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Sample records for advanced digestion process

  1. Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Coors, A; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Guillon, E; Kunkel, U; Mascolo, G; Richter, E; Ternes, T A; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The European Union (EU) Project Routes aimed to discover new routes in sludge stabilization treatments leading to high-quality digested sludge, suitable for land application. In order to investigate the impact of different enhanced sludge stabilization processes such as (a) thermophilic digestion integrated with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (TT), (b) sonication before mesophilic/thermophilic digestion (UMT), and (c) sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion (AA) on digested sludge quality, a broad class of conventional and emerging organic micropollutants as well as ecotoxicity was analyzed, extending the assessment beyond the parameters typically considered (i.e., stability index and heavy metals). The stability index was improved by adding aerobic posttreatment or by operating dual-stage process but not by pretreatment integration. Filterability was worsened by thermophilic digestion, either alone (TT) or coupled with mesophilic digestion (UMT). The concentrations of heavy metals, present in ranking order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr ~ Ni > Cd > Hg, were always below the current legal requirements for use on land and were not removed during the processes. Removals of conventional and emerging organic pollutants were greatly enhanced by performing double-stage digestion (UMT and AA treatment) compared to a single-stage process as TT; the same trend was found as regards toxicity reduction. Overall, all the digested sludges exhibited toxicity to the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis at concentrations about factor 100 higher than the usual application rate of sludge to soil in Europe. For earthworms, a safety margin of factor 30 was generally achieved for all the digested samples. PMID:24903249

  2. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  3. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. PMID:26799793

  4. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  5. Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocci, Sandra R.

    This digest presents an overview of children with auditory processing disorders (APDs), children who can typically hear information but have difficulty attending to, storing, locating, retrieving, and/or clarifying that information to make it useful for academic and social purposes. The digest begins by describing central auditory processing and…

  6. Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Cheng, Jay J; Creamer, Kurt S

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment practice in which both pollution control and energy recovery can be achieved. Many agricultural and industrial wastes are ideal candidates for anaerobic digestion because they contain high levels of easily biodegradable materials. Problems such as low methane yield and process instability are often encountered in anaerobic digestion, preventing this technique from being widely applied. A wide variety of inhibitory substances are the primary cause of anaerobic digester upset or failure since they are present in substantial concentrations in wastes. Considerable research efforts have been made to identify the mechanism and the controlling factors of inhibition. This review provides a detailed summary of the research conducted on the inhibition of anaerobic processes. The inhibitors commonly present in anaerobic digesters include ammonia, sulfide, light metal ions, heavy metals, and organics. Due to the difference in anaerobic inocula, waste composition, and experimental methods and conditions, literature results on inhibition caused by specific toxicants vary widely. Co-digestion with other waste, adaptation of microorganisms to inhibitory substances, and incorporation of methods to remove or counteract toxicants before anaerobic digestion can significantly improve the waste treatment efficiency. PMID:17399981

  7. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  8. Human digestion--a processing perspective.

    PubMed

    Boland, Mike

    2016-05-01

    The human digestive system is reviewed in the context of a process with four major unit operations: oral processing to reduce particle size and produce a bolus; gastric processing to initiate chemical and enzymatic breakdown; small intestinal processing to break down macromolecules and absorb nutrients; and fermentation and water removal in the colon. Topics are highlighted about which we need to know more, including effects of aging and dentition on particle size in the bolus, effects of different patterns of food and beverage intake on nutrition, changes in saliva production and composition, mechanical effects of gastric processing, distribution of pH in the stomach, physicochemical and enzymatic effects on nutrient availability and uptake in the small intestine, and the composition, effects of and changes in the microbiota of the colon. Current topics of interest including food synergy, gut-brain interactions, nutritional phenotype and digestion in the elderly are considered. Finally, opportunities for food design based on an understanding of digestive processing are discussed. PMID:26711173

  9. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. PMID:26148991

  10. Disintegration impact on sludge digestion process.

    PubMed

    Dauknys, Regimantas; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Jankeliūnaitė, Eglė; Mažeikienė, Aušra

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic sludge digestion is a widely used method for sludge stabilization in wastewater treatment plant. This process can be improved by applying the sludge disintegration methods. As the sludge disintegration is not investigated enough, an analysis of how the application of thermal hydrolysis affects the sludge digestion process based on full-scale data was conducted. The results showed that the maximum volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction reached the value of 65% independently on the application of thermal hydrolysis. The average VSS destruction increased by 14% when thermal hydrolysis was applied. In order to have the maximum VSS reduction and biogas production, it is recommended to keep the maximum defined VSS loading of 5.7 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the thermal hydrolysis is applied and to keep the VSS loading between 2.1-2.4 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the disintegration of sludge is not applied. The application of thermal hydrolysis leads to an approximately 2.5 times higher VSS loading maintenance comparing VSS loading without the disintegration; therefore, digesters with 1.8 times smaller volume is required. PMID:26979664

  11. Improved anaerobic digestion by staged fermentation and advanced reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Bostian, H.E.; Henry, M.P.; Sajjad, A.; Farrell, J.B.; Salotto, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has taken on new importance and emphasis in recent years because of its potential applications for energy and chemicals production from various types of renewable-carbon resources, and because it can be coupled with certain electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical processes to generate electric power, hydrocarbons, methanol, and other high-value products. A number of initiatives have been taken to improve the anaerobic digestion process in keeping with the increasing appreciation for its utility and versatility of application in municipal, industrial, and rural settings.

  12. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  13. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion processes of vegetable and fruit residues: process and microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Peña, E I; Parameswaran, P; Kang, D W; Canul-Chan, M; Krajmalnik-Brown, R

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of methane production from fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) obtained from the central food distribution market in Mexico City using an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Batch systems showed that pH control and nitrogen addition had significant effects on biogas production, methane yield, and volatile solids (VS) removal from the FVW (0.42 m(biogas)(3)/kg VS, 50%, and 80%, respectively). Co-digestion of the FVW with meat residues (MR) enhanced the process performance and was also evaluated in a 30 L AD system. When the system reached stable operation, its methane yield was 0.25 (m(3)/kg TS), and the removal of the organic matter measured as the total chemical demand (tCOD) was 65%. The microbial population (general Bacteria and Archaea) in the 30 L system was also determined and characterized and was closely correlated with its potential function in the AD system. PMID:21865034

  14. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. PMID:23871080

  15. Advanced signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, D. J.

    1985-12-01

    A collection of papers on advanced signal processing in radar, sonar, and communications is presented. The topics addressed include: transmitter aerials, high-power amplifier design for active sonar, radar transmitters, receiver array technology for sonar, new underwater acoustic detectors, diversity techniques in communications receivers, GaAs IC amplifiers for radar and communication receivers, integrated optical techniques for acoustooptic receivers, logarithmic receivers, CCD processors for sonar, acoustooptic correlators, designing in silicon, very high performance integrated circuits, and digital filters. Also discussed are: display types, scan converters in sonar, display ergonomics, simulators, high throughput sonar processors, optical fiber systems for signal processing, satellite communications, VLSI array processor for image and signal processing, ADA, future of cryogenic devices for signal processing applications, advanced image understanding, and VLSI architectures for real-time image processing.

  16. Full-scale application of anaerobic digestion process with partial ozonation of digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Yasui, H; Komatsu, K; Goel, R; Li, Y Y; Noike, T

    2005-01-01

    For improving sludge digestion and biogas recovery, a new anaerobic digestion process combined with ozonation was tested at a full-scale unit for 2 years and its performance was compared with a simultaneously operated conventional anaerobic digestion process. The new process requires two essential modifications, which includes ozonation for enhancing the biological degradability of sludge organics and concentrating of solids in the digester through a solid/liquid separation for extension of SRT. These modifications resulted in high VSS degradation efficiency of ca. 88%, as much as 1.3 times of methane production and more than 70% reduction in dewatered sludge cake production. Owing to accumulation of inorganic solids in the digested sludge, water content of the dewatered sludge cake also reduced from 80% to 68%. An energy analysis suggested that no supplemental fuel was necessary for the subsequent incineration of the cake from the new process scheme. The process is suitable to apply to a low-loaded anaerobic digestion tank, where power production is used. PMID:16180435

  17. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  18. Advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  19. Advanced soldering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Golden, J.; Frear, D.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1993-02-20

    Advanced soldering processes are discussed in a complete manner. The ability to meet the needs of electronic manufacturing, while addressing the environmental issues are challenging goals. Government regulations mandate the elimination of most solvents in solder flux removal. Alternative approaches to promoting wetting are discussed. Inert atmosphere soldering, acid vapor fluxless soldering, atomic and ionic hydrogen as reactive atmospheres, fluxless laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere are offered as soldering mechanisms for the future. Laser are discussed as alternate heat sources. Various types of lasers, advantages of lasers, and fiber optic beam delivery are considered.

  20. Removal of fecal coliforms by thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    De León, C; Jenkins, D

    2002-01-01

    Recent U.S. EPA regulations (40 CFR Section 503) specify maximum concentrations of pathogens and metals for Class A wastewater treatment plant sludges. The most common sludge process is mesophilic (35 degrees C) digestion which stabilizes the solids, produces a combustible gas but does not create an effluent that meets the 503 Class A pathogen requirements. This investigation was conducted to determine whether anaerobic digestion processes incorporating a thermophilic stage could achieve 503 Class A pathogen levels. The research reported here was a bench-scale screening study meant to identify the most promising process alternatives for further investigation. Fecal Coliform (FC) concentrations were used to assess disinfection efficiency. Digesters were 30 L capacity fed semi-continuously in draw-fill mode. Digester startup was rapid to produce true thermophiles. Temperature staging and pH were assessed in 3 sets of experiments: Set 1 were one stage ("acid phase"), Set 2 were one stage ("acid + methane phases") and Set 3 were two stage ("acid phase" then "methanogenic phase"). Feed was a 1:1 mixture of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge and Primary Sludge. The following anaerobic digestion configurations and operating parameters allowed the production of digested sludge with a mean FC concentration statistically less than 10(3) (the regulatory value for Class A sludge): thermophilic single stage acid phase at 52 and 62 degrees C; thermophilic single stage acid + methane phase at 48 degrees C, 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C; two-stage mesophilic acid phase followed by mesophilic methane phase; two stage mesophilic acid phase followed by thermophilic methane phase at 48 degrees C, 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C. If the maximum digested FC concentration must be below 10(3) MPN/g TS then the following digester configurations and operating conditions will be compliant: two stage mesophilic acid phase followed by thermophilic methane phase at 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C

  1. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  2. Novel anaerobic digestion process with sludge ozonation for economically feasible power production from biogas.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, K; Yasui, H; Goel, R; Li, Y Y; Noike, T

    2011-01-01

    A novel process scheme was developed to achieve economically feasible energy recovery from anaerobic digestion. The new process scheme employs a hybrid configuration of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion with sludge ozonation: the ozonated sludge is first degraded in a thermophilic digester and then further degraded in a mesophilic digester. In small-scale pilot experiments of the new process scheme, degradation of VSS improved by 3.5% over the control (mesophilic-only configuration) with 20% less ozone consumption. Moreover, biogas conversion also improved by 7.1% over the control. Selective enrichment of inorganic compounds during centrifugation produced a dewatered sludge cake with very low water content (59.4%). This low water content in the sludge cake improved its auto-thermal combustion potential during incineration and added to the overall energy savings. We conducted a case study to evaluate power generation from biogas for a municipal wastewater treatment plant with an average dry weather flow of 43,000 m3/d. Electricity production cost was 5.2 ¢/kWh for the advanced process with power generation, which is lower than the current market price of 7.2 ¢/kWh. The new anaerobic digestion scheme with power generation may reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 1,000 t-CO(2)/year compared with the conventional process without power generation. PMID:21508552

  3. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  4. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  5. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  6. Impact of processing on the digestibility of milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing of milk by homogenization and pasteurization causes changes in the milk proteins and fats, but there is little information about whether these changes affect milk digestibility. In this study, whole and skim milk samples were processed and compared to raw milk after all samples had underg...

  7. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  8. A self-sustaining advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production by integration of anaerobic digestion and aerobic fungal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Ruan, Zhenhua; Zhong, Yingkui; Archer, Steven; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    High energy demand hinders the development and application of aerobic microbial biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials. In order to address this issue, this study focused on developing an integrated system including anaerobic digestion and aerobic fungal fermentation to convert corn stover, animal manure and food wastes into microbial lipids for biodiesel production. Dairy manure and food waste were first anaerobically digested to produce energy and solid digestate (AD fiber). AD fiber and corn stover were then processed by a combined alkali and acid hydrolysis, followed by fungal lipid accumulation. The integrated process can generate 1L biodiesel and 1.9 kg methane from 12.8 kg dry dairy manure, 3.1 kg dry food wastes and 12.2 kg dry corn stover with a positive net energy of 57 MJ, which concludes a self-sustaining lignocellulosic biodiesel process and provides a new route to co-utilize corn stover and organic wastes for advanced biofuel production. PMID:25543542

  9. Advanced Process Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

    2005-03-07

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM

  10. Involving Parents in the IEP Process. ERIC Digest E611.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen W.

    This digest paper examines the special roles of parents of children with disabilities in planning for the education of their children and discusses how educators can work effectively with parents to create meaningful individualized education programs (IEPs). Barriers to parental participation in the IEP process are identified, including…

  11. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION POTENTIAL FOR ETHANOL PROCESSING RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing, and consequently so is the quantity of byproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These coproduct streams are currently solely utilized as livestock feed, which is a route that provides ethanol processors w...

  12. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhongtang; Hitzhusen, Fredrick

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  13. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  14. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  15. Advancing Your Library's Web-Based Services. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sari; Strobel, Tracy

    This digest discusses the development of World Wide Web-based services for libraries and provides examples from the Cleveland Public Library (CPL). The first section highlights the importance of developing such services, steps to be followed for a successful project, and the importance of having the goal of replicating and enhancing traditional…

  16. EFFECT OF CORN SILAGE MATURITY AND MECHANICAL PROCESSING ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY BY LACTATING DAIRY COWS OF DIFFERENT LACTATION STAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch digestibility (StarchD) can decrease when corn silage is harvested at advanced stages of maturity. Processing corn silage through rollers during chopping typically increases StarchD. We hypothesized that corn silage processing increases StarchD in lactating dairy cows to a greater extent when...

  17. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  18. Influent Fractionation for Modeling Continuous Anaerobic Digestion Processes.

    PubMed

    Lübken, Manfred; Kosse, Pascal; Koch, Konrad; Gehring, Tito; Wichern, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The first dynamic model developed to describe anaerobic digestion processes dates back to 1969. Since then, considerable improvements in identifying the underlying biochemical processes and associated microorganisms have been achieved. These have led to an increasing complexity of both model structure and the standard set of stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. Literature has always paid attention to kinetic parameter estimation, as this determines model accuracy with respect to predicting the dynamic behavior of biogas systems. As sufficient computing power is easily available nowadays, sophisticated linear and nonlinear parameter estimation techniques are applied to evaluate parameter uncertainty. However, the uncertainty of influent fractionation in these parameter optimization procedures is generally neglected. As anaerobic digestion systems are currently increasingly used to convert a broad variety of organic biomass to methane, the lack of generally accepted guidelines for input characterization adapted to the simulation model's characteristics is a considerable limitation of model application to these substrates. Directly after the introduction of the standardized Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), several publications pointed out that the model's requirement of a detailed influent characterization can hardly be fulfilled. The main shortcoming of the model application was addressed in the reliable and practical identification of the model's input state variables for particulate and soluble carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, as well as for the inerts. Several authors derived biomass characterization procedures, most of them dedicated to a particular substrate, and some of them being of general nature, but none of these approaches have resulted in a practical standard protocol so far. This review provides an overview of existing approaches that improve substrate influent characterization to be used for state of the art anaerobic digestion models. PMID

  19. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  20. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Colin P. Horwitz; Terrence J. Collins

    2003-10-22

    The design of new, high efficiency and cleaner burning engines is strongly coupled with the removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from fuels. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein these dibenzothiophene derivatives are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones is an approach that has gained significant attention. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) convert in a catalytic process dibenzothiophene and its derivatives to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones rapidly at moderate temperatures (60 C) and ambient pressure. The reaction can be performed in both an aqueous system containing an alcohol (methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol) to solubilize the DBT and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system where the alcohol is present in both phases and facilitates the oxidation. Under a consistent set of conditions using the FeBF{sub 2} TAML activator, the degree of conversion was found to be t-butanol > methanol > ethanol. In the cases of methanol and ethanol, both the sulfoxide and sulfone were observed while for t-butanol only the sulfone was detected. In the two-phase system, the alcohol may function as an inverse phase transfer agent. The oxidation was carried out using two different TAML activators. In homogeneous solution, approximately 90% oxidation of the DBT could be achieved using the prototype TAML activator, FeB*, by sonicating the solution at near room temperature. In bi-phasic systems conversions as high as 50% were achieved using the FeB* TAML activator and hydrogen peroxide at 100 C. The sonication method yielded only {approx}6% conversion but this may have been due to mixing.

  1. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. PMID:24907580

  2. State indicators for monitoring the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Boe, Kanokwan; Batstone, Damien John; Steyer, Jean-Phillippe; Angelidaki, Irini

    2010-12-01

    Anaerobic process state indicators were used to monitor a manure digester exposed to different types of disturbances, in order to find the most proper indicator(s) for monitoring the biogas process. Online indicators tested were biogas production, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and dissolved hydrogen. Offline indicators tested were methane and hydrogen content in the biogas. A CSTR reactor with 7.2 L working volume was operated at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HRT 10-20 days) for 200 days. During this period, the reactor was overloaded with extra organic matter such as glucose, lipid, gelatine, and bio-fibers, in order to create dynamic changes in the process state. Biogas production increased in response to the increase in organic load with a slight decrease in methane content. pH was relatively stable and did not show clear response to hydraulic load changes. However, pH changes were observed in response to extra organic load. Individual VFA concentrations were an effective indicator, with propionate persistent for the longest time after introduction of the disturbance. Dissolved hydrogen was very sensitive to the addition of easily degradable organics. However, it responded also to other disturbances such as slight air exposure which had no impact on process performance. A combination of acetate, propionate and biogas production is an effective combination to monitor this type of digesters effectively. PMID:20692680

  3. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  4. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity. PMID:26942526

  5. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  6. Bench-scale Analysis of Surrogates for Anaerobic Digestion Processes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C

    2016-05-01

    Frequent monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes for pathogen destruction is both cost and time prohibitive. The use of surrogates to supplement regulatory monitoring may be one solution. To evaluate surrogates, a semi-batch bench-scale anaerobic digester design was tested. Bench-scale reactors were operated under mesophilic (36 °C) and thermophilic (53-55 °C) conditions, with a 15 day solids retention time. Biosolids from different facilities and during different seasons were examined. USEPA regulated pathogens and surrogate organisms were enumerated at different times throughout each experiment. The surrogate organisms included fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, male-specific and somatic coliphages, Clostridium perfringens, and bacterial spores. Male-specific coliphages tested well as a potential surrogate organism for virus inactivation. None of the tested surrogate organisms correlated well with helminth inactivation under the conditions studied. There were statistically significant differences in the inactivation rates between the facilities in this study, but not between seasons. PMID:27131309

  7. Ultrastructure processing of advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, J.D.; Ulrich, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental investigations and applications of advanced ceramics are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the Third International Conference on Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics, Glasses, and Composites held in San Diego in February 1987. Sections are devoted to precursors and chemistry for ultrastructure processing; sol-gel science and technology; powders and colloids; advanced ceramics; and composites, new materials, and techniques. Particular attention is given to silicon oxynitride and sialon ceramics from organosilicon powders, fluoropolymer-modified silicate glasses, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy of rapid sol-gel processes, a low-temperature route to high-purity Ti/Zr/Hf diboride powders and films, and sol-gel methods for SiO2 optical-fiber coatings. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, micrographs, and tables of numerical data are included.

  8. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  9. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  10. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  11. Gene expression in the digestive tissues of ruminants and their relationships with feeding and digestive processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has multiple functions including digestion, nutrient absorption, secretion of hormones, and excretion of wastes. In the ruminant animal, development of this organ system is more complex than that of the monogastric animal due to the necessity to establish a fully func...

  12. Gene expression in the digestive tissues of ruminants and their relationships with feeding and digestive processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has multiple functions including digestion, nutrient absorption, secretion of hormones, and excretion of wastes. In the ruminant animal, development of this organ system is more complex than that of the monogastric animal due to the necessity to establish a fully fun...

  13. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. PMID:26185244

  14. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  15. Advanced detectors and signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greve, D. W.; Rasky, P. H. L.; Kryder, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Continued progress is reported toward development of a silicon on garnet technology which would allow fabrication of advanced detection and signal processing circuits on bubble memories. The first integrated detectors and propagation patterns have been designed and incorporated on a new mask set. In addition, annealing studies on spacer layers are performed. Based on those studies, a new double layer spacer is proposed which should reduce contamination of the silicon originating in the substrate. Finally, the magnetic sensitivity of uncontaminated detectors from the last lot of wafers is measured. The measured sensitivity is lower than anticipated but still higher than present magnetoresistive detectors.

  16. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  17. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  18. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function

    PubMed Central

    Venkiteshwaran, Kaushik; Bocher, Benjamin; Maki, James; Zitomer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1) hydrolysis rate, (2) direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3) community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4) methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5) bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses. PMID:27127410

  19. Subcritical Water Processing of Proteins: An Alternative to Enzymatic Digestion?

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas; Bowra, Steve; Cooper, Helen J

    2016-06-21

    Subcritical water is an emerging tool in the processing of bioorganic waste. Subcritical water is an environmentally benign solvent which has the potential to provide an alternative to traditional methods of protein hydrolysis without the inclusion of expensive acids or enzymes. To date, most studies on the subcritical water mediated hydrolysis of proteins have focused on the production of amino acids, rather than the intermediate peptides. Here, we investigate the specificity of subcritical water with respect to the production of peptides from three model proteins, hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and β-casein, and compare the results with enzymatic digestion of proteins by trypsin. In addition, the effect of subcritical water (SCW) treatment on two protein post-translational modifications, disulfide bonds and phosphorylation, was investigated. The results show that high protein sequence coverages (>80%) can be obtained following subcritical water hydrolysis. These are comparable to those obtained following treatment with tryspin. Under mild subcritical water conditions (160 °C), all proteins showed favored cleavage of the Asp-X bond. The results for β-casein revealed favored cleavage of the Glu-X bond at subcritical water temperatures of 160 and 207 °C. That was similarly observed for bovine serum albumin at a subcritical water temperature of 207 °C. Subcritical water treatment results in very limited cleavage of disulfide bonds. Reduction and alkylation of proteins either prior to or post subcritical water treatment improve reported protein sequence coverages. The results for phosphoprotein β-casein show that, under mild subcritical water conditions, phosphorylation may be retained on the peptide hydrolysis products. PMID:27181872

  20. Anaerobic Digestion. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. These materials include: (1) unit overview; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines; (4) student worksheets for each lesson (with answers); and (5) two copies of a final quiz (with and without answers). Lesson 1 is a review of the theory of…

  1. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... is about 30 feet long. continue How Digestion Works Digestion Begins in the Mouth The process of ... a noncongenital condition. Esophagitis is usually caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) , a condition in which the esophageal ...

  2. Modification in digestive processing strategies to reduce toxic trace metal uptake in a marine bivalve

    SciTech Connect

    Decho, A.W.; Luoma, S.N.

    1994-12-31

    Bivalves possess two major digestion pathways for processing food particles: a rapid ``intestinal`` pathway where digestion is largely extracellular; and a slower ``glandular`` pathway where digestion is largely intracellular. The slower glandular pathway often results in more efficient absorption of carbon but also more efficient uptake of certain metals (e.g. Cr associated with bacteria). In the bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis, large portions (> 90%) of bacteria are selectively routed to the glandular pathway. This results in efficient C uptake but also efficient uptake of associated Cr. The authors further determined if prolonged exposure to Cr-contaminated bacteria would result in high Cr uptake by animals or whether mechanisms exist to reduce Cr exposure and uptake. Bivalves were exposed to natural food + added bacteria (with or without added Cr) for a 6-day period, then pulse-chase experiments were conducted to quantify digestive processing and % absorption efficiencies (%AE) of bacterial Cr. Bivalves compensate at low (2--5 ug/g sed) Cr by reducing overall food ingestion, while digestive processing of food remains statistically similar to controls. At high Cr (200--500 ug/g sed) there are marked decreases in % bacteria processed by glandular digestion. This results in lower overall %AE of Cr. The results suggest that bivalves under natural conditions might balance efficient carbon sequestration against avoiding uptake of potentially toxic metals associated the food.

  3. Caustic stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in continuous kraft digesters due to process loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Leinonen, H.

    1999-07-01

    Loads of the continuous kraft digester have been determined during the start-up of the digester house. Loading was caused by the pressure of the proof test, the start-up pressures of the digester and, finally, the normal working pressure. The apparent threshold stress level in the base metal was greater than that achieved during the normal continuous cooking process but the level in the weld of the impregnation zone were exceeded due to the superposition of the tensile residual stresses. This two-axial tension is considered as the precondition for stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which was confirmed by fractography studies. The results showed, that SCC in the impregnation zone is possible only in the welds during the normal continuous cooking process. During the refill and blow phase of the digester the measured loading stress changes corresponded to the stresses of the proof test and increased the risk for SCC. Some procedures to avoid or minimize SCC are discussed.

  4. The imaging and modelling of the physical processes involved in digestion and absorption.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K S

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical activity of the gastro-intestinal tract serves to store, propel and digest food. Contractions disperse particles and transform solids and secretions into the two-phase slurry called chyme; movements of the intestine deliver nutrients to mucosal sites of absorption, and from the submucosa into the lymphatic and portal venous circulation. Colonic motor activity helps to extract fluid and electrolytes from chyme and to compound and compact luminal debris into faeces for elimination. We outline how dynamic imaging by ultrasound and magnetic resonance can demonstrate intestinal flow processes critical to digestion like mixing, dilution, swelling, dispersion and elution. Computational fluid mechanics enables a numerical rendition of the forces promoting digestion: pressure and flow fields, the shear stresses dispersing particles or the effectiveness of bolus mixing can be calculated. These technologies provide new insights into the mechanical processes that promote digestion and absorption. PMID:25313872

  5. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  6. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  7. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

  8. Optimization of anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in combined process and sequential staging.

    PubMed

    Juanga, Jeanger P; Visvanathan, Chettiyappen; Tränkler, Josef

    2007-02-01

    The optimization of anaerobic digestion aims to maximize organic waste stabilization after a short digestion period. This paper presents the optimization performance of the combined anaerobic digestion and sequential staging concept in a thermophilic, solid-state batch system as a treatment technology prior to landfill. The former involves enhanced pre-stage flushing with the addition of microaeration and inoculum in the methane phase. The latter involves leachate cross-recirculation between the mature and fresh waste reactors without conducting a pre-stage operation. The optimized process for combined anaerobic digestion showed that reducing the pre-stage operation with the maximum removal of organics from the waste bed is beneficial. Moreover, the sequential staging concept offers an improved process over the combined anaerobic digestion wherein the specific methane yield of 11.9 and 7.2 L CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) per day was achieved, respectively. After 28 days of operation, the sequential staging process showed an improved waste stabilization with 86 and 79% mass and volume reduction, respectively. A higher methane yield of 334 L CH4 kg(-1) VS with 86% VS reduction, which is equivalent to 84% process efficiency was obtained. PMID:17346005

  9. [Enhancement for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge pretreated by microwave and its combined processes ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-bao; Ni, Xiao-tang; Wei, Yuan-song; Tong, Juan; Wang, Ya-wei

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion and dewatering of sludge, impacts of sludge pretreated by microwave (MW) and its combined processes on sludge anaerobic digestion and dewatering were investigated. The results showed that microwave and its combined processes could effectively enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. Not only the cumulative methane production in the test of the MW-H2O2-alkaline (0. 2) was increased by 13. 34% compared with the control, but also its methane production rate was much higher than that of the control. Compared with the single MW process, the addition of both H2O2 and alkaline enhanced the solubilization of particle COD( >0. 45 micron) , indicating that synergistically generated soluble organics were faster to biodegrade which resulted in the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. The MW-acid process was effective in improving sludge dewaterability, e. g. , Capillary Suction Time (CST) at only 9. 85 s. The improvement of sludge dewatering was significantly correlated with sludge physical properties such as zeta potential, surface charge density and particle size. Under different sludge pretreatment conditions, the sludge dewatering after anaerobic digestion was similar, though the difference of sludge dewatering to some degrees was observed for pretreated sludge. PMID:25518665

  10. Comparison of start-up strategies and process performance during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake co-digested with bagasse.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Nikolausz, Marcell; Radetski, Claudemir M; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake and the option of co-digestion with bagasse were investigated in a semi-continuous feeding regime to assess the main parameters used for large-scale process designing. Moreover, fresh cattle manure was considered as alternative inoculum for the start-up of biogas reactors in cases where digestate from a biogas plant would not be available in remote rural areas. Experiments were carried out in 6 lab-scale semi-continuous stirred-tank reactors at mesophilic conditions (38±1°C) while the main anaerobic digestion process parameters monitored. Fresh cattle manure demonstrated to be appropriate for the start-up process. However, an acclimation period was required due to the high initial volatile fatty acids concentration (8.5gL(-1)). Regardless the mono-digestion of filter cake presented 50% higher biogas yield (480mLgVS(-1)) than co-digestion with bagasse (320mLgVS(-1)) during steady state conditions. A large-scale co-digestion system would produce 58% more biogas (1008m(3)h(-1)) than mono-digestion of filter cake (634m(3)h(-1)) due to its higher biomass availability for biogas conversion. Considering that the biogas production rate was the technical parameter that displayed the most relevant differences between the analyzed substrate options (0.99-1.45m(3)biogasm(3)d(-1)). The decision of which substrate option should be implemented in practice would be mainly driven by the available construction techniques, since economically efficient tanks could compensate the lower biogas production rate of co-digestion option. PMID:26584558

  11. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  12. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield. PMID:27570139

  13. Solidification process control for advanced superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of understanding and controlling the basic solidification process in high temperature alloy technology as applied to gas turbine engine production is discussed. Resultant tailoring of the superalloy macro- and microstructure offers significant potential for continued advances in superalloy use temperatures in turbine engines. Atomized superalloy powders, rapidly solidified superalloys, microstructural control, and advanced superalloys are discussed.

  14. Strategic Planning for a New Century: Process over Product. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Elaine

    This digest compares long range planning with strategic planning in the community college, focusing on examples of colleges' strategic planning processes and on the future of strategic planning. Long range planning tends to be static, focusing on developing a plan based on what has already happened, while strategic planning emphasizes process over…

  15. Advanced digital SAR processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.; Gaffney, B. P.; Liu, B.; Perry, R. P.; Ruvin, A.

    1982-01-01

    A highly programmable, land based, real time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor requiring a processed pixel rate of 2.75 MHz or more in a four look system was designed. Variations in range and azimuth compression, number of looks, range swath, range migration and SR mode were specified. Alternative range and azimuth processing algorithms were examined in conjunction with projected integrated circuit, digital architecture, and software technologies. The advaced digital SAR processor (ADSP) employs an FFT convolver algorithm for both range and azimuth processing in a parallel architecture configuration. Algorithm performace comparisons, design system design, implementation tradeoffs and the results of a supporting survey of integrated circuit and digital architecture technologies are reported. Cost tradeoffs and projections with alternate implementation plans are presented.

  16. Deammonification for digester supernatant pretreated with thermal hydrolysis: overcoming inhibition through process optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Su, Chunyang; Al-Omari, Ahmed; Wett, Bernhard; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Murthy, Sudhir

    2016-06-01

    The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) has been proven to be an excellent pretreatment step for an anaerobic digester (AD), increasing biogas yield and decreasing sludge disposal. The goal of this work was to optimize deammonification for efficient nitrogen removal despite the inhibition effects caused by the organics present in the THP-AD sludge filtrate (digestate). Two sequencing batch reactors were studied treating conventional digestate and THP-AD digestate, respectively. Improved process control based on higher dissolved oxygen set-point (1 mg O2/L) and longer aeration times could achieve successful treatment of THP-AD digestate. This increased set-point could overcome the inhibition effect on aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB), potentially caused by particulate and colloidal organics. Moreover, based on the mass balance, anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) contribution to the total nitrogen removal decreased from 97 ± 1 % for conventional to 72 ± 5 % for THP-AD digestate treatment, but remained stable by selective AnAOB retention using a vibrating screen. Overall, similar total nitrogen removal rates of 520 ± 28 mg N/L/day at a loading rate of 600 mg N/L/day were achieved in the THP-AD reactor compared to the conventional digestate treatment operating at low dissolved oxygen (DO) (0.38 ± 0.10 mg O2/L). PMID:26893142

  17. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus. PMID:26253912

  18. Feasibility and interest of the anammox process as treatment alternative for anaerobic digester supernatants in manure processing--an overview.

    PubMed

    Magrí, Albert; Béline, Fabrice; Dabert, Patrick

    2013-12-15

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal (ANR) is based on the combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). It is a promising alternative for the subsequent treatment of biogas digester supernatants in livestock manure processing and nitrogen surplus scenarios. However, as no full-scale experiences in the treatment of manure digestates by ANR have been published to date, future field studies addressing treatment of this kind of effluent would be of great interest. Some topics to be considered in these studies would be coupling anaerobic digestion and ANR, analysis of the factors that affect the process, comparing reactor configurations, microbial ecology, gas emissions, and achieving robust performance. This paper provides an overview of published studies on ANR. Specific issues related to the applicability of the process for treating manure digestates are discussed. The energy requirements of ANR are compared with those of other technological alternatives aimed at recovering nitrogen from digester supernatants. The results of the assessment were shown to depend on the composition of the supernatant. In this regard, the PN-anammox process was shown to be more competitive than other alternatives particularly at concentrations of up to 2 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3). PMID:24161806

  19. [5-fluorouracil, high dose folinic acid and mitomycin C in the treatment of advanced digestive cancers].

    PubMed

    Seitz, J F; Diaw, A; Giovannini, M; Perrier, H; Gouvernet, J

    1994-02-01

    Thirty five patients presenting with advanced unresectable digestive tract cancers were treated with high-dose folinic acid (200 mg/m2/d, i.v. bolus) followed by 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m2 i.v. bolus) on day 2 of uneven courses (day 2, day 58, day 114...). There were 20 colorectal cancers, nine gastric cancers, two oesophageal cancers, two cholangiocarcinomas, one islet cell pancreatic carcinoma and one adenocarcinoma of unknown origin. An objective response was noted in 11/27 evaluable patients (40.7 +/- 19%): four complete and seven partial responses including three of the seven patients who previously failed to respond to 5FU-containing regimen, and eight of the 20 patients who received no prior chemotherapy. Objective responses were encountered in three of the five gastric cancers, five of the 17 colorectal cancers, one oesophageal cancer, one islet cell pancreatic carcinoma and one cholangiocarcinoma. The median duration of response was 6 months and overall median survival was 12 months (range: 1-48). There was one toxic death (non reversible medullar aplasia after the 1st course). This study confirms that this combination is an active regimen both for patients previously resistant to 5FU or untreated patients. It warrants further evaluation (perhaps with continuous 5FU infusions). PMID:7894119

  20. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  1. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  2. Investigation of the reactions of acrylamide during in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion of thermally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the fate of acrylamide in thermally processed foods after ingestion. An in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion system simulating gastric, duodenal and colon phases was used to understand the fate of acrylamide in bakery and fried potato products. Acrylamide levels gradually decreased through gastric, duodenal and colon phases during in vitro digestion of biscuits. At the end of digestion, acrylamide reduction was between 49.2% and 73.4% in biscuits. Binary model systems composed of acrylamide and amino acids were used to understand the mechanism of acrylamide reduction. High-resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed Michael addition of amino acids to acrylamide during digestion. In contrast to bakery products, acrylamide levels increased significantly during gastric digestion of fried potatoes. The Schiff base formed between reducing sugars and asparagine disappeared rapidly, whereas the acrylamide level increased during the gastric phase. This suggests that intermediates like the Schiff base that accumulate in potatoes during frying are potential precursors of acrylamide under gastric conditions. PMID:25468219

  3. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  4. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  5. Hyperspectral imaging techniques applied to the monitoring of wine waste anaerobic digestion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    An anaerobic digestion process, finalized to biogas production, is characterized by different steps involving the variation of some chemical and physical parameters related to the presence of specific biomasses as: pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile solids, nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO3-). A correct process characterization requires a periodical sampling of the organic mixture in the reactor and a further analysis of the samples by traditional chemical-physical methods. Such an approach is discontinuous, time-consuming and expensive. A new analytical approach based on hyperspectral imaging in the NIR field (1000 to 1700 nm) is investigated and critically evaluated, with reference to the monitoring of wine waste anaerobic digestion process. The application of the proposed technique was addressed to identify and demonstrate the correlation existing, in terms of quality and reliability of the results, between "classical" chemical-physical parameters and spectral features of the digestate samples. Good results were obtained, ranging from a R2=0.68 and a RMSECV=12.83 mg/l for nitrate to a R2=0.90 and a RMSECV=5495.16 mg O2/l for COD. The proposed approach seems very useful in setting up innovative control strategies allowing for full, continuous control of the anaerobic digestion process.

  6. A Process for Evaluating Student Records Management Software. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchioli, Lisa

    This digest provides practical advice on evaluating software for managing student records. An evaluation of record-keeping software should start with a process to identify all of the individual needs the software produce must meet in order to be considered for purchase. The first step toward establishing an administrative computing system is…

  7. Kinetic study of anaerobic digestion of fruit-processing wastewater in immobilized-cell bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Borja, R; Banks, C J

    1994-08-01

    The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of a fruit-processing wastewater [chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 5.1 g/l] were investigated. Laboratory experiments were carried out in bioreactors containing supports of different chemical composition and features, namely bentonite and zeolite (aluminum silicates), sepiolite and saponite (magnesium silicates) and polyurethane foam, to which the microorganisms responsible for the process adhered. The influence of the support medium on the kinetics was compared with a control digester with suspended biomass. Assuming the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to first-order kinetics, the specific rate constant, K0, was determined for each of the experimental reactors. The average values obtained were: 0.080 h-1 (bentonite); 0.103 h-1 (zeolite); 0.180 h-1 (sepiolite); 0.198 h-1 (saponite); 0.131 h-1 (polyurethane); and 0.037 h-1 (control). The results indicate that the support used to immobilize the micro-organisms had a marked influence on the digestion process; the results were significant at the 95% confidence level. Methanogenic activity increased linearly with COD, with the saponite and sepiolite supports showing the highest values. The yield coefficient of methane was 270 ml of methane (under standard temperature and pressure conditions)/g of COD. The average elimination of COD was 89.5%. PMID:7917066

  8. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former. PMID:27143217

  9. The alkaloid gramine in the anaerobic digestion process-inhibition and adaptation of the methanogenic community.

    PubMed

    Popp, Denny; Harms, Hauke; Sträuber, Heike

    2016-08-01

    As many plant secondary metabolites have antimicrobial activity, microorganisms of the anaerobic digestion process might be affected when plant material rich in these compounds is digested. Hitherto, the effects of plant secondary metabolites on the anaerobic digestion process are poorly investigated. In this study, the alkaloid gramine, a constituent of reed canary grass, was added daily to a continuous co-digestion of grass silage and cow manure. A transient decrease of the methane yield by 17 % and a subsequent recovery was observed, but no effect on other process parameters. When gramine was infrequently spiked in higher amounts, the observed inhibitory effect was even more pronounced including a 53 % decrease of the methane yield and an increase of acetic acid concentrations up to 96 mM. However, the process recovered and the process parameters were finally at initial values (methane yield around 255 LN CH4 per gram volatile solids of substrate and acetic acid concentration lower than 2 mM). The bacterial communities of the reactors remained stable upon gramine addition. In contrast, the methanogenic community changed from a well-balanced mixture of five phylotypes towards a strong dominance of Methanosarcina (more than two thirds of the methanogenic community) while Methanosaeta disappeared. Batch inhibition assays revealed that acetic acid was only converted to methane via acetoclastic methanogenesis which was more strongly affected by gramine than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis. Hence, when acetoclastic methanogenesis is the dominant pathway, a shift of the methanogenic community is necessary to digest gramine-rich plant material. PMID:27138201

  10. Molecular disassembly of rice and lotus starches during thermal processing and its effect on starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-02-01

    The molecular disassembly of starch during thermal processing is a major determinant for the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion. In the present study, the effects of thermal processing on the disassembly of the granular structure and the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of rice and lotus starches were investigated. After heating at 50 °C, rice and lotus starches did not show significant changes in granular morphology, long-range crystallinity and short-range molecular order. As the temperature increased to 60 °C, rice starch underwent a partial gelatinization followed by an incomplete disruption of granular morphology, crystallites and molecular order. In contrast, lotus starch was almost completely gelatinized at 60 °C. At 70 °C or higher, both starches were fully gelatinized with complete disruption of the micro and macro structures. Our results show that gelatinization greatly increased the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of both starches, but that the degree of disassembly of the starch structure during thermal processing was not a major determinant of the digestibility of gelatinized starch. PMID:26829664

  11. Bioactive peptides released during of digestion of processed milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the proteins contained in milk consist of alpha-s1-, alpha-s2-, beta- and kappa-casein, and some of the peptides contained in these caseins may impart health benefits. To determine if processing affected release of peptides, samples of raw (R), homogenized (H), homogenized and pasteurized (...

  12. Advanced controlling of anaerobic digestion by means of hierarchical neural networks.

    PubMed

    Holubar, Peter; Zani, Loredana; Hager, Michael; Fröschl, Walter; Radak, Zorana; Braun, Rudolf

    2002-05-01

    In this work several feed-forward back propagation neural networks (FFBP) were trained in order to model, and subsequently control, methane production in anaerobic digesters. To produce data for the training of the neural nets, four anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors were operated in steady-state conditions at organic loading rates (Br) of about 2 kg m(-3) d(-1) chemical oxygen demand, and disturbed by pulse-like increase of the organic loading rate. For the pulses additional carbon sources like flour, sucrose, 1,2-diethylen glycol or vegetable oil were added to the basic feed, which consisted of surplus and primary sludge of a local waste-water treatment plant, to increase the chemical oxygen demand. Measured parameters were: gas composition, methane production rate, volatile fatty acid concentration, pH, redox potential, volatile suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand of feed and effluent. A hierarchical system of nets was developed and embedded in a decision support system to find out which is the best feeding profile for the next time steps in advance. A 3-3-1 FFBP simulated the pH with a regression coefficient of 0.82. A 9-3-3 FFBP simulated the volatile fatty acid concentration in the sludge with a regression coefficient of 0.86. And a 9-3-2 FFBP simulated the gas production and gas composition with a regression coefficient of 0.90 and 0.80, respectively. A lab-scale anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor controlled by this tool was able to maintain a methane concentration of about 60% at a rather high gas production rate of between 5 and 5.6 m3 m(-3) d(-1). PMID:12153025

  13. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Kamloops Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2002-05-09

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at five locations roughly equi-spaced from top to bottom of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 60 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of one year. Historical vessel inspection data, including inspections accomplished immediately prior to and immediately following probe deployment, and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare corrosion indications from the probes with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. The results indicate that furnish composition is a significant variable influencing digester corrosion, with increasing amounts of Douglas fir in the nominal furnish correlating directly with increased corrosion activity on the ECN probes. All five probes detected changes in furnish composition approximately simultaneously, indicating rapid chemical communication through the liquor, but the effect was strongest and persisted longest relatively high in the digester. The ECN probes also indicate significant corrosion activity occurred at each probe position during shutdown/restart transients. Little or no correlation between ECN probe corrosion activity and other operational variables was observed. Post-test evaluation of the probes confirmed general corrosion of a magnitude that closely agreed with corrosion current sums calculated for each probe over the exposure period and with historical average corrosion rates for the respective locations. Further, no pitting was observed on any of the electrodes, which is consistent with the ECN data, relevant polarization curves developed for steel in liquor removed from the digester, and the post-test inspection of the digester.

  14. Malting process optimization for protein digestibility enhancement in finger millet grain.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sara Najdi; Orsat, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a nutritious, gluten-free, and drought resistant cereal containing high amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and minerals. However, bio-availability of these nutrients is restricted due to the presence of an excessive level of anti-nutrient components, mainly phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate. It has been shown that a well-designed malting/germination process can significantly reduce these anti-nutrients and consequently enhance the nutrient availability. In the present study, the effects of two important germination factors, duration and temperature, on the enhancement of in-vitro protein digestibility of finger millet were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Based on a central composite design, the grains were germinated for 24, 36, and 48 h at 22, 26, and 30 °C. For all factor combinations, protein, peptide, phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents were evaluated and digestibility was assessed. It was shown that during the malting/germinating process, both temperature and duration factors significantly influenced the investigated quantities. Germination of finger millet for 48 h at 30 °C increased protein digestibility from 74 % (for native grain) up to 91 %. Besides, it notably decreased phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents by 45 %, 46 %, and 29 %, respectively. Linear correlations between protein digestibility and these anti-nutrients were observed. PMID:27413219

  15. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03]. PMID:25682559

  16. Anaerobic digestion of tomato processing waste: Effect of alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Greco, Rosa; Evangelou, Alexandros; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the work was to assess the effect of mild alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradability of tomato processing waste (TPW). Experiments were carried out in duplicate BMP bottles using a pretreatment contact time of 4 and 24 h and a 1% and 5% NaOH dosage. The cumulative methane production during a 30 d period was recorded and modelled. The alkaline pretreatment did not significantly affect methane production in any of the treatments in comparison to the control. The average methane production for all runs was 320 NmL/gVS. Based on first order kinetic modelling, the alkaline pretreatment was found to slow down the rate of methanogenesis, mainly in the two reactors with the highest NaOH dosage. The biodegradability of the substrates ranged from 0.75 to 0.82 and from 0.66 to 0.72 based on two different approaches. PMID:26292773

  17. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED NONPHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this handbook is to summarize commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced nonphotochemical oxidation (ANPO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and soil. Similar information from pilot-and bench-scale evaluations of ANPO processes is also inclu...

  18. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook summarizes commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced photochemical oxidation (APO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and solids. Similar information from pilot- and bench-scale evaluations of APO processes is also included to supplement the...

  19. Biogas production from mono-digestion of maize silage-long-term process stability and requirements.

    PubMed

    Lebuhn, M; Liu, F; Heuwinkel, H; Gronauer, A

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production from mono-digestion of maize silage was studied for more than one year in six continuously stirred, daily fed 36 L fermenters. Chemical and microbiological parameters were analysed concomitantly. The reactors acidified already after 8 months of operation at a low organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g VS*(L*d)(-1). The TVA/TAC ratio was the most reliable parameter to indicate early process instabilities leading to acidification. A TVA/TAC threshold of 0.5 should not be exceeded. After acidification and recovery of the fermenters, propionic acid was no reliable parameter anymore to indicate process failure, since values far below the threshold of 1 g*L(-1) were obtained although the process had collapsed.The acidified reactors recovered better, showed greatly improved stability and allowed a higher OLR when a trace element (TE) cocktail was supplemented. Hydrolysis was obviously not process-limiting, results indicated that methanogens were affected. The most limiting element in long-term mono-digestion of maize silage turned out to be cobalt, but data obtained suggest that molybdenum and selenium should also be provided. TE supplementation should be designed specifically in order to meet the actual needs. TE availability for the biocenosis appears to be a key issue in biogas production, not only in mono-but also in co-digestion processes. PMID:19001720

  20. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  1. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  2. Chemical composition and starch digestibility in flours from Polish processed legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Piecyk, Małgorzata; Wołosiak, Rafał; Drużynska, Beata; Worobiej, Elwira

    2012-12-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of various treatments, i.e. cooking after soaking, freezing after cooking and storage at a low temperature (-18°C, 21days), and autoclaving, of Polish cultivars of bean, pea and lentil seeds on the chemical composition and starch digestibility of the resultant flours. The cooking of seeds caused a significant decrease in contents of ash (by 11-48%), polyphenols (by 10-70%) and protein (to 19%) in flours made of bean. In addition, analyses demonstrated significantly decreased contents of resistant starch, RS (by 61-71%) and slowly digestible starch, SDS (by 56-84%). Storage of frozen seeds resulted in insignificant changes in the chemical composition, and in increased contents of both RS and SDS. The flours produced upon the autoclaving process were characterized by similar changes in the contents of ash and protein as in cooked seeds, yet losses of polyphenols were lower and, simultaneously, contents of RS and SDS were higher. All the analyzed flours were shown to be characterized by a reduced content of amylose in starch, which might have affected its digestibility. This was indicated by a strict negative correlation reported between the value of the starch digestion index (SDRI) and amylose content of starch (r=0.84, p>0.05). PMID:22953824

  3. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  4. Ammonia removal from raw manure digestate by means of a turbulent mixing stripping process.

    PubMed

    Limoli, Alice; Langone, Michela; Andreottola, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ammonia stripping by means of a turbulent mixing process followed by pH neutralization was investigated as a simple and cost-effective ammonia removal technique to treat raw manure digestate. Batch tests conducted using CaO, NaOH and H2O2 to control pH and temperature and combinations thereof showed that sodium hydroxide was the most suitable chemical, as it is easy to handle, minimizes treatment time and costs, does not increase the solid content of the sludge and allows to easily control the stripping process. NaOH dosage mainly depended on buffering capacity rather than on total solid content. The analysis of the ammonia stripping process indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH, and ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Total solid content slightly influenced TAN removal efficiency. When NaOH was applied to treat raw digestate at pH 10 and mean temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, TAN removal efficiency reached 88.7% after 24 h of turbulent mixing stripping, without reaching inhibitory salinity levels. Moreover, pH neutralization with sulfuric acid following the stripping process improved raw digestate dewaterability. PMID:27031295

  5. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  6. Microbial community structure in a thermophilic aerobic digester used as a sludge pretreatment process for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the enhancement of methane production.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-10-01

    An effective two-stage sewage sludge digestion process, consisting of thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), was developed for efficient sludge reduction and methane production. Using TAD as a biological pretreatment, the total volatile suspended solid reduction (VSSR) and methane production rate (MPR) in the MAD reactor were significantly improved. According to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the results indicated that the dominant bacteria species such as Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus in TAD were major routes for enhancing soluble organic matter. TAD pretreatment using a relatively short SRT of 1 day showed highly increased soluble organic products and positively affected an increment of bacteria populations which performed interrelated microbial metabolisms with methanogenic species in the MAD; consequently, a quantitative real-time PCR indicated greatly increased Methanosarcinales (acetate-utilizing methanogens) in the MAD, resulting in enhanced methane production. PMID:23419990

  7. [Pilot study of thermal treatment/thermophilic anaerobic digestion process treating waste activated sludge of high solid content].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Guang-qi; Cao, Zhi-ping; Li, Zhong-hua; Hu, Yu-ying; Wang, Kai-jun; Zu, Jian-e

    2014-09-01

    A pilot-scale experiment about the process of "thermal pretreatment at 70°C/thermophilic anaerobic digestion" of waste activated sludge of high solid content (8% -9% ) was conducted. The process employed thermal treatment of 3 days to accelerate the hydrolysis and thermophilic digestion to enhance anaerobic reaction. Thus it was good at organic removal and stabilization. When the solid retention time (SRT) was longer than 20 days, the VSS removal rate was greater than 42. 22% and it was linearly correlated to the SRT of the aerobic digestion with the R2 of 0. 915 3. It was suggested that SRT of anaerobic digestion was 25 days in practice. VSS removal rate and biogas production rate of the pilot experiment were similar to those of the run-well traditional full-scale sludge anaerobic digestion plants (solid content 3% -5% ) and the plant of high solid content using German technique. PMID:25518666

  8. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  9. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  10. Recovery of ammonia in digestates of calf manure through a struvite precipitation process using unconventional reagents.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, A; De Rosa, S

    2014-01-01

    Land spreading of digestates causes the discharge of large quantities of nutrients into the environment, which contributes to eutrophication and depletion of dissolved oxygen in water bodies. For the removal of ammonia nitrogen, there is increasing interest in the chemical precipitation of struvite, which is a mineral that can be reused as a slow-release fertilizer. However, this process is an expensive treatment of digestate because large amounts of magnesium and phosphorus reagents are required. In this paper, a struvite precipitation-based process is proposed for an efficient recovery of digestate nutrients using low-cost reagents. In particular, seawater bittern, a by-product of marine salt manufacturing and bone meal, a by-product of the thermal treatment of meat waste, have been used as low-cost sources of magnesium and phosphorus, respectively. Once the operating conditions are defined, the process enables the removal of more than 90% ammonia load, the almost complete recovery of magnesium and phosphorus and the production of a potentially valuable precipitate containing struvite crystals. PMID:24645466

  11. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. PMID:24837280

  12. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  13. Influence of thermophilic aerobic digestion as a sludge pre-treatment and solids retention time of mesophilic anaerobic digestion on the methane production, sludge digestion and microbial communities in a sequential digestion process.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Cho, Hyun Uk; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the changes in sludge reduction, methane production and microbial community structures in a process involving two-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) under different solid retention times (SRTs) between 10 and 40 days were investigated. The TAD reactor (RTAD) was operated with a 1-day SRT and the MAD reactor (RMAD) was operated at three different SRTs: 39, 19 and 9 days. For a comparison, control MAD (RCONTROL) was operated at three different SRTs of 40, 20 and 10 days. Our results reveal that the sequential TAD-MAD process has about 42% higher methane production rate (MPR) and 15% higher TCOD removal than those of RCONTROL when the SRT decreased from 40 to 20 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR results indicate that RMAD maintained a more diverse bacteria and archaea population compared to RCONTROL, due to the application of the biological TAD pre-treatment process. In RTAD, Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus were the major contributors to the increase in soluble organic matter. In contrast, Methanosaeta concilii, a strictly aceticlastic methanogen, showed the highest population during the operation of overall SRTs in RMAD. Interestingly, as the SRT decreased to 20 days, syntrophic VFA oxidizing bacteria, Clostridium ultunense sp., and a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanobacterium beijingense were detected in RMAD and RCONTROL. Meanwhile, the proportion of archaea to total microbe in RMAD and RCONTROL shows highest values of 10.5 and 6.5% at 20-d SRT operation, respectively. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the increased COD removal and methane production at different SRTs in RMAD might be attributed to the increased synergism among microbial species by improving the hydrolysis of the rate limiting step in sludge with the help of the biological TAD pre-treatment. PMID:23871253

  14. Advances in resist technology and processing V

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the technology and processing advances made in the resist materials. The topics included are: Mid-UV photoresists combining chemical amplification and dissolution inhibition; new photoactive compounds for deep-UV lithography; contrast-enhancement materials for mid-UV applications; materials for CMOS and bipolar circuits; effects of ion bombardment in oxygen plasma etching; silicone-based positive photoresist; and ion-etching properties of polysilane polysilane copolymers.

  15. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces. PMID:27030693

  16. Anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by lime mud from papermaking process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Qinqing; Zheng, Pengwei; Wang, Yusong

    2014-10-01

    The effects of lime mud from papermaking process (LMP) addition as buffer agent and inorganic nutrient on the anaerobic digestion stability of food waste (FW) were investigated under mesophilic conditions with the aim of avoiding volatile fatty acids accumulation, and inorganic elements deficiency. When LMP concentration ranged from 6.0 to 10g/L, the FW anaerobic digestion could maintain efficient and stable state. These advantages are attributed to the existence of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Fe, and alkaline substances that favor the methanogenic process. The highest CH4 yield of 272.8mL/g-VS was obtained at LMP and VS concentrations of 10.0 and 19.8g/L, respectively, with the corresponding lag-phase time of 3.84d and final pH of 8.4. The methanogens from residue digestates mainly consisted of Methanobrevibacter, coccus-type and sarcina-type methanogens with LMP addition compared to Methanobacteria in control. However, higher concentration of LMP inhibited methanogenic activities and methane production. PMID:25151070

  17. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Utility of process residues as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.; Kay, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tuna processing wastes (sludges high in fat, oil, and grease [FOG]) and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal challenge. The biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products, including methane and fertilizer-grade residue, through anaerobic high-solids digestion is currently in scale-up development. The suitability of the anaerobic digestion residues as a soil amendment was evaluated through extensive chemical analysis and greenhouse studies using corn as an indicator crop. Additionally, native Samoan soil was used to evaluate the specific application rates for the compost. Experiments established that anaerobic residues increase crop yields in direct proportion to increases in the application rate. Additionally, nutrient saturation was not demonstrated within the range of application rates evaluated for the Samoan soil. Beyond nutrient supplementation, organic residue amendment to Samoan soil imparts enhanced water and nutrient-binding capacities.

  18. Behavior of cellulose-degrading bacteria in thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Syutsubo, K; Nagaya, Y; Sakai, S; Miya, A

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we found that the newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain JC3 became the dominant cellulose-degrading bacterium in thermophilic methanogenic sludge. In the present study, the behavior of strain JC3 in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process was investigated quantitatively by molecular biological techniques. A cellulose-degrading experiment was conducted at 55 degrees C with a 9.5 L of anaerobic baffled reactor having three compartments (Nos. 1, 2, 3). Over 80% of the COD input was converted into methane when 2.5 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) was loaded for an HRT of 27 days. A FISH probe specific for strain JC3 was applied to sludge samples harvested from the baffled reactor. Consequently, the ratio of JC3 cells to DAPI-stained cells increased from below 0.5% (undetectable) to 9.4% (compartment 1), 13.1% (compartment 2) and 21.6% (compartment 3) at day 84 (2.5 kgCOD m(-3)d(-1)). The strain JC3 cell numbers determined by FISH correlated closely with the cellulose-degrading methanogenic activities of retained sludge. A specific primer set targeting the cellulase gene (cellobiohydrolaseA: cbhA) of strain JC3 was designed and applied to digested sludge for treating solid waste such as coffee grounds, wastepaper, garbage, cellulose and so on. The strain JC3 cell numbers determined by quantitative PCR correlated closely with the cellulose-sludge loading of the thermophilic digester. Strain JC3 is thus important in the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes. PMID:16180412

  19. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  20. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  1. Utilising biohydrogen to increase methane production, energy yields and process efficiency via two stage anaerobic digestion of grass.

    PubMed

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Shipley, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Real time measurement of gas production and composition were used to examine the benefits of two stage anaerobic digestion (AD) over a single stage AD, using pelletized grass as a feedstock. Controlled, parallel digestion experiments were performed in order to directly compare a two stage digestion system producing hydrogen and methane, with a single stage system producing just methane. The results indicated that as well as producing additional energy in the form of hydrogen, two stage digestion also resulted in significant increases to methane production, overall energy yields, and digester stability (as indicated by bicarbonate alkalinity and volatile fatty acid removal). Two stage AD resulted in an increase in energy yields from 10.36 MJ kg(-1) VS to 11.74 MJ kg(-1) VS, an increase of 13.4%. Using a two stage system also permitted a much shorter hydraulic retention time of 12 days whilst maintaining process stability. PMID:25913885

  2. Recent development of anaerobic digestion processes for energy recovery from wastes.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2007-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion leads to the overall gasification of organic wastewaters and wastes, and produces methane and carbon dioxide; this gasification contributes to reducing organic matter and recovering energy from organic carbons. Here, we propose three new processes and demonstrate the effectiveness of each process. By using complete anaerobic organic matter removal process (CARP), in which diluted wastewaters such as sewage and effluent from a methane fermentation digester were treated under anaerobic condition for post-treatment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater was decreased to less than 20 ppm. The dry ammonia-methane two-stage fermentation process (Am-Met process) is useful for the anaerobic treatment of nitrogen-rich wastes such as waste excess sludge, cow feces, chicken feces, and food waste without the dilution of the ammonia produced by water or carbon-rich wastes. The hydrogen-methane two-stage fermentation (Hy-Met process), in which the hydrogen produced in the first stage is used for a fuel cell system to generate electricity and the methane produced in the second stage is used to generate heat energy to heat the two reactors and satisfy heat requirements, is useful for the treatment of sugar-rich wastewaters, bread wastes, and biodiesel wastewaters. PMID:17368391

  3. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Spring Grove Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2003-06-18

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank. The probes consisted of carbon steel electrodes, representing the vessel construction material, and 309LSi stainless steel overlay electrodes, representing the weld overlay repair in a portion of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 32 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare ECN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate ECN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the high general corrosion rates of steel observed just below the extraction screens--on the order of 35 mils/y for the past few years--accelerated further during the period of probe deployment. The maximum wastage of steel (normalized to one full year exposure) was about 85 mils/y at the ring 6N probe just below the extraction screens. Consistent with recent historical observations, the steel corrosion rate at the ring 6S probe--at the same elevation but directly across the digester from ring 6N--was significantly lower at about 50 mils/y. Just prior to probe deployment, the digester shell below the extraction screens was overlaid with 309LSi stainless steel, which was observed to be essentially immune to corrosion at this location. While the ECN probes detected differences in electrochemical behavior between steel probes and between 309LSi probes at rings 6N and 6S, there was only poor quantitative correlation of current sums with actual corrosion rates at these locations. A significant contribution of redox reactions on both steel

  4. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development. PMID:26686732

  5. Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

  6. Evaluation of a Ca-modified porphyritic andesite for ammonium removal in the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Ca-modified porphyritic andesite (wheat-rice-stone (WRS)) was developed for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich wastes. The Ca-modified WRS was obtained with integrated Ca-salt treatment and calcination. Scanning electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses were performed to characterize the Ca-modified WRS, and adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated to clarify the adsorption mechanism. The ammonium adsorption process was explained well with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The specific surface area of the Ca-modified WRS was determined to be 4.56 sq. m/g, and the maximum NH4(+)-N adsorption capacity was determined to be 45.45 mg/g. These values are improvements over those of natural WRS. The ammonium adsorption capacity remained constant at a pH range from 5.0 to 9.0, which indicates that Ca-modified WRS is a promising material for various applications. The methane-production and chemical oxygen demand-removal aspects of anaerobic digestion were much improved with the addition of Ca-modified WRS. Therefore, Ca-modified WRS could be developed into a viable ammonium adsorbent for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich wastes. PMID:23837319

  7. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  8. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  9. Advanced microlithography process with chemical shrink technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Takashi; Tanaka, Hatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Watase, Natsuo; Eakin, Ronald J.; Ishibashi, Takeo; Toyoshima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Mikihiro

    2000-06-01

    Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) has developed an advanced microlithographic process for producing 0.1 micrometer contact holes (CH). A chemical shrink technology, RELACSTM (Resolution Enhancement Lithography Assisted by Chemical Shrink), utilizes the crosslinking reaction catalyzed by the acid component existing in a predefined resist pattern. This 'RELACSTM' process is a hole shrinking procedure that includes simple coating, baking, and rinse steps applied after conventional photolithography. This paper examines the process parameters affecting shrinkage of CH size. We subsequently evaluated the dependency of CH shrinkage on resist formulation. We conducted investigations of shrink magnitude dependency on each process parameter. (1) Photoresist lithography process: CH size, exposure dose, post development bake temperature. (2) AZR R200 [a product of Clariant, Japan) K.K.] RELACSTM process: Soft bake temperature, film thickness, mixing bake temperature (diffusion bake temperature), etc. We found that the mixing bake condition (diffusion bake temperature) is one of most critical parameters to affect the amount of CH shrink. Additionally, the structural influence of photoacid generators on shrinkage performance was also investigated in both high and low activation energy resist systems. The shrinkage behavior by the photoacid generator of the resist is considered in terms of the structure (molecular volume) of the photogenerated acid and its acidity (pKa). The results of these studies are discussed in terms of base polymer influence on shrinkage performance and tendency. Process impact of the structure and acidity of the photogenerated acid is explored. Though the experimental acetal type KrF positive resist (low activation energy system) can achieve around 0.1 micrometer CH after RELACSTM processing under the optimized condition, the experimental acrylate type positive resist (high activation energy system) showed less shrinkage under the same process

  10. Treatment of digestate from a co-digestion biogas plant by means of vacuum evaporation: tests for process optimization and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, A; da Borso, F; Chiumenti, R; Teri, F; Segantin, P

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum evaporation consists in the boiling of a liquid substrate at negative pressure, at a temperature lower than typical boiling temperature at atmospheric conditions. Condensed vapor represents the so called condensate, while the remaining substrate represents the concentrate. This technology is derived from other sectors and is mainly dedicated to the recovery of chemicals from industrial by-products, while it has not been widely implemented yet in the field of agricultural digestate treatment. The present paper relates on experimental tests performed in pilot-scale vacuum evaporation plants (0.100 and 0.025 m(3)), treating filtered digestate (liquid fraction of digestate filtered by a screw-press separator). Digestate was produced by a 1 MWe anaerobic digestion plant fed with swine manure, corn silage and other biomasses. Different system and process configurations were tested (single-stage and two-stage, with and without acidification) with the main objectives of assessing the technical feasibility and of optimizing process parameters for an eventual technology transfer to full scale systems. The inputs and outputs of the process were subject to characterization and mass and nutrients balances were determined. The vacuum evaporation process determined a relevant mass reduction of digestate. The single stage configuration determined the production of a concentrate, still in liquid phase, with a total solid (TS) mean concentration of 15.0%, representing, in terms of mass, 20.2% of the input; the remaining 79.8% was represented by condensate. The introduction of the second stage allowed to obtain a solid concentrate, characterized by a content of TS of 59.0% and representing 5.6% of initial mass. Nitrogen balance was influenced by digestate pH: in order to limit the stripping of ammonia and its transfer to condensate it was necessary to reduce the pH. At pH 5, 97.5% of total nitrogen remained in the concentrate. This product was characterized by very high

  11. Lab-scale demonstration of recuperative thickening technology for enhanced biogas production and dewaterability in anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Aubry, Nicholas; Zhang, Victor; Rollings-Scattergood, Sasha; Latulippe, David R

    2016-05-15

    There is growing interest in the use of high performance anaerobic digestion (AD) processes for the production of biogas at wastewater treatment facilities to offset the energy demands associated with wastewater treatment. Recuperative thickening (RT) is a promising technique which involves recycling a portion of the digested solids back to the incoming feed. In general there exists a significant number of knowledge gaps in the field of RT because the studies that have been conducted to date have almost exclusively occurred in pilot plant or full scale trials; this approach greatly limits the amount of process optimization that can be done in a given trial. In this work, a detailed and comprehensive study of RT was conducted at the lab scale; two custom designed digesters (capacity = 1.5 L) were operated in parallel with one acting as a 'control' digester and the other operating under a semi-batch RT mode. There was no significant change in biogas methane composition for the two digesters, however the RT digester had an average biogas productivity over two times higher than the control one. It was found that the recycling of the polymer flocculant back into the RT digester resulted in a significant improvement in dewatering performance. At the highest polymer concentration tested, the capillary suction time (CST) values for flocculated samples for the RT digester were over 6 times lower than the corresponding values for the control digester. Thus, there exists an opportunity to decrease the overall consumption of polymer flocculants through judicious selection of the dose of polymer flocculant that is used both for the thickening and end-stage dewatering steps in RT processes. PMID:26986495

  12. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes. PMID:26676001

  13. Processing and properties of advanced metallic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, Alan Harold

    Since the development of the first aluminum foams in the middle of the 20th century [178], great advances have been made in the processing and fundamental understanding of metallic foams. As a result of these advances, metallic foams are now penetrating a number of applications where their unique suite of properties makes them superior to solid materials, such as lightweight structures, packaging and impact protection, and filtration and catalysis [3]. The purpose of this work is to extend the use of metallic foams in such applications by expanding their processing to include more sophisticated base alloys and architectures. The first four chapters discuss replacement of conventional crystalline metal foams with ones made from high-strength, low-melting amorphous metals, a substitution that offers potential for achieving mechanical properties superior to those of the best crystalline metal foams, without sacrificing the simplicity of processing methods made for low-melting crystalline alloys. Three different amorphous metal foams are developed in these chapters, and their structures and properties characterized. It is shown for the first time that amorphous metal foams, due to stabilization of shear bands during bending of their small strut-like features, are capable of compressive ductility comparable to that of ductile crystalline metal foams. A two-fold improvement in mechanical energy absorption relative to crystalline aluminum foams is shown experimentally to result from this stabilization. The last two chapters discuss modifications in foam processing that are designed to introduce controllable and continuous gradients in local foam density, which should improve mass efficiency by mimicking the optimized structures found in natural cellular materials [64], as well as facilitate the bonding and joining of foams with solid materials in higher-order structures. Two new processing methods are developed, one based on replication of nonuniformly-compressed polymer

  14. Evaluation of thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes for full-scale Class A biosolids disinfection at Hyperion Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, R; Cox, H H J

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes 5 phases of full-scale testing at the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) for producing Class A biosolids (U.S. EPA Part 503 Biosolids Rule) by thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Phases I and II were tests with a two-stage continuous-batch process in a thermophilic battery of six digesters and a designated post-digestion train that was isolated from mesophilic operations. These tests demonstrated that digester outflow biosolids met the Class A limits for fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp. However, fecal coliform densities sharply increased during post-digestion. The recurrence was possibly related to a combination of a large drop of the biosolids temperature after the dewatering centrifuges and contamination of thermophilically digested biosolids from mesophilic operations. Phase III was conducted after insulation and electrical heat-tracing of the post-digestion train to maintain a biosolids temperature throughout post-digestion at about the same level as in the digester outflow. Biosolids monitoring at the last points of plant control (silos at Truck Loading Facility and farm for land application) indicated that fecal coliform recurrence was prevented. After completing the conversion of HTP to thermophilic operation, certification tests of Phases IV and V demonstrated Class A compliance of a two-stage continuous-batch process under Alternatives 1 and 3 of the Part 503 Biosolids Rule, respectively. HTP received the permit for Class A (indeed exceptional quality) biosolids land application in Kern County, California, in December 2002 under Alternative 3. Since 2003, HTP has consistently complied with the federal and local standards for Class A biosolids, indicating that Class A limits can be met under conditions less stringent than defined by the Alternative 1 time-temperature requirement for batch treatment. PMID:17054113

  15. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract. PMID:27507502

  16. Soaking pretreatment of corn stover for bioethanol production followed by anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhuang; Tian, Shen; Chen, Zebing; Li, Jia; Yang, Xiushan

    2012-08-01

    The production of ethanol and methane from corn stover (CS) was investigated in a biorefinery process. Initially, a novel soaking pretreatment (NaOH and aqueous-ammonia) for CS was developed to remove lignin, swell the biomass, and improve enzymatic digestibility. Based on the sugar yield during enzymatic hydrolysis, the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1 % NaOH+8 % NH(4)OH, 50°C, 48 h, with a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:10. The results demonstrated that soaking pretreatment removed 63.6 % lignin while reserving most of the carbohydrates. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the yields of glucose and xylose were 78.5 % and 69.3 %, respectively. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated CS using Pichia stipitis resulted in an ethanol concentration of 36.1 g/L, corresponding only to 63.3 % of the theoretical maximum. In order to simplify the process and reduce the capital cost, the liquid fraction of the pretreatment was used to re-soak new CS. For methane production, the re-soaked CS and the residues of SSF were anaerobically digested for 120 days. Fifteen grams CS were converted to 1.9 g of ethanol and 1337.3 mL of methane in the entire process. PMID:22669688

  17. Methanogenic pathway and community structure in a thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of organic solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Hori, Tomoyuki; Haruta, Shin; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The methanogenic pathway and microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of organic solid waste were investigated in a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor using artificial garbage slurry as a feedstock. The decomposition pathway of acetate, a significant precursor of CH(4) and a key intermediate metabolite in the anaerobic digestion process, was analyzed by using stable isotopes. A tracer experiment using (13)C-labeled acetate revealed that approximately 80% of the acetate was decomposed via a non-aceticlastic oxidative pathway, whereas the remainder was converted to methane via an aceticlastic pathway. Archaeal 16S rRNA analyses demonstrated that the hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanoculleus spp. accounted for >90% of detected methanogens, and the aceticlastic methanogens Methanosarcina spp. were the minor constituents. The clone library targeting bacterial 16S rRNA indicated the predominance of the novel Thermotogales bacterium (relative abundance: ~53%), which is related to anaerobic acetate oxidizer Thermotoga lettingae TMO, although the sequence similarity was low. Uncultured bacteria that phylogenetically belong to municipal solid waste cluster I were also predominant in the microflora (~30%). These results imply that the microbial community in the thermophilic degrading process of organic solid waste consists exclusively of unidentified bacteria, which efficiently remove acetate through a non-aceticlastic oxidative pathway. PMID:20851673

  18. Suitability of anaerobic digestion effluent as process water for corn fuel ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-01-01

    A corn fuel ethanol plant integrated with anaerobic digestion treatment of thin stillage increases the net energy balance. Furthermore, the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) can be reused as a potential substitute for process water in the ethanol fermentation. In this study, the suitability of ADE as process water for corn ethanol fermentation was investigated by analyzing the potential inhibitory components in the ADE. It was found that ammonium influenced the growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum ethanol production was obtained when the concentration of ammonium nitrogen was 200 mg/L, and ammonium could replace urea as the nitrogen source for S. cerevisiae under this concentration. In the ethanol fermentation with a higher concentration of ammonium, more glycerol was produced, thereby resulting in the decrease of ethanol production. In addition, components except ammonium in the ADE caused no inhibition to ethanol production. These results suggest that ADE could be reused as process water for corn ethanol fermentation without negative effect when ammonium concentration is well controlled. PMID:24804665

  19. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  20. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  1. Is the continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion process well suited for all substrates?

    PubMed

    Lindner, Jonas; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion systems are often considered to be advantageous compared to one-stage processes. Although process conditions and fermenter setups are well examined, overall substrate degradation in these systems is controversially discussed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how substrates with different fibre and sugar contents (hay/straw, maize silage, sugar beet) influence the degradation rate and methane production. Intermediates and gas compositions, as well as methane yields and VS-degradation degrees were recorded. The sugar beet substrate lead to a higher pH-value drop 5.67 in the acidification reactor, which resulted in a six time higher hydrogen production in comparison to the hay/straw substrate (pH-value drop 5.34). As the achieved yields in the two-stage system showed a difference of 70.6% for the hay/straw substrate, and only 7.8% for the sugar beet substrate. Therefore two-stage systems seem to be only recommendable for digesting sugar rich substrates. PMID:26519699

  2. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality. PMID:26190827

  3. A delay digestion process with application in a three-species ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongzhen, Pei; Min, Guo; Changguo, Li

    2011-11-01

    In a natural ecosystem, specialist predators feed almost exclusively on one specific species of prey which may be possible for a parasitoid. But generalist predators feed on many types of species. It is also well known that the predation rate increases as prey density rises, but eventually levels off due to the predator's handling time. The response function, thereby, is often assumed to Holling II functional response. In addition, digestion processes of the predation often involve reactions with delays. In view of these facts, a three-species ecosystem with a delay digestion process and Holling functional response is formulated. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the stability of the equilibria is investigated. Furthermore, Hopf bifurcations occurring at the positive equilibrium under some conditions are demonstrated. The consequence of global stability of the positive equilibrium is that predation will not irreversibly change the system. That is, as long as preys are not made extinct by excessive predation of their predator, the system is able to recover. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate our theoretical results. Meanwhile, they indicate that time delay is harmless for permanence of populations even thought it has a tendency to produce oscillations.

  4. 75 FR 66319 - State Systems Advance Planning Document (APD) Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 95 RIN 0970-AC33 State Systems Advance Planning Document (APD) Process AGENCY... Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Advance Planning Document (APD) process... support programs for children and families. The Advance Planning Document (APD) process governs...

  5. Identification and quantification of microbial populations in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M; Borrás, L; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-01-01

    Eight different phenotypes were studied in an activated sludge process (AeR) and anaerobic digester (AnD) in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated FISH quantification software. The phenotypes were ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanotrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Some findings were unexpected: (a) Presence of PAO, GAO and denitrifiers in the AeR possibly due to unexpected environmental conditions caused by oxygen deficiencies or its ability to survive aerobically; (b) presence of SRB in the AeR due to high sulphate content of wastewater intake and possibly also due to digested sludge being recycled back into the primary clarifier; (c) presence of methanogenic archaea in the AeR, which can be explained by the recirculation of digested sludge and its ability to survive periods of high oxygen levels; (d) presence of denitrifying bacteria in the AnD which cannot be fully explained because the nitrate level in the AnD was not measured. However, other authors reported the existence of denitrifiers in environments where nitrate or oxygen was not present suggesting that denitrifiers can survive in nitrate-free anaerobic environments by carrying out low-level fermentation; (e) the results of this paper are relevant because of the focus on the identification of nearly all the significant bacterial and archaeal groups of microorganisms with a known phenotype involved in the biological wastewater treatment. PMID:25409582

  6. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion. PMID:26760266

  7. Novel imazethapyr detoxification applying advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Stathis, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra G; Scrano, Laura; Lelario, Filomena; Emanuele, Lucia; Bufo, Sabino A

    2011-01-01

    Different degradation methods have been applied to assess the suitability of advanced oxidation process (AOPs) to promote mineralization of imazethapyr [(RS)-5-ethyl-2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)nicotinic acid], a widely used imidazolinone class herbicide, the persistence of which has been demonstrated in surface and ground waters destined to human uses. Independent of the oxidation process assessed, the decomposition of imazethapyr always followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. The direct UV-irradiation (UV) of the herbicide as well as its oxidation with ozone (O₃), and hydrogen peroxide tied to UV-irradiation (H₂O₂/UV) were sufficiently slow to permit the identification of intermediate products, the formation pathway of which has been proposed. Ozonation joined to UV-irradiation (O₃/UV), ozonation joined to titanium dioxide photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV+O₃), sole photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV), and photo-catalysis reinforced with hydrogen peroxide-oxidation (TiO₂/UV+H₂O₂) were characterized by a faster degradation and rapid formation of a lot of small molecules, which were quickly degraded to complete mineralization. The most effective oxidation methods were those using titanium dioxide photo-catalysis enhanced either by ozonation or hydrogen peroxide. Most of all, these last processes were useful to avoid the development of dangerous by-products. PMID:21726140

  8. More than monitoring: advanced lithographic process tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, G. R.; Dumaya, Jo Alvin; Bürgel, Christian; Feicke, Axel; Häcker, Martin; Utzny, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    Critical dimensions (CD) measured in resist are key to understanding the CD distribution on photomasks. Vital to this understanding is the separation of spatially random and systematic contributions to the CD distribution. Random contributions will not appear in post etch CD measurements (final) whereas systematic contributions will strongly impact final CDs. Resist CD signatures and their variations drive final CD distributions, thus an understanding of the mechanisms influencing the resist CD signature and its variation play a pivotal role in CD distribution improvements. Current technological demands require strict control of reticle critical dimension uniformity (CDU) and the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) has found significant reductions in reticle CDU are enabled through the statistical analysis of large data sets. To this end, we employ Principle Component Analysis (PCA) - a methodology well established at the AMTC1- to show how different portions of the lithographic process contribute to CD variations. These portions include photomask blank preparation as well as a correction parameter in the front end process. CD variations were markedly changed by modulating these two lithographic portions, leading to improved final CDU on test reticles in two different chemically amplified resist (CAR) processes.

  9. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY'S (DWPF) PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.; Edwards, T.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-03-14

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO{sub 3} acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  10. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.; Jones, M.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) confirms applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples.1 DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem (CC) Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). In addition to the CC method confirmation, the DWPF lab's mercury (Hg) digestion method was also evaluated for applicability to SB6 (see DWPF procedure 'Mercury System Operating Manual', Manual: SW4-15.204. Section 6.1, Revision 5, Effective date: 12-04-03). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples. For validation of the DWPF lab's Hg method, only SRAT receipt material was used and compared to AR digestion results. The SB6 SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB6 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), to form the SB6 Blend composition. In addition to the 16 elements currently measured by the DWPF, this report includes Hg and thorium (Th) data (Th comprising {approx}2.5 - 3 Wt% of the total solids in SRAT Receipt and SRAT Product, respectively) and provides specific details of ICP-AES analysis of Th. Thorium was found to interfere with the U 367.007 nm emission line, and an inter-element correction (IEC) had to be applied to U data, which is also

  11. Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) anaerobic digestion and related processes, odour and health effects study.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, J R; Adams, G; Cain, W; Cometto-Muniz, E; Forbes, B; Hentz, L; Novack, J T; Higgins, M; Murthy, S; McEwen, D; Ong, H T; Daigger, G T

    2004-01-01

    Biosolids odour emissions can affect the ability of wastewater utilities to implement beneficial biosolids processing and reuse programs. Communities often become more sensitised and vocal about biosolids issues, once they experience odours emanating from a nearby site. Odour impacts from biosolids, including potential human health effects, have been targeted recently by many national and local newspapers, citizens' groups, and regulatory agencies, who have raised significant concerns, ranging from viable disposal methods/sites to outright bans. Many national and local regulatory agencies in the United States are considering biosolids disposal bans in their communities because of misinformation, poor science, and citizen pressure, but primarily because of odour impact concerns. The wastewater industry has a relatively poor understanding of the operations and treatment parameters that influence biosolids odour emissions. Thus, wastewater treatment plants are often unable to control the odour quality of the biosolids that are delivered into communities. A research study to demonstrate the influence of anaerobic digestion, mechanical dewatering, and storage design and operating parameters on the odour quality of the final product was performed and is the subject of this paper. Established and new sampling and analytical methods were used to measure biosolids odour emissions from 11 test sites in North America. By determining the impacts of these control variables on biosolids odour quality, design and operations of anaerobic digestion systems might be enhanced. This paper also summarises a corollary study performed as part of the WERF research study that addresses the health effects of biosolids odours. PMID:15484737

  12. Implications of full-scale implementation of an anammox-based process as post-treatment of a municipal anaerobic sludge digester operated with co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Padín, J R; Morales, N; Gutiérrez, R; Fernández, R; Rogalla, F; Barrio, J P; Campos, J L; Mosquera-Corral, A; Méndez, R

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of treating the supernatant of a municipal sludge digester supplemented with co-substrates by means of an anammox-based process (ELAN(®)) was tested in Guillarei (NW of Spain). Ammonia concentration measured in the supernatant of the sludge digester varied in the range 800-1,500 g N/m(3) due to the fact that the sludge produced in the plant was co-digested with wastes coming from surrounding food industries. Treating this supernatant in the ELAN(®) reactor, nitrogen removal rates up to 1.1 kg N/(m(3) d) were reached in experiments run in a pilot plant reactor operated in batch mode. No nitrite oxidation was registered after several months of operation despite the average dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations being 1.5 g O2/m(3) and the temperature reaching values as low as 18 °C. By keeping the DO set point at 1-2 g O2/m(3) and tuning the hydraulic retention time, the stability of the process was guaranteed and the presence of co-substrates in the anaerobic digester did not affect negatively the operation of the autotrophic nitrogen removal process. Due to the success of the pilot plant experiment, an upscale of the process to full scale is proposed. Mass balances applied to Guillarei wastewater treatment plant revealed that in the main stream line the average denitrification rate calculated with the data of year 2011 was 226 kg N/d. Since the nitrogen removal efficiency is limited by the amount of readily biodegradable organic matter available to carry out denitrification in the water line, the implementation of an anammox-based process to treat the supernatant seems the best option to improve the effluent quality in terms of nitrogen content. The nitrogen removal rate in the sludge line would be 30 times higher than the one in the water line. The implementation of the process would improve the energetic balance and the nitrogen removal performance of the plant. PMID:24647178

  13. Advanced Integrated Optical Signal Processing Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastani, Kasra

    This research was aimed at the development of advanced integrated optical components suitable for devices capable of processing multi-dimensional inputs. In such processors, densely packed waveguide arrays with low crosstalk are needed to provide dissection of the information that has been partially processed. Waveguide arrays also expand the information in the plane of the processor while maintaining its coherence. Rib waveguide arrays with low loss, high mode confinement and highly uniform surface quality (660 elements, 8 μm wide, 1 μm high, and 1 cm long with 2 mu m separations) were fabricated on LiNbO _3 substrates through the ion beam milling technique. A novel feature of the multi-dimensional IO processor architecture proposed herein is the implementation of large area uniform outcoupling (with low to moderate outcoupling efficiencies) from rib waveguide arrays in order to access the third dimension of the processor structure. As a means of outcoupling, uniform surface gratings (2 μm and 4 μm grating periods, 0.05 μm high and 1 mm long) with low outcoupling efficiencies (of approximately 2-18%/mm) were fabricated on the nonuniform surface of the rib waveguide arrays. As a practical technique of modulating the low outcoupling efficiencies of the surface gratings, it was proposed to alter the period of the grating as a function of position along each waveguide. Large aperture (2.5 mm) integrated lenses with short positive focal lengths (1.2-2.5 cm) were developed through a modification of the titanium-indiffused proton exchanged (TIPE) technique. Such integrated lenses were fabricated by increasing the refractive index of the slab waveguides by the TIPE process while maintaining the refractive index of the lenses at the lower level of Ti:LiNbO _3 waveguide. By means of curvature reversal of the integrated lenses, positive focal length lenses have been fabricated while providing high mode confinement for the slab waveguide. The above elements performed as

  14. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  15. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-01-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields. PMID:24503715

  16. Correlations between bacterial populations and process parameters in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Gu; Koo, Taewoan; Lee, Joonyeob; Han, Gyuseong; Cho, Kyungjin; Kim, Woong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-08-01

    Process parameters and bacterial populations were investigated in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge. Although the four digesters were operated under similar conditions, digesters A and B had higher pH (7.2-7.4) and lipid removal efficiencies (>50%) than C and D (pH 6.1-6.4; average lipid removal <16%). Bacterial richness, diversity, and evenness were higher in digesters C and D. Among the top-populated genera, ten (group I) were more abundant in digesters A and/or B; they were putative syntrophic fatty acid or protein/amino acid-utilizers. In contrast, fifteen others (group II) were less abundant in A and/or B and included potentially dormant/dead cells originated from activated sludge. Despite the overall richness trend, the presence of the 25 genera in groups I/II was greater in digesters A and B (24) than in C and D (17); this observation suggests that group I bacteria might be essential in AD of sewage sludge. PMID:27209453

  17. Deterministic processes guide long-term synchronised population dynamics in replicate anaerobic digesters

    PubMed Central

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D; Dennis, Paul G; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W

    2014-01-01

    A replicate long-term experiment was conducted using anaerobic digestion (AD) as a model process to determine the relative role of niche and neutral theory on microbial community assembly, and to link community dynamics to system performance. AD is performed by a complex network of microorganisms and process stability relies entirely on the synergistic interactions between populations belonging to different functional guilds. In this study, three independent replicate anaerobic digesters were seeded with the same diverse inoculum, supplied with a model substrate, α-cellulose, and operated for 362 days at a 10-day hydraulic residence time under mesophilic conditions. Selective pressure imposed by the operational conditions and model substrate caused large reproducible changes in community composition including an overall decrease in richness in the first month of operation, followed by synchronised population dynamics that correlated with changes in reactor performance. This included the synchronised emergence and decline of distinct Ruminococcus phylotypes at day 148, and emergence of a Clostridium and Methanosaeta phylotype at day 178, when performance became stable in all reactors. These data suggest that many dynamic functional niches are predictably filled by phylogenetically coherent populations over long time scales. Neutral theory would predict that a complex community with a high degree of recognised functional redundancy would lead to stochastic changes in populations and community divergence over time. We conclude that deterministic processes may play a larger role in microbial community dynamics than currently appreciated, and under controlled conditions it may be possible to reliably predict community structural and functional changes over time. PMID:24739627

  18. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  19. Current and future applications of natural language processing in the field of digestive diseases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jason K; Imler, Timothy D; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2014-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a technology that uses computer-based linguistics and artificial intelligence to identify and extract information from free-text data sources such as progress notes, procedure and pathology reports, and laboratory and radiologic test results. With the creation of large databases and the trajectory of health care reform, NLP holds the promise of enhancing the availability, quality, and utility of clinical information with the goal of improving documentation, quality, and efficiency of health care in the United States. To date, NLP has shown promise in automatically determining appropriate colonoscopy intervals and identifying cases of inflammatory bowel disease from electronic health records. The objectives of this review are to provide background on NLP and its associated terminology, to describe how NLP has been used thus far in the field of digestive diseases, and to identify its potential future uses. PMID:24858706

  20. A Spatially Continuous Model of Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport Processes in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Arun S; Brooks, Stephen P J; Kalmokoff, Martin; Eberl, Hermann J

    2015-01-01

    A spatially continuous mathematical model of transport processes, anaerobic digestion and microbial complexity as would be expected in the human colon is presented. The model is a system of first-order partial differential equations with context determined number of dependent variables, and stiff, non-linear source terms. Numerical simulation of the model is used to elucidate information about the colon-microbiota complex. It is found that the composition of materials on outflow of the model does not well-describe the composition of material in other model locations, and inferences using outflow data varies according to model reactor representation. Additionally, increased microbial complexity allows the total microbial community to withstand major system perturbations in diet and community structure. However, distribution of strains and functional groups within the microbial community can be modified depending on perturbation length and microbial kinetic parameters. Preliminary model extensions and potential investigative opportunities using the computational model are discussed. PMID:26680208

  1. A Spatially Continuous Model of Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport Processes in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Arun S.; Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Kalmokoff, Martin; Eberl, Hermann J.

    2015-01-01

    A spatially continuous mathematical model of transport processes, anaerobic digestion and microbial complexity as would be expected in the human colon is presented. The model is a system of first-order partial differential equations with context determined number of dependent variables, and stiff, non-linear source terms. Numerical simulation of the model is used to elucidate information about the colon-microbiota complex. It is found that the composition of materials on outflow of the model does not well-describe the composition of material in other model locations, and inferences using outflow data varies according to model reactor representation. Additionally, increased microbial complexity allows the total microbial community to withstand major system perturbations in diet and community structure. However, distribution of strains and functional groups within the microbial community can be modified depending on perturbation length and microbial kinetic parameters. Preliminary model extensions and potential investigative opportunities using the computational model are discussed. PMID:26680208

  2. Sampling for advanced overlay process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, DongSub; Izikson, Pavel; Sutherland, Doug; Sherman, Kara; Manka, Jim; Robinson, John C.

    2008-03-01

    Overlay metrology and control have been critical for successful advanced microlithography for many years, and are taking on an even more important role as time goes on. Due to throughput constraints it is necessary to sample only a small subset of overlay metrology marks, and typical sample plans are static over time. Standard production monitoring and control involves measuring sufficient samples to calculate up to 6 linear correctables. As design rules shrink and processing becomes more complex, however, it is necessary to consider higher order modeled terms for control, fault detection, and disposition. This in turn, requires a higher level of sampling. Due to throughput concerns, however, careful consideration is needed to establish a base-line sampling, and higher levels of sampling can be considered on an exception-basis based on automated trigger mechanisms. The goal is improved scanner control and lithographic cost of ownership. This study addresses tools for establishing baseline sampling as well as motivation and initial results for dynamic sampling for application to higher order modeling.

  3. Sampling for advanced overlay process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki; Izikson, Pavel; Robinson, John C.

    2009-03-01

    Overlay metrology and control have been critical for successful advanced microlithography for many years, and are taking on an even more important role as time goes on. Due to throughput constraints it is necessary to sample only a small subset of overlay metrology marks, and typical sample plans are static over time. Standard production monitoring and control involves measuring sufficient samples to calculate up to 6 linear correctables. As design rules shrink and processing becomes more complex, however, it is necessary to consider higher order models with additional degrees of freedom for control, fault detection, and disposition. This in turn, requires a higher level of sampling and a careful consideration of flyer removal. Due to throughput concerns, however, careful consideration is needed to establish a baseline sampling plan using rigorous statistical methods. This study focuses on establishing a 3x nm node immersion lithography production-worthy sampling plan for 3rd order modeling, verification of the accuracy, and proof of robustness of the sampling. In addition we discuss motivation for dynamic sampling for application to higher order modeling.

  4. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  5. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  6. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  7. Liquefaction and methanization of solid and liquid coffee wastes by two phase anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Houbron, E; Larrinaga, A; Rustrian, E

    2003-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the feasibility of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from coffee pulp hydrolyse, and further to determine the potential of methanization of both the pre-acidified effluent and the coffee wastewater. The experiments were carried out in 2 completely mixed reactors, each one with a working volume of 4 litres. Coffee pulp was used as substrate in the acidogenic reactor and different mixtures of pulper and wash-water and pre-acidified effluent in the methanogenic one. The acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1) and 0.5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1). The total, soluble and VFA's effluent COD concentrations of the acidogenic reactor present average values of 57.75, 17.00 and 13.92 g x l(-1) respectively. Under these experimental conditions, 23% (COD based) of coffee pulp was hydrolysed with a rate of 1.32 gCOD x l(-1) x d(-1) and the soluble fraction was transformed to VFA's with an acidification efficiency of 82%. Total VFA's concentration reached a value of 13.9 gCOD x l(-1), and acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate represented 52%, 28%, 9% and 11% respectively of the liquid phase COD. In the methanogenic reactor, COD removal and methanization of fresh coffee wastewater, pre-acidified effluent and both combined occur with an efficiency of 85% to 95% respectively, with a characteristic biogas composition of 80% CH4 and 20% CO2. These results show that a humid coffee "Beneficio" processing daily 23 tons of cherry coffee (fresh fruit), equipped with a two stage anaerobic digestion process could generate at least 1,886 CH4 m3 x d(-1). This represents an increase in methane production by a factor 3 to 5 compared to a "Beneficio" using anaerobic digestion only for the treatment of its wastewater. PMID:14640226

  8. Nutrient digestibility and colonic fermentation processes in species of the families Mustelidae and Canidae fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient digestibility was compared and the influence of colonic fermentation processes on nutrient digestibility was determined in the American mink (Neovison vison) and the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). It was hypothesized that gut microbiota exert varied effects on digestion processes in the analyzed species. The experiment was performed in December, on a group of 10 male mink and 10 male foxes. All animals were fed identical diets for fur-bearing carnivores, with the following chemical composition (%): dry matter (DM)-33.12, total protein (TP)-12.01, ether extract (EE)-8.64, crude fiber (CF)-12.01, N-free extracts (N-FE)-9.32, and gross energy (GE)-7.313 MJ/kg(-1) . The coefficients of DM, OM, TP and EE digestibility were significantly higher in foxes than in mink. Mink were characterized by significantly higher utilization of N-FE. In foxes, as compared with mink, fermentation rates were higher in the final section of the gastrointestinal tract, which improved nutrient digestibility. In mink, characterized by lower fermentation rates in the colon, increased enzyme secretion by bacterial cells is one of the physiological mechanisms that enable to optimize nutrient absorption in the large intestine. PMID:26350446

  9. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of different feedstocks: impact on energetic and environmental balances of biogas process.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; González-García, Sara

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of limiting the global warming is strictly linked to the reduction of GHG emissions. Renewable energy both allows reducing emissions and permits to delay fossil fuel depletion. The anaerobic digestion of animal manure and energy crops is a promising way of reducing GHG emissions. In Italy agricultural biogas production was considerably increased; nowadays there are about 520 agricultural biogas plants. The increasing number of biogas plants, especially of those larger than 500 kW(e) (electrical power), involves a high consumption of energy crops, large transport distances of biomass and digestate and difficulties on thermal energy valorization. In this study the energetic (CED) and environmental (GHG emissions) profiles associated with the production of electricity derived from biogas have been identified. Three biogas plants located in Northern Italy have been analyzed. The study has been carried out considering a cradle-to-grave perspective and thus, special attention has been paid on the feedstock production and biogas production process. The influences on the results taking into account different plant sizes and feeding rate has been assessed in detail. Energy analysis was performed using the Cumulative Energy Demand method (CED). The climate change was calculated for a 100-year time frame based on GHG emissions indicated as CO2 equivalents (eq) and defined by the IPCC (2006). In comparison to the fossil reference system, the electricity production using biogas saves GHG emissions from 0.188 to 1.193 kg CO2eq per kWh(e). Electricity supply from biogas can also contribute to a considerable reduction of the use of fossil energy carriers (from -3.97 to 10.08 MJ(fossil) per kWh(e)). The electricity production from biogas has a big potential for energy savings and reduction of GHG emissions. Efficient utilization of the cogenerated heat can substantially improve the GHG balance of electricity production from biogas. PMID:23831800

  11. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

  12. Impacts of trace element supplementation on the performance of anaerobic digestion process: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Choong, Yee Yaw; Norli, Ismail; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Yhaya, Mohd Firdaus

    2016-06-01

    This paper critically reviews the impacts of supplementing trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance. The in-depth knowledge of trace elements as micronutrients and metalloenzyme components justifies trace element supplementation into the anaerobic digestion system. Most of the earlier studies reported that trace elements addition at (sub)optimum dosages had positive impacts mainly longer term on digester stability with greater organic matter degradation, low volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and higher biogas production. However, these positive impacts and element requirements are not fully understood, they are explained on a case to case basis because of the great variance of the anaerobic digestion operation. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are the most studied and desirable elements. The right combination of multi-elements supplementation can have greater positive impact. This measure is highly recommended, especially for the mono-digestion of micronutrient-deficient substrates. The future research should consider the aspect of trace element bioavailability. PMID:27005788

  13. Applications of Anammox based processes to treat anaerobic digester supernatant at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Padín, Jose; Fernádez, Isaac; Figueroa, Mónica; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, Jose-Luis; Méndez, Ramón

    2009-06-01

    The supernatant of an anaerobic digester was treated at 20 degrees C in two systems. The first one is a two units configuration, conformed by two sequencing batch reactors (SBR), carrying out partial nitrification and Anammox processes, respectively. Partial nitrification was achieved by granular biomass with a mean diameter of 3 mm, operating at a dissolved oxygen concentration of 2.7 mg/L. The combined system allowed the removal of nitrogen loading rates around 0.08 g N/(Ld). Afterwards, Anammox biomass was spontaneously developed in the inner core of the nitrifying granules of the SBR and therefore, partial nitrification and Anammox process were carried out in a single unit. Once the stable CANON process was established, a mean nitrogen removal rate of 0.8 g N/(Ld) was registered. The settling velocities of the granules ranged from 70 to 150 m/h with sludge volumetric index values lower than 50 mL/g VSS during the whole operation. PMID:19246192

  14. Activated zeolite--suitable carriers for microorganisms in anaerobic digestion processes?

    PubMed

    Weiß, S; Lebuhn, M; Andrade, D; Zankel, A; Cardinale, M; Birner-Gruenberger, R; Somitsch, W; Ueberbacher, B J; Guebitz, G M

    2013-04-01

    Plant cell wall structures represent a barrier in the biodegradation process to produce biogas for combustion and energy production. Consequently, approaches concerning a more efficient de-polymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars are required. Here, we show that natural activated zeolites (i.e. trace metal activated zeolites) represent eminently suitable mineral microhabitats and potential carriers for immobilisation of microorganisms responsible for anaerobic hydrolysis of biopolymers stabilising related bacterial and methanogenic communities. A strategy for comprehensive analysis of immobilised anaerobic populations was developed that includes the visualisation of biofilm formation via scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, community and fingerprint analysis as well as enzyme activity and identification analyses. Using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, hydrolytical active protein bands were traced by congo red staining. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy revealed cellulolytical endo- and exoglucanase (exocellobiohydrolase) as well as hemicellulolytical xylanase/mannase after proteolytic digestion. Relations to hydrolytic/fermentative zeolite colonisers were obtained by using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) based on amplification of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA fragments. Thereby, dominant colonisers were affiliated to the genera Clostridium, Pseudomonas and Methanoculleus. The specific immobilisation on natural zeolites with functional microbes already colonising naturally during the fermentation offers a strategy to systematically supply the biogas formation process responsive to population dynamics and process requirements. PMID:23435898

  15. Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation using anaerobic digested starch processing wastewater in an airlift circulation photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaobo; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yalei; Yang, Libin; Zhao, Fangchao; Zhou, Xuefei

    2014-10-01

    To explore the integration of microalgae cultivation and anaerobic processing for wastewater treatment, we utilized an airlift circulation photobioreactor and a dynamic membrane reactor for microalgae cultivation in combination with an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for starch processing wastewater (SPW) treatment. Chlorella pyrenoidosa completely adapted to the digested SPW without any chemical additives, and it grew normally under a wide temperature range in different seasons. C. pyrenoidosa was always the dominant microorganism in the photobioreactors although bacteria and some wild type microalgae were observed. Optimal biomass growth and pollutants removal was achieved at temperatures between 35 and 38°C in summer, removing 65.99% of COD, 83.06% of TN, 96.97% of TP and a biomass productivity of 0.37gL(-1)d(-1). Temperature fluctuation significantly influenced lipid contents and FAMEs compositions in biomass. The results demonstrate the successful integration of microalgae biomass production and anaerobic processing for wastewater treatment. PMID:25164347

  16. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. PMID:25540943

  17. Advanced Reduction Processes: A New Class of Treatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP. PMID:23840160

  18. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as

  19. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion for enhanced sludge stabilization: comparison of the process performance for mixed and waste sludge [corrected].

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Carozza, Nicola Antonello

    2015-05-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated as a promising alternative for enhanced sludge stabilization. In this paper, a feasibility study of the sequential digestion applied to real waste activated sludge (WAS) and mixed sludge is presented. Process performance is evaluated in terms of total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) removal, biogas production, and dewaterability trend in the anaerobic and double-stage digested sludge. In the proposed digestion lay out, the aerobic stage was operated with intermittent aeration to reduce the nitrogen load recycled to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Experimental results showed a very good performance of the sequential digestion process for both waste and mixed sludge, even if, given its better digestibility, higher efficiencies are observed for mixed sludge. VS removal efficiencies in the anaerobic stage were 48 and 50% for waste and mixed sludge, respectively, while a significant additional improvement of the VS removal of 25% for WAS and 45% for mixed sludge has been obtained in the aerobic stage. The post-aerobic stage, operated with intermittent aeration, was also efficient in nitrogen removal, providing a significant decrease of the nitrogen content in the supernatant: nitrification efficiencies of 90 and 97% and denitrification efficiencies of 62 and 70% have been obtained for secondary and mixed sludges, respectively. A positive effect due to the aerobic stage was also observed on the sludge dewaterability in both cases. Biogas production, expressed as Nm(3)/(kgVSdestroyed), was 0.54 for waste and 0.82 for mixed sludge and is in the range of values reported in the literature in spite of the low anaerobic sludge retention time of 15 days. PMID:25028317

  20. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas. PMID:25249492

  1. Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by combined process electro-Fenton reaction and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we investigated an integrated technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of olive mill wastewaters (OMW), allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. The method involves an electrochemical pre-treatment step of the wastewater using the electro-Fenton reaction followed by an anaerobic bio-treatment. The electro-Fenton process removed 65.8% of the total polyphenolic compounds and subsequently decreased the OMW toxicity from 100% to 66.9%, which resulted in improving the performance of the anaerobic digestion. A continuous lab-scale methanogenic reactor was operated at a loading rate of 10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)l(-1) d(-1) without any apparent toxicity. Furthermore, in the combined process, a high overall reduction in COD, suspended solids, polyphenols and lipid content was achieved by the two successive stages. This result opens promising perspectives since its conception as a fast and cheap pre-treatment prior to conventional anaerobic post-treatment. The use of electro-coagulation as post-treatment technology completely detoxified the anaerobic effluent and removed its toxic compounds. PMID:16678883

  2. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  3. The role of biological processes in reducing both odor impact and pathogen content during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Orzi, Valentina; Scaglia, Barbara; Lonati, Samuele; Riva, Carlo; Boccasile, Gabriele; Alborali, Giovanni Loris; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) produces renewable energy, but it also plays a role in reducing the impact of digestates, both by reducing odor and pathogen content. Ten full-scale biogas plants characterized by different plant designs (e.g. single digesters, parallel or serial digesters), plant powers (ranging from 180 to 999 kWe), hydraulic retention time (HRT) (ranging between 20 to 70 days) and feed mixes were monitored and odors and pathogens were observed in both ingestates and digestates. Results obtained indicated that MAD reduced odors (OU) from, on average, OUingestate=99,106±149,173 OU m(-2) h(-1) (n=15) to OU digestate=1106±771 OU m(-2) h(-1) (n=15). Pathogens were also reduced during MAD both because of ammonia production during the process and competition for substrate between pathogens and indigenous microflora, i.e. Enterobacteriaceae from 6.85∗10(3)±1.8∗10(1) to 1.82∗10(1)±3.82∗10(1); fecal Coliform from 1.82∗10(4)±9.09 to 2.45∗10(1)±3.8∗10(1); Escherichia coli from 8.72∗10(3)±2.4∗10(1) to 1.8∗10(1)±2.94∗10(1); Clostridium perfringens from 6.4∗10(4)±7.7 to 5.2∗10(3)±8.1 (all data are expressed as CFU g(-1) ww). Plants showed different abilities to reduce pathogen indicators, depending on the pH value and toxic ammonia content. PMID:25925189

  4. Sulfakinin is an important regulator of digestive processes in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Zels, Sven; Dillen, Senne; Crabbé, Katleen; Spit, Jornt; Nachman, Ronald J; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Sulfakinin (SK) is a sulfated insect neuropeptide that is best known for its function as a satiety factor. It displays structural and functional similarities with the vertebrate peptides gastrin and cholecystokinin. Peptidomic studies in multiple insects, crustaceans and arachnids have revealed the widespread occurrence of SK in the arthropod phylum. Multiple studies in hemi- and holometabolous insects revealed the pleiotropic nature of this neuropeptide: in addition to its activity as a satiety factor, SK was also reported to affect muscle contraction, digestive enzyme release, odor preference, aggression and metabolism. However, the main site of action seems to be the digestive system of insects. In this study, we have investigated whether SK can intervene in the control of nutrient uptake and digestion in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). We provide evidence that sulfakinin reduces food uptake in this species. Furthermore, we discovered that SK has very pronounced effects on the main digestive enzyme secreting parts of the locust gut. It effectively reduced digestive enzyme secretion from both the midgut and gastric caeca. SK injection also elicited a reduction in absorbance and proteolytic activity of the gastric caeca contents. The characteristic sulfation of the tyrosine residue is crucial for the observed effects on digestive enzyme secretion. In an attempt to provide potential leads for the development of peptidomimetic compounds based on SK, we also tested two mimetic analogs of the natural peptide ligand in the digestive enzyme secretion assay. These analogs were able to mimic the effect of the natural SK, but their effects were milder. The results of this study provide new insights into the action of SK on the digestive system in (hemimetabolous) insects. PMID:25846060

  5. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Results Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%), based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%). Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L), including the reference case. Conclusions Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat. PMID:20843330

  6. Physicothermochemical pretreatments of food processing waste for enchancing anaerobic digestion and biogas generation

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, A.M. Menoufia Univ., Sadat City ); Nasr, M.I. )

    1993-10-01

    This paper was conducted to evaluate the effect of milling and alkali lime cooking pretreatments on the rate and extent of methane generation from sugar Cane bagasse. The effect of pretreatment process variables (Particle size 8.0.003 mm, temperature between 100 and 250[degree]C and alkaline dosage between 0 and 8g CaO/kg VS) on the biogas generation from Sugar Cane bagasse has been investigated. Methane generation from the pretreated cane bagasse was studied using serum bottle technique and an upflow anaerobic filter bioreactor. The optimum condition involves alkali-cooking of cane bagasse (0.5 mm) with 4% CaO at 200[degree]C, dissolving most of the cellulose and converting it in a mixture of organic acids, including formic, acetic, lactic, and succinic acids. About 80% of the COD content of the cellulose was retained in the cooked liquor. A very rapid biogas were observed in the first three days of 70% methane content from the pretreated cane bagasse and the digestion was completed within 8 days. It has been concluded, that the lime-cooking of CB could produce methane as much as 70% of that from glucose. Inhibition did not seems to be serious problem in the biogas generation from the alkali-cooking cane bagasse. 29 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  8. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    PubMed

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. PMID:27283689

  9. Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

  10. Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M

    2013-11-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

  11. Mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and lipid rich solid slaughterhouse wastes: process efficiency, limitations and floating granules formation.

    PubMed

    Pitk, Peep; Palatsi, Jordi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Fernández, Belén; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-08-01

    Lipid and protein rich solid slaughterhouse wastes are attractive co-substrates to increase volumetric biogas production in co-digestion with dairy manure. Addition of decanter sludge (DS), containing 42.2% of lipids and 35.8% of proteins (total solids basis), up to 5% of feed mixture resulted in a stable process without any indication of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) or free ammonia (NH3) inhibition and in 3.5-fold increase of volumetric biogas production. Contrary, only lipids addition as technical fat (TF) at over 2% of feed mixture resulted in formation of floating granules (FG) and process efficiency decrease. Formed FG had low biodegradability and its organic part was composed of lipids and calcium salts of LCFAs. Anaerobic digestion process intentionally directed to FG formation, could be a viable option for mitigation and control of lipids overload and derived LCFA inhibition. PMID:24907576

  12. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  13. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  14. ADVANCED CONCEPTS: SO2 REMOVAL PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of a potassium scrubbing system that recovers useful forms of sulfur from pollutants while using a low-energy process to regenerate the absorbing medium. The report also describes two versions of a new, regenerable process for SO2 scrubbing tha...

  15. Influence of processing and in vitro digestion on the allergic cross-reactivity of three mealworm species.

    PubMed

    van Broekhoven, Sarah; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-04-01

    Edible insects are currently being evaluated as an alternative and more sustainable protein source for humans. The introduction of new food sources can lead to development of novel allergies. Because in the Western world, insects are unlikely to be consumed raw, it is important to know how processing and in vitro digestion might influence their allergenicity. Three edible mealworm species (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas atratus and Alphitobius diaperinus) subjected to processing and in vitro digestion were analysed for IgE cross-reactivity. Immunoblot and MALDI-MS/MS analyses revealed that IgE from crustaceans or House dust mite (HDM) allergic patients showed cross-reactivity to mealworm tropomyosin or α-amylase, hexamerin 1B precursor and muscle myosin, respectively. Heat processing as well as in vitro digestion did diminish, but not eliminate, HDM or tropomyosin IgE cross-reactivity. Results show that individuals allergic to HDM or crustaceans might be at risk when consuming mealworms, even after heat processing. PMID:26593591

  16. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  17. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  18. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). PMID:25458767

  19. Shotgun metaproteomic profiling of biomimetic anaerobic digestion processes treating sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bize, Ariane; Cardona, Laëtitia; Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Battimelli, Audrey; Badalato, Nelly; Bureau, Chrystelle; Madigou, Céline; Chevret, Didier; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bouchez, Théodore

    2015-10-01

    Two parallel anaerobic digestion lines were designed to match a "bovid-like" digestive structure. Each of the lines consisted of two continuous stirred tank reactors placed in series and separated by an acidic treatment step. The first line was inoculated with industrial inocula whereas the second was seeded with cow digestive tract contents. After 3 months of continuous sewage sludge feeding, samples were recovered for shotgun metaproteomic and DNA-based analysis. Strikingly, protein-inferred and 16S ribosomal DNA tags based taxonomic community profiles were not consistent. PCA however revealed a similar clustering pattern of the samples, suggesting that reproducible methodological and/or biological factors underlie this observation. The performances of the two digestion lines did not differ significantly and the cow-derived inocula did not establish in the reactors. A low throughput metagenomic dataset (3.4 × 10(6) reads, 1.1 Gb) was also generated for one of the samples. It allowed a substantial increase of the analysis depth (11 vs. 4% of spectral identification rate for the combined samples). Surprisingly, a high proportion of proteins from members of the "Candidatus Competibacter" group, a key microbial player usually found in activated sludge plants, was retrieved in our anaerobic digester samples. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002420 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002420). PMID:26260998

  20. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  1. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  2. Processing and chop length effects in brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G

    2002-03-01

    In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance. PMID:11949866

  3. Combined process for ethanol fermentation at high-solids loading and biogas digestion from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Lv, Zhe; Du, Jiliang; Mo, Chunling; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

    2014-08-01

    A combined process was designed for the co-production of ethanol and methane from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover. A terminal ethanol titer of 69.8 g/kg mass weight (72.5%) was achieved when the fed-batch mode was performed at a final solids loading of 35.5% (w/w) dry matter (DM) content. The whole stillage from high-solids ethanol fermentation was directly transferred in a 3-L anaerobic digester. During 52-day single-stage digester operation, the methane productivity was 320 mL CH₄/g volatile solids (VS) with a maximum VS reduction efficiency of 55.3%. The calculated overall product yield was 197 g ethanol + 96 g methane/kg corn stover. This indicated that the combined process was able to improve overall content utilization and extract a greater yield of lignocellulosic biomass compared to ethanol fermentation alone. PMID:24926600

  4. Recent advances in process assessment and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, A; Hendrickx, M; Smout, C; Haentjens, T; Tobback, P

    1996-01-01

    After stating the general principle of food preservation, this paper focuses on currently available methods to evaluate quantitatively the integrated time temperature impact during and/or after a thermal preservation process. In this context, both the physical-mathematical approach and the use of time temperature integrators are briefly reviewed and recent evolutions are indicated. Also new trends with regard to thermal process optimisation are highlighted. PMID:22060643

  5. Experience of curing serious obstruction of advanced-stage upper digestive tract tumor using laser under endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Man-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Feng-Qiu; Kong, De-Jia; Tang, Li-Bin

    1998-11-01

    The patients who suffer from upper digestive tract tumor, such as cancer of esophagus, cancer of cardia, all have serious obstruction and fail to get nutrition and can not bear the strike of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In order to reduce the obstruction symptom and suffering of the patients and to prolong their life time, since 1989, our hospital used the laser to cure the upper digestive tract tumor 11 cases with serious obstruction and got remarkable curative effect.

  6. Advances in iridium alloy processing in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Heestand, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Roche, T.K.

    1988-08-01

    A new process for the production of DOP-26 iridium alloy blanks is being evaluated and optimized. The alloy is prepared by electron-beam (EB) melting of Ir-0.3% W powder compacts followed by doping with aluminum and thorium by arc melting. Drop-cast alloy rod segments are EB welded to produce an electrode that is consumable arc melted to produce an ingot for extrusion and subsequent rolling. Initial results showed rejections for ultrasonic indications of alloy blanks produced by this process to be very low. Subsequently, some ingots have exhibited delaminations in the sheet, leading to rejection rates similar to that obtained in the standard process. The increase in delaminations is related to near-surface porosity in the consumable arc-melted ingot. A number of modifications to the arc-melting process and plans for further experimental work are described. In addition, the tensile properties of the DOP-26 iridium alloys have been measured over a range of test temperatures and strain rates. A laboratory evaluation of alternative cleaning procedures indicates that electrolytic dissolution of DOP-26 iridium alloy in an HCl solution is a potential substitute to the KCN process now in use. 7 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007447.htm Digestive diseases To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which ...

  8. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  9. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOP'S FOR THE TREATMENT OF CCL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on treatment of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) chemicals is being conducted. Specific groups of contaminants on the CCL will be evaluated using numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Initially, these CCL contaminants will be evaluated in groups based on chemical...

  10. Process Technology and Advanced Concepts: Organic Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts: Organic Solar Cell that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  11. Cold plasma processing technology makes advances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma (AKA nonthermal plasma, cool plasma, gas plasma, etc.) is a rapidly maturing antimicrobial process being developed for applications in the food industry. A wide array of devices can be used to create cold plasma, but the defining characteristic is that they operate at or near room temper...

  12. Photonics in advanced process control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Stefan H.; Andersson, Torbjoern; Grimbrandt, Jan

    1999-02-01

    A measurement system optimized for process control in the industrial environment has been developed and successfully commercialized. The system comprises a central unit, which contains all sensitive electronic and electro-optic parts. Fiber optics is used to transport the probing laser light to the measuring points in the process. Extremely rugged sensor heads are used to interface to the harsh industrial environment. Adaptation to the different applications is solely made up by changing the type of sensor head used. Six different process control applications will be presented. Ammonia slip monitoring in the NO(subscript x4/ reduction process in power stations, waste incinerators and heavy-duty diesel engines. Measurement of water vapor and oxygen in municipal waste to energy plants. Monitoring of oxygen and the thermodynamic gas temperature in steel pellets manufacturing. Monitoring HF reduction in a dry scrubber and HF emission from a pot room. Experiences of CO emission peak monitoring to protect electro filter in a chemical waste incinerator. Finally, we will describe measurements of HCI in the raw gas to access the calorific value of waste and to optimize bag-house filter operation.

  13. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  14. Trapped rubber processing for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Trapped rubber processing is a molding technique for composites in which precast silicone rubber is placed within a closed cavity where it thermally expands against the composite's surface supported by the vessel walls. The method has been applied by the Douglas Aircraft Company, under contract to NASA-Langley, to the design and fabrication of 10 DC-10 graphite/epoxy upper aft rudder assemblies. A three-bay development tool form mold die has been designed and manufactured, and tooling parameters have been established. Fabrication procedures include graphite layup, assembly of details in the tool, and a cure cycle. The technique has made it possible for the cocured fabrication of complex primary box structures otherwise impracticable via standard composite material processes.

  15. Advanced processes for metallurgical coke. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, R.W.; Carsey, J.N.; von Bismarck, G.; Fujishima, C.

    1980-12-01

    Material collected in a survey of German coking plants (some in German, some in English) is presented: Ancit hot briquetting (including blast furnace tests), by-products of Ancit process, coal preparation, high volatile coking coals, preheating, briquetting blending, compacting and preheating, short coking time, wet charges, temperature control and heat consumption, supplies of coke, Solmer coke oven complex at Fos-sur-Mer, etc. (LTN)

  16. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2011-07-01

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 °C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) day(-1). Sanitization of the digestate at 65 °C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO(2) at a rate lower than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1) after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1). The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR. PMID:21419612

  17. A Changing Focus in Evaluation: Linking Process and Outline: ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Bryan

    Career counselors continually evaluate their work. Unfortunately, the evidence used to gauge success often is usually not considered valuative, is not documented, and cannot be used to back up claims of successful counseling. This digest outlines a new approach to evaluation. Since client-need determines counseling intervention, evaluation models…

  18. New concepts of ammonia removal from digested swine effluents using anammox based deammonification process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of biogas from swine manure using anaerobic digesters (AD) is projected to be important in the future. However, surplus nitrogen (N) in AD effluents is difficult to remove using current technology (nitrification/denitrification) because low carbon availability after biogas production. W...

  19. Utilization of Re-processed Anaerobically Digested Fiber from Dairy Manure as a Container Media Substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solid fraction (fiber) from the effluent of the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure by plug flow technology yields material that has consistent physical properties (total porosity, air filled porosity at saturation, and water holding capacity) to perform satisfactorily as a plant growth media su...

  20. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  1. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  2. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  3. Reducing waste contamination from animal-processing plants by anaerobic thermophilic fermentation and by flesh fly digestion.

    PubMed

    Marchaim, U; Gelman, A; Braverman, Y

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no market in Israel for the large amounts of waste from fish- and poultry-processing plants. Therefore, this waste is incinerated, as part of the measures to prevent the spread of pathogens. Anaerobic methanogenic thermophilic fermentation (AMTF) of wastes from the cattle-slaughtering industry was examined previously, as an effective system to treat pathogenic bacteria, and in this article, we discuss a combined method of digestion by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria and by flesh flies, as a means of waste treatment. The AMTF process was applied to the wastes on a laboratory scale, and digestion by rearing of flesh fly (Phaenicia sericata) and housefly (Musca domestica) larvae on the untreated raw material was done on a small scale and showed remarkable weight conversion to larvae. The yield from degradation of poultry waste by flesh fly was 22.47% (SD = 3.89) and that from fish waste degradation was 35.34% (SD = 12.42), which is significantly higher than that from rearing houseflies on a regular rearing medium. Bacterial contents before and after thermophilic anaerobic digestion, as well as the changes in the chemical composition of the components during the rearing of larvae, were also examined. PMID:12794287

  4. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and sterilized solid slaughterhouse waste: methane production efficiency and process limitations.

    PubMed

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Palatsi, Jordi; Affes, Rim; Vilu, Raivo

    2013-04-01

    The rendering product of Category 2 and 3 Animal By-Products is known as sterilized mass (SM) and it is mainly composed of fat and proteins, making it interesting substrate for anaerobic digestion. Batch and semi-continuous laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of SM addition in co-digestion with sewage sludge on methane production and possible process limitations. Results showed that SM addition in the feed mixture up to 5% (w/w), corresponding to 68.1% of the organic loading, increased methane production 5.7 times, without any indication of process inhibition. Further increase of SM addition at 7.5% (w/w) caused methane production decrease and volatile solids removal reduction, that was mainly related to remarkably increased free ammonia concentration in the digester of 596.5±68.6 gNH3 L(-1). Sterilized mass addition of 10% (w/w) caused intensive foaming, LCFA accumulation of 9172±701.2 mgCOD-LCFA g(-1) sample and termination of the experiment. PMID:23500579

  5. Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Amro B.; Diab, Eiman E.; Mahmoud, Nagat S.; Elagib, Randa A. A.; Rushdi, Mohamed A. H.; Osman, Gammaa A. M.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection.

  6. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and Carica papaya peels: Modelling and process parameter optimization study.

    PubMed

    Dahunsi, S O; Oranusi, S; Owolabi, J B; Efeovbokhan, V E

    2016-09-01

    The study evaluated anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and pawpaw peels and the optimization of important process parameters. The physic-chemical analyses of the substrates were done using standard methods after application of mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatments methods. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the gas composition to be within the range of 66-68% methane and 18-23% carbon dioxide. The study equally revealed that combination of the different pre-treatment methods enhanced enormous biogas yield from the digestion. Optimization of the generated biogas data were carried out using the Response Surface Methodology and the Artificial Neural Networks. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for RSM (0.9181) was lower compare to that of ANN (0.9828). This shows that ANN model gives higher accuracy than RSM model for the current. Further usage of Carica papaya peels for biogas generation is advocated. PMID:27285574

  7. Differential effects of processing time and duration of collagenase digestion on human and murine fat grafts

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, SA; Tannan, ST; Cao, Y; Peirce, SM; Lin, KY

    2015-01-01

    Background Autologous fat graft retention is unpredictable and mechanisms of optimization are poorly understood. Attempts at improving retention utilize collagenase experimentally and clinically to isolate the stromal vascular fraction to “enhance” fat grafts. However, no standardized duration for collagenase digestion or time following fat graft harvest has been established. This study investigates the effect of 1.) time after fat graft harvest and 2.) collagenase digestion time on interstitial cell and adipocyte viability in murine fat and human lipoaspirate. Methods Murine fat and human lipoaspirate were incubated ex vivo after harvest at room temperature for 120 minutes. Additional groups were incubated with collagenase for increasing five minute intervals from 30-60 minutes. Samples from each group were stained with BODIPY to quantify intact adipocytes and LIVE/DEAD kit to quantify interstitial cell viability. Results With increased time post-harvest, the number of intact adipocytes in murine fat and human lipoaspirate remained unchanged. Human interstitial cells were resistant to the effect of increased time ex vivo, while murine interstitial cells decreased in viability. In both populations, increased collagenase digestion time significantly decreased the number of viable adipocytes (murine: p-value ≤ 0.001, human: p-value ≤ 0.001) and interstitial cells (murine: p-value ≤ 0.001, human: p-value ≤ 0.001). Conclusions Human and murine adipocytes and human interstitial cells appear resistant to deleterious effects of increasing time following harvest. However, murine interstitial cells including are sensitive to increased time and prolonged collagenase digestion. These studies highlight the complex cellular components of fat grafts and how they respond differentially to time and collagenase digestion. PMID:26218393

  8. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  9. Advanced colour processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Eugen; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are going to play an important role in professionally image processing tasks. However, mobile systems were not designed for such applications, especially in terms of image processing requirements like stability and robustness. One major drawback is the automatic white balance, which comes with the devices. It is necessary for many applications, but of no use when applied to shiny surfaces. Such an issue appears when image acquisition takes place in differently coloured illuminations caused by different environments. This results in inhomogeneous appearances of the same subject. In our paper we show a new approach for handling the complex task of generating a low-noise and sharp image without spatial filtering. Our method is based on the fact that we analyze the spectral and saturation distribution of the channels. Furthermore, the RGB space is transformed into a more convenient space, a particular HSI space. We generate the greyscale image by a control procedure that takes into account the colour channels. This leads in an adaptive colour mixing model with reduced noise. The results of the optimized images are used to show how, e. g., image classification benefits from our colour adaptation approach.

  10. Crop processing and chop length of corn silage: effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Jirovec, A G; Shinners, K J; Coors, J G

    2000-06-01

    Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut without processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theoretical length of cut with processing at a 1-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 71 d in milk at trial initiation were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods; one square was comprised of ruminally cannulated cows for rumen measurements. Corn silage treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 50% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 50% corn and soybean meal based concentrate (dry matter basis). Dry matter intake (25.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d) and milk (46.0 vs. 44.8 kg/ d) and fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d) yields were higher for the processed corn silage treatments compared with the control corn silage. Within the processed corn silage treatments, there were no chop length effects on intake, milk production, or milk composition. Chewing activity was not different among the four corn silage treatments averaging 12 h/d. Total tract digestion of dietary starch was lower for control corn silage (95.1%) compared with fine, medium, and coarse processed corn silage treatments, which averaged 99.3%. Total tract digestion of dietary NDF was reduced for fine-processed corn silage compared with control corn silage and coarse-processed corn silage (28.4% vs. 33.9 and 33.7%, respectively). Processing corn silage improved dry matter intake, starch digestion, and lactation performance. Under the conditions of this study and with theoretical lengths of cut ranging from 0.95 to 1.90 cm, length of chop effects were minimal in processed corn silage. PMID:10877392

  11. Digraph reliability model processing advances and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, D. L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new algorithm, called SourceDoubls, which efficiently solves for singletons and doubletons of a digraph reliability model. Compared with previous methods, the SourceDoubls algorithm provides up to a two order of magnitude reduction in the amount of time required to solve large digraph models. This significant increase in model solution speed allows complex digraphs containing thousands of nodes to be used as knowledge bases for real time automated monitoring and diagnosis applications. Currently, an application to provide monitoring and diagnosis of the Space Station Freedom Data Management System is under development at NASA/Ames Research Center and NASA/Johnson Space Center. This paper contains an overview of this system and provides details of how it will use digraph models processed by the SourceDoubls algorithm to accomplish its task.

  12. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  13. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-03-18

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition.

  14. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  15. Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-02-01

    The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

  16. Eliminating methanogenic activity in hydrogen reactor to improve biogas production in a two-stage anaerobic digestion process co-digesting municipal food waste and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heguang; Parker, Wayne; Conidi, Daniela; Basnar, Robert; Seto, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Laboratory scale two-stage anaerobic digestion process model was operated for 280 days to investigate the feasibility to produce both hydrogen and methane from a mixture feedstock (1:1 (v/v)) of municipal food waste and sewage sludge. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields obtained in the two stages were 0.93 and 9.5 mL/mL feedstock. To eliminate methanogenic activity and obtain substantial hydrogen production in the hydrogen reactor, both feedstock and mixed liquor required treatment. The heat treatment (100°C, 10 min) for feedstock and a periodical treatment (every 2-5 weeks, either heating, removal of biomass particles or flushing with air) for mixed liquor were effective in different extent. The methane production in the second stage was significantly improved by the hydrogen production in the first stage. The maximum methane production obtained in the period of high hydrogen production was more than 2-fold of that observed in the low hydrogen production period. PMID:21592783

  17. Archaeal community dynamics and abiotic characteristics in a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process treating fruit and vegetable processing waste sludge with chopped fresh artichoke waste.

    PubMed

    Ros, M; Franke-Whittle, I H; Morales, A B; Insam, H; Ayuso, M; Pascual, J A

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of obtaining methane in anaerobic digestion (AD) from the waste products generated by the processing of fruit and vegetables. During the first phase (0-55 d) of the AD using sludge from fruit and vegetable processing, an average value of 244±88 L kg(-1) dry matter d(-1)of biogas production was obtained, and methane content reached 65% of the biogas. Co-digestion with chopped fresh artichoke wastes in a second phase (55-71 d) enhanced biogas production, and resulted in an average value of 354±68 L kg(-1) dry matter d(-1), with higher methane content (more than 70%). The archaeal community involved in methane production was studied using the ANAEROCHIP microarray and real-time PCR. Results indicated that species of Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina were important during the AD process. Methanosarcina numbers increased after the addition of chopped fresh artichoke, while Methanosaeta numbers decreased. PMID:23548398

  18. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  19. Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing. PMID:20948933

  20. Effect of cooking and in vitro digestion on the stability of co-enzyme Q10 in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian D; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph P

    2014-05-01

    The use of CoQ10 fortification in the production of a functional food has been demonstrated in the past but primarily for dairy products. This study aimed to determine the bio-accessibility of CoQ10 in processed meat products, beef patties and pork breakfast sausages, fortified with CoQ10. Both the patties and sausages were fortified with a micellarized form of CoQ10 to enhance solubility to a concentration of 1mg/g of sample (NovaSolQ®). An assay was developed combining in vitro digestion and HPLC analysis to quantify the CoQ10 present in fortified products (100mg/g). The cooking retention level of CoQ10 in the products was found to be 74±1.42% for patties and 79.69±0.75% for sausages. The digestibility for both products ranged between 93% and 95%, sausages did have a higher digestibility level than patties but this was not found to be significant (P<0.01). PMID:24360438

  1. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight. PMID:27393834

  2. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  3. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  4. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities. PMID:24804662

  5. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  6. Characterization of the curing process from high-solids anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Margaret F; DiStefano, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was completed to simulate aerobic curing of solid-phase residue (digestate) from an anaerobic reactor fed a mixture of food and landscape wastes. The degree of organic stabilization was determined through routine analysis of oxygen uptake rates, percent O(2), temperature, volatile solids, and Solvita Maturity Index; measurements of ammonia and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations served as indicators of phytotoxicity. Results suggest that stabilization of organics and elimination of phytotoxic compounds from anaerobic digestate preceded significant reduction of each volatile sulfur compound (VSC) detected (hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide). Within 10-15 days of curing, stabilization of organics was achieved and phytotoxic compounds were eliminated, whereas reduction of VSCs to low levels required 15-20 days of curing. Based on these results, incomplete curing and anaerobic microenvironments within a curing facility may increase odor potential via formation of VSCs, whereas sufficiently cured digestate will resist VSC formation, despite the onset of anaerobic conditions. PMID:19748775

  7. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1995-04-01

    Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in providing enhanced understanding of conventional and advanced materials processing operations. Development and application of mathematical models and computer simulation techniques can provide a quantitative understanding of materials processes and will minimize the need for expensive and time consuming trial- and error-based product development. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, high performance computing and simulation are expected to play a key role in supporting the improvements required in advanced material syntheses and processing by lessening the dependence on expensive prototyping and re-tooling. Many of these numerical models are highly compute-intensive. It is not unusual for an analysis to require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. For example, to accurately simulate the heat transfer in a 1-m{sup 3} block using a simple computational method requires 10`2 arithmetic operations per second of simulated time. For a computer to do the simulation in real time would require a sustained computation rate 1000 times faster than that achievable by current supercomputers. Massively parallel computer systems, which combine several thousand processors able to operate concurrently on a problem are expected to provide orders of magnitude increase in performance. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in materials processing at ORNL. Continued development of computational techniques and algorithms utilizing the massively parallel computers will allow the simulation of conventional and advanced materials processes in sufficient generality.

  8. Characterization and single-stage denitrification anaerobic digestion of spent stream from the hydrolysis-fermentation-combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramnik

    The demand for ethanol as an oxygenate and octane booster in automobile fuel is growing. A number of processes are being investigated for conversion of biomass to ethanol. The Hydrolysis-Fermentation-Combustion (HFC) process for fuel ethanol production developed at the University of California Forest Products Laboratory, Richmond, California is at the stage of technology transfer following over two decades of research and development. This study addresses the technology to be used in treatment of spent streams to be discharged from this process. The treatment design combines a single stage denitrification and anaerobic digestion (SSDAD) for the biological treatment of a representative stream from this process. A typical spent stream contained a wide range of soluble organic materials including: unfermented sugars, components of the feedstocks solubilized in the hydrolysis, acid degradation products of carbohydrates, cleavage products of lignin, water-soluble extractives and phenolics, terpenes and other unfermented organic material, and nitrate ion from the nitric acid used as a catalyst in the hydrolysis reaction. Three sets of experiments were conducted in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Commonly available anaerobic sludge from local sewage treatment plants was used as a starter seed and was successfully acclimated to the high nitrate substrate leading to enrichment of denitrifiers. Necessary nutrients and trace elements were identified and supplied to satisfy the obligatory requirements of different groups of bacterial groups present. A major finding was the unique role of ammonium hydroxide in controlling pH leading to steady-state operation of the digester. At steady state operation the reduction in COD was 65%, the nitrate reduction was 88% and the nitrite reduction was 100%. Nitrate was reduced to safe nitrogen gas without buildup of any intermediate products. Organic material was converted to useful methane gas and carbon dioxide. The SSDAD system was

  9. Correlation of Process Data and Electrocheical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Second Year at Spring Grove

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2004-04-27

    Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in the carbon steel continuous kraft digester at Spring Grove at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank for a second consecutive year of a corrosion study. The probes contained dual electrodes of 309LSi stainless steel overlay--representing a field repair material applied to a portion of the vessel--and dual electrodes of 312 stainless steel overlay. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of 23 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were again monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare EN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate EN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the corrosion conditions aggressive to mild steel persist within the digester, as post-test inspection of the vessel revealed localized corrosion of mild steel in locations previously free of attack. Further, there was evidence that the depth of localized attack of exposed steel had increased in some locations. Nevertheless, the stainless steel overlay in the digester was essentially immune to corrosion, as evidenced by retained surface relief and heat tint associated with the original deposition process. The 309LSi electrodes also appeared visually pristine, and post-exposure metallographic examination of the 309LSi electrode materials revealed no attack. The 312 electrode materials were similar in appearance, but exhibited very minor interdendritic attack over the exposed surface. The silver electrodes in the probes were consumed (to Ag{sub 2}S) to variable degree over the course of the exposure indicating a useful life of not more than a year in digester service in this vessel

  10. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  11. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Nakamura, K; Rossetti, S

    2015-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment coupled with Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (TAD) for Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) treatment is a promising combination to improve biodegradation kinetics during stabilization. However, to date there is a limited knowledge of the anaerobic biomass composition and its impact on TAD process performances. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities selected in two semi-continuous anaerobic digesters, fed with untreated and thermal pretreated sludge, were investigated. The systems were operated for 250 days at different organic loading rate. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. Proteolytic Coprothermobacter spp. and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter spp. living in strict syntrophic association were found to dominate in TAD process. The establishment of a syntrophic proteolytic pathway was favoured by the high temperature of the process and enhanced by the thermal pretreatment of the feeding sludge. Proteolytic activity, alone or with thermal pretreatment, occurred during TAD as proven by increasing concentration of soluble ammonia and soluble COD (sCOD) during the process. However, the availability of a readily biodegradable substrate due to pretreatment allowed to significant sCOD removals (more than 55%) corresponding to higher biogas production in the reactor fed with thermal pretreated sludge. Microbial population dynamics analysed by FISH showed that Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter immediately established a stable syntrophic association in the reactor fed with pretreated sludge in line with the overall improved TAD performances observed under these conditions. PMID:25462756

  12. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  13. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  14. Elastase Digests

    PubMed Central

    Rietschel, Benjamin; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Meyer, Bjoern; Bornemann, Sandra; Schuerken, Malte; Karas, Michael; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    Despite many advances in membrane proteomics during the last decade the fundamental problem of accessing the transmembrane regions itself has only been addressed to some extent. The present study establishes a method for the nano-LC-based analysis of complex membrane proteomes on the basis of a methanolic porcine pancreatic elastase digest to increase transmembrane coverage. Halobacterium salinarium purple and Corynebacterium glutamicum membranes were successfully analyzed by using the new protocol. We demonstrated that elastase digests yield a large proportion of transmembrane peptides, facilitating membrane protein identification. The potential for characterization of a membrane protein through full sequence coverage using elastase is there but is restricted to the higher abundance protein components. Compatibility of the work flow with the two most common mass spectrometric ionization techniques, ESI and MALDI, was shown. Currently better results are obtained using ESI mainly because of the low response of MALDI for strictly neutral peptides. New findings concerning elastase specificity in complex protein mixtures reveal a new prospect beyond the application in shotgun experiments. Furthermore peptide mass fingerprinting with less specific enzymes might be done in the near future but requires an adaptation of current search algorithms to the new proteases. PMID:19116210

  15. Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, John J.; Blain, Phil C.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Brislawn, Christopher M.; Brumby, Steven P.; Cafferty, Maureen M.; Dunham, Mark E.; Frigo, Janette R.; Gokhale, Maya; Harvey, Neal R.; Kenyon, Garrett; Kim, Won-Ha; Layne, J.; Lavenier, Dominique D.; McCabe, Kevin P.; Mitchell, Melanie; Moore, Kurt R.; Perkins, Simon J.; Porter, Reid B.; Robinson, S.; Salazar, Alfonso; Theiler, James P.; Young, Aaron C.

    2000-11-01

    Compute performance and algorithm design are key problems of image processing and scientific computing in general. For example, imaging spectrometers are capable of producing data in hundreds of spectral bands with millions of pixels. These data sets show great promise for remote sensing applications, but require new and computationally intensive processing. The goal of the Deployable Adaptive Processing Systems (DAPS) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop advanced processing hardware and algorithms for high-bandwidth sensor applications. The project has produced electronics for processing multi- and hyper-spectral sensor data, as well as LIDAR data, while employing processing elements using a variety of technologies. The project team is currently working on reconfigurable computing technology and advanced feature extraction techniques, with an emphasis on their application to image and RF signal processing. This paper presents reconfigurable computing technology and advanced feature extraction algorithm work and their application to multi- and hyperspectral image processing. Related projects on genetic algorithms as applied to image processing will be introduced, as will the collaboration between the DAPS project and the DARPA Adaptive Computing Systems program. Further details are presented in other talks during this conference and in other conferences taking place during this symposium.

  16. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production. PMID:27474953

  17. Advanced solidification processing of an industrial gas turbine engine component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Mei Ling; Price, Allen; Bellows, Richard S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper will describe the efforts of the Advanced Turbine Airfoil Manufacturing Technology Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Howmet Research Corporation. The purpose of the program is to develop single-crystal and directionally solidified casting technologies to benefit Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) industrial and utility gas turbine engines. The focus is on defining and implementing advanced Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnace enhancements that provide precise control of mold temperatures during solidification. Emphasis was placed on increasing the total magnitude of thermal gradients while minimizing the difference in maximum and minimum gradients produced during the solidification process. Advanced VIM casting techniques were applied to Solar Turbines Incorporated’s Titan 130 First Stage High Pressure Turbine Blade under the ATS program. A comparison of the advanced VIM casting process to the conventional Bridgeman casting process will be presented as it pertains to the thermal gradients achieved during solidification, microstructure, elemental partitioning characterization, and solution heat treat response.

  18. Comparison of static, in-vessel composting of MSW with thermophilic anaerobic digestion and combinations of the two processes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lee; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    The biological stabilisation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into a form stable enough for land application can be achieved via aerobic or anaerobic treatments. To investigate the rates of degradation (e.g. via electron equivalents removed, or via carbon emitted) of aerobic and anaerobic treatment, OFMSW samples were exposed to computer controlled laboratory-scale aerobic (static in-vessel composting), and anaerobic (thermophilic anaerobic digestion with liquor recycle) treatment individually and in combination. A comparison of the degradation rates, based on electron flow revealed that provided a suitable inoculum was used, anaerobic digestion was the faster of the two waste conversion process. In addition to faster maximum substrate oxidation rates, anaerobic digestion (followed by post-treatment aerobic maturation), when compared to static composting alone, converted a larger fraction of the organics to gaseous end-products (CO2 and CH4), leading to improved end-product stability and maturity, as measured by compost self-heating and root elongation tests, respectively. While not comparable to windrow and other mixed, highly aerated compost systems, our results show that in the thermophilic, in-vessel treatment investigated here, the inclusion of a anaerobic phase, rather than using composting alone, improved hydrolysis rates as well as oxidation rates and product stability. The combination of the two methods, as used in the DiCOM process, was also tested allowing heat generation to thermophilic operating temperature, biogas recovery and a low odour stable end-product within 19 days of operation. PMID:19345576

  19. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD. PMID:26428233

  20. Effects of Industrial Heating Processes of Milk-Based Enteral Formulas on Site-Specific Protein Modifications and Their Relationship to in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Heat treatments are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. Types of heating processes may have different effects on protein modifications, leading to different protein digestibility. In this study, milk-based liquid nutritional formulas (simulating enteral formulas) were subjected to steam injection ultra-high-temperature treatment or in-can sterilization, and the formulas were investigated by proteomic methods and in vitro and in vivo digestion assays. Proteomic analyses revealed that in-can sterilization resulted in higher signals for N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine and dephosphorylation of Ser residues in major milk proteins than in steam-injected formula, reflecting the more severe thermal process of in-can sterilization. In vitro and in vivo digestion assays indicated that steam injection improved protein digestibility, supposedly by denaturation, while the improvement seemed to be overwhelmed by formation of aggregates that showed resistance to digestion in in-can sterilized formula. Adverse effects of heat treatment on protein digestibility are more likely to be manifested in milk-based formulas than in cow's milk. Although the differences might be of limited significance in terms of amino acid bioavailability, these results emphasize the importance of protein quality of raw materials and selection of heating processes. PMID:26161498

  1. Microwave systems for the processing of advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, O. Jr.; Carmel, Y.; Lloyd, I.

    1999-07-01

    Microwave processing systems are continually evolving to incorporate more unique capabilities and design features. These new developments are instrumental in expanding the scope of microwave systems for studying complex phenomena in materials synthesis and processing. On a more fundamental level, questions concerning the nature of interactions between microwaves and ceramic materials systems can be addressed to provide direct impact on processing strategies for advanced ceramic materials. A novel microwave processing system is being developed to study fundamental issues in the sintering of advanced ceramic materials with enhanced dielectric, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties for applications in microelectronics, biomaterials, and structural applications. The system consists of a single and dual frequency microwave furnace that operates at 2.45 and 28 GHz, an optical pyrometric temperature measuring system, and an optical, non-invasive, non-contact, extensometer for measuring sintering shrinkage and kinetics. The additional ability to process at 28 GHz provides opportunities to sinter a wider range of ceramic materials by direct coupling. An even more exciting benefit of the dual frequency system is the potential to process ceramics at two frequencies simultaneously. This capability can provide a unique way to tailor the microstructure of advanced ceramics by controlling the extent of both volumetric and surface heating. Experimental results for microwave sintering studies involving ZnO, hydroxyapatite, AlN-SiC composites, and alumina composites will be presented, with an emphasis on the processing of nanograin ceramics. In particular, the role of surface modification and microwave field intensification effects will be discussed.

  2. Advanced biorefinery in lower termite-effect of combined pretreatment during the chewing process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the major barrier in biomass utilization is the lack of an effective pretreatment of plant cell wall so that the carbohydrates can subsequently be hydrolyzed into sugars for fermentation into fuel or chemical molecules. Termites are highly effective in degrading lignocellulosics and thus can be used as model biological systems for studying plant cell wall degradation. Results We discovered a combination of specific structural and compositional modification of the lignin framework and partial degradation of carbohydrates that occurs in softwood with physical chewing by the termite, Coptotermes formosanus, which are critical for efficient cell wall digestion. Comparative studies on the termite-chewed and native (control) softwood tissues at the same size were conducted with the aid of advanced analytical techniques such as pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The results strongly suggest a significant increase in the softwood cellulose enzymatic digestibility after termite chewing, accompanied with utilization of holocellulosic counterparts and an increase in the hydrolysable capacity of lignin collectively. In other words, the termite mechanical chewing process combines with specific biological pretreatment on the lignin counterpart in the plant cell wall, resulting in increased enzymatic cellulose digestibility in vitro. The specific lignin unlocking mechanism at this chewing stage comprises mainly of the cleavage of specific bonds from the lignin network and the modification and redistribution of functional groups in the resulting chewed plant tissue, which better expose the carbohydrate within the plant cell wall. Moreover, cleavage of the bond between the holocellulosic network and lignin molecule during the chewing process results in much better exposure of the biomass carbohydrate. Conclusion Collectively, these data indicate the

  3. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  4. Advanced Instruction: Facilitation of Individual Learning Processes in Large Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putz, Claus; Intveen, Geesche

    2009-01-01

    By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best. The fundamentals of our class "Introduction to spatial-geometric cognition using CAD" are constructional inputs, which systematically induce the…

  5. Adding Structure to the Transition Process to Advanced Mathematical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-01-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical…

  6. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  7. Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  8. Evaluation of advanced oxidation process for the treatment of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, S.B. II ); Peyton, G.R. ); Rice, L.E. . Kansas City Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide was selected for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly trichlorethene and 1,2-dichlorethene, from groundwater underlying the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Since the performance of this process for the removal of organics from groundwater is not well-documented, an evaluation was initiated to determine the performance of the treatment plant, document the operation and maintenance costs experience, and evaluate contaminant removal mechanisms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Advanced Information Processing System - Fault detection and error handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles, including tactical and transport aircraft, and manned and autonomous spacecraft. A proof-of-concept (POC) system is now in the detailed design and fabrication phase. This paper gives an overview of a preliminary fault detection and error handling philosophy in AIPS.

  10. Ceramic component processing development for advanced gas-turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcentire, B. J.; Hengst, R. R.; Collins, W. T.; Taglialavore, A. P.; Yeckley, R. L.; Bright, E.; Bingham, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A review of ceramic component advancements directed at developing manufacturing technologies for rotors, stators, vane-seat platforms and scrolls is presented. The first three components are being produced from HIPed Si3N4, while scrolls were prepared from a series of siliconized silicon-carbide materials. Developmental work has been conducted on all aspects of the fabrication process utilizing Taguchi experimental design methods. An assessment of material properties for various components from each process and material are made.

  11. Advanced aerial film processing system for long range reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryman, I. G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction is given to the system features and development histories of continuous aerial film processing equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of (1) deep tank, full immersion processing, (2) spray processing, and (3) viscous processing are enumerated, with respect to load end, supply accumulator, spray cabinet, squeegee section, dryer, film take-up section and film transport system functions. Future research efforts are recommended toward the incorporation of water regeneration, pollution control, and pH monitoring and control systems, and the greater use of computer technology to prevent operator errors and permit the handling of thinner, advanced films.

  12. Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of orange pomace including anaerobic digestibility of process liquor.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ezgi; Atila, Buse; Mumme, Jan; Reza, M Toufiq; Toptas, Asli; Elibol, Murat; Yanik, Jale

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of the temperature and reaction time on hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of orange pomace was investigated. In addition, a set of anaerobic batch tests were performed to determine the resulting biogas and methane potential of the spent liquor. Hydrochar yields followed a decreasing trend with the increasing temperature, whereas reaction time had no considerably effect on the yield. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios from the raw material to the hydrochars suggested that dehydration reactions prevail during HTC. The hydrochars tended to become enriched in Ca, Mg and P minerals by increasing HTC temperature. The heavy metal contents in hydrochars were found below limits and no PAH compound was detected. Anaerobic digestion tests showed that the aqueous phase from HTC can be used as feedstocks for biogas production. PMID:26226579

  13. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  14. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  15. Effect of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to determine the influence of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods, dietary starch, rumen-digestible starch, and forage NDF concentrations on intake, digestion, and lactation performance by dairy cows using a data set comprising 414 treatment means from 102 peer-reviewed journal reports from 2000 to 2011. Categories for corn processing were dry ground, cracked or rolled corn (DRY), high-moisture shelled or ear corn (ENS), and steam-flaked or -rolled corn (STM); categories for kernel mean particle size were 500 to 1,000, 1,000 to 1,500, 1,500 to 2,000, 3,000 to 3,500, and 3,500 to 4,000 µm for dry corn and <2,000 and ≥2,000 µm for ensiled corn. Dietary starch and forage NDF concentrations were used as continuous variables. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), with treatment as fixed and trial as random effects. Total-tract starch digestibility was reduced and milk fat content was greater for DRY compared with ENS or STM. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was reduced for both DRY and ENS as particle size increased. Increased dietary starch concentrations increased milk yield and protein content, but decreased ruminal and total-tract NDF digestibilities and milk fat content. Dry matter intake, total-tract starch digestibility, and milk protein concentration decreased as forage NDF in the diet increased. Total-tract starch digestibility was positively related to ruminal (percentage of starch intake) and postruminal (percentage of duodenal flow) starch digestibilities. PMID:23164230

  16. Metabolic and microbial community dynamics during the anaerobic digestion of maize silage in a two-phase process.

    PubMed

    Sträuber, Heike; Lucas, Rico; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Two-phasic anaerobic digestion processes (hydrolysis/acidogenesis separated from acetogenesis/methanogenesis) can be used for biogas production on demand or a combined chemicals/bioenergy production. For an effective process control, detailed knowledge about the microbial catalysts and their correlation to process conditions is crucial. In this study, maize silage was digested in a two-phase process and interrelationships between process parameters and microbial communities were revealed. In the first-phase reactor, alternating metabolic periods were observed which emerged independently from the feeding frequency. During the L-period, up to 11.8 g L(-1) lactic acid was produced which significantly correlated to lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus as the most abundant community members. During the alternating G-period, the production of volatile fatty acids (up to 5.3, 4.0 and 3.1 g L(-1) for propionic, n-butyric and n-caproic acid, respectively) dominated accompanied by a high gas production containing up to 28 % hydrogen. The relative abundance of various Clostridiales increased during this metabolic period. In the second-phase reactor, the metabolic fluctuations of the first phase were smoothed out resulting in a stable biogas production as well as stable bacterial and methanogenic communities. However, the biogas composition followed the metabolic dynamics of the first phase: the hydrogen content increased during the L-period whereas highest CH4/CO2 ratios (up to 2.8) were reached during the G-period. Aceticlastic Methanosaeta as well as hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus and Methanobacteriaceae were identified as dominant methanogens. Consequently, a directed control of the first-phase stabilizing desired metabolic states can lead to an enhanced productivity regarding chemicals and bioenergy. PMID:26411455

  17. Advanced titanium alloys and processes for minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, H. J.; Qazi, Javaid

    2005-11-01

    Major advances continue to be made in enhancing patient care while at the same time attempting to slow ever-rising health costs. Among the most innovative of these advances are minimally invasive surgical techniques, which allow patients to undergo life-saving and quality-of-life enhancing surgery with minimized risk and substantially reduced hospital stays. Recently this approach was introduced for orthopedic procedures (e.g., during total hip replacement surgery). In this instance, the implantable devices will bear the same loads and will therefore be subject to higher stress. This paper provides a brief overview of several potential approaches for developing new advanced titanium alloys and processes that should provide substantial benefit for this application in minimally invasive devices.

  18. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  19. Acidification of In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) process to reduce ammonia volatilization: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Madani-Hosseini, Mahsa; Mulligan, Catherine N; Barrington, Suzelle

    2016-06-01

    In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) is an ambient temperature treatment system for wastewaters stored for over 100days under temperate climates, which produces a nitrogen rich digestate susceptible to ammonia (NH3) volatilization. Present acidification techniques reducing NH3 volatilization are not only expensive and with secondary environmental effects, but do not apply to ISPAD relying on batch-to-batch inoculation. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate sequential organic loading (OL) strategies producing imbalances in acidogen and methanogen growth, acidifying ISPAD content one week before emptying to a pH of 6, while also preserving the inoculation potential. This acidification process is challenging as wastewaters often offer a high buffering capacity and ISPAD operational practices foster low microbial populations. A model simulating the ISPAD pH regime was used to optimize 3 different sequential OLs to decrease the ISPAD pH to 6.0. All 3 strategies were compared in terms of biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, microbial activity, glucose consumption, and pH decrease. Laboratory validation of the model outputs confirmed that a sequential OL of 13kg glucose/m(3) of ISPAD content over 4days could indeed reduce the pH to 6.0. Such OL competes feasibly with present acidification techniques. Nevertheless, more research is required to explain the 3-day lag between the model results and the experimental data. PMID:27060886

  20. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  1. Advances in biologically inspired on/near sensor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.

    1999-07-01

    As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory at Elgin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the are of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of two 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. The Neuroseek program is developing a 256 X 256 2-color dual band IRFPA coupled to an optimized silicon CMOS read-out and processing integrated circuit that provides simultaneous full-frame imaging in MWIR/LWIR wavebands along with built-in biologically inspired sensor image processing functions. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

  2. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report discusses waste composition from fluidized bed coal combustion. Also presented is analytical data from the leaching of waste sampled from storage soils and of soil samples collected. 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Advanced thermal hydrolysis: optimization of a novel thermochemical process to aid sewage sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira, Jose; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Portela, Juan R; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; Nebot, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study in depth the behavior and optimization of a novel process, called advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH), to determine its utility as a pretreatment (sludge solubilization) or postreatment (organic matter removal) for anaerobic digestion (AD) in the sludge line of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). ATH is based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) addition and takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. On the basis of the response surface methodology (RSM) and a modified Doehlert design, an empirical second-order polynomial model was developed for the total yield of: (a) disintegration degree [DD (%)] (solubilization), (b) filtration constant [F(c) (cm(2)/min)] (dewaterability), and (c) organic matter removal (%). The variables considered were operation time (t), temperature reached after initial heating (T), and oxidant coefficient (n = oxygen(supplied)/oxygen(stoichiometric)). As the model predicts, in the case of the ATH process with high levels of oxidant, it is possible to achieve an organic matter removal of up to 92%, but the conditions required are prohibitive on an industrial scale. ATH operated at optimal conditions (oxygen amount 30% of stoichiometric, 115 °C and 24 min) gave promising results as a pretreatment, with similar solubilization and markedly better dewaterability levels in comparison to those obtained with TH at 170 °C. The empirical validation of the model was satisfactory. PMID:22463756

  4. A study of starch gelatinisation behaviour in hydrothermally-processed plant food tissues and implications for in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Warren, Frederick J; Campbell, Grant M; Gaisford, Simon; Royall, Paul G; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the plant food matrix in influencing the extent of starch gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing, and its implications for starch digestibility. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to provide a detailed examination of the gelatinisation behaviour of five distinct size fractions (diameters <0.21 to 2.58 mm) of milled chickpea and durum wheat. Gelatinisation parameters were obtained from the DSC thermograms and concomitant microscopy analyses were performed. The estimated terminal extent of gelatinisation (TEG) was compared with our previously published data for in vitro starch digestibility of the same food materials. We observed clear differences in the gelatinisation behaviour of matched size-fractions of chickpeas and durum wheat. In chickpea materials, the TEG values (34-100%) were inversely related to particle size, whereas in durum wheat, no size-dependent limitations on TEG were observed. The TEG values were completely consistent with the extent of starch amylolysis in all size fractions of both durum wheat and chickpea. Microstructural analysis following hydrothermal processing confirmed the presence of some partially gelatinised birefringent starch within intact chickpea cells. Birefringent starch granules were not present in any of the processed fractions of durum wheat. The differences in gelatinisation behaviour of these plant species seem to reflect the individual cell wall properties of these materials. These findings demonstrate the applicability of DSC to real food materials to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the food matrix (particularly the plant cell walls) influences gelatinisation, and consequently, starch amylolysis. PMID:26353047

  5. Recent advances in natural language processing for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nigel; Nazarenko, Adeline; Baud, Robert; Ruch, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    We survey a set a recent advances in natural language processing applied to biomedical applications, which were presented in Geneva, Switzerland, in 2004 at an international workshop. While text mining applied to molecular biology and biomedical literature can report several interesting achievements, we observe that studies applied to clinical contents are still rare. In general, we argue that clinical corpora, including electronic patient records, must be made available to fill the gap between bioinformatics and medical informatics. PMID:16139564

  6. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  7. Advanced technology development for image gathering, coding, and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1990-01-01

    Three overlapping areas of research activities are presented: (1) Information theory and optimal filtering are extended to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. (2) Focal-plane processing techniques and technology are developed to combine effectively image gathering with coding. The emphasis is on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. (3) A breadboard adaptive image-coding system is being assembled. This system will be used to develop and evaluate a number of advanced image-coding technologies and techniques as well as research the concept of adaptive image coding.

  8. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  9. Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Nikola; Slavić, Marinela Šokarda; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is known as a potent enzyme for raw starch hydrolysis. In this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ resin is examined with the aim to improve the downstream processing of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This resin combines hydrophobic interactions with cation exchange groups and as such the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions while the ion-exchange groups enable proper selectivity. α-Amylase was produced using an optimized fed-batch approach in a defined media and significant overexpression of 1.2 g L−1 was achieved. This single step procedure enables simultaneous concentration, pigment removal as well as purification of amylase with yields of 96% directly from the fermentation broth. PMID:26492875

  10. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production. PMID:26897414

  11. Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases.

    PubMed

    Lončar, Nikola; Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is known as a potent enzyme for raw starch hydrolysis. In this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ resin is examined with the aim to improve the downstream processing of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This resin combines hydrophobic interactions with cation exchange groups and as such the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions while the ion-exchange groups enable proper selectivity. α-Amylase was produced using an optimized fed-batch approach in a defined media and significant overexpression of 1.2 g L(-1) was achieved. This single step procedure enables simultaneous concentration, pigment removal as well as purification of amylase with yields of 96% directly from the fermentation broth. PMID:26492875

  12. Conventional heating vs. microwave sludge pretreatment comparison under identical heating/cooling profiles for thermophilic advanced anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2016-07-01

    This research evaluates whether there is any advantage of selecting one of the thermal methods of sludge pretreatment, conventional heating (CH) and microwave hydrolysis (MW), over another to enhance municipal sludge disintegration and performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD). For this purpose, a custom-built CH system simulating MW hydrolysis under identical heating and cooling profiles was used. The effects of three main pretreatment parameters including pretreatment method (CH and MW), heating ramp rate (3, 6 and 11°C/min) and final temperature (80, 120 and 160°C) on sludge solubilization and performance of thermophilic batch AD were evaluated. The effects of CH and MW hydrolysis were observed to be similar for sludge disintegration and digester performance (p-value>0.05), while the effects of final temperature and heating ramp rate were proven to be different (p-value<0.05). According to the results, it is essential to apply MW and CH pretreatments under identical experimental condition for an unbiased comparison which supports the findings of the author's earlier study under mesophilic condition. Failing to address this issue explains the significant inconsistency observed among the findings of the previous CH vs. MW comparison studies that were unable to implement identical thermal profiles (between CH and MW) during sludge pretreatment. In comparison with mesophilic AD, thermophilic AD revealed lower biodegradation rate constant at the highest pretreatment temperature tested (160°C), suggesting its higher sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of thermal pretreatment at the elevated temperatures. PMID:27160636

  13. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  14. Effect of process temperature, pH and suspended solids content upon pasteurization of a model agricultural waste during thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J O; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    1999-09-01

    Thermophilic aerobic digestion(TAD), or liquid composting, is a versatile new process for the treatment and stabilization of high strength wastes of liquid or, perhaps more importantly, slurry consistency. The pattern of inactivation of various pathogenic and indicator organisms was studied using batch digestions under conditions that may be expected to be found in full-scale TAD processes. Rapid inactivation of test populations occurred within the first 10 min from the start of digestion. The inactivation rate was slightly lower when digestions were conducted below 60 degrees C. In some instances, a 'tail' was apparent, possibly indicating the survival of relatively resistant sub-populations particularly in the case of Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus faecalis, or of clumping or attachment of cells to particulate materials. The effect of pH on the inactivation of the test populations depended on the temperature of digestion, but varied with the test population. At 55 degrees C Escherichia coli was more sensitive to temperature effects at pH 7 than at pH 8, but was more sensitive at pH 8, 60 degrees C. The reverse was the case at 60 degrees C for Ent. faecalis. An increase in the solid content of the digesting waste caused a progressive increase in the protection of test organisms from thermal inactivation. Challenging a TAD process with test strains allows (via estimation of D-values) a quantification of the cidal effects of such processes, with a view to manipulating process variables to enhance such effects. PMID:10540241

  15. Treatment process and toxicities assessment of wastewater issued from anaerobic digestion of household wastes.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Tahrani, Leyla; Fathallah, Salem; Cabrol, Audrey; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2014-02-01

    Modern society grapples with large amounts of household waste. The anaerobic digestion of this waste offers a promising source for energy-rich biogas production but generates high toxic effluents that require treatment before reuse or disposal into the environment. This study aimed to investigate three techniques, namely coagulation/flocculation, electro-coagulation, and activated sludge, in terms of efficiency in the treatment of these effluents. It also aimed to assess their toxicity effects on the germination and growth of durum wheat Triticum aestivum L. seeds before and after 6 days of treatment. Activated sludge was most efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and conductivity (95.7 %, 15.8 %, and 37.5 %, respectively). The effluent treated with this technique induced a marked delay in germination (low mean time of germination) and a significant reduction in the percentages of seed germination and root and leaf growths. It was also noted to strongly induce lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves, which presumably explained the germination/growth inhibition of the wheat seeds. The effluent also induced marked lipid peroxidation effects and strongly inhibited the activities of butyrylcholinesterase in mice bone marrows. The effluent shows a high ability to inhibit the growth of three microalgae; these endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physico-chemical quality of this wastewater. Overall, while no significant alterations were observed in terms of animal and vegetable toxicities when the effluent was treated by coagulation/flocculation, activated sludge treatment proved efficient in reducing the toxicities induced by the untreated effluents. The results indicate that the application of this technique is promising with regards to attaining efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective strategies for the management and treatment of household waste. PMID:24072641

  16. Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2007-02-09

    The principal objective of this two-year study is to develop and test a new advanced, automatic approach to seismic detection/location using array processing. We address a strategy to obtain significantly improved precision in the location of low-magnitude events compared with current fully-automatic approaches, combined with a low false alarm rate. We have developed and evaluated a prototype automatic system which uses as a basis regional array processing with fixed, carefully calibrated, site-specific parameters in conjuction with improved automatic phase onset time estimation. We have in parallel developed tools for Matched Field Processing for optimized detection and source-region identification of seismic signals. This narrow-band procedure aims to mitigate some of the causes of difficulty encountered using the standard array processing system, specifically complicated source-time histories of seismic events and shortcomings in the plane-wave approximation for seismic phase arrivals at regional arrays.

  17. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes critical to process intensification and implementation in commercial applications. Physics of the heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics and how these processes are ultimately scaled were investigated. Specifically, we progressed the knowledge and tools required to scale a multifunctional reactor for acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation to industrial dimensions. Understanding such process intensification strategies is crucial to improving the energy efficiency and profitability of multifunctional reactors, resulting in a projected energy savings of 100 trillion BTU/yr by 2020 and a substantial reduction in the accompanying emissions.

  18. A comparison of product yields and inorganic content in process streams following thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of microalgae, manure and digestate.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Williams, P T

    2016-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing show promise for converting biomass into higher energy density fuels. Both approaches facilitate the extraction of inorganics into the aqueous product. This study compares the behaviour of microalgae, digestate, swine and chicken manure by thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing at increasing process severity. Thermal hydrolysis was performed at 170°C, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) was performed at 250°C, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was performed at 350°C and supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was performed at 500°C. The level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the product streams was measured for each feedstock. Nitrogen is present in the aqueous phase as organic-N and NH3-N. The proportion of organic-N is higher at lower temperatures. Extraction of phosphorus is linked to the presence of inorganics such as Ca, Mg and Fe in the feedstock. Microalgae and chicken manure release phosphorus more easily than other feedstocks. PMID:26615335

  19. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties.Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil

  20. Bridging Microstructure, Properties and Processing of Polymer Based Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a guest editorial for a special issue in Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. The papers collected in this special issue emphasize significant challenges, current approaches and future strategies necessary to advance the development of polymer-based materials. They were partly presented at the symposium of 'Bridging microstructure, properties and processing of polymer based advanced materials' in the TMS 2011 annual conference meeting, which was held in San Diego, US, on Feb 28 to March 3, 2011. This symposium was organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA) and the Institute of Mechanics of Fluids and Solids of the University of Strasbourg (France). The organizers were D.S. Li, S. Ahzi, and M. Khaleel.

  1. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  2. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  3. Virus Reduction during Advanced Bardenpho and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Kitajima, Masaaki; Campillo, Maria E; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region. The incidence of viruses in wastewater was assessed with respect to absolute abundance, occurrence, and reduction in monthly samples collected throughout a 12 month period in southern Arizona. Samples were concentrated via an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results suggest that Plant D, utilizing an advanced Bardenpho process as secondary treatment, effectively reduced pathogenic viruses better than facilities using conventional processes. However, the absence of cell-culture assays did not allow an accurate assessment of infective viruses. On the basis of these data, the Aichi virus is suggested as a conservative viral marker for adequate wastewater treatment, as it most often showed the best correlation coefficients to viral pathogens, was always detected at higher concentrations, and may overestimate the potential virus risk. PMID:27447291

  4. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  5. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  6. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  7. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  9. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process.

    PubMed

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties. PMID:26949072

  10. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, S.; Valladares, M.R.S. de

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  11. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  12. Effects of corn processing method and wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion and source on in situ digestibility and ruminal Ph of crossbred steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred steers (472kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distiller's grains plus soluble (WDGS) inclusion and source on in situ digestibly and ruminal pH. The 6 finishing diets were dry-rolled co...

  13. Modelling phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) interactions for dynamic simulations of anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Solon, Kimberly; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Gernaey, Krist V; Jeppsson, Ulf; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-05-15

    This paper proposes a series of extensions to functionally upgrade the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to allow for plant-wide phosphorus (P) simulation. The close interplay between the P, sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) cycles requires a substantial (and unavoidable) increase in model complexity due to the involved three-phase physico-chemical and biological transformations. The ADM1 version, implemented in the plant-wide context provided by the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2), is used as the basic platform (A0). Three different model extensions (A1, A2, A3) are implemented, simulated and evaluated. The first extension (A1) considers P transformations by accounting for the kinetic decay of polyphosphates (XPP) and potential uptake of volatile fatty acids (VFA) to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (XPHA) by phosphorus accumulating organisms (XPAO). Two variant extensions (A2,1/A2,2) describe biological production of sulfides (SIS) by means of sulfate reducing bacteria (XSRB) utilising hydrogen only (autolithotrophically) or hydrogen plus organic acids (heterorganotrophically) as electron sources, respectively. These two approaches also consider a potential hydrogen sulfide ( [Formula: see text] inhibition effect and stripping to the gas phase ( [Formula: see text] ). The third extension (A3) accounts for chemical iron (III) ( [Formula: see text] ) reduction to iron (II) ( [Formula: see text] ) using hydrogen ( [Formula: see text] ) and sulfides (SIS) as electron donors. A set of pre/post interfaces between the Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and ADM1 are furthermore proposed in order to allow for plant-wide (model-based) analysis and study of the interactions between the water and sludge lines. Simulation (A1 - A3) results show that the ratio between soluble/particulate P compounds strongly depends on the pH and cationic load, which determines the capacity to form (or not) precipitation products. Implementations A1 and A2,1/A2,2 lead to a reduction in

  14. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  15. A flexible architecture for advanced process control solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faron, Kamyar; Iourovitski, Ilia

    2005-05-01

    Advanced Process Control (APC) is now mainstream practice in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Over the past decade and a half APC has evolved from a "good idea", and "wouldn"t it be great" concept to mandatory manufacturing practice. APC developments have primarily dealt with two major thrusts, algorithms and infrastructure, and often the line between them has been blurred. The algorithms have evolved from very simple single variable solutions to sophisticated and cutting edge adaptive multivariable (input and output) solutions. Spending patterns in recent times have demanded that the economics of a comprehensive APC infrastructure be completely justified for any and all cost conscious manufacturers. There are studies suggesting integration costs as high as 60% of the total APC solution costs. Such cost prohibitive figures clearly diminish the return on APC investments. This has limited the acceptance and development of pure APC infrastructure solutions for many fabs. Modern APC solution architectures must satisfy the wide array of requirements from very manual R&D environments to very advanced and automated "lights out" manufacturing facilities. A majority of commercially available control solutions and most in house developed solutions lack important attributes of scalability, flexibility, and adaptability and hence require significant resources for integration, deployment, and maintenance. Many APC improvement efforts have been abandoned and delayed due to legacy systems and inadequate architectural design. Recent advancements (Service Oriented Architectures) in the software industry have delivered ideal technologies for delivering scalable, flexible, and reliable solutions that can seamlessly integrate into any fabs" existing system and business practices. In this publication we shall evaluate the various attributes of the architectures required by fabs and illustrate the benefits of a Service Oriented Architecture to satisfy these requirements. Blue

  16. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  17. Evaluation of the inclusion of soybean oil and soybean processing by-products to soybean meal on nutrient composition and digestibility in swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Bruce, K J; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Zinn, K E; Pope, L L; Mahan, D C; Fastinger, N D; Watts, M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Castaneda, E O; Ellis, M; Fahey, G C

    2006-06-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of selected soybean (SB) processing byproducts (gums, oil, soapstock, weeds/trash) when added back to soybean meal (SBM) during processing on the resulting nutrient composition, protein quality, nutrient digestibility by swine, and true metabolizable energy (TMEn) content and standardized AA digestibility by poultry. To measure ileal DM and nutrient digestibility, pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. The concentration of TMEn and the standardized AA digestibility by poultry were determined using the precision fed cecectomized rooster assay. Treatments in the swine experiment included SBM with no by-products; SBM with 1% gum; SBM with 3% gum; SBM with 0.5% soapstock; SBM with 1.5% soapstock; SBM with 2% weeds/trash; SBM with a combination of 3% gum, 1.5% soapstock, and 2% weeds/trash; SBM with 5.4% soybean oil; and roasted SB. A 10 x 10 Latin square design was utilized. The experiment was conducted at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and at The Ohio State University, Columbus. In the swine experiment, apparent ileal DM, OM, CP, and AA digestibilities were reduced (P < 0.05) when pigs consumed the combination by-product diet compared with the diet containing no by-products. Apparent ileal digestibilities of DM, CP, and total essential, total nonessential, and total AA were lower (P < 0.05) for any diet containing by-products compared with the diet with no by-products. Apparent ileal digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, and AA were lower (P < 0.05) for the roasted SB-compared with the SB oil-containing diet. In the rooster experiment, TMEn values were greater (P < 0.05) for roasted SB compared with SBM with no by-products and increased linearly as the addition of soapstock increased. Individual, total essential, total nonessential, and total AA digestibilities were lower (P < 0.05) for roosters fed roasted SB versus SBM devoid of by-products. Gums, soapstock, and weeds

  18. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  19. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  20. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  1. Co-Simulation for Advanced Process Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for clean, affordable, and secure energy is arguably the most important challenge facing the world today. Fossil fuels can play a central role in a portfolio of carbon-neutral energy options provided CO{sub 2} emissions can be dramatically reduced by capturing CO{sub 2} and storing it safely and effectively. Fossil energy industry faces the challenge of meeting aggressive design goals for next-generation power plants with CCS. Process designs will involve large, highly-integrated, and multipurpose systems with advanced equipment items with complex geometries and multiphysics. APECS is enabling software to facilitate effective integration, solution, and analysis of high-fidelity process/equipment (CFD) co-simulations. APECS helps to optimize fluid flow and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance. APECS offers many advanced capabilities including ROMs, design optimization, parallel execution, stochastic analysis, and virtual plant co-simulations. NETL and its collaborative R&D partners are using APECS to reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing high-efficiency, zero-emission power plants with CCS.

  2. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually. PMID:15533022

  3. Association of Bio-energy Processing-Induced Protein Molecular Structure Changes with CNCPS-Based Protein Degradation and Digestion of Co-products in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-25

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a model to predict Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) protein degradation and digestion based on protein molecular structure changes induced by bio-energy processing in different types of co-products (CoPR, CoPC, CoPS = co-products from bioprocessing of rapeseed, canola seed, and soybean, respectively). The results showed that the inherent structure changes induced by the processing had a close relationship with CNCPS predicted protein degradable, undegradable, and digestible contents. The amide I to II ratio and α-helix to β-sheet ratio could be used to predict total degradable protein (R(2) = 0.99, RSD = 0.84, P < 0.001). Total CNCPS intestinal digestible protein could be predicted by protein structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 0.33, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the processing-induced protein molecular structure changes were highly linked to protein nutritive value of the co-products and could be used as predictors for CNCPS protein degradation and digestion in dairy cattle. PMID:27112731

  4. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.

    PubMed

    Chitra, U; Singh, U; Rao, P V

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed Indian pulses and soybean. Germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. Fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. Autoclaving and roasting were more effective in reducing phytic acid in chickpea and pigeonpea than in urd bean, mung bean, and soybean. Germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). IVPD was only slightly increased by roasting and autoclaving of all legumes. Germination and fermentation also remarkably decreased the total dietary fiber (TDF) in all legumes. Autoclaving and roasting resulted in slight increases in TDF values. All the processing treatments had little effect on calcium, magnesium and iron contents. PMID:8983057

  5. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  6. EFFECT OF RECYCLING THERMOPHILICALLY DIGESTED SLUDGE ON THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scale investigation was undertaken at Chicago's Hanover Park Water Reclamation Plant (WRP) to study whether the net sludge production from the WRP could be reduced by implementing a scheme developed by W. Torpey et al. (1984). n this process, sludge is withdrawn from a the...

  7. Due Process and Higher Education: A Systemic Approach to Fair Decision Making. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Ed

    University officials and faculty are frequently required to make decisions based on interpretations of disputed facts. By applying the concept of due process within the context of higher education, they can meet legal challenges of contract and constitutional law and the pedagogical demand for justice. To guide their efforts, decision makers can…

  8. Fluazuron-induced morphological changes in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs: An ultra-structural evaluation of the cuticle formation and digestive processes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2014-05-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a species of tick which is widely distributed in America, Africa and Australia and is probably the most prevalent among all the other ixodid tick species. The present study demonstrated the effects of the arthropod growth regulator fluazuron (Acatak(®)), in the formation of the integument and the digestive processes of R. sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits treated with different doses of this chemical acaricide. For this, three different doses of fluazuron (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg) were applied "pour on" to the hosts divided into three different treated-groups (II, III, IV) of three animals each. A fourth group (I) of rabbits (n=3) was given distilled water as control. On the first day after treatment (24h), the hosts were artificially infested with R. sanguineus nymphs. After full engorgement (7 days), the nymphs were removed and placed on labeled Petri dishes and kept in BOD incubator for 7 days. The engorged nymphs were then taken to ultra-structural analysis. Results revealed the following main ultra-structural changes in the nymphs integument and midgut of the different treated groups (II, III, IV): cuticle disorganization and the absence of subdivisions, damages in the integument epithelial cells, size of digestive cells, amount of endosomes, autophagic and digestive vacuoles, accumulated digestive residues, lipid droplets and organelles found in the digestive cells' cytoplasm, as well as the presence of microvilli in their plasma membranes. It is concluded that fluazuron may act on the integument and midgut cells of R. sanguineus engorged nymphs by impairing the synthesis of the new cuticle and the digestive processes (absorption of the blood ingested from the host, digestion - hemolysis, formation of digestive residues and release of nutrients to be converted into lipid, as well as for the synthesis of structural protein), which interfere in the development of nymphs, being able to prevent the emergence of adults after

  9. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  10. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt; Groten, Will; Judzis, Arvids; Foley, Richard; Smith, Larry; Cross, Will; Vogt, T.

    2011-06-27

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  11. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  12. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. PMID:27452170

  13. Applications of advanced oxidation processes: present and future.

    PubMed

    Suty, H; De Traversay, C; Cost, M

    2004-01-01

    The use of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to remove pollutants in various water treatment applications has been the subject of study for around 30 years. Most of the available processes (Fenton reagent, O3 under basic conditions, O3/H2O2, O3/UV, O3/solid catalyst, H2O2/M(n+), H2O2/UV, photo-assisted Fenton, H2O2/solid catalyst, H2O2/NaClO, TiO2/UV etc.) have been investigated in depth and a considerable body of knowledge has been built up about the reactivity of many pollutants. Various industrial applications have been developed, including ones for ground remediation (TCE, PCE), the removal of pesticides from drinking water, the removal of formaldehyde and phenol from industrial waste water and a reduction in COD from industrial waste water. The development of such AOP applications has been stimulated by increasingly stringent regulations, the pollution of water resources through agricultural and industrial activities and the requirement that industry meet effluent discharge standards. Nevertheless, it is difficult to obtain an accurate picture of the use of AOPs and its exact position in the range of water treatment processes has not been determined to date. The purpose of this overview is to discuss those processes and provide an indication of future trends. PMID:15077976

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specified conversion behavior is ARF's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (1) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (2) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (3) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a workstation'' environment.

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  17. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  18. Combining Advanced Oxidation Processes: Assessment Of Process Additivity, Synergism, And Antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Robert W.; Sharma, M.P.; Gbadebo Adewuyi, Yusuf

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the process interactions from combining integrated processes (such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), biological operations, air stripping, etc.). AOPs considered include: Fenton's reagent, ultraviolet light, titanium dioxide, ozone (O{sub 3}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sonication/acoustic cavitation, among others. A critical review of the technical literature has been performed, and the data has been analyzed in terms of the processes being additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Predictions based on the individual unit operations are made and compared against the behavior of the combined unit operations. The data reported in this paper focus primarily on treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. (authors)

  19. Effect of simulated processing on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage model systems.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie

    2015-05-15

    The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ABTS and FRAP after sterilization (121°C/10 min) and pH adjustment to 6.8. WP addition had different effects (none, masking, synergetic effect) on the antioxidant activity of FJMB. Pasteurization (63°C/30 min) and pH adjustment (pH 3.7 or pH 6.8) had either non-significant or slight effects on FJMB's antioxidant capacity, while sterilization significantly (p<0.05) increased or decreased its ABTS and FRAP depending on the different models. In vitro digestion of WP in FJMB was obviously (p < 0.05) inhibited by phenolics to varying degrees, and little influenced (p>0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility. PMID:25577106

  20. Processing and Preparation of Advanced Stirling Convertors for Extended Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Cornell, Paggy A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Company (LMSC), Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science missions. This generator will make use of the free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. NASA GRC is supporting the development of the ASRG by providing extended operation of several Sunpower Inc. Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs). In the past year and a half, eight ASCs have operated in continuous, unattended mode in both air and thermal vacuum environments. Hardware, software, and procedures were developed to prepare each convertor for extended operation with intended durations on the order of tens of thousands of hours. Steps taken to prepare a convertor for long-term operation included geometry measurements, thermocouple instrumentation, evaluation of working fluid purity, evacuation with bakeout, and high purity charge. Actions were also taken to ensure the reliability of support systems, such as data acquisition and automated shutdown checkouts. Once a convertor completed these steps, it underwent short-term testing to gather baseline performance data before initiating extended operation. These tests included insulation thermal loss characterization, low-temperature checkout, and full-temperature and power demonstration. This paper discusses the facilities developed to support continuous, unattended operation, and the processing results of the eight ASCs currently on test.

  1. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Niely, Hania F. G.

    2007-06-01

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas ( Pisum satinum L), cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils ( Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly ( p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  2. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  3. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, C. H.; Vu, C. C.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  4. Enhanced methane production from rice straw co-digested with anaerobic sludge from pulp and paper mill treatment process.

    PubMed

    Mussoline, Wendy; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet; Spagni, Alessandro; Giordano, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    Rice straw is a widely available lignocellulosic waste with potential for energy recovery through anaerobic digestion. Lignin slows the hydrolysis phase, resulting in low methane recovery and long digestion periods. Although pretreatment is effective, it often requires high energy inputs or chemicals that are not feasible for farm-scale systems. This study investigates a unique co-digestion strategy to improve methane yields and reduce digestion times for farm-scale systems. By adding both piggery wastewater and paper mill sludge, specific methane yields in laboratory-scale digesters reached the theoretical value for rice straw (i.e. 330LNCH4/kgVS) over the 92-day period. Accelerated hydrolysis of the straw was directly related to the quantity of sludge added. The most stable digester, with sufficient buffering capacity and nutrients, contained equal parts of straw, wastewater and sludge. This approach is feasible for farm-scale applications since it requires no additional energy inputs or changes to existing infrastructure for dry systems. PMID:24045200

  5. Evaluation methodologies for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schabowsky, R. S., Jr.; Gai, E.; Walker, B. K.; Lala, J. H.; Motyka, P.

    1984-01-01

    The system concept and requirements for an Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are briefly described, but the emphasis of this paper is on the evaluation methodologies being developed and utilized in the AIPS program. The evaluation tasks include hardware reliability, maintainability and availability, software reliability, performance, and performability. Hardware RMA and software reliability are addressed with Markov modeling techniques. The performance analysis for AIPS is based on queueing theory. Performability is a measure of merit which combines system reliability and performance measures. The probability laws of the performance measures are obtained from the Markov reliability models. Scalar functions of this law such as the mean and variance provide measures of merit in the AIPS performability evaluations.

  6. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  7. Advanced information processing system: Input/output system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Alger, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Input/Output (I/O) Systems Services of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are discussed. The introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS system. Section 1.1 gives a brief overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a detailed description of the AIPS fault tolerant network architecture, while section 1.2 provides an introduction to the AIPS systems software. Sections 2 and 3 describe the functional requirements and design and detailed specifications of the I/O User Interface and Communications Management modules of the I/O System Services, respectively. Section 4 illustrates the use of the I/O System Services, while Section 5 concludes with a summary of results and suggestions for future work in this area.

  8. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV S{sub in} in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages.

  9. Microwave processing of silicon nitride for advanced gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.

    1993-04-01

    Results from previous studies on microwave processing of silicon nitride-based ceramics are reviewed to ascertain the application of this technology to advanced gas turbine (AGT) materials. Areas of microwave processing that have been examined in the past are (1) sintering of powder compacts; (2) heat treatment of dense materials; and (3) nitridation of Si for reactionbonded silicon nitride. The sintering of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder compacts showed improved densification and enhanced grain growth. However, the high additive levels required to produce crack-free parts generally limit these materials to low temperature applications. Improved high-temperature creep resistance has been observed for microwave heat-treated materials and therefore has application to materials used in highly demanding service conditions. In contrast to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Si couples well in the microwave and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride materials have been fabricated in a one-step process with cost-effective raw materials. However, these materials are also limited to lower temperature applications, under about 1000{degrees}C.

  10. Microwave processing of silicon nitride for advanced gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.

    1993-01-01

    Results from previous studies on microwave processing of silicon nitride-based ceramics are reviewed to ascertain the application of this technology to advanced gas turbine (AGT) materials. Areas of microwave processing that have been examined in the past are (1) sintering of powder compacts; (2) heat treatment of dense materials; and (3) nitridation of Si for reactionbonded silicon nitride. The sintering of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] powder compacts showed improved densification and enhanced grain growth. However, the high additive levels required to produce crack-free parts generally limit these materials to low temperature applications. Improved high-temperature creep resistance has been observed for microwave heat-treated materials and therefore has application to materials used in highly demanding service conditions. In contrast to Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], Si couples well in the microwave and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride materials have been fabricated in a one-step process with cost-effective raw materials. However, these materials are also limited to lower temperature applications, under about 1000[degrees]C.

  11. Evaluation of an anaerobic digestion system for processing CELSS crop residues for resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Strayer, R F; Finger, B W; Alazraki, M P

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw day-1) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO2 and "volatile fatty acids" (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH4(+)-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH4+ volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH4(+)-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 23 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH4(+)-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production. PMID:11542583

  12. Evaluation of an Anaerobic Digestion System for Processing CELSS Crop Residues for Resource Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw/day) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO2 and "volatile fatty acids" (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH4(+)-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH4(+) volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH4(+)-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH4(+)-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  13. Evaluation of an anaerobic digestion system for processing CELSS crop residues for resource recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw day^-1) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO_2 and ``volatile fatty acids'' (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH_4^+-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH_4^+ volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH_4^+-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH_4^+-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  14. The influence of advanced processing on PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.; Schnittgrund, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    High thermal gradient casting of PWA 1480 was evaluated as an avenue for reducing the size of casting porosity. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was also employed for the elimination of casting pores. An alternate to the standard PWA 1480 coating plus diffusion bonding aging heat treatment cycle was also evaluated for potential improvements in the properties of interest to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) application. Microstructural changes associated with the high thermal gradient casting process were quantified by measurement of the size and density of the casting porosity, the amount of retained casting eutectic, and dendrite arm spacings. The results of the advanced processing have shown an improvement in material microstructure due to high thermal gradient casting. Improved homogeneity of PWA 1480 is advantageous in providing an improved solution heat treatment window and, potentially, easier HIP. High thermal gradient casting improves fatigue life by reducing casting pore size. The alternate heat treatment improves the balance of strength and ductility which appears to improve low cycle fatigue life, but with a reduction in short time stress rupture life. Based upon these tests, hot isostatic pressing appears to afford further improvements in cyclic life, though additional evaluation is suggested. Development of the alternate heat treatment is not recommended due to the reduced stress rupture capability and the need to develop a new properties data base. High thermal gradient casting and HIP are recommended for application to single crystal castings.

  15. Advanced oxide powders processing based on cascade plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solonenko, O. P.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the potential advantages offered to thermal spraying and powder processing by the implementation of plasma torches with inter-electrode insert (IEI) or, in other words, cascade plasma torches (CPTs) is presented. The paper provides evidence that the modular designed single cathode CPT helps eliminate the following major disadvantages of conventional plasma torches: plasma parameters drifting, 1-5 kHz pulsing of plasma flow, as well as excessive erosion of electrodes. More stable plasma results in higher quality, homogeneity and reproducibility of plasma sprayed coatings and powders treated. In addition, CPT offers an extremely wide operating window, which allows better control of plasma parameters, particle dwell time and, consequently, particle temperature and velocity within a wide range by generating high enthalpy quasi-laminar plasmas, medium enthalpy transient plasmas, as well as relatively low enthalpy turbulent plasmas. Stable operation, flexibility with plasma gases as well as wide operating window of CPT should help significantly improve the existing plasma spraying processes and coatings, and also help develop new advanced technologies.

  16. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  17. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  18. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  19. Effects of various LED light wavelengths and intensities on microalgae-based simultaneous biogas upgrading and digestate nutrient reduction process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongjun; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Yuejin

    2013-05-01

    Biogas is a well-known, primary renewable energy source, but its utilizations are possible only after upgrading. The microalgae-based bag photo-bioreactor utilized in this research could effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. Red light was determined as the optimal light wavelength for microalgae growth, biogas upgrading, and digestate nutrient reduction. In the range of moderate light intensities (i.e., 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), higher light intensities achieved higher biogas upgrade and larger digestate nutrient reduction. Methane content attained the highest value of 92.74±3.56% (v/v). The highest chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reduction efficiency of digestate were 85.35±1.04%, 77.98±1.84%, and 73.03±2.14%, respectively. Considering the reduction and economic efficiencies of the carbon dioxide content of biogas and digestate nutrient as well as the biogas upgrading standard, the optimal light intensity range was determined to be from 1200 to 1600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). PMID:23567717

  20. A Step Towards an Advanced Parameterization of Cloud Microphysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheng, K. D.

    2002-12-01

    corresponding number densities. As a closure condition representative size distributions (e.g. Marshall Palmer) have then to be considered. Unfortunately this procedure has mostly not uniformly been performed for all hydrometeor types and processes and critical parameters have been set constant - an assumption which is crucial. Surprisingly these suggestions were disregarded in case of the warm rain processes autoconversion and accretion which are basic in the development of each (warm) cloud. Some years ago these mechanisms, however, have been formulated on the basis of the stochastic collection equation resulting in spectral and integral rate equations. Moreover, by reasonable approximations advanced rate equations for the number and mass densities changing by autoconversion and accretion have been developed taking into account different cloud spectrum characteristics. In that way a complete and consistent set of equations for the time rate of change of number as well as mass densities of cloud and rain, snow and ice particles can be formulated covering the whole range of processes occuring in warm, mixed and ice clouds. The presentation addresses all items mentioned and concludes with results of numerical experiments which demonstrate the difference between usual and the advanced parameterizations in case of convective clouds.

  1. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  2. A solar-driven UV/Chlorine advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Po Yee; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Bolton, James R

    2012-11-01

    An overlap of the absorption spectrum of the hypochlorite ion (OCl(-)) and the ultraviolet (UV) end of the solar emission spectrum implies that solar photons can probably initiate the UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP). The application of this solar process to water and wastewater treatment has been investigated in this study. At the bench-scale, the OCl(-) photolysis quantum yield at 303 nm (representative of the lower end of the solar UV region) and at concentrations from 0 to 4.23 mM was 0.87 ± 0.01. Also the hydroxyl radical yield factor (for an OCl(-) concentration of 1.13 mM) was 0.70 ± 0.02. Application of this process, at the bench-scale and under actual sunlight, led to methylene blue (MB) photobleaching and cyclohexanoic acid (CHA) photodegradation. For MB photobleaching, the OCl(-) concentration was the key factor causing an increase in the pseudo first-order rate constants. The MB photobleaching quantum yield was affected by the MB concentration, but not much by the OCl(-) concentration. For CHA photodegradation, an optimal OCl(-) concentration of 1.55 mM was obtained for a 0.23 mM CHA concentration, and a scavenger effect was observed when higher OCl(-) concentrations were applied. Quantum yields of 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.89 ± 0.06 were found for CHA photodegradation and OCl(-) photolysis, respectively. In addition, based on the Air Mass 1.5 reference solar spectrum and experimental quantum yields, a theoretical calculation method was developed to estimate the initial rate for photoreactions under sunlight. The theoretical initial rates agreed well with the experimental rates for both MB photobleaching and CHA photodegradation. PMID:22939221

  3. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the junction of the esophagus and stomach, controls the passage of food and liquid between the esophagus and stomach. As ... different nutrients. The small intestine absorbs most digested food ... digestive process. [ Top ] Clinical Trials The National ...

  4. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000. PMID:27109500

  5. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate.

    PubMed

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000. PMID:27109500

  6. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  7. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  8. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented. PMID:23624242

  9. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  10. Advanced Constituents and Processes for Ceramic Composite Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.; Bhatt, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    The successful replacement of metal alloys by ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in hot-section engine components will depend strongly on optimizing the processes and properties of the CMC microstructural constituents so that they can synergistically provide the total CMC system with improved temperature capability and with the key properties required by the components for long-term structural service. This presentation provides the results of recent activities at NASA aimed at developing advanced silicon carbide (Sic) fiber-reinforced hybrid Sic matrix composite systems that can operate under mechanical loading and oxidizing conditions for hundreds of hours at 2400 and 2600 F, temperatures well above current metal capability. These SiC/SiC composite systems are lightweight (-30% metal density) and, in comparison to monolithic ceramics and carbon fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, are able to reliably retain their structural properties for long times under aggressive engine environments. It is shown that the improved temperature capability of the SiC/SiC systems is related first to the NASA development of the Sylramic-iBN Sic fiber, which displays high thermal stability, creep resistance, rupture resistance, and thermal conductivity, and possesses an in-situ grown BN surface layer for added environmental durability. This fiber is simply derived from Sylramic Sic fiber type that is currently produced at ATK COI Ceramics. Further capability is then derived by using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to form the initial portion of the hybrid Sic matrix. Because of its high creep resistance and thermal conductivity, the CVI Sic matrix is a required base constituent for all the high temperature SiC/SiC systems. By subsequently thermo- mechanical-treating the CMC preform, which consists of the S ylramic-iBN fibers and CVI Sic matrix, process-related defects in the matrix are removed, further improving matrix and CMC creep resistance and conductivity.

  11. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  12. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Two multicell, liquid-cooled, advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator modules were fabricated. The cells utilized advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collectors, internal liquid cooling and lightweight cell frames. Both were designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one-person, i.e., 1.0 kg/d (2.2 lb/d).

  13. Thermal hydrolysis integration in the anaerobic digestion process of different solid wastes: energy and economic feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-09-01

    An economic assessment of thermal hydrolysis as a pretreatment to anaerobic digestion has been achieved to evaluate its implementation in full-scale plants. Six different solid wastes have been studied, among them municipal solid waste (MSW). Thermal hydrolysis has been tested with batch lab-scale tests, from which an energy and economic assessment of three scenarios is performed: with and without energy integration (recovering heat to produce steam in a cogeneration plant), finally including the digestate management costs. Thermal hydrolysis has lead to an increase of the methane productions (up to 50%) and kinetics parameters (even double). The study has determined that a proper energy integration design could lead to important economic savings (5 €/t) and thermal hydrolysis can enhance up to 40% the incomes of the digestion plant, even doubling them when digestate management costs are considered. In a full-scale MSW treatment plant (30,000 t/year), thermal hydrolysis would provide almost 0.5 M€/year net benefits. PMID:24582388

  14. Comparisons of in vitro fermentation and high moisture forage processing methods for determination of neutral detergent fiber digestibility.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro fermentation systems are widely used to measure fiber digestibility of feedstuffs in order to assess feeding values for use in diet formulation and feed valuation. In this study, an in vitro fermentation method with the potential to improve sample throughput and ease of handling was investi...

  15. Comparison of the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in thermally processed peanuts and in pure form

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting, and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and ...

  16. Evaluation of methane generation and process stability from anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet by-product and cow manure.

    PubMed

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2016-05-01

    The effect of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of dried pellets of exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC-DP) and cow manure (CM) on the enhancement of methane generation and process stability were studied with the aim to select the best substrate mixture ratio. A series of batch experiments was conducted using the following five mixture ratios of ESBC-DP:CM: 0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25 and 100:0. Best results were obtained from mixture ratios with ESBC-DP proportions in the range of 25-50%. Mixture ratio of 50:50 showed a specific methane production (SMP) increase of 81.4% and 25.5%, respectively, in comparison with mono-digestion of ESBC-DP and CM. Evolution of the indirect parameter named acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC) could be used to provide more insight about the process stability of anaerobic digestion. ASC accumulation was observed in reactors with higher ESBC-DP proportions leading to a delay in VFAs consumption and conversion into methane. PMID:26711843

  17. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. PMID:25898079

  18. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut. PMID:26696120

  19. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: Influence of aggregate formation on process stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kleyboecker, A.; Liebrich, M.; Kasina, M.; Kraume, M.; Wittmaier, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of process recovery with calcium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids and phosphate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of VFAs by the precipitates resulting in the formation of aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid uptake and phosphate release by the phosphate-accumulating organisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbial degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. - Abstract: Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH > 7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4

  20. Batch anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and waste milk in two-stage process for hydrogen and methane productions.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Suraju A; Beneragama, Nilmini; Yamashiro, Takaki; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure (CM) and waste milk (WM), produced by sick cows during treatment with antibiotics, was evaluated in two-stage process under thermophilic condition (55 °C) to determine the effect of WM addition on hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) production potentials, volatile solids (VS) removal, and energy recovery. Six CM to WM VS ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 10:90 were examined using 1-L batch digesters. The WM VS ratio of 30 % was found to be the minimum limit for significant increases in specific H2 and CH4 yields, and VS removal as compared to digestion of manure alone (P < 0.05). The highest specific H2 and CH4 yields, VS removal and energy yield were 38.2 mL/g VS, 627.6 mL/g VS, 78.4 % and 25,459.8 kJ/kg VS, respectively, in CM:WM 30:70. Lag phases to H2 and CH4 productions were observed in CM-WM mixtures, increased with increasing the amount of WM in the feedstock and were greater than 72 h in CM:WM 50:50 and 30:70. The digestion system failed in CM:WM 10:90. The results suggest that CM:WM 30:70 was optimum, however, due to limited amount of WM usually generated and long lag phase at this ratio which may make the process uneconomical, CM:WM 70:30 is recommended in practice. PMID:23820823

  1. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  2. Modular Advanced Oxidation Process Enabled by Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO•) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d–1. The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO• scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m–3, with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  3. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  4. Modular advanced oxidation process enabled by cathodic hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Barazesh, James M; Hennebel, Tom; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

    2015-06-16

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d(-1). The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO(•) scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m(-3), with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  5. Numerical approach for the voloxidation process of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byung Heung; Jeong, Sang Mun; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2007-07-01

    A voloxidation process is adopted as the first step of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process in order to prepare the SF oxide to be reduced in the following electrolytic reduction process. A semi-batch type voloxidizer was devised to transform a SF pellet into powder. In this work, a simple reactor model was developed for the purpose of correlating a gas phase flow rate with an operation time as a numerical approach. With an assumption that a solid phase and a gas phase are homogeneous in a reactor, a reaction rate for an oxidation was introduced into a mass balance equation. The developed equation can describe a change of an outlet's oxygen concentration including such a case that a gas flow is not sufficient enough to continue a reaction at its maximum reaction rate. (authors)

  6. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES- ACS MEETING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies for the destruction of environmentally toxic chemicals in wastewater, industrial water, groundwater and sources of water supply. The paper will include fundamental aspects of the generati...

  7. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    SciTech Connect

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio; Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the degradation

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  9. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    A five-cell, liquid-cooled advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module was fabricated. The cells utilized the advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collector concept and internal liquid-cooling. The five cell module was designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one man and was assembled using plexiglass endplates. This one-man module was tested as part of an integrated oxygen generation and recovery subsystem.

  10. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A.; Gates, Fred K.; Wickham, Martin S. J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2015-01-01

    Scope Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune‐mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Methods and results Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS‐PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac‐toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. Conclusion The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten‐starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. PMID:26202208

  11. Communication Strategies for Employment Interviews. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Intended to help prepare individuals for job seeking, this digest suggests some resources to consult to help improve basic communication skills needed for the interview process. The digest reviews research on teaching interview skills in the classroom, discussing role playing, videotapes, and techniques workshops. The digest also lists practical…

  12. Effects of food processing and fibre content on the digestibility, energy intake and biochemical parameters of Blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna L. - Aves, Psittacidae).

    PubMed

    Veloso, R R; Sakomura, N K; Kawauchi, I M; Malheiros, E B; Carciofi, A C

    2014-04-01

    Considering the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases in caged psittacines, the effect of fibre and food processing was evaluated in the Blue-and-gold macaw. Four food formulations (0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of sugarcane fibre) processed by pelleting or extrusion were studied, resulting in eight diets. To study digestibility, 48 macaws housed in pairs in cages was used in a block design. Subsequently, diets containing 0% or 21% sugarcane fibre, pelleted or extrude was fed for 4 months to evaluate energy intake and blood metabolites. A 2 × 2 × 2 (two fibre levels, two food processing methods and two genders) factorial arrangement with subplots (beginning and end) was used. When differences were detected in anova's F test, data were submitted to polynomial contrasts in the first experiment and to orthogonal contrasts in the second experiment (p < 0.05). Fibre addition reduced protein, fat and energy (p < 0.001) digestibility in both food processing. Pelleted foods presented higher dry matter digestibility and food metabolisable energy (ME) than the extruded ones (p < 0.05). Fibre addition or the type of processing did not change ME ingestion (p > 0.05). The macaws gained body weight (p < 0.05) regardless of the diet (p > 0.05), but females fed with the high-fibre diets did not gain weight (p > 0.05), suggesting a low food ME (12.5 kJ/g).The substitution of the original diet (sunflower seeds, fruits and cooked maize) by the experimental foods decreased the basal (12-h fast) concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.001). The consumption of pelleted diets reduced serum glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.05). Results suggest that the pelleted diets were more beneficial and can be used to reduce blood metabolites related to metabolic disorders that are commonly observed in macaws. PMID:23627662

  13. Effect of domestic processing on the cooking time, nutrients, antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of the African yambean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).

    PubMed

    Ene-obong, H N; Obizoba, I C

    1996-01-01

    The effects of processing (soaking, dehulling, fermentation and heat treatment) on the cooking time, protein, mineral, tannin, phytate and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the African yambean (AYB) were examined. The cooking time ranged from 90-155 minutes. Soaking reduced cooking time by about 50 percent. Soaking for 12 hours was the most appropriate to reduce cooking time, tannin and phytate levels. It improved in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). Prolonged soaking (24 hours) decreased calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) values by 19 percent and 35 percent, respectively. Dehulling showed that Ca, Fe, magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were concentrated in the seed coat of the AYB. The seeds soaked and dehulled retained Mg and Zn. Dehulling reduced tannin but had no significant effect on phytate and the IVPD of the AYB except for seeds soaked for 12 hours before dehulling. Soaking for 24 hours before dehulling significantly increased crude protein content by 16 percent (p < 0.05). Blanching and roasting increased the IVPD by 8-11 percent. Fermentation had no effect on the crude protein, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn but significantly reduced phytate content of the AYB. Fermentation had no advantage over heat treatment with respect to improving the in vitro protein digestibility of the AYB. PMID:9139303

  14. Impact of the Fenton process in meat digestion as assessed using an in vitro gastro-intestinal model.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Khaled; de La Pomélie, Diane; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Gatellier, Philippe

    2016-10-15

    The production of oxygen free radicals catalysed by non-haem iron was investigated in an in vitro mimetic model of the digestive tract using specific chemical traps. Superoxide radicals (O2(∗-)) and their protonated form (hydroperoxyl radicals, HO2(∗)) were detected by the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium into formazan, and hydroxyl radicals (OH(∗)) were detected by the hydroxylation of terephthalate. Under gastric conditions, O2(∗-)/HO2(∗) were detected in higher quantity than OH(∗). Increasing the pH from 3.5 to 6.5 poorly affected the kinetics of free radical production. The oxidations generated by these free radicals were estimated on myofibrils prepared from pork rectus femoris muscle. Myofibrillar lipid and protein oxidation increased with time and oxidant concentration, with a negative impact on the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins. Plant food antioxidants considerably decreased free radical production and lipid oxidation but not protein oxidation. PMID:27173532

  15. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  16. High-rate nitrogen removal from livestock manure digester liquor by combined partial nitritation-anammox process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Yamamoto, Taichi; Misaka, Motoki; Isaka, Kazuichi; Sumino, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    In this study, combination of a partial nitritation reactor, using immobilized polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel carriers, and a continuous stirred granular anammox reactor was investigated for nitrogen removal from livestock manure digester liquor. Successful nitrite accumulation in the partial nitritation reactor was observed as the nitrite production rate reached 2.1 kg-N/m(3)/day under aerobic nitrogen loading rate of 3.8 kg-N/m(3)/day. Simultaneously, relatively high free ammonia concentrations (average 50 mg-NH(3)/l) depressed the activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria with nitrate concentration never exceeding 3% of TN concentration in the effluent of the partial nitritation reactor (maximum 35.2 mg/l). High nitrogen removal rates were achieved in the granular anammox reactor with the highest removal rate being 3.12 kg-N/m(3)/day under anaerobic nitrogen loading rate of 4.1 kg-N/m(3)/day. Recalcitrant organic compounds in the digester liquor did not impair anammox reaction and the SS accumulation in the granular anammox reactor was minimal. The results of this study demonstrated that partial nitritation-anammox combination has the potential to successfully remove nitrogen from livestock manure digester liquor. PMID:19578828

  17. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:27209038

  18. Online monitoring of concentration and dynamics of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion processes with mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Falk, Harry Michael; Reichling, Peter; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

    2015-02-01

    An ATR-MIR-FTIR spectrometer was integrated into a laboratory scale anaerobic digestion setup. Automatically, a sludge sample from the digester was transferred to a measurement cell; an IR spectrum was recorded and evaluated by chemometric models to estimate the concentration of the individual volatile fatty acids (VFA). The calibration set included semi-artificial samples spiked with known concentrations of the VFA as well as original samples from a continuous fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference analysis of the samples. The models were optimized for a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). R(2) for acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid were 0.94, 0.88, 0.83, 0.75, 0.59, and 0.90, respectively. The accuracy of the models was validated in a second experiment. Considering the complex and heterogeneous sludge composition and the chemical similarity of VFA, absolute concentration and dynamic (increasing and decreasing concentration of VFA) was predicted well for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid (in their respective concentration range); Butyric acid could not be detected. The installed setup was able to gather and measure native samples from the digester (every 2 h) automatically over a period of 6 months without problems of clogging or biofouling. The instant and continuous analysis of the concentration of the VFA made it possible to evaluate the current bioprocess status and adjust the organic loading rate accordingly. PMID:25142153

  19. Effects of metal salt addition on odor and process stability during the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Timothy; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to recover energy and nutrients from organic waste; however, several issues including the solubilization of bound nutrients and the production of corrosive, highly odorous and toxic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in AD biogas can limit its wider adoption. This study explored the effects of adding two different doses of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide directly to the feed of complete mix semi-continuously fed mesophilic ADs on eight of the most odorous VSCs in AD biogas at three different organic loading rates (OLR). Ferric chloride was shown to be extremely effective in reducing VSCs by up to 87%, aluminum sulfate had the opposite effect and increased VSC levels by up to 920%, while magnesium hydroxide was not shown to have any significant impact. Ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide were effective in reducing the concentration of orthophosphate in AD effluent although both levels of alum addition caused digester failure at elevated OLRs. Extensive foaming was observed within the magnesium hydroxide dosed digesters, particularly at higher doses and high OLRs. Certain metal salt additions may be a valuable tool in overcoming barriers to AD and to meet regulatory targets. PMID:26260964

  20. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  1. The APC (Advanced Process Control) procedure for process window and CDU improvement using DBMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Chan; Lee, Taehyeong; Jung, Areum; Yoo, Gyun; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Sungki; Seo, Jaeyoung; Park, Byoungjun; Hasebe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2008-11-01

    The downscaling of the feature size and pitches of the semi-conductor device requires enough process window and good CDU of exposure field for improvement of device characteristics and high yield. Recently several DBMs (Design Based Metrologies) are introduced for the wafer verification and feed back to for DFM and process control. The major applications of DBM are OPC feed back, process window qualification and advanced process control feed back. With these tools, since the applied tool in this procedure uses e-beam scan method with database of design layout like other ones, more precise and quick verification can be done. In this work the process window qualification procedure will be discussed in connection with EDA simulation results and then method for obtaining good CDU will be introduced. DoseMapperTM application has been introduced for better field CDU control, but it is difficult to fully correct large field with limited data from normal CD SEM methodology. New DBM has strong points in collecting lots of data required for large field correction with good repeatability (Intra / Inter field).

  2. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  3. On-field study of anaerobic digestion full-scale plants (Part II): new approaches in monitoring and evaluating process efficiency.

    PubMed

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Orzi, Valentina; Adani, Fabrizio

    2011-10-01

    Biogas plants need easy and practical tools for monitoring and evaluating their biological process efficiency. As soon as, in many cases, biomass supply present considerable costs, full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) processes must approach, as much as possible, the potential biogas yield of the organic mixture fed to the biodigesters. In this paper, a new indicator is proposed (the bio-methane yield, BMY), for measuring the efficiency in full-scale AD processes, based on a balance between the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of the input biomass and the residual BMP of the output materials (digestate). For this purpose, a one-year survey was performed on three different full-scale biogas plants, in the Italian agro-industrial context, and the bio-chemical processes were fully described in order to calculate their efficiencies (BMY = 87-93%) and to validate the new indicator proposed, as useful and easily applicable tool for full-scale AD plants operators. PMID:21807505

  4. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. PMID:24522611

  5. Processing of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal reduces protein digestibility and pig growth performance but does not affect nitrogen solubilization along the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM) as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Fifty-four growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 6 experimental diets. Four of the diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM as the sole protein source. The remaining 2 experimental diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to the same standardized ileal digestible AA levels as the SBM or RSM diet. Pigs were slaughtered at 40 kg, and organ weights were recorded. The organs plus blood and empty carcass were analyzed for CP content. The small intestine was divided into 3 segments, and chyme samples were taken from the last meter of each segment. Chyme of the SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM diets was centrifuged to separate the soluble and insoluble fractions, and N content was determined in the latter. The amount of insoluble N as a fraction of N in chyme at each small intestinal segment was not affected by processing. Diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, affected ( < 0.05) the G:F and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP. Processing reduced G:F from 0.56 to 0.38 for SBM and 0.49 to 0.40 for RSM, whereas supplementing crystalline AA increased G:F to the level of the SBM and RSM diets. Processing reduced the SID of CP from 87.2% to 69.2% for SBM and 71.0% to 52.2% for RSM. Diet type affected ( < 0.05) the CP content in the empty body, with processing reducing this content from 170 to 144 g/kg empty BW for SBM and 157 to 149 g/kg empty BW for RSM and supplementing crystalline AA restoring this content

  6. Contexts of Reading. Advances in Discourse Processes Series. Volume XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Baratta, Anthony N., Ed.

    Focusing on the reading-thinking-learning process, the classrooms in which such processes occur, and the means for studying these processes, this book presents essays on teaching, learning, and assessing the reading process. The first section contains essays on learning contexts that are interactive and participatory, while essays in the second…

  7. Performance, digestion, and mastication efficiency of Holstein steers fed whole or processed corn in limit- or full-fed growing-finishing systems.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Brandt, R T; Eck, T P; Titgemeyer, E C

    1998-07-01

    We conducted two trials to examine the effects of restricted vs full feeding and of grain processing method on feedlot performance, digestion, and mastication efficiency by Holstein steers in different growing-finishing systems. In Trial 1, 272 Holstein steers (177 +/- 9.98 kg) were blocked by weight and assigned to growing phase diets based on corn silage (SIL), steam-flaked corn that was either limit-fed (SFLF) or full-fed (SFFF), or whole corn that was limit-fed (WCLF) or full-fed (WCFF). Limit-fed steers were fed at levels predicted to allow daily gain of 1 kg/d. On d 112, all steers were switched to WCFF or SFFF diets until the mean BW of each treatment group was 545 kg. Overall, steers fed WCLF and SFLF during the growing phase and finished on SF were 8.1 and 6.6% more efficient at converting dietary ME to gain (P = .02 and .04, respectively) than steers in the SFFF group. In Trial 2, three ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein steers were fed whole (WC) and rolled corn (RC) diets at FF and LF intake in an incomplete replicated 2 x 2 switchback design. Ad libitum access to feed resulted in higher (P = .02) ruminal starch digestibility than did limit-feeding, and calves had higher total tract DM (P = .05) and starch (P = .03) digestion at the heavier BW. Limit-feeding whole corn resulted in increased particle size of masticate (P = .06) compared with full-feeding whole corn. Because of apparent differences in mastication efficiency between limit-fed and full-fed calves, grain processing method during periods of restriction and compensatory growth may be important considerations for managing growth in systems that incorporate limit-feeding. PMID:9690632

  8. Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorton, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    The performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen blown and air blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas. The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed.

  9. Influence of distillers grains resulting from a cellulosic ethanol process utilizing corn kernel fiber on nutrient digestibility of lambs and steer feedlot performance.

    PubMed

    Lundy, E L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects on animal performance of traditional wet distillers grains (T-WDG) compared to cellulosic wet distillers grains (C-WDG) from a new process converting corn kernel fiber into cellulosic ethanol. The resulting coproduct has greater CP and decreased starch and ether extract (EE) concentrations (34.0% CP, 1.6% starch, 7.3% EE) compared to T-WDG (32.5% CP, 5.1% starch, 7.7% EE). In Exp. 1, 10 wethers (34.1 ± 2.35 kg, SD) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square to evaluate digestibility of DM, fiber, EE, and N. Diets including a corn-based control with 7.5% T-WDG and 7.5% C-WDG (CORN); 30% or 45% inclusion of T-WDG; and 30% or 45% inclusion of C-WDG. Between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 45% T-WDG, or 45% C-WDG, DMI was not different (P ≥ 0.11), but lambs fed 30% C-WDG had decreased (P ≤ 0.05) DMI compared to other diets. Compared to CORN and 30% T-WDG, DM digestibility was lesser ( P< 0.05) for 45% T-WDG or 30% C-WDG, while 45% C-WDG has lesser (P ≤ 0.05) DM digestibility than all other treatments. Digestibility of NDF was not affected by treatment (P= 0.13), and ADF digestibility was not different ( 0.21) between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 30% C-WDG, or 45% C-WDG. However, digestibility of ADF tended to differ (P = 0.06) between 30% T-WDG and 45% C-WDG and was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in lambs fed 45% T-WDG compared to other treatments. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (421 ± 23.9 kg, SD) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the impact of C-WDG or T-WDG on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Diets included a corn-based control (CON), 30% T-WDG (TRAD), 30% C-WDG (CEL), and 18% C-WDG and 12% condensed corn distillers solubles (CEL+CCDS; = 7 pens of 6 steers/pen). Steers fed TRAD had improved (P ≤ 0.01) ADG, G:F, and HCW compared to steers fed the CON diet. No differences (P ≥ 0.16) in ADG and HCW were noted for steers fed CEL compared to TRAD; however, steers fed CEL had decreased (P = 0.01) G:F due to increased (P = 0

  10. Advances in white-light optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, F. T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A technique that permits signal processing operations which can be carried out by white light source is described. The method performs signal processing that obeys the concept of coherent light rather than incoherent optics. Since the white light source contains all the color wavelengths of the visible light, the technique is very suitable for color signal processing.

  11. Advanced statistical process control: controlling sub-0.18-μm lithography and other processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Amit; Veenstra, Klaas-Jelle; Zavecz, Terrence E.

    2001-08-01

    Feed-forward, as a method to control the Lithography process for Critical Dimensions and Overlay, is well known in the semiconductors industry. However, the control provided by simple averaging feed-forward methodologies is not sufficient to support the complexity of a sub-0.18micrometers lithography process. Also, simple feed-forward techniques are not applicable for logics and ASIC production due to many different products, lithography chemistry combinations and the short memory of the averaging method. In the semiconductors industry, feed-forward control applications are generally called APC, Advanced Process Control applications. Today, there are as many APC methods as the number of engineers involved. To meet the stringent requirements of 0.18 micrometers production, we selected a method that is described in SPIE 3998-48 (March 2000) by Terrence Zavecz and Rene Blanquies from Yield Dynamics Inc. This method is called PPC, Predictive Process Control, and employs a methodology of collecting measurement results and the modeled bias attributes of expose tools, reticles and the incoming process in a signatures database. With PPC, before each lot exposure, the signatures of the lithography tool, the reticle and the incoming process are used to predict the setup of the lot process and the expected lot results. Benefits derived from such an implementation are very clear; there is no limitation of the number of products or lithography-chemistry combinations and the technique avoids the short memory of conventional APC techniques. ... and what's next? (Rob Morton, Philips assignee to International Sematech). The next part of the paper will try to answer this question. Observing that CMP and metal deposition significantly influence CD's and overlay results, and even Contact Etch can have a significant influence on Metal 5 overlay, we developed a more general PPC for lithography. Starting with the existing lithography PPC applications database, the authors extended the

  12. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  13. Development of a combined piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor using a chemical protective coating for Kraft pulp digester process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza R.; Bennington, Chad P. J.; Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor for multiphase chemical reactors, primarily Kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures up to 175 °C, reaching a local maximum of 180 °C and pressures up to 2 MPa). The absolute piezoresistive pressure sensor consisted of a large square silicon diaphragm (1000 × 1000 µm2) and high resistance piezoresistors (10 000 Ω). A 4500 Ω buried piezoresistive wire was patterned on the silicon chip to form a piezoresistive temperature sensor which was used for pressure sensor compensation and temperature measurement. A 4 µm thick Parylene HT® coating, a chemically resistant epoxy and a silicone conformal coating were deposited to passivate the pressure sensor against the caustic environment in Kraft digesters. The sensors were characterized up to 2 MPa and 180 °C in an environment chamber. A maximum thermal error of ±0.72% full-scale output (FSO), an average sensitivity of 0.116 mV (V kPa)-1 and a power consumption of 0.3 mW were measured in the pressure sensor. The sensors' resistances were measured before and after test in a Kraft pulping cycle and showed no change in their values. SEM pictures and topographical surfaces were also analyzed before and after pulp liquor exposure and showed no observable changes.

  14. Processing of cellulose for the advancement of biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Brian James

    2011-12-01

    -like cellulose nanostructures suggested the presence of intra and interpolymer hydrogen bonding. Characterization of the hydrogen bonding network by Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) indicated the gel-like material formed by ethanol washes was the result of heterogeneous interpolymer hydrogen bond cross-links. The interactions leading to gel-like materials were evaluated using Hansen solubility parameters, which predicted mixtures of ethanol and water may be most effective for disrupting cellulose nanostructure. Fractal analysis by SANS indicated 40 % ethanol/water was most effective. Similar results were obtained when 40 % ethanol was used to disrupt the cellulose nanostructure in municipal office waste (MOW). Ethanol washes increased the degradability of MOW by at least 30 % relative to conventional water washing. This is significant because increased degradability of MOW could further the development of cellulosic biofuels by reducing the amount of enzyme required to digest the material.

  15. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  16. AGU governance's decision-making process advances strategic plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael; Finn, Carol; McEntee, Chris

    2012-10-01

    A lot has happened in a little more than 2 years, and we want give AGU members an update on how things are working under AGU's strategic plan and governance model. AGU is an organization committed to its strategic plan (http://www.agu.org/about/strategic_plan.shtml), and if you have not read the plan lately, we encourage you to do so. AGU's vision is to be an organization that "galvanizes a community of Earth and space scientists that collaboratively advances and communicates science and its power to ensure a sustainable future." We are excited about the progress we have made under this plan and the future course we have set for the Union. Everything the Board of Directors, Council, and committees put on their agendas is intended to advance AGU's strategic goals and objectives. Together with headquarters staff, these bodies are working in an integrated, effective manner to carry out this plan. The best way to demonstrate the progress made and each group's role is to walk through a recent example: the creation of a new Union-level award (see Figure 1).

  17. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  18. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  19. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  20. Advances in soil erosion research: processes, measurement, and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by the environmental agents of water and wind is a continuing global menace that threatens the agricultural base that sustains our civilization. Members of ASABE have been at the forefront of research to understand erosion processes, measure erosion and related processes, and model very...

  1. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  3. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  4. Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition: Advancing the Debate.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Stanovich, Keith E

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing distinction is supported by much recent evidence in cognitive science. Our preferred theoretical approach is one in which rapid autonomous processes (Type 1) are assumed to yield default responses unless intervened on by distinctive higher order reasoning processes (Type 2). What defines the difference is that Type 2 processing supports hypothetical thinking and load heavily on working memory. PMID:26172965

  5. Recent advances in the deformation processing of titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamirisakandala, S.; Bhat, R. B.; Vedam, B. V.

    2003-12-01

    Titanium (Ti) alloys are special-purpose materials used for several critical applications in aerospace as well as non-aerospace industries, and extensive deformation processing is necessary to shape-form these materials, which poses many challenges due to the microstructural complexities. Some of the recent developments in the deformation processing of Ti alloys and usefulness of integrating the material behavior information with simulation schemes while designing and optimizing manufacturing process schedules are discussed in this paper. Discussions are primarily focused on the most important alloy, Ti-6Al-4V and on developing a clear understanding on the influence of key parameters (e.g., oxygen content, starting microstructure, temperature, and strain rate) on the deformation behavior during hot working. These studies are very useful not only for obtaining controlled microstructures but also to design complex multi-step processing sequences to produce defect-free components. Strain-induced porosity (SIP) has been a serious problem during titanium alloy processing, and improved scientific understanding helps in seeking elegant solutions to avoid SIP. A novel high-speed processing technique for microstructural conversion in titanium has been described, which provides several benefits over the conventional slow-speed practices. The hot working behavior of some of the affordable α+β and β titanium alloys being developed recently—namely, Ti-5.5Al-1Fe, Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al, Ti-6.8Mo-4.5Fe-1.5Al, and Ti-10V-4.5Fe-1.5Al—has been analyzed, and the usefulness of the processing maps in optimizing the process parameters and design of hot working schedules in these alloys is demonstrated. Titanium alloys modified with small additions of boron are emerging as potential candidates for replacing structural components requiring high specific strength and stiffness. Efforts to understand the microstructural mechanisms during deformation processing of Ti-B alloys and the issues

  6. Improving the Advance Directive Request and Retrieval Process in Critical Access Hospitals: Honoring the Patient's Wishes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Faith M; Sabin, Tawnie L; Torma, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    The Patient Self-Determination Act was created to enhance awareness and use of advance directives. Several states also have created registries where the advance directives can be easily retrieved when needed. Quick retrieval is especially important in critical access hospitals where patients are often transferred to other facilities. This article describes an innovative project designed to improve the advance directives request and retrieval process on admission to a critical access hospital. PMID:26681498

  7. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objectives of the present program are to: (1) improve the performance of the electrochemical CO2 removal technique by increasing CO2 removal efficiencies at pCO2 levels below 400 Pa, increasing cell power output and broadening the tolerance of electrochemical cells for operation over wide ranges of cabin relative humidity; (2) design, fabricate, and assemble development hardware to continue the evolution of the electrochemical concentrating technique from the existing level to an advanced level able to efficiently meet the CO2 removal needs of a spacecraft air revitalization system (ARS); (3) develop and incorporate into the EDC the components and concepts that allow for the efficient integration of the electrochemical technique with other subsystems to form a spacecraft ARS; (4) combine ARS functions to enable the elimination of subsystem components and interfaces; and (5) demonstrate the integration concepts through actual operation of a functionally integrated ARS.

  8. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  9. Use of respirometer in evaluation of process and toxicity of thermophilic anaerobic digestion for treating kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Chien; Cheng, Kae-Yiin

    2007-07-01

    A thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAnD, 55 degrees C) system was adopted to hydrolyze the kitchen waste for 3 days, which was then fermented for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The TAnD system performed much better than a similar system without thermal pre-treatment. A bubble respirometer was employed to study the effects of thermal pre-treatment, which showed that pre-treatment at 60 degrees C yielded the highest Total COD (TCOD) removal efficiency (79.2%) after 300h reaction. Respirometer results also indicated that oil and grease (O and G) began to inhibit the TAnD system at a concentration of approximately 1000mg/L and the gas production was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of approximately 7500mg/L of sodium. PMID:16930997

  10. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  11. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles. PMID:27265244

  12. The digestibility of waste activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Abu-Orf, Mohammad M; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory digestion studies using waste activated sludges (WAS) were conducted to compare the digestion performance between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Nine samples of WAS from seven wastewater treatment plants were collected and batch-digested under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for 30 days at 25 degrees C. The cation content of wastewater (both floc and solution phases) and solution biopolymer (protein and polysaccharide) was measured before and after digestion and compared with volatile solids destruction data. The study revealed that each digestion process was associated with a distinct biopolymer fraction, which accounted for differences in volatile solids reduction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion data showed strong correlations between soluble protein generation, ammonium production, percent volatile solids reduction, and floc iron (Fe). These data suggest that the amount of volatile solids destroyed by anaerobic digestion depends on the Fe content of floc. In aerobic digestion, polysaccharide accumulated in solution along with calcium and magnesium. For aerobic digestion, correlations between divalent cation release and the production of inorganic nitrogen were found. This implies that divalent cation-bound biopolymer, thought to be lectin-like protein, was the primary organic fraction degraded under aerobic conditions. The results of the study show that the cation content in wastewater is an important indicator of the material that will digest under anaerobic or aerobic conditions and that some of the volatile solids will digest only under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. PMID:16553167

  13. Effect of different pH-values on process parameters in two-phase anaerobic digestion of high-solid substrates.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Jonas; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In many publications, primary fermentation is described as a limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of fibre-rich biomass [Eastman JA, Ferguson JF. Solubilization of particulacte carbon during the anaerobic digeston. J WPCF. 1981;53:352-366; Noike T, Endo G, Chang J, Yaguchi J, Matsumoto J. Characteristics of carbohydrate degradation and the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1985;27:1482-1489; Arntz HJ, Stoppok E, Buchholz K. Anaerobic hydroysis of beet pulp-discontiniuous experiments. Biotechnol Lett. 1985;7:113-118]. The microorganisms of the primary fermentation process differ widely from the methanogenic microorganisms [Pohland FG, Ghosh S. Developments in anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes-the two-phase concept. Environ Lett. 1971;1:255-266]. To optimize the biogas process, a separation in two phases is suggested by many authors [Fox P, Pohland GK. Anaerobic treatment applications and fundamentals: substrate specificity during phase separation. Water Environ Res. 1994;66:716-724; Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580]. To carry out the examination, a two-phase laboratory-scale biogas plant was established, with a physical phase separation. In previous studies, the regulation of the pH-value during the acid formation was usually carried out by the addition of sodium hydroxide [Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580; Ueno Y, Tatara M, Fukui H, Makiuchi T, Goto M, Sode K. Production of hydrogen and methane from organic solid wastes by phase separation of anaerobic process. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98:1861-1865; Zoetemeyer RJ, van den Heuvel JC, Cohen A. pH influence on acidogenic dissimilation of glucose in an anaerobic digestor. Water Res. 1982;16:303-311]. A new technology

  14. Recent advancements in low cost solar cell processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    A proof-of-concept solar cell process has been developed that is adaptable to automation. This involved the development of a new contact system, a new antireflection coating system, a drift field cell design and a new contoured surface treatment. All these processes are performed without the use of vacuum chambers and expensive masking techniques, thus providing the possibility of reduced costs by automation using conventional semiconductor processing machinery. The contacts were printed on the cells by conventional silk screen machinery. The P(+) back field was formed by diffusing in aluminum from a printed aluminum back contact. The antireflection coating was formed by spinning on and baking a TiO2-SiO2 glass film. Air-mass-zero efficiencies of over 10% were achieved using this completely vacuum-free process.

  15. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  16. Holographic femtosecond laser manipulation for advanced material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2016-02-01

    Parallel femtosecond laser processing using a computer-generated hologram displayed on a spatial light modulator, known as holographic femtosecond laser processing, provides the advantages of high throughput and high-energy use efficiency. Therefore, it has been widely used in many applications, including laser material processing, two-photon polymerization, two-photon microscopy, and optical manipulation of biological cells. In this paper, we review the development of holographic femtosecond laser processing over the past few years from the perspective of wavefront and polarization modulation. In particular, line-shaped and vector-wave femtosecond laser processing are addressed. These beam-shaping techniques are useful for performing large-area machining in laser cutting, peeling, and grooving of materials and for high-speed fabrication of the complex nanostructures that are applied to material-surface texturing to control tribological properties, wettability, reflectance, and retardance. Furthermore, issues related to the nonuniformity of diffraction light intensity in optical reconstruction and wavelength dispersion from a computer-generated hologram are addressed. As a result, large-scale holographic femtosecond laser processing over 1000 diffraction spots was successfully demonstrated on a glass sample.

  17. Program to investigate advanced laser processing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breinan, E. M.; Snow, D. B.; Brown, C. O.

    1981-01-01

    This program included two major areas of research. In the processing area, a LAYERGLAZE (trade name) apparatus using a powder feed was developed and used to produce a 13.2 cm diameter by 3 cm thick cylindrical blank which was used as a preform for a scale model gas turbine disk. In addition to demonstrating that the process was capable of fabricating model size parts, mechanical testing and microstructural analysis of LAYERGLAZED material indicated that LAYERGLAZED parts exhibit good structural integrity and that the process produces no sizable or serious fabrication flaws provided that the alloy has adequate 'weldability' at high cooling rates. In a second major area, design of a LAYERGLAZE-processable superalloy was undertaken. With the system Ni-Al-Mo - X, numerous processable compositions were found, however, these compositions were characterized by embrittling phase transformations in the 600-800 deg temperature range. The research efforts in the alloy design area aimed at understanding and controlling this instability produced several alloys in the Ni-Al-Mo + X family which appeared to demonstrate the necessary characteristics of processability and phase stability. The mechanical properties of these alloys are being evaluated under an additional program. In addition to alloys from the above system, a number of additional alloys with high strength potentials have been developed based on other systems.

  18. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  19. Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lorton, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study consisted of a technical evaluation and economic comparison of sulfur removal processes for integration into a coal gasification-molten carbonate (CGMC) fuel cell power plant. Initially, the performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and screened for conformance to the conditions and requirements expected in commercial CGMC power plants. Four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen-blown and air-blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas (1 ppMv or 25 ppMv). The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed for the essentially complete removal of sulfur compounds. The impact on the overall plant performance was also determined. The total capital requirement for sulfur removal schemes ranged from $59.4/kW to $84.8/kW for the oxygen-blown cases and from $89.5/kW to $133/kW for the air-blown cases. The O and M costs for sulfur removal for 70% plant capacity factor ranged from 0.82 mills/kWh to 2.76 mills/kWh for the oxygen-blown cases and from 1.77 mills/kWh to 4.88 mills/kWh for the air-blown cases. The Selexol process benefitted the most from the addition of COS hydrolysis pretreatment.

  20. Heat damage and in vitro starch digestibility of puffed wheat kernels.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Stefano; Hidalgo, Alyssa; Masotti, Fabio; Stuknytė, Milda; Brandolini, Andrea; De Noni, Ivano

    2015-12-01

    The effect of processing conditions on heat damage, starch digestibility, release of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and antioxidant capacity of puffed cereals was studied. The determination of several markers arising from Maillard reaction proved pyrraline (PYR) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) as the most reliable indices of heat load applied during puffing. The considerable heat load was evidenced by the high levels of both PYR (57.6-153.4 mg kg(-1) dry matter) and HMF (13-51.2 mg kg(-1) dry matter). For cost and simplicity, HMF looked like the most appropriate index in puffed cereals. Puffing influenced starch in vitro digestibility, being most of the starch (81-93%) hydrolyzed to maltotriose, maltose and glucose whereas only limited amounts of AGEs were released. The relevant antioxidant capacity revealed by digested puffed kernels can be ascribed to both the new formed Maillard reaction products and the conditions adopted during in vitro digestion. PMID:26041194

  1. Advancements in organic antireflective coatings for dual-damascene processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shreeram V.; Shao, Xie; Lamb, James E., III; Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Johnson, Joe; Wu, Xiaoming; Xu, Gu; Simmons, William J.

    2000-06-01

    Dual Damascene (DD) process has been implemented in manufacturing semiconductor devices with smaller feature sizes (process is the most commonly used process for manufacturing semiconductor devices since it requires less number of processing steps and also it can make use of a via fill material to minimize the resist thickness variations in the trench patterning photolithography step. Absence of via fill material results in non-uniform fill of vias (in isolated and dense via regions) thus leading to non-uniform focus and dose for exposure of the resist in the deep vias. This results in poor resolution and poor critical dimension (CD) control in the trench-patterning step. When a via fill organic material such as a bottom anti- reflective coating (BARC) is used, then the resist thickness variations are minimized thus enhancing the resolution and CD control in trench patterning. Via fill organic BARC materials can also act as etch blocks at the base of the via to protect the substrate from over etch. In this paper we review the important role of via fill organic BARCs in improving the efficiency of via first DD process now being implemented in semiconductor manufacturing.

  2. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  3. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications. PMID:25629307

  4. Changes in microbial community during hydrogen and methane production in two-stage thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion process from biowaste.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, S; Solera, R; Micolucci, F; Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the microbial community in a two-phase thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion process was investigated for its role in hydrogen and methane production, treating waste activated sludge and treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. In the acidogenic phase, in which hydrogen is produced, Clostridium sp. clusters represented 76% of total Firmicutes. When feeding the acidogenic effluent into the methanogenic reactors, these acidic conditions negatively influenced methanogenic microorganisms: Methanosaeta sp., (Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, Methanococcales) decreased by 75%, 50%, 38% and 52%, respectively. At the same time, methanogenic digestion lowered the numbers of Clostridium sp. clusters due to both pH increasing and substrate reduction, and an increase in both Firmicutes genera (non Clostridium) and methanogenic microorganisms, especially Methanosaeta sp. (208%). This was in accordance with the observed decrease in acetic (98%) and butyric (100%) acid contents. To ensure the activity of the acetate-utilizing methanogens (AUM) and the acetogens, high ratios of H2-utilizing methanogens (HUM)/AUM (3.6) were required. PMID:26810032

  5. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  6. Recent Advances in Combustion Technology for Heating Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Masashi

    Recent advancement in industrial furnaces brought by highly preheated air combustion is reviewed. Highly Preheated Air Combustion in regenerative furnaces has been paid much attention for its accomplishment in not only energy saving but also low nitric oxides emission. Characteristics of combustion with highly preheated air were studied to understand the change of combustion regime and the reason for the compatibility between high performance and low nitric oxides emission. It was found that combustion was sustained even in an extremely low concentration of oxygen if the temperature of oxidizer was higher than the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel. As an application of the principle, we can reduce nitric oxides emission by dilution of combustion air with plenty of recirculated burned gas in the furnace. Dilution makes the oxygen content of the oxidizer low, which decreases temperature fluctuations in flames as well as the mean temperature, hence low nitric oxides emission. Finally, the applicability of highly preheated air combustion to other fields than industrial furnaces has been discussed.

  7. Advanced process selectively removes H/sub 2/S

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-08

    A selective H/sub 2/S-removal scheme called the HS process is being tested at a New Mexico pilot plant having an 18-in-diam contactor, a 24-in-diam stripping still, and a 30-gpm solution flow capacity. The test program goals are to (1) demonstrate the technical and economic superiority of the process over other options, and (2) redefine mass-transfer and ray hydraulic data for scale-up to commercial size. The technology combines a selective chemical solvent based on methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a unique contactor design, and an innovative selective contactor tray.

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS UTILIZING NB-DOPED TIO2 ELECTRODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An electrochemical advanced oxidation process has been developed utilizing electrodes which generate hydroxyl free radical (HO) by oxidizing water. All substrates tested are oxidized, mostly with reaction rates proportional to the corresponding rate constants for reaction with hy...

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS UTILIZING NB-DOPED TIO2 ELECTRODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An electrochemical advanced oxidation process has been developed, utilizing electrodes which generate hydroxyl free radical (HO) by oxidizing water. All substrates tested are oxidized, mostly with reaction rates proportional to the corresponding rate constants for reaction with h...

  10. The pultrusion process for structures on advanced aerospace transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Macconochie, Ian O.; Johnson, Gary S.

    1986-01-01

    The pultrusion process, which has the potential for use in the manufacture of structures for aerospace hardware, is described. In this process, reinforcing fibers are pulled continuously through a resin system for wetting and subsequently through a heated die for polymerization. By using this process, fabrication of very long lengths of high strength, lightweight structures with consistently high quality for aerospace applications is possible. The more conventional processes involve hand lay-up, vacuum bagging, autoclaving or oven curing techniques such that lengths of structural elements produced are limited by the lengths of autoclaves or curing ovens. Several types of developmental structural elements are described in which fiberglass, aramid, graphite, and hybrid fiber systems have been used as reinforcements in an epoxy matrix and their flexural properties compared. Reinforcement fibers having tailor-made orientations which achieve tailor-made strength in the pultrusions are described. The potential aerospace applications for the pultruded products are described with advantages cited over conventional hand lay-up methods.

  11. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  12. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines current developments

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.

    1997-03-10

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the R&D effort allowed to identify a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became a basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource and therefore differs, the emerging technology has to be also flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  13. Advances in iridium alloy processing in FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Heestand, R.L.

    1989-12-01

    A new process for the production of DOP-26 iridium alloy blanks is being evaluated and optimized. The alloy is prepared by electron-beam (EB) melting of Ir-0.3% W powder compacts followed by doping with aluminum and thorium by arc melting. Drop-cast alloy rod segments are EB welded together into an electrode that is arc melted to produce an ingot for extrusion and subsequent sheet rolling and blanking. Initial results showed rejections for ultrasonic indications for alloy blanks fabricated by this process to be very low. Subsequently, some ingots have exhibited delaminations in the sheet, leading to blank rejection rates similar to that obtained in the standard process. The occurrence of ultrasonic indications in the blanks are now shown to be associated with the presence of subsurface flaws in the arc-melted ingot that are not healed during extrusion or the subsequent rolling of the sheet. There is substantial evidence indicating that the occurrence of surface and subsurface flaws in the ingots are exacerbated by the relatively small clearances between the electrode and the side wall of the 51-mm-diam mold. These results obtained from experimental melts, with both stainless steel and scrap iridium alloy materials, have led to a recommendation for arc melting in a large 63-mm-diam mold. The fabrication of blanks from this larger diameter ingot is under way. The efficiency of iridium material utilization in the new process is also discussed. 2 refs., 23 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Current developments

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Bajsarowicz, V.; McCloud, M.

    1997-07-07

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the r and D effort identified a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became the basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource, the emerging technology has to be flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  15. Automatic optimization of metrology sampling scheme for advanced process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chue, Chuei-Fu; Huang, Chun-Yen; Shih, Chiang-Lin

    2011-03-01

    In order to ensure long-term profitability, driving the operational costs down and improving the yield of a DRAM manufacturing process are continuous efforts. This includes optimal utilization of the capital equipment. The costs of metrology needed to ensure yield are contributing to the overall costs. As the shrinking of device dimensions continues, the costs of metrology are increasing because of the associated tightening of the on-product specifications requiring more metrology effort. The cost-of-ownership reduction is tackled by increasing the throughput and availability of metrology systems. However, this is not the only way to reduce metrology effort. In this paper, we discuss how the costs of metrology can be improved by optimizing the recipes in terms of the sampling layout, thereby eliminating metrology that does not contribute to yield. We discuss results of sampling scheme optimization for on-product overlay control of two DRAM manufacturing processes at Nanya Technology Corporation. For a 6x DRAM production process, we show that the reduction of metrology waste can be as high as 27% and overlay can be improved by 36%, comparing with a baseline sampling scheme. For a 4x DRAM process, having tighter overlay specs, a gain of ca. 0.5nm on-product overlay could be achieved, without increasing the metrology effort relative to the original sampling plan.

  16. High-speed parallel-processing networks for advanced architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.R.

    1988-06-01

    This paper describes various parallel-processing architecture networks that are candidates for eventual airborne use. An attempt at projecting which type of network is suitable or optimum for specific metafunction or stand-alone applications is made. However, specific algorithms will need to be developed and bench marks executed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Also, a conceptual projection of how these processors can be built in small, flyable units through the use of wafer-scale integration is offered. The use of the PAVE PILLAR system architecture to provide system level support for these tightly coupled networks is described. The author concludes that: (1) extremely high processing speeds implemented in flyable hardware is possible through parallel-processing networks if development programs are pursued; (2) dramatic speed enhancements through parallel processing requires an excellent match between the algorithm and computer-network architecture; (3) matching several high speed parallel oriented algorithms across the aircraft system to a limited set of hardware modules may be the most cost-effective approach to achieving speed enhancements; and (4) software-development tools and improved operating systems will need to be developed to support efficient parallel-processor use.

  17. Requirements for Advanced Programming Systems for List Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobrow, Daniel G.

    List Processing systems are designed to facilitate production of large programs to manipulate large complex symbolic data stores. This paper presents an overview of a number of system features which are important for improving the productivity of programers working in such domains. A systems view is taken, rather than focusing just on language…

  18. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  19. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of

  20. Advanced precoat filtration and competitive processes for water purification. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1989-01-28

    An advanced precoat filtration process system is introduced. Also presented and discussed are major competitive processes for water purification, such as conventional precoat filtration, conventional physical-chemical process, lime softening, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis, and packed aeration column.

  1. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  2. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  3. Advanced metal mirror processing for tactical ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, John P.

    2013-05-01

    Using its patented VQ™ finishing process, Raytheon EO Innovations has been producing low-scatter, low-figure and affordable aluminum 6061-based mirrors for long stand-off intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems in production since 2005. These common aperture multispectral systems require λ/30 root mean square (RMS) surface figure and sub-20Å RMS finishes for optimal visible imaging performance. This paper discusses the process results, scatter performance, and fabrication capabilities of Multispectral Reflective Lightweight Optics Technology (MeRLOT™), a new lightweight substrate material. This new technology enables lightweight, common-aperture, broadband performance that can be put in the hands of the warfighter for precision targeting and surveillance operations.

  4. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  5. Combining advanced imaging processing and low cost remote imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew J.; McQuiddy, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Target images are very important for evaluating the situation when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are deployed. These images add a significant amount of information to determine the difference between hostile and non-hostile activities, the number of targets in an area, the difference between animals and people, the movement dynamics of targets, and when specific activities of interest are taking place. The imaging capabilities of UGS systems need to provide only target activity and not images without targets in the field of view. The current UGS remote imaging systems are not optimized for target processing and are not low cost. McQ describes in this paper an architectural and technologic approach for significantly improving the processing of images to provide target information while reducing the cost of the intelligent remote imaging capability.

  6. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  7. Interferometric metrology of wafer nanotopography for advanced CMOS process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, John F.; Koliopoulos, Chris L.; Tang, Shouhong

    2001-12-01

    According to industry standards (SEMI M43, Guide for Reporting Wafer Nanotopography), Nanotopography is the non- planar deviation of the whole front wafer surface within a spatial wavelength range of approximately 0.2 to 20 mm and within the fixed quality area (FQA). The need for precision metrology of wafer nanotopography is being actively addressed by interferometric technology. In this paper we present an approach to mapping the whole wafer front surface nanotopography using an engineered coherence interferometer. The interferometer acquires a whole wafer raw topography map. The raw map is then filtered to remove the long spatial wavelength, high amplitude shape contributions and reveal the nanotopography in the filtered map. Filtered maps can be quantitatively analyzed in a variety of ways to enable statistical process control (SPC) of nanotopography parameters. The importance of tracking these parameters for CMOS gate level processes at 180-nm critical dimension, and below, is examined.

  8. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  9. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  10. Investigation of Advanced Processed Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. J.; Biondo, C. M.; DeLuca, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation studied the influence of thermal processing and microstructure on the mechanical properties of the single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys PWA 1482 and PWA 1484. The objective of the program was to develop an improved single-crystal turbine blade alloy that is specifically tailored for use in hydrogen fueled rocket engine turbopumps. High-gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and alternate heat treatment (HT) processing parameters were developed to produce pore-free, eutectic-free microstructures with different (gamma)' precipitate morphologies. Test materials were cast in high thermal gradient solidification (greater than 30 C/cm (137 F/in.)) casting furnaces for reduced dendrite arm spacing, improved chemical homogeneity, and reduced interdendritic pore size. The HIP processing was conducted in 40 cm (15.7 in.) diameter production furnaces using a set of parameters selected from a trial matrix study. Metallography was conducted on test samples taken from each respective trial run to characterize the as-HIP microstructure. Post-HIP alternate HT processes were developed for each of the two alloys. The goal of the alternate HT processing was to fully solution the eutectic gamma/(gamma)' phase islands and to develop a series of modified (gamma)' morphologies for subsequent characterization testing. This was accomplished by slow cooling through the (gamma)' solvus at controlled rates to precipitate volume fractions of large (gamma)'. Post-solution alternate HT parameters were established for each alloy providing additional volume fractions of finer precipitates. Screening tests included tensile, high-cycle fatigue (HCF), smooth and notched low-cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and fatigue crack growth evaluations performed in air and high pressure (34.5 MPa (5 ksi)) hydrogen at room and elevated temperature. Under the most severe embrittling conditions (HCF and smooth and notched LCF in 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) hydrogen at 20 C (68 F), screening test

  11. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-07-05

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yieldedmore » anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  12. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  13. Effect of Natural Mineral on Methane Production and Process Stability During Semi-Continuous Mono-Digestion of Maize Straw.

    PubMed

    González-Suárez, A; Pereda-Reyes, I; Pozzi, E; da Silva, A José; Oliva-Merencio, D; Zaiat, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of natural mineral on the mono-digestion of maize straw was evaluated in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 38 °C. Different strategies of mineral addition were studied. The organic loading rate (OLR) was varied from 0.5 to 2.5 g volatile solid (VS) L(-1) d(-1). A daily addition of 1 g mineral L(-1) in reactor 2 (R2) diminished the methane production by about 11 % with respect to the initial phase. However, after a gradual addition of mineral, an average methane yield of 257 NmL CH4 g VS(-1) was reached and the methane production was enhanced by 30 % with regard to R1. An increase in the frequency of mineral addition did not enhance the methane production. The archaeal community was more sensitive to the mineral than the bacterial population whose similarity stayed high between R1 and R2. Significant difference in methane yield was found for both reactors throughout the operation. PMID:26728653

  14. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  15. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  16. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  17. Advanced high-resolution mask processes using optical proximity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y. David

    1999-08-01

    The benefits of incorporating some 'distortion' to the design data in order to produce the desired results on the wafers has been recognized for many years. This 'distortion' has come to be commonly referred to as optical proximity correction (OPC) by the lithography community. In today's era of high throughput laser reticle writing tools, line shortening and corner rounding has forced OPC up the lithography tree from wafer imaging to reticle imaging. With the increasing popularity of 4X systems, the comparatively large spot laser reticle writing systems in the field today need to be extended before being rendered useless for critical reticle requirements due to reticle corner rounding, line shortening and scatter bar resolution. These problems must be resolved in order to extend the use of laser tool for technology node below 0.25 micrometer. Some previous work has been done in adding corner serifs to eliminate corner rounding in contact holes. It was clear from the results that the optimal serifs sizes could be different when patterns were written on different tools. However, there is no clear understanding how the process may affect the outcome. A recent paper by W. Ziegler, et al shows the effect of adding small serifs to line ends on line end shortening based on aerial image and wafer measurement. This paper will discuss the effect of Laser Proximity correction (LPC) and the reticle manufacturing processes on pattern fidelity. CAPROX LPCTM is used to correct for distoritons during the mask exposure. Not only will the impact of lithographic tools on OPC be discussed, but an examination of the effect of wet and dry etched processes on corner rounding, image fidelity, and line end shortening will also be presented.

  18. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  19. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  20. Advances in Linac-Based Technology for Industrial Radiation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1997-04-01

    Experience with the Industrial Materials Processing Electron Linear Accelerator, IMPELA, over 30,000 hours of 50 kW operation is reported for three irradiators, two of which are in commercial service. Operations are sufficiently mature that research is now concentrated on split beams, photon conversion, dose monitoring, beam scanning, new shielding designs and QA controls. The efficacy of increasing the incident electron energy on bremsstrahlung converters to 7.5 MeV, as proposed by an IAEA committee, is examined experimentally on an IMPELA accelerator over the energy range 7 MeV to 11 MeV to evaluate conversion efficiency, activation of machine components, converter engineering and the activation of red meat. Above 8 MeV the radioactive isotopes ^38Cl and ^24Na, formed primarily by neutrons produced in a tantalum converter, were clearly identified in the meat, while above 10.5 MeV the radiation from ^13N becomes dominant. Implications for the practicality of processing other high density products are discussed.

  1. Advanced simulation of hydroelectric transient process with Comsol/Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Yang, J. D.

    2010-08-01

    In the study of hydroelectric system, the research of its transient process and the improvement of its simulation accuracy are restricted mainly by the precision mismatch among the hydraulic and power system models. Simulink provides a very rich control and automation model library system, thus electrical and mechanical conditioning control systems can be accurately simulated. However, it can only solve time but spatial integral problem. Due to that cause, the hydraulic system model often needs to be simplified in course of the simulation of hydroelectric transient process. Comsol, a partial differential equation (PDEs)-based multi-physics finite element analysis software, can precisely simulate the hydraulic system model. Being developed in the Matlab environment, it also can seamlessly integrate with Simulink. In this paper, based on the individual component model, an integral hydraulic-mechanical-electric system model is established by implementing Comsol code into the Simulink S-Function. This model helps to study the interaction between the hydraulic system and the electric system, and analyze the transients of a hydro plant. Meanwhile the calculation results are compared and analyzed with the general simulation system only by using Simulink.

  2. Development of Advanced Multizone Facilities for Microgravity Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been interested in experimental ground based study to investigate the fundamental processes involved in phase transformation processes during growth of metallic, nonmetallic and electronic materials. Solidification, vapor growth and solution growth techniques of growing crystals are of special interest because of the inherent importance of convection in the nutrient solution. Convection enhances the mass transport through the nutrient and results in faster growth rates. Availability of low gravity environment of space has provided scientists a new variable to control the extent of convection and thus isolate the diffusive phenomena for their better understanding. The thermal gradient at the liquid-solid interface is determined by the alloy characteristics, the hot zone temperature, cold zone temperature and the width of the insulating zone. The thermal profiles get established by the existing material and geometrical constraints of the experimental set up. The major effort under this research was devoted to designing a programmable furnace which can be used to obtain thermal profiles along the length of the sample as per the demands of the scientists. The furnace did not have active cooling of the zones. Only active heating and passive cooling were utilized.

  3. Advances in Coupling of Kinetics and Molecular Scale Tools to Shed Light on Soil Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-02

    Biogeochemical processes in soils such as sorption, precipitation, and redox play critical roles in the cycling and fate of nutrients, metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in soil and water environments. Advanced analytical tools enable soil scientists to track these processes in real-time and at the molecular scale. Our review focuses on recent research that has employed state-of-the-art molecular scale spectroscopy, coupled with kinetics, to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient and metal(loid) reactivity and speciation in soils. We found that by coupling kinetics with advanced molecular and nano-scale tools major advances have been made in elucidating important soil chemical processes including sorption, precipitation, dissolution, and redox of metal(loids) and nutrients. Such advances will aid in better predicting the fate and mobility of nutrients and contaminants in soils and water and enhance environmental and agricultural sustainability.

  4. Selective simplification and reinforcement of microbial community in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion to enhancing stabilization process of sewage sludge by conditioning with ferric nitrate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ningben; Shou, Zongqi; Yuan, Haiping; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-03-01

    The effect of ferric nitrate on microbial community and enhancement of stabilization process for sewage sludge was investigated in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion. The disinhibition of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was obtained with alteration of individual VFA concentration order. Bacterial taxonomic identification by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing found the dominant phylum Proteobacteria in non-dosing group was converted to phylum Firmicutes in dosing group after ferric nitrate added and simplification of bacteria phylotypes was achieved. The preponderant Tepidiphilus sp. vanished, and Symbiobacterium sp. and Tepidimicrobium sp. were the most advantageous phylotypes with conditioning of ferric nitrate. Consequently, biodegradable substances in dissolved organic matters increased, which contributed to the favorable environment for microbial metabolism and resulted in acceleration of sludge stabilization. Ultimately, higher stabilization level was achieved as ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) decreased while TCOD reduced as well in dosing group comparing to non-dosing group. PMID:26773954

  5. An advanced microcomputer design for processing of semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoern, L.; Lindkvist, L.; Zaar, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Get Away Special 330 payload two germanium samples doped with gallium will be processed. The aim of the experiments is to create a planar solid/liquid interface, and to study the breakdown of this interface as the crystal growth rate increases. For the experiments a gradient furnace was designed which is heated by resistive heaters. Cooling is provided by circulating gas from the atmosphere in the cannister through cooling channels in the furnace. The temperature along the sample are measured by platinum/rhodium thermocouples. The furnace is controlled by a microcomputer system, based upon the processor 80C88. A data acquisition system is integrated into the system. In order to synchronize the different actions in time, a multitask manager is used.

  6. The power and efficiency of advanced software and parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Ramen P.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time simulation of flexible and articulating systems is difficult because of the computational burden of the time varying calculations. The mobile servicing system of the NASA Space Station Freedom will handle heavy payloads by local arm manipulations and by translating along the spline of the Station, it is crucial to have real-time simulation available. To enable such a simulation to be of high fidelity and to be able to be hosted on a modest computer, special care must be made in formulating the structural dynamics. Frontal solution algorithms save considerable time in performing these calculations. In addition, it is necessary to take advantage of parallel processing be compatible to take full advantage of both. An approach is offered which will result in high fidelity, real-time simulation for flexible, articulating systems such as the space Station remote servicing system.

  7. Ultrasonic Technologies for Advanced Process Monitoring, Measurement, and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J. ); Morra, Marino ); Greenwood, Margaret S. ); Bamberger, Judith A. ); Pappas, Richard A. )

    2003-06-02

    Ultrasonic signals are well suited to the characterization of liquids, slurries and multi-phase flows. Ultrasound sensor systems provide real-time, in-situ measurements or visualizations and the sensing systems are compact, rugged and relatively inexpensive. The objective is to develop ultrasonic sensors that (1) can be attached permanently to a pipeline wall, possibly as a spool piece inserted into the line and (2) can clamp onto an existing pipeline wall and be movable to another location. Two examples of systems based on pulse-echo and transmission signal analysis are used to illustrate some of the capabilities of ultrasonic on-line measurements with technologies that have use in the nuclear, petro-chemical, and food process industries.

  8. Advanced Robotics for In-Space Vehicle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay; Heneghan, Cate; Bosley, John

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of spaceborne vehicle processing is described. Generic crew-EVA tasks are presented for a specific vehicle, the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), with general implications to other on-orbit vehicles. The OMV is examined with respect to both servicing and maintenance. Crew-EVA activities are presented by task and mapped to a common set of generic crew-EVA primitives to identify high-demand areas for telerobot services. Similarly, a set of telerobot primitives is presented that can be used to model telerobot actions for alternative telerobot reference configurations. The telerobot primitives are tied to technologies and used for composting telerobot operations for an automated refueling scenario. Telerobotics technology issues and design accomodation guidelines (hooks and scars) for the Space Station Freedom are described.

  9. Advanced Research Deposition System (ARDS) for processing CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barricklow, Keegan Corey

    CdTe solar cells have been commercialized at the Gigawatt/year level. The development of volume manufacturing processes for next generation CdTe photovoltaics (PV) with higher efficiencies requires research systems with flexibility, scalability, repeatability and automation. The Advanced Research Deposition Systems (ARDS) developed by the Materials Engineering Laboratory (MEL) provides such a platform for the investigation of materials and manufacturing processes necessary to produce the next generation of CdTe PV. Limited by previous research systems, the ARDS was developed to provide process and hardware flexibility, accommodating advanced processing techniques, and capable of producing device quality films. The ARDS is a unique, in-line process tool with nine processing stations. The system was designed, built and assembled at the Materials Engineering Laboratory. Final assembly, startup, characterization and process development are the focus of this research. Many technical challenges encountered during the startup of the ARDS were addressed in this research. In this study, several hardware modifications needed for the reliable operation of the ARDS were designed, constructed and successfully incorporated into the ARDS. The effect of process condition on film properties for each process step was quantified. Process development to achieve 12% efficient baseline solar cell required investigation of discrete processing steps, troubleshooting process variation, and developing performance correlations. Subsequent to this research, many advances have been demonstrated with the ARDS. The ARDS consistently produces devices of 12% +/-.5% by the process of record (POR). The champion cell produced to date utilizing the ARDS has an efficiency of 16.2% on low cost commercial sodalime glass and utilizes advanced films. The ARDS has enabled investigation of advanced concepts for processing CdTe devices including, Plasma Cleaning, Plasma Enhanced Closed Space Sublimation

  10. Optimization of segmented alignment marks for advanced semiconductor fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Lu, Zhijian G.; Williams, Gary; Zach, Franz X.; Liegl, Bernhard

    2001-08-01

    The continued downscaling of semiconductor fabrication ground rule has imposed increasingly tighter overlay tolerances, which becomes very challenging at the 100 nm lithographic node. Such tight tolerances will require very high performance in alignment. Past experiences indicate that good alignment depends largely on alignment signal quality, which, however, can be strongly affected by chip design and various fabrication processes. Under some extreme circumstances, they can even be reduced to the non- usable limit. Therefore, a systematic understanding of alignment marks and a method to predict alignment performance based on mark design are necessary. Motivated by this, we have performed a detailed study of bright field segmented alignment marks that are used in current state-of- the-art fabrication processes. We find that alignment marks at different lithographic levels can be organized into four basic categories: trench mark, metal mark, damascene mark, and combo mark. The basic principles of these four types of marks turn out to be so similar that they can be characterized within the theoretical framework of a simple model based on optical gratings. An analytic expression has been developed for such model and it has been tested using computer simulation with the rigorous time-domain finite- difference (TD-FD) algorithm TEMPEST. Consistent results have been obtained; indicating that mark signal can be significantly improved through the optimization of mark lateral dimensions, such as segment pitch and segment width. We have also compared simulation studies against experimental data for alignment marks at one typical lithographic level and a good agreement is found.

  11. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  12. Advanced bulk processing of lightweight materials for utilization in the transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Justin L.

    The overall objective of this research is to develop the microstructure of metallic lightweight materials via multiple advanced processing techniques with potentials for industrial utilization on a large scale to meet the demands of the aerospace and automotive sectors. This work focused on (i) refining the grain structure to increase the strength, (ii) controlling the texture to increase formability and (iii) directly reducing processing/production cost of lightweight material components. Advanced processing is conducted on a bulk scale by several severe plastic deformation techniques including: accumulative roll bonding, isolated shear rolling and friction stir processing to achieve the multiple targets of this research. Development and validation of the processing techniques is achieved through wide-ranging experiments along with detailed mechanical and microstructural examination of the processed material. On a broad level, this research will make advancements in processing of bulk lightweight materials facilitating industrial-scale implementation. Where accumulative roll bonding and isolated shear rolling, currently feasible on an industrial scale, processes bulk sheet materials capable of replacing more expensive grades of alloys and enabling low-temperature and high-strain-rate formability. Furthermore, friction stir processing to manufacture lightweight tubes, made from magnesium alloys, has the potential to increase the utilization of these materials in the automotive and aerospace sectors for high strength - high formability applications. With the increased utilization of these advanced processing techniques will significantly reduce the cost associated with lightweight materials for many applications in the transportation sectors.

  13. Advanced Signal Processing Methods Applied to Digital Mammography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauduhar, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The work reported here is on the extension of the earlier proposal of the same title, August 1994-June 1996. The report for that work is also being submitted. The work reported there forms the foundation for this work from January 1997 to September 1997. After the earlier work was completed there were a few items that needed to be completed prior to submission of a new and more comprehensive proposal for further research. Those tasks have been completed and two new proposals have been submitted, one to NASA, and one to Health & Human Services WS). The main purpose of this extension was to refine some of the techniques that lead to automatic large scale evaluation of full mammograms. Progress on each of the proposed tasks follows. Task 1: A multiresolution segmentation of background from breast has been developed and tested. The method is based on the different noise characteristics of the two different fields. The breast field has more power in the lower octaves and the off-breast field behaves similar to a wideband process, where more power is in the high frequency octaves. After the two fields are separated by lowpass filtering, a region labeling routine is used to find the largest contiguous region, the breast. Task 2: A wavelet expansion that can decompose the image without zero padding has been developed. The method preserves all properties of the power-of-two wavelet transform and does not add appreciably to computation time or storage. This work is essential for analysis of the full mammogram, as opposed to selecting sections from the full mammogram. Task 3: A clustering method has been developed based on a simple counting mechanism. No ROC analysis has been performed (and was not proposed), so we cannot finally evaluate this work without further support. Task 4: Further testing of the filter reveals that different wavelet bases do yield slightly different qualitative results. We cannot provide quantitative conclusions about this for all possible bases

  14. Delicate visual artifacts of advanced digital video processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Marina M.; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2005-03-01

    With the incoming of digital TV, sophisticated video processing algorithms have been developed to improve the rendering of motion or colors. However, the perceived subjective quality of these new systems sometimes happens to be in conflict with the objective measurable improvement we expect to get. In this presentation, we show examples where algorithms should visually improve the skin tone rendering of decoded pictures under normal conditions, but surprisingly fail, when the quality of mpeg encoding drops below a just noticeable threshold. In particular, we demonstrate that simple objective criteria used for the optimization, such as SAD, PSNR or histogram sometimes fail, partly because they are defined on a global scale, ignoring local characteristics of the picture content. We then integrate a simple human visual model to measure potential artifacts with regard to spatial and temporal variations of the objects' characteristics. Tuning some of the model's parameters allows correlating the perceived objective quality with compression metrics of various encoders. We show the evolution of our reference parameters in respect to the compression ratios. Finally, using the output of the model, we can control the parameters of the skin tone algorithm to reach an improvement in overall system quality.

  15. Technology tradeoffs related to advanced mission waste processing.

    PubMed

    Slavin, T J; Oleson, M W

    1991-10-01

    Manned missions to the Moon and Mars will produce waste, both in liquid and solid form, from the day-to-day life-support functions of the mission--even considering a "closed" physico-chemical life support approach. An "open" life support system configuration, even one reliant on in situ resources, would result in even more waste being produced. The solution for short term missions appears to be either to store these wastes on-site or to convert them to useful products needed by other systems such as methane, water and gases which could be used for propulsion. The solution for longer term missions appears to be to incorporate their use within the life support system itself by making them a part of a closed ecological life-support system where nearly all materials are recycled. This paper discusses briefly the extent and impact of the life-support system waste production problem for a lunar base for different life support system configurations, including the impact of using in situ resources to meet life support requirements. It then discusses in more detail trade-offs among six of the currently funded physico-chemical waste processing technologies being considered for use in space. PMID:11537692

  16. Automated angiogenesis quantification through advanced image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charlampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels in tumors, is an interactive process between tumor, endothelial and stromal cells in order to create a network for oxygen and nutrients supply, necessary for tumor growth. According to this, angiogenic activity is considered a suitable method for both tumor growth or inhibition detection. The angiogenic potential is usually estimated by counting the number of blood vessels in particular sections. One of the most popular assay tissues to study the angiogenesis phenomenon is the developing chick embryo and its chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), which is a highly vascular structure lining the inner surface of the egg shell. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an automated image analysis method that would give an unbiased quantification of the micro-vessel density and growth in angiogenic CAM images. The presented method has been validated by comparing automated results to manual counts over a series of digital chick embryo photos. The results indicate the high accuracy of the tool, which has been thus extensively used for tumor growth detection at different stages of embryonic development. PMID:17946107

  17. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  18. Process control integration requirements for advanced life support systems applicable to manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, Paul; Spurlock, Jack M.; Evanich, Peggy L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of recent developments in process-control technology which might have applications in future advanced life support systems for long-duration space operations is presented. Consideration is given to design criteria related to control system selection and optimization, and process-control interfacing methodology. Attention is also given to current life support system process control strategies, innovative sensors, instrumentation and control, and innovations in process supervision.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G.

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  20. Advanced Computer Simulations Of Nanomaterials And Stochastic Biological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakova, Maria S.

    This dissertation consists of several parts. The first two chapters are devoted to of study of dynamic processes in cellular organelles called filopodia. A stochastic kinetics approach is used to describe non-equilibrium evolution of the filopodial system from nano- to micro scales. Dynamic coupling between chemistry and mechanics is also taken into account in order to investigate the influence of focal adhesions on cell motility. The second chapter explores the possibilities and effects of motor enhanced delivery of actin monomers to the polymerizing tips of filopodia, and how the steady-state filopodial length can exceed the limit set by pure diffusion. Finally, we also challenge the currently existing view of active transport and propose a new theoretical model that accurately describes the motor dynamics and concentration profiles seen in experiments in a physically meaningful way. The third chapter is a result of collaboration between three laboratories, as a part of Energy Frontier Research Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The work presented here unified the fields of synthetic chemistry, photochemistry, and computational physical chemistry in order to investigate a novel bio-synthetic compound and its energy transfer capabilities. This particular peptide-based design has never been studied via Molecular Dynamics with high precision, and it is the first attempt known to us to simulate the whole chromophore-peptide complex in solution in order to gain detailed information about its structural and dynamic features. The fourth chapter deals with the non-equilibrium relaxation induced transport of water molecules in a microemulsion. This problem required a different set of methodologies and a more detailed, all-atomistic treatment of the system. We found interesting water clustering effects and elucidated the most probable mechanism of water transfer through oil under the condition of saturated Langmuir monolayers. Together these