilizing methanogens (HUM)/AUM (3.6) were required.

  19. The digestibility of waste activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Abu-Orf, Mohammad M; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory digestion studies using waste activated sludges (WAS) were conducted to compare the digestion performance between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Nine samples of WAS from seven wastewater treatment plants were collected and batch-digested under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for 30 days at 25 degrees C. The cation content of wastewater (both floc and solution phases) and solution biopolymer (protein and polysaccharide) was measured before and after digestion and compared with volatile solids destruction data. The study revealed that each digestion process was associated with a distinct biopolymer fraction, which accounted for differences in volatile solids reduction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion data showed strong correlations between soluble protein generation, ammonium production, percent volatile solids reduction, and floc iron (Fe). These data suggest that the amount of volatile solids destroyed by anaerobic digestion depends on the Fe content of floc. In aerobic digestion, polysaccharide accumulated in solution along with calcium and magnesium. For aerobic digestion, correlations between divalent cation release and the production of inorganic nitrogen were found. This implies that divalent cation-bound biopolymer, thought to be lectin-like protein, was the primary organic fraction degraded under aerobic conditions. The results of the study show that the cation content in wastewater is an important indicator of the material that will digest under anaerobic or aerobic conditions and that some of the volatile solids will digest only under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. PMID:16553167

  20. Advances in process overlay: alignment solutions for future technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megens, Henry; van Haren, Richard; Musa, Sami; Doytcheva, Maya; Lalbahadoersing, Sanjay; van Kemenade, Marc; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Hinnen, Paul; van Bilsen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor industry has an increasing demand for improvement of the total lithographic overlay performance. To improve the level of on-product overlay control the number of alignment measurements increases. Since more mask levels will be integrated, more alignment marks need to be printed when using direct-alignment (also called layer-to-layer alignment). Accordingly, the alignment mark size needs to become smaller, to fit all marks into the scribelane. For an in-direct alignment scheme, e.g. a scheme that aligns to another layer than the layer to which overlay is being measured, the number of needed alignment marks can be reduced. Simultaneously there is a requirement to reduce the size of alignment mark sub-segmentations without compromising the alignment and overlay performance. Smaller features within alignment marks can prevent processing issues like erosion, dishing and contamination. However, when the sub-segmentation size within an alignment mark becomes comparable to the critical dimension, and thus smaller than the alignment-illuminating wavelength, polarization effects might start to occur. Polarization effects are a challenge for optical alignment systems to maintain mark detectability. Nevertheless, this paper shows how to actually utilize those effects in order to obtain enhanced alignment and overlay performance to support future technology nodes. Finally, another challenge to be met for new semiconductor product technologies is the ability to align through semi-opaque materials, like for instance new hard-mask materials. Enhancement of alignment signal strength can be reached by adapting to new alignment marks that generate a higher alignment signal. This paper provides a description of an integral alignment solution that meets with these emerging customer application requirements. Complying with these requirements will significantly enhance the flexibility in production strategies while maintaining or improving the alignment and overlay