Science.gov

Sample records for advanced electrochemical energy

  1. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  2. Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Benjamin E.

    This dissertation discusses work aimed at developing and improving nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy storage, specifically electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This was achieved through a combination of templating, precursor selection, and heteroatom doping to control the morphology and composition of the materials for improved performance in both types of energy storage. The first part of the thesis discusses EDLCs. First, a new method to produce soft-templated carbon materials is described. This process allows for improved production of mesoporous carbon made through soft templating. The work continues with using ionic liquids to dope nitrogen into hard templated mesoporous carbon. This led to a 40% improvement in specific capacitance due to improved conductivity. The section concludes with an investigation of physical and electrochemical properties of twelve ionic liquid electrolytes to determine which parameters are most important to achieve a high energy density. The second part discusses my work on LIBs, starting with a design of a low-cost electrochemical cell for in-situ X-ray diffraction monitoring during galvanostatic cycling. It continues with the development of a novel cathode material, Li8ZrO6, with a high lithium content. In this material, the redox activity is localized on oxygen atoms. Li8ZrO6 displays initial capacities higher than those of commercial materials but has large polarization. The capacity is further improved with transition metal doping, leading to a final specific capacity of over 175 mAh/g after 140 cycles at a rate of C/5.

  3. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  4. Electrochemical and mechanical processes at surfaces and interfaces of advanced materials for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feifei

    Energy storage is a rapidly emerging field. In almost all energy storage applications, surfaces and interfaces are playing dominant roles. Examples are fuel cell electrodes, where electro-catalytic reactions occur, Li-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, where electrolyte decomposition and passivation commence simultaneously, and failure (fracture) of battery electrodes, where surface crack initiation greatly affects battery endurance. The most fundamental chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical problems in energy storage applications originate from surfaces and interfaces. This thesis investigates the electrochemical and mechanical processes at surfaces and interfaces of advanced materials for energy applications. The thesis includes the following five main research topics. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed.

  6. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution‐based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed. PMID:27840793

  7. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution-based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed.

  8. Advanced Electrochemical Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; McCloy, John S.; Matyas, Josef

    2011-12-01

    This is a brief description of PNNL's efforts in FY2011 towards developing advanced electrochemical waste forms. This is a short section that will become part of a larger document being put together by INL.

  9. Electrochemical investigations of advanced materials for microelectronic and energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goonetilleke, Pubudu Chaminda

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this work to study a selected set of advanced materials for applications in microelectronics and energy storage devices. The primary motivation of this study has been to explore the capabilities of certain modern electrochemical techniques in a number of emerging areas of material processing and characterization. The work includes both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, with applications in two rather general areas of technology, namely microelectronics and energy storage. The sub-systems selected for investigation are: (i) Electrochemical mechanical and chemical mechanical planarization (ECMP and CMP, respectively), (ii) Carbon nanotubes in combination with room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), and (iii) Cathode materials for high-performance Li ion batteries. The first group of systems represents an important building block in the fabrication of microelectronic devices. The second and third groups of systems are relevant for new energy storage technologies, and have generated immense interests in recent years. A common feature of these different systems is that they all are associated with complex surface reactions that dictate the performance of the devices based on them. Fundamental understanding of these reactions is crucial to further development and expansion of their associated technologies. It is the complex mechanistic details of these surface reactions that we address using a judicious combination of a number of state of the art electrochemical techniques. The main electrochemical techniques used in this work include: (i) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and slow scan cyclic voltammetry (SSCV, a special case of CV); (ii) Galvanostatic (or current-controlled) measurements; (iii) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), based on two different methodologies, namely, Fourier transform EIS (FT-EIS, capable of studying fast reaction kinetics in a time-resolved mode), and EIS using frequency response

  10. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  11. Recent advances in nanostructured Nb-based oxides for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Litao; Rui, Xianhong; Chen, Gen; Xu, Weichuan; Zou, Guifu; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-04-28

    For the past five years, nanostructured niobium-based oxides have emerged as one of the most prominent materials for batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cell technologies, for instance, TiNb2O7 as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), Nb2O5 as an electrode for supercapacitors (SCs), and niobium-based oxides as chemically stable electrochemical supports for fuel cells. Their high potential window can prevent the formation of lithium dendrites, and their rich redox chemistry (Nb(5+)/Nb(4+), Nb(4+)/Nb(3+)) makes them very promising electrode materials. Their unique chemical stability under acid conditions is favorable for practical fuel-cell operation. In this review, we summarized recent progress made concerning the use of niobium-based oxides as electrodes for batteries (LIBs, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), and vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs)), SCs, and fuel cell applications. Moreover, crystal structures, charge storage mechanisms in different crystal structures, and electrochemical performances in terms of the specific capacitance/capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability of niobium-based oxides are discussed. Insights into the future research and development of niobium-based oxide compounds for next-generation electrochemical devices are also presented. We believe that this review will be beneficial for research scientists and graduate students who are searching for promising electrode materials for batteries, SCs, and fuel cells.

  12. Recent advances in nanostructured Nb-based oxides for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Litao; Rui, Xianhong; Chen, Gen; Xu, Weichuan; Zou, Guifu; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-04-01

    For the past five years, nanostructured niobium-based oxides have emerged as one of the most prominent materials for batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cell technologies, for instance, TiNb2O7 as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), Nb2O5 as an electrode for supercapacitors (SCs), and niobium-based oxides as chemically stable electrochemical supports for fuel cells. Their high potential window can prevent the formation of lithium dendrites, and their rich redox chemistry (Nb5+/Nb4+, Nb4+/Nb3+) makes them very promising electrode materials. Their unique chemical stability under acid conditions is favorable for practical fuel-cell operation. In this review, we summarized recent progress made concerning the use of niobium-based oxides as electrodes for batteries (LIBs, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), and vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs)), SCs, and fuel cell applications. Moreover, crystal structures, charge storage mechanisms in different crystal structures, and electrochemical performances in terms of the specific capacitance/capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability of niobium-based oxides are discussed. Insights into the future research and development of niobium-based oxide compounds for next-generation electrochemical devices are also presented. We believe that this review will be beneficial for research scientists and graduate students who are searching for promising electrode materials for batteries, SCs, and fuel cells.

  13. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Gao-Ren; Xu, Han; Lu, Xue-Feng; Feng, Jin-Xian; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-05-21

    Electrochemical synthesis represents a highly efficient method for the fabrication of nanostructured energy materials, and various nanostructures, such as nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets, dendritic nanostructures, and composite nanostructures, can be easily fabricated with advantages of low cost, low synthetic temperature, high purity, simplicity, and environmental friendliness. The electrochemical synthesis, characterization, and application of electrochemical energy nanomaterials have advanced greatly in the past few decades, allowing an increasing understanding of nanostructure-property-performance relationships. Herein, we highlight some recent progress in the electrochemical synthesis of electrochemical energy materials with the assistance of additives and templates in solution or grafted onto metal or conductive polymer supports, with special attention to the effects on surface morphologies, structures and, more importantly, electrochemical performance. The methodology for preparing novel electrochemical energy nanomaterials and their potential applications has been summarized. Finally, we outline our personal perspectives on the electrochemical synthesis and applications of electrochemical energy nanomaterials.

  14. Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    separated to allow the electrolyte diffusion in an electrochemical cell . Figure 9c shows a zoomed cross-sectional view of the TiO2 coated Ni...Electrochemical half- cells were assembled using the TiO2 coated Ni nanowire arrays (working electrode) and Li foil (counter electrode) separated by two layers... Solar Cells Using Coaxial Electrospinning.” James R. Deneault, Xiaoyin Xiao, Tae-Sik Kang, Joanna S. Wang, Chien M. Wai, Gail J. Brown, Michael F

  15. Electrochemical systems configured to harvest heat energy

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Ghasemi, Hadi; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-31

    Electrochemical systems for harvesting heat energy, and associated electrochemical cells and methods, are generally described. The electrochemical cells can be configured, in certain cases, such that at least a portion of the regeneration of the first electrochemically active material is driven by a change in temperature of the electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cells can be configured to include a first electrochemically active material and a second electrochemically active material, and, in some cases, the absolute value of the difference between the first thermogalvanic coefficient of the first electrochemically active material and the second thermogalvanic coefficient of the second electrochemically active material is at least about 0.5 millivolts/Kelvin.

  16. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress–voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition–voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities. PMID:26733282

  17. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-06

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress-voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition-voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities.

  18. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress-voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition-voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities.

  19. Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    Electrochemical energy storage is a primary concern of both the consumer and public energy sectors. Energy, once generated, must be stored, transported and retrieved efficiently. This is commonly done through the use of various kinds of batteries and recently through the use of capacitors. Optimal energy storage involves the complete electrochemical system, but many of the performance properties can be understood in terms of the constituent materials that make up the anode, cathode and electrolyte. In this talk will give a brief overview of electrochemical energy storage systems and the role of materials in improving them. Using computational methods as a framework, I will discuss how discuss how macroscopic properties, such as capacity, conductivity, voltage, and stability are determined by fundamental materials properties at the quantum mechanical level. Using the knowledge gained from understanding the underlying processes, I will discuss some common battery materials, such as LiFePO4, layered transition metal oxides, and oxide electrolyte materials. I will show how predictions for better materials can be made using computational tools to save time and money by circumventing expensive screening in the laboratory. I will also discuss how tailoring the morphology of materials, for example by synthesizing at the nanoscale, can have extreme benefits for battery materials performance.

  20. Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator advanced technology tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technology advancement studies are reported on the basic electrochemical CO2 removal process to provide a basis for the design of the next generation cell, module and subsystem hardware. An Advanced Electrochemical Depolarized Concentrator Module (AEDCM) is developed that has the characteristics of low weight, low volume, high CO2, removal, good electrical performance and low process air pressure drop. Component weight and noise reduction for the hardware of a six man capacity CO2 collection subsystem was developed for the air revitalization group of the Space Station Prototype (SSP).

  1. Solution synthesis of metal oxides for electrochemical energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinhui; Zhang, Yongqi; Chao, Dongliang; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yijun; Li, Lu; Ge, Xiang; Bacho, Ignacio Mínguez; Tu, Jiangping; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-05-21

    This article provides an overview of solution-based methods for the controllable synthesis of metal oxides and their applications for electrochemical energy storage. Typical solution synthesis strategies are summarized and the detailed chemical reactions are elaborated for several common nanostructured transition metal oxides and their composites. The merits and demerits of these synthesis methods and some important considerations are discussed in association with their electrochemical performance. We also propose the basic guideline for designing advanced nanostructure electrode materials, and the future research trend in the development of high power and energy density electrochemical energy storage devices.

  2. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  3. Electrochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

    1980-01-01

    Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performance, and availability of advanced systems are projected. A prime consideration is the cost of delivered energy from plants utilizing electrochemical storage. Results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems are the: iron-chromium redox (NASA LeRC), zinc-bromine (Exxon), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (EDA).

  4. Fundamental Studies Connected with Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, E.; Sen, R.

    1974-01-01

    Papers are presented which deal with electrochemical research activities. Emphasis is placed on electrochemical energy storage devices. Topics discussed include: adsorption of dendrite inhibitors on zinc; proton discharge process; electron and protron transfer; quantum mechanical formulation of electron transfer rates; and theory of electrochemical kinetics in terms of two models of activation; thermal and electrostatic.

  5. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  6. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Piro, Benoît; Reisberg, Steeve

    2017-04-07

    Immunosensors have experienced a very significant growth in recent years, driven by the need for fast, sensitive, portable and easy-to-use devices to detect biomarkers for clinical diagnosis or to monitor organic pollutants in natural or industrial environments. Advances in the field of signal amplification using enzymatic reactions, nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene derivatives, metallic nanoparticles (gold, silver, various oxides or metal complexes), or magnetic beads show how it is possible to improve collection, binding or transduction performances and reach the requirements for realistic clinical diagnostic or environmental control. This review presents these most recent advances; it focuses first on classical electrode substrates, then moves to carbon-based nanostructured ones including carbon nanotubes, graphene and other carbon materials, metal or metal-oxide nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers and, to finish, explore the use of ionic liquids. Analytical performances are systematically covered and compared, depending on the detection principle, but also from a chronological perspective, from 2012 to 2016 and early 2017.

  7. Technology Base Research Project for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1984-05-01

    The establishment of this research base which supports efforts to develop electrochemical technology for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications is discussed. The general objective of the technology base research project is to provide advanced electrochemical systems that satisfy stringent performance and economic requirements for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. The specific goal is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to industry and further development and scale up. General problem areas addressed include: identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the assessment of fuel cell technology for transportation applications. Applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle cost is emphasized. The TBR project is divided into four major project elements: (1) electrochemical systems research; (2) supporting research; (3) electrochemical processes, and (4) fuel cells for vehicles.

  8. In situ electrochemical activation of Ni-based colloids from an NiCl2 electrode and their advanced energy storage performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2016-10-06

    The formation of electrochemical activated cations in electrode materials to induce multiple-electron transfer reactions is a challenge for high-energy storage systems. Herein, highly electroactive Ni-based colloidal electrode materials have been synthesized by in situ electrochemical activation of a NiCl2 electrode. The highest specific capacitance of the activated Ni-based electrodes was 10 286 F g(-1) at a current density of 3 A g(-1), indicating that a three-electron Faradaic redox reaction (Ni(3+) ↔ Ni) occurred. Upon potential cycling and constant potential activation, a decrease in the charge transfer resistance can be found. Activation and utilization of multiple-electron reactions is an efficient route to increase the energy density of supercapacitors. This newly designed colloidal pseudocapacitor is compatible with inorganic pseudocapacitor chemistry, which enables us to use metal cations directly via their commercial salts rather than their oxide/hydroxide compounds.

  9. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1991-06-01

    The US DOE's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, which includes R D on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The general R D areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each project element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area. 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Advanced electrochemical concepts for NASA applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    A Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) survey of 23 electrochemical systems for space applications in which experts from universities, industry, and government participated is discussed. They recommended achievable specific energy for these systems and forecast the likelihood of their development of these systems by the year 1995, 2000, and 2005. The highest ranked systems for operation in planetary inner-orbit spacecraft included Na/beta-double prime-alumina/Z, where Z = S, FeCl2 or NiCl2, the upper plateau Li(Al)/FeS2 system, and the H2/O2 alkaline regenerative fuel cell. The achievable specific energy for these as operational batteries was estimated to be 130, 180 and 100 Wh/kg, respectively. For planetary outer-orbit and small geosynchronous (GEO) spacecraft Li/TiS2 (estimated 90 Wh/kg) was the choice.

  11. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    PubMed Central

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  12. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies.

    PubMed

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P S; Giddey, Sarbjit S; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I; Hollenkamp, Anthony F

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges.

  13. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  14. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 < y < 1), MMo(x)O(y) (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ca, Mn, Zn, Mg, or Cd; x = 1, y = 4; x = 3, y = 8), MoS2, MoSe2, (MoO2)2P2O7, LiMoO2, Li2MoO3, etc. possess multiple valence states and exhibit rich chemistry. They are very attractive candidates for efficient electrochemical energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  15. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Two multicell, liquid-cooled, advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator modules were fabricated. The cells utilized advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collectors, internal liquid cooling and lightweight cell frames. Both were designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one-person, i.e., 1.0 kg/d (2.2 lb/d).

  16. Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability, and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EV's). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most-promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL's Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR Program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR Program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. The ETR Program consists of three major elements: Exploratory Research; Applied Science Research; and Air Systems Research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed in the following sections, which also include technical summaries that relate to the individual programs. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described in the Executive Summary.

  17. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1993-10-01

    This summary denotes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability, and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EV's). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL's Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. Program consists of three major elements: exploratory eesearch; applied science research; and air systems research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described.

  18. Electrochemical Energy Storage for an Orbiting Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The system weight of a multi hundred kilowatt fuel cell electrolysis cell energy storage system based upon alkaline electrochemical cell technology for use in a future orbiting space station in low Earth orbit (LEO) was studied. Preliminary system conceptual design, fuel cell module performance characteristics, subsystem and system weights, and overall system efficiency are identified. The impact of fuel cell module operating temperature and efficiency upon energy storage system weight is investigated. The weight of an advanced technology system featuring high strength filament wound reactant tanks and a fuel cell module employing lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plates is defined.

  19. Electrochemical energy storage for an orbiting space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-12-01

    The system weight of a multi hundred kilowatt fuel cell electrolysis cell energy storage system based upon alkaline electrochemical cell technology for use in a future orbiting space station in low Earth orbit (LEO) was studied. Preliminary system conceptual design, fuel cell module performance characteristics, subsystem and system weights, and overall system efficiency are identified. The impact of fuel cell module operating temperature and efficiency upon energy storage system weight is investigated. The weight of an advanced technology system featuring high strength filament wound reactant tanks and a fuel cell module employing lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plates is defined.

  20. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  1. Advancing Residential Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K; Boudreaux, Philip R; Kim, Eyu-Jin; Roberts, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    To advance the market penetration of residential retrofits, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered to provide technical assistance on nine home energy retrofits in metropolitan Atlanta with simulated source energy savings of 30% to 50%. Retrofit measures included duct sealing, air infiltration reductions, attic sealing and roofline insulation, crawlspace sealing, HVAC and water heating equipment replacement, and lighting and appliance upgrades. This paper will present a summary of these measures and their associated impacts on important home performance metrics, such as air infiltration and duct leakage. The average estimated source energy savings for the homes is 33%, and the actual heating season average savings is 32%. Additionally, a case study describing expected and realized energy savings of completed retrofit measures of one of the homes is described in this paper.

  2. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  3. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report fr 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The ETR Program is divided into three major program elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each program element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area.

  4. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objectives of the present program are to: (1) improve the performance of the electrochemical CO2 removal technique by increasing CO2 removal efficiencies at pCO2 levels below 400 Pa, increasing cell power output and broadening the tolerance of electrochemical cells for operation over wide ranges of cabin relative humidity; (2) design, fabricate, and assemble development hardware to continue the evolution of the electrochemical concentrating technique from the existing level to an advanced level able to efficiently meet the CO2 removal needs of a spacecraft air revitalization system (ARS); (3) develop and incorporate into the EDC the components and concepts that allow for the efficient integration of the electrochemical technique with other subsystems to form a spacecraft ARS; (4) combine ARS functions to enable the elimination of subsystem components and interfaces; and (5) demonstrate the integration concepts through actual operation of a functionally integrated ARS.

  5. Ceramic Electrolyte Membrane Technology: Enabling Revolutionary Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-05

    Electrochemical Energy Storage The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official...Revolutionary Electrochemical Energy Storage Report Title The goal of this work is to enable the development of safe, high energy density batteries by...Reporting Period: January 1, 2014 – December 31, 2014) CERAMIC ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY: ENABLING REVOLUTIONARY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

  6. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  7. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    A five-cell, liquid-cooled advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module was fabricated. The cells utilized the advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collector concept and internal liquid-cooling. The five cell module was designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one man and was assembled using plexiglass endplates. This one-man module was tested as part of an integrated oxygen generation and recovery subsystem.

  8. Electrochemical Thin Layers in Nanostructures for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Noked, Malachi; Liu, Chanyuan; Hu, Junkai; Gregorczyk, Keith; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2016-10-18

    Conventional electrical energy storage (EES) electrodes, such as rechargeable batteries, are mostly based on composites of monolithic micrometer sized particles bound together with polymeric and conductive carbon additives and binders. The kinetic limitations of these monolithic chunks of material are inherently linked to their electrical properties, the kinetics of ion insertion through their interface and ion migration in and through the composite phase. Redox chemistry of nanostructured materials in EES systems offer vast gains in power and energy. Furthermore, due to their thin nature, ion and electron transport is dramatically increased, especially when thin heterogeneous conducting layers are employed synergistically. However, since the stability of the electrode material is dictated by the nature of the electrochemical reaction and the accompanying volumetric and interfacial changes from the perspective of overall system lifetime, research with nanostructured materials has shown often indefinite conclusions: in some cases, an increase in unwanted side-reactions due to the high surface area (bad). In other cases, results have shown significantly better handling of mechanical stress that results from lithiation/delithiation (good). Despite these mixed results, scientifically informed design of thin electrode materials, with carefully chosen architectures, is considered a promising route to address many limitations witnessed in EES systems by reducing and protecting electrodes from parasitic reactions, accommodating mechanical stress due to volumetric changes from electrochemical reactions, and optimizing charge carrier mobilities from both the "ionic" and "electronic" points of view. Furthermore, precise nanoscale control over the electrode structure can enable accurate measurement through advanced spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. This Account summarizes recent findings related to thin electrode materials synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and

  9. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    PubMed

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  10. 2014 Overview of NASA GRC Electrochemical Power and Energy Storage Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2014-01-01

    Overview presentation to the IAPG Chemical Working Group meeting, discussing current electrochemical power and energy storage R and D at NASA GRC including missions, demonstrations, and reserch projects. Activities such as ISS Lithium-Ion Battery Replacements, the Advanced Exploration Systems Modular Power Systems project, Enabling Electric Aviation with Ultra-High Energy Litium Metal Batteries, Advanced Space Power Systems project, and SBIR STTR work, will be discussed.

  11. Innovative oxide materials for electrochemical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachsman, Eric D.

    2012-02-01

    Research in functional materials has progressed from those materials exhibiting structural to electronic functionality. The study of ion conducting ceramics ushers in a new era of ``chemically functional materials.'' This chemical functionality arises out of the defect equilibria of these materials, and results in the ability to transport chemical species and actively participate in chemical reactions at their surface. Moreover, this chemical functionality provides a promise for the future whereby the harnessing of our natural hydrocarbon energy resources can shift from inefficient and polluting combustion - mechanical methods to direct electrochemical conversion. The unique properties of these materials and their applications will be described. The focus will be on the application of ion conducting ceramics to energy conversion and storage, chemical sensors, chemical separation and conversion, and life support systems. Results presented will include development of record high power density (3 kW/kg) solid oxide fuel cells, NOx/CO species selective solid-state sensors, high yield membrane reactors, and regenerative life support systems that reduce CO2 to O2 and solid C.

  12. Advanced ion thruster and electrochemical launcher research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical model of orificed hollow cathode operation predicted experimentally observed cathode performance with reasonable accuracy. The deflection and divergence characteristics of ion beamlets emanating from a two grid optics system as a function of the relative offset of screen and accel grids hole axes were described. Ion currents associated with discharge chamber operation were controlled to improve ion thruster performance markedly. Limitations imposed by basic physical laws on reductions in screen grid hole size and grid spacing for ion optics systems were described. The influence of stray magnetic fields in the vicinity of a neutralizer on the performance of that neutralizer was demonstrated. The ion current density extracted from a thruster was enhanced by injecting electrons into the region between its ion accelerating grids. Theoretical analysis of the electrothermal ramjet concept of launching space bound payloads at high acceleration levels is described. The operation of this system is broken down into two phases. In the light gas gun phase the payload is accelerated to the velocity at which the ramjet phase can commence. Preliminary models of operation are examined and shown to yield overall energy efficiences for a typical Earth escape launch of 60 to 70%. When shock losses are incorporated these efficiencies are still observed to remain at the relatively high values of 40 to 50%.

  13. Application of electrochemical energy storage in solar thermal electric generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, R.; Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper assesses the status, cost, and performance of existing electrochemical energy storage systems, and projects the cost, performance, and availability of advanced storage systems for application in terrestrial solar thermal electric generation. A 10 MWe solar plant with five hours of storage is considered and the cost of delivered energy is computed for sixteen different storage systems. The results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems use the following battery types: zinc-bromine (Exxon), iron-chromium redox (NASA/Lewis Research Center, LeRC), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (Energy Development Associates, EDA).

  14. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1996-06-01

    The US DOE Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV`s)and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life- cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The role of the ETR program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the Sandia Laboratories (SNL) Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/of cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR program in CY 1995. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed in this report.The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of fuel cell technology for transportation applications.

  15. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage, annual report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R and D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1997. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary. The general R and D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, and establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs.

  16. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Executive summary report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the FIR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  17. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles. The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development (EVABS) Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on several candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the US automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scaleup. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1991.

  18. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Annual report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  19. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum.

  20. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1991-06-01

    This report is an executive summary of major project goals and descriptions for electrochemical energy storage. Exploratory research, applied science research, air systems research, milestones, and management activities are a few of the topics discussed. (JL)

  1. Advanced Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Han

    Research on solid electrochemical energy storage devices aims to provide high performance, low cost, and safe operation solutions for emerging applications from flexible consumer electronics to microelectronics. Polymer electrolytes, minimizing device sealing and liquid electrolyte leakage, are key enablers for these next-generation technologies. In this thesis, a novel proton-conducing polymer electrolyte system has been developed using heteropolyacids (HPAs) and polyvinyl alcohol for electrochemical capacitors. A thorough understanding of proton conduction mechanisms of HPAs together with the interactions among HPAs, additives, and polymer framework has been developed. Structure and chemical bonding of the electrolytes have been studied extensively to identify and elucidate key attributes affecting the electrolyte properties. Numerical models describing the proton conduction mechanism have been applied to differentiate those attributes. The performance optimization of the polymer electrolytes through additives, polymer structural modifications, and synthesis of alternative HPAs has achieved several important milestones, including: (a) high proton mobility and proton density; (b) good ion accessibility at electrode/electrolyte interface; (c) wide electrochemical stability window; and (d) good environmental stability. Specifically, high proton mobility has been addressed by cross-linking the polymer framework to improve the water storage capability at normal-to-high humidity conditions (e.g. 50-80% RH) as well as by incorporating nano-fillers to enhance the water retention at normal humidity levels (e.g. 30-60% RH). High proton density has been reached by utilizing additional proton donors (i.e. acidic plasticizers) and by developing different HPAs. Good ion accessibility has been achieved through addition of plasticizers. Electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte system has also been investigated and expanded by utilizing HPAs with different heteroatoms

  2. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Executive summary report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1992-06-01

    The US DOE Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles. The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development (EVABS) Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (EM) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on several candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the US automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scaleup. This executive summary summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1991.

  3. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote overall industry

  4. Energy and fuels from electrochemical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Strmcnik, Dusan; Lopes, Pietro P.; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in electrocatalysis at solid-liquid interfaces are vital for driving the technological innovations that are needed to deliver reliable, affordable and environmentally friendly energy. Here, we highlight the key achievements in the development of new materials for efficient hydrogen and oxygen production in electrolysers and, in reverse, their use in fuel cells. A key issue addressed here is the degree to which the fundamental understanding of the synergy between covalent and non-covalent interactions can form the basis for any predictive ability in tailor-making real-world catalysts. Common descriptors such as the substrate-hydroxide binding energy and the interactions in the double layer between hydroxide-oxides and H---OH are found to control individual parts of the hydrogen and oxygen electrochemistry that govern the efficiency of water-based energy conversion and storage systems. Links between aqueous- and organic-based environments are also established, encouraging the 'fuel cell' and 'battery' communities to move forward together.

  5. Energy and fuels from electrochemical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Stamenkovic, Vojislav R; Strmcnik, Dusan; Lopes, Pietro P; Markovic, Nenad M

    2016-12-20

    Advances in electrocatalysis at solid-liquid interfaces are vital for driving the technological innovations that are needed to deliver reliable, affordable and environmentally friendly energy. Here, we highlight the key achievements in the development of new materials for efficient hydrogen and oxygen production in electrolysers and, in reverse, their use in fuel cells. A key issue addressed here is the degree to which the fundamental understanding of the synergy between covalent and non-covalent interactions can form the basis for any predictive ability in tailor-making real-world catalysts. Common descriptors such as the substrate-hydroxide binding energy and the interactions in the double layer between hydroxide-oxides and H---OH are found to control individual parts of the hydrogen and oxygen electrochemistry that govern the efficiency of water-based energy conversion and storage systems. Links between aqueous- and organic-based environments are also established, encouraging the 'fuel cell' and 'battery' communities to move forward together.

  6. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  7. Advanced Energy Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    President’s National Energy Policy remain to be addressed: o ANWR : The President continues to support Congressional action to authorize...environmentally responsible oil and gas exploration within a small area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR ) located in northern Alaska. Using...modern technologies and subject to the world’s most stringent environmental protections, ANWR could produce as much as 1 million barrels of oil per day

  8. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiran; Wei, Huige; Lu, Yang; Wei, Suying; Wujcik, Evan K.; Guo, Zhanhu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials.These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples. PMID:28347034

  9. Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Joseph A.; Domroese, Michael K.; Lindeman, David D.; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Roger; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

  10. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1997-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The USABC, a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for EVs. In addition, DOE is actively involved in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) Program which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a range equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the PNGV Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1996. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary.

  11. Sustainable nanocomposites toward electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiahua

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are the two most concerns right now for the long term sustainable development of human society. New technology developments are the key solutions to these challenges, which strongly rely on the continuous upgrading of advanced material performance. In this dissertation, sustainable nanocomposites with multifunctionalities are designed and fabricated targeting to the applications in high energy/power density capacitor electrodes and efficient heavy metal adsorbent for polluted water purification. Contrary to the helical carbon structure from pure cotton fabrics under microwave heating and radical oxidized ignition of nanoparticles from conventional heating, magnetic carbon tubular nanocomposite fabrics decorated with unifromally dispersed Co-Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a microwave heating process using cotton fabric and inorganic salt as precursors, which have shown better anti-corrosive performance and demonstrated great potential as novel electrochemical pseudocapacitor electrode. Polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs)/graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites with excellent interfacial interaction and elongated fiber structure were synthesized via a facile interfacial polymerization method. The PANI-NFs/GO hybrid materials showed orders of magnitude enhancement in capacitance and energy density than that of individual GO and PANI-NF components. At the same weight loading of PANI in the composites, fibrous PANI demonstrated higher energy density and long term stability than that of particle-shaped PANI at higher power density. Besides the efforts focusing on the inside of the capacitor including new electrodes, electrolyte materials, and capacitor configuration designs. A significant small external magnetic field (720 Gauss) induced capacitance enhancement is reported for graphene and graphene nanocomposite electrodes. The capacitance of Fe2O3/graphene nanocomposites increases by 154.6% after appling

  12. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  13. Electrochemical energy storage using PEM systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Huff, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives the results of an engineering assessment for future, long-lived space power systems for extraterrestrial applications. Solar-based, regenerative fuel cell power plants formed from either alkaline or PEM components are the focus. Test results on advanced PEM fuel cell stack components are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Electrochemical energy storage using PEM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderborgh, N. E.; Hedstrom, J. C.; Huff, J. R.

    This paper gives the results of an engineering assessment for future, long-lived space power systems for extraterrestrial applications. Solar based, regenerative fuel cell power plants formed from either alkaline or proton exchange membrane (PEM) components are the focus. Test results on advanced PEM fuel cell stack components are presented.

  15. Porous nanoarchitectures of spinel-type transition metal oxides for electrochemical energy storage systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Jong-Won; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-12-14

    Transition metal oxides possessing two kinds of metals (denoted as AxB3-xO4, which is generally defined as a spinel structure; A, B = Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, etc.), with stoichiometric or even non-stoichiometric compositions, have recently attracted great interest in electrochemical energy storage systems (ESSs). The spinel-type transition metal oxides exhibit outstanding electrochemical activity and stability, and thus, they can play a key role in realising cost-effective and environmentally friendly ESSs. Moreover, porous nanoarchitectures can offer a large number of electrochemically active sites and, at the same time, facilitate transport of charge carriers (electrons and ions) during energy storage reactions. In the design of spinel-type transition metal oxides for energy storage applications, therefore, nanostructural engineering is one of the most essential approaches to achieving high electrochemical performance in ESSs. In this perspective, we introduce spinel-type transition metal oxides with various transition metals and present recent research advances in material design of spinel-type transition metal oxides with tunable architectures (shape, porosity, and size) and compositions on the micro- and nano-scale. Furthermore, their technological applications as electrode materials for next-generation ESSs, including metal-air batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors, are discussed.

  16. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Lai, Peng

    2009-09-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology to treatment of bio-refractory wastewater. Coking wastewater contains high concentration of refractory and toxic compounds and the water quality usually cannot meet the discharge standards after conventional biological treatment processes. This paper initially investigated the electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. Under the experimental conditions (current density 20-60mAcm(-2), pH 3-11, and temperature 20-60 degrees C) using BDD anode, complete mineralization of organic pollutants was almost achieved, and surplus ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N) was further removed thoroughly when pH was not adjusted or at alkaline value. Moreover, the TOC and NH(3)-N removal rates in BDD anode cell were much greater than those in other common anode systems such as SnO(2) and PbO(2) anodes cells. Given the same target to meet the National Discharge Standard of China, the energy consumption of 64kWhkgCOD(-1) observed in BDD anode system was only about 60% as much as those observed in SnO(2) and PbO(2) anode systems. Further investigation revealed that, in BDD anode cell, organic pollutants were mainly degraded by reaction with free hydroxyl radicals and electrogenerated oxidants (S(2)O(8)(2-), H(2)O(2), and other oxidants) played a less important role, while direct electrochemical oxidation and indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by active chlorine can be negligible. These results showed great potential of BDD anode system in engineering application as a final treatment of coking wastewater.

  17. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    PubMed

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment.

  18. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  19. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  20. Advances in carbon nanotube based electrochemical sensors for bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Zheng, Dan; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Luong, John H T; Sheu, Fwu-Shan

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical (EC) sensing approaches have exploited the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrode materials owing to their unique structures and properties to provide strong electrocatalytic activity with minimal surface fouling. Nanofabrication and device integration technologies have emerged along with significant advances in the synthesis, purification, conjugation and biofunctionalization of CNTs. Such combined efforts have contributed towards the rapid development of CNT-based sensors for a plethora of important analytes with improved detection sensitivity and selectivity. The use of CNTs opens an opportunity for the direct electron transfer between the enzyme and the active electrode area. Of particular interest are also excellent electrocatalytic activities of CNTs on the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, two major by-products of enzymatic reactions. This excellent electrocatalysis holds a promising future for the simple design and implementation of on-site biosensors for oxidases and dehydrogenases with enhanced selectivity. To date, the use of an anti-interference layer or an artificial electron mediator is critically needed to circumvent unwanted endogenous electroactive species. Such interfering species are effectively suppressed by using CNT based electrodes since the oxidation of NADH, thiols, hydrogen peroxide, etc. by CNTs can be performed at low potentials. Nevertheless, the major future challenges for the development of CNT-EC sensors include miniaturization, optimization and simplification of the procedure for fabricating CNT based electrodes with minimal non-specific binding, high sensitivity and rapid response followed by their extensive validation using "real world" samples. A high resistance to electrode fouling and selectivity are the two key pending issues for the application of CNT-based biosensors in clinical chemistry, food quality and control, waste water treatment and bioprocessing.

  1. Mineralization of the biocide chloroxylenol by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Skoumal, Marcel; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric

    2008-04-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) are environmentally friendly methods based on the destruction of organic pollutants in wastewaters with in situ electrogenerated hydroxyl radical. This species is formed in anodic oxidation (AO) from water oxidation at the anode and in indirect electro-oxidation methods like electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) also from reaction between catalytic Fe2+ and H2O2 continuously produced at the O2-diffusion cathode. The PEF method involves the irradiation of the treated solution with UVA light to enhance the photolysis of organics including Fe(III) complexes. In this work, the oxidation power of such EAOPs to decontaminate synthetic wastewaters of the biocide chloroxylenol (4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol) at pH 3.0 is comparatively examined with an undivided electrolytic cell containing a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel or O2-diffusion cathode. The initial chlorine is released as Cl(-) ion, which remains stable in the medium using Pt or is oxidized to Cl2 on BDD. The biocide solutions can be completely decontaminated using AO with a BDD anode, as well as PEF with a Pt or BDD anode. The PEF procedure with a BDD anode is the most powerful method leading to total mineralization in about 300 min, practically independent of current density. When current density rises, the degradation rate of processes increases, but they become less efficient due to the larger enhancement of waste reactions of oxidants. Chloroxylenol is much more rapidly removed in EF and PEF than in AO. 2,6-dimethylhydroquinone, 2,6-dimethyl-p-benzoquinone and 3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone are identified as aromatic by-products, and maleic, malonic, pyruvic, acetic and oxalic acids are found as generated carboxylic acids. A general pathway for chloroxylenol mineralization by all EAOPs including the above by-products is proposed.

  2. Towards sustainable and renewable systems for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy sources and electric automotive transportation are popular topics in our belated energy-conscious society, placing electrochemical energy management as one of the major technological developments for this new century. Besides efficiency, any new storage technologies will have to provide advantages in terms of cost and environmental footprint and thus rely on sustainable materials that can be processed at low temperature. To meet such challenges future devices will require inspiration from living organisms and rely on either bio-inspired or biomimetic approaches.

  3. Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage. Annual report, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EVs). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most-promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL`s Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR Program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR Program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. The ETR Program consists of three major elements: Exploratory Research; Applied Science Research; and Air Systems Research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed in the following sections, which also include technical summaries that relate to the individual programs. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described in the Executive Summary.

  4. Electrochemical energy storage subsystems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.; Richardson, P. W.; Graff, C. L.; Jordan, M. V.; Patterson, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs (LCC) of major design and performance technology parameters for multi kW LEO and GEO energy storage subsystems using NiCd and NiH2 batteries and fuel cell/electrolysis cell devices were examined. Design, performance and LCC dynamic models are developed based on mission and system/subsystem requirements and existing or derived physical and cost data relationships. The models define baseline designs and costs. The major design and performance parameters are each varied to determine their influence on LCC around the baseline values.

  5. Electrochemical Energy Storage Subsystems Study, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.; Richardson, P. W.; Graff, C. L.; Jordan, M. V.; Patterson, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs (LCC) of major design and performance technology parameters for multi kW LEO and GEO energy storage subsystems using NiCd and NiH2 batteries and fuel cell/electrolysis cell devices were examined. Design, performance and LCC dynamic models are developed based on mission and system/subsystem requirements and existing or derived physical and cost data relationships. The models are exercised to define baseline designs and costs. Then the major design and performance parameters are each varied to determine their influence on LCC around the baseline values.

  6. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  7. Materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion -- Batteries, capacitors and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.H.; Vyas, B.; Takamura, Tsutomu; Huff, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The papers contained in this volume were presented at Symposium W: Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion -- Batteries, Capacitors and Fuel Cells, that was held during the 1995 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California, April 17--20, 1995. The symposium was organized as a forum for uniting materials scientists with electrochemists and battery engineers, with the hope of increasing communication and understanding of electrochemical aspects of materials. It is believed that the development of high-performance power sources for applications ranging from portable electronics to electric and hybrid vehicles is intimately linked with availability of advanced materials. Designing batteries and capacitors with higher specific energy and power will require a deeper understanding of materials properties and performance. Fuel cells, which offer the potential for clean, efficient conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy, are hampered by high cost and performance problems, both of which could be resolved by new materials and processing techniques. Sessions were organized on oxides, hydrides, polymers and carbons as they relate to fuel cells, batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors. Moreover, reviews of the current status of materials performance and needs were presented in each of the application areas. Forty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  9. Energy conversion and fuel production from electrochemical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Nenad

    2012-02-01

    Design and synthesis of energy efficient and stable electrochemical interfaces (materials and double layer components) with tailor properties for accelerating and directing chemical transformations is the key to developing new alternative energy systems -- fuel cells, electrolizers and batteries. In aqueous electrolytes, depending on the nature of the reacting species, the supporting electrolyte, and the metal electrodes, two types of interactions have traditionally been considered: (i) direct -- covalent - bond formation between adsorbates and electrodes, involving chemisorption, electron transfer, and release of the ion hydration shell; and (ii) relatively weak non-covalent metal-ion forces that may affect the concentration of ions in the vicinity of the electrode but do not involve direct metal-adsorbate bonding. The range of physical phenomena associated with these two classes of bonds is unusually broad, and are of paramount importance to understand activity of both metal-electrolyte two phase interfaces and metal-Nafion-electrolyte three phase interfaces. Furthermore, in the past, researcher working in the field of fuel cells (converting hydrogen and oxygen into water) and electrolyzers (splitting water back to H2 and O2) ) seldom focused on understanding the electrochemical compliments of these reactions in battery systems, e.g., the lithium-air system. In this lecture, we address the importance of both covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling catalytic activity at the two-phase and three-phase interfaces. Although the field is still in its infancy, a great deal has already been learned and trends are beginning to emerge that give new insight into the relationship between the nature of bonding interactions and catalytic activity/stability of electrochemical interfaces. In addition, to bridge the gap between the ``water battery'' (fuel cell <-> electrolyzer) and the Li-air battery systems we demonstrate that this would require fundamentally new

  10. The role of graphene for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccichini, Rinaldo; Varzi, Alberto; Passerini, Stefano; Scrosati, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Since its first isolation in 2004, graphene has become one of the hottest topics in the field of materials science, and its highly appealing properties have led to a plethora of scientific papers. Among the many affected areas of materials science, this 'graphene fever' has influenced particularly the world of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Despite widespread enthusiasm, it is not yet clear whether graphene could really lead to progress in the field. Here we discuss the most recent applications of graphene -- both as an active material and as an inactive component -- from lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors to emerging technologies such as metal-air and magnesium-ion batteries. By critically analysing state-of-the-art technologies, we aim to address the benefits and issues of graphene-based materials, as well as outline the most promising results and applications so far.

  11. The role of graphene for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Raccichini, Rinaldo; Varzi, Alberto; Passerini, Stefano; Scrosati, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Since its first isolation in 2004, graphene has become one of the hottest topics in the field of materials science, and its highly appealing properties have led to a plethora of scientific papers. Among the many affected areas of materials science, this 'graphene fever' has influenced particularly the world of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Despite widespread enthusiasm, it is not yet clear whether graphene could really lead to progress in the field. Here we discuss the most recent applications of graphene - both as an active material and as an inactive component - from lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors to emerging technologies such as metal-air and magnesium-ion batteries. By critically analysing state-of-the-art technologies, we aim to address the benefits and issues of graphene-based materials, as well as outline the most promising results and applications so far.

  12. Electrochemical synthesis and potential electrochemical energy storage performance of nodule-type polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Navale, Y H; Navale, S T; Chougule, M A; Ingole, S M; Stadler, F J; Mane, Rajaram S; Naushad, Mu; Patil, V B

    2017-02-01

    Nodule-type polyaniline (PAni) has been successfully electrosynthesized onto conducting substrate and envisaged in electrochemical supercapacitor (ES) application as a potential energy storage electrode. Various bands are confirmed from the X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Each nodule is of ∼100-200nminlength and 20-80nmindiameter. The ∼45° surface water contact angle with water of PAni surface can be beneficial for accessing an entire electrode area with minimum interfacial resistance loss when is in contact with the aqueous electrolyte for ES application. The PAni nodule-type electrode when electrochemically characterized using cyclic-voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements has demonstrated a specific capacitance of ∼508Fg(-1), a specific energy of 32.12Whkg(-1), a specific power of 13.39kWkg(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of 100% in 1MH2SO4 electrolyte solution. An occurrence of 70% retention of initial capacity even after 5000 cycles is supporting for energy-storage application. Two separate redox reaction behaviors are confirmed in the discharge measurement.

  13. Advanced research in solar energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  14. Nanostructured Mn-based oxides for electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhe; Zhang, Xiaolong; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-02-07

    Batteries and supercapacitors as electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices are continuously serving for human life. The electrochemical performance of batteries and supercapacitors depends in large part on the active materials in electrodes. As an important family, Mn-based oxides have shown versatile applications in primary batteries, secondary batteries, metal-air batteries, and pseudocapacitors due to their high activity, high abundance, low price, and environmental friendliness. In order to meet future market demand, it is essential and urgent to make further improvements in energy and power densities of Mn-based electrode materials with the consideration of multiple electron reaction and low molecular weight of the active materials. Meanwhile, nanomaterials are favourable to achieve high performance by means of shortening the ionic diffusion length and providing large surface areas for electrode reactions. This article reviews the recent efforts made to apply nanostructured Mn-based oxides for batteries and pseudocapacitors. The influence of structure, morphology, and composition on electrochemical performance has been systematically summarized. Compared to bulk materials and notable metal catalysts, nanostructured Mn-based oxides can promote the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring at the solid-liquid or the solid-liquid-gas interface. In particular, nanostructured Mn-based oxides such as one-dimensional MnO2 nanostructures, MnO2-conductive matrix nanocomposites, concentration-gradient structured layered Li-rich Mn-based oxides, porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 nanorods, core-shell structured LiMnSiO4@C nanocomposites, spinel-type Co-Mn-O nanoparticles, and perovskite-type CaMnO3 with micro-nano structures all display superior electrochemical performance. This review should shed light on the sustainable development of advanced batteries and pseudocapacitors with nanostructured Mn-based oxides.

  15. Recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Luo, Yanan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-15

    Graphene as a star among two-dimensional nanomaterials has attracted tremendous research interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their intrinsic properties, including the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties associated with their planar structure. The marriage of graphene and electrochemical biosensors has created many ingenious biosensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis and food safety. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the development of graphene based electrochemical biosensors. Special attention is paid to graphene-based enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Future perspectives on high-performance graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are also discussed.

  16. Nanostructured carbon and carbon nanocomposites for electrochemical energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Su, Dang Sheng; Schlögl, Robert

    2010-02-22

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the important technologies for a sustainable future of our society, in times of energy crisis. Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with their high energy or power densities, portability, and promising cycling life are the cores of future technologies. This Review describes some materials science aspects on nanocarbon-based materials for these applications. Nanostructuring (decreasing dimensions) and nanoarchitecturing (combining or assembling several nanometer-scale building blocks) are landmarks in the development of high-performance electrodes for with long cycle lifes and high safety. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown higher performances for such electrodes, but mostly give diverse values that show no converging tendency towards future development. The lack of knowledge about interface processes and defect dynamics of electrodes, as well as the missing cooperation between material scientists, electrochemists, and battery engineers, are reasons for the currently widespread trial-and-error strategy of experiments. A concerted action between all of these disciplines is a prerequisite for the future development of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  17. Method and apparatus for testing electrochemical energy conversion devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for testing electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices includes means for sensing the current from the storage device and varying the load across the storage device in response to the current sensed. The system is equally adaptable to batteries and fuel cells. Means is also provided to sense system parameters from a plurality of locations within the system. Certain parameters are then stored in digital form for archive purposes and certain other parameters are used to develop control signals in a host processor.

  18. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-07-22

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8-1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) during a multiday (36 h total hours) CO2 electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 10(6) and 4 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient

  19. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    DOE PAGES

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; ...

    2015-06-29

    Here, the catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspondmore » to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies

  20. Spatially resolved probing of electrochemical reactions via energy discovery platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jilai; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-06-01

    The electrochemical reactivity of solid surfaces underpins functionality of a broad spectrum of materials and devices ranging from energy storage and conversion, to sensors and catalytic devices. The surface electrochemistry is, however, a complex process, controlled by the interplay of charge generation, field-controlled and diffusion-controlled transport. Here we explore the fundamental mechanisms of electrochemical reactivity on nanocrystalline ceria, using the synergy of nanofabricated devices and time-resolved Kelvin probe force microscopy (tr-KPFM), an approach we refer to as energy discovery platform. Through tr-KPFM, the surface potential mapping in both the space and time domains and current variation over time are obtained, enabling analysis of local ionic and electronic transport and their dynamic behavior on the 10 ms to 10 s scale. Based on their different responses in the time domain, conduction mechanisms can be separated and identified in a variety of environmental conditions, such as humidity and temperature. The theoretical modeling of ion transport through finite element method allows for creation of a minimal model consistent with observed phenomena, and establishing of the dynamic characteristics of the process, including mobility and diffusivity of charged species. Furthermore, the future potential of the energy discovery platforms is also discussed.

  1. Advances in solid polymer electrochemical capacitors for high rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Keryn; Gao, Han

    2011-06-01

    All solid electrochemical capacitors (EC) have been demonstrated using proton conducting silicotungstic acid (SiWA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based polymer electrolytes. Graphite electrodes were utilized for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), while RuO2 electrodes were employed as pseudocapacitive electrodes. Both solid EDLC and pseudocapacitors exhibited very high charge/discharge rate capability. Especially for solid EDLC, a charge/discharge rate of 25 V/s and a 10 ms time constant ("factor of merit") were obtained. The rate capability of the solid EC is attributable to thin film thickness, good proton conductivity of the polymer electrolyte, and intimate contact between electrode and electrolyte. These results demonstrate promise of polymer electrolytes as enablers of high rate and high performance solid EC devices.

  2. Recent advances in electrochemical sensing for hydrogen peroxide: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Cai, Shu; Ren, Qiong-Qiong; Wen, Wei; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-01-07

    Due to the significance of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in biological systems and its practical applications, the development of efficient electrochemical H(2)O(2) sensors holds a special attraction for researchers. Various materials such as Prussian blue (PB), heme proteins, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and transition metals have been applied to the construction of H(2)O(2) sensors. In this article, the electrocatalytic H(2)O(2) determinations are mainly focused on because they can provide a superior sensing performance over non-electrocatalytic ones. The synergetic effect between nanotechnology and electrochemical H(2)O(2) determination is also highlighted in various aspects. In addition, some recent progress for in vivo H(2)O(2) measurements is also presented. Finally, the future prospects for more efficient H(2)O(2) sensing are discussed.

  3. Symmetric Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy-Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Dou, Shi Xue; Liu, Hua Kun; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2016-12-01

    Increasing environmental problems and energy challenges have so far attracted urgent demand for developing green and efficient energy-storage systems. Among various energy-storage technologies, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and especially the already commercialized lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are playing very important roles in the portable electronic devices or the next-generation electric vehicles. Therefore, the research for finding new electrode materials with reduced cost, improved safety, and high-energy density in these energy storage systems has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands. Symmetric electrodes have recently become a research focus because they employ the same active materials as both the cathode and anode in the same energy-storage system, leading to the reduced manufacturing cost and simplified fabrication process. Most importantly, this feature also endows the symmetric energy-storage system with improved safety, longer lifetime, and ability of charging in both directions. In this Progress Report, we provide the comprehensive summary and comment on different symmetric electrodes and focus on the research about the applications of symmetric electrodes in different energy-storage systems, such as the above mentioned SIBs, ECs and LIBs. Further considerations on the possibility of mass production have also been presented.

  4. Self-Templated Formation of Hollow Structures for Electrochemical Energy Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Le; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-02-21

    The rational design and synthesis of hollow structured functional materials are of great significance as both fundamental challenges in materials science and practical solutions for efficient energy utilization in modern society. The unique structural features of hollow functional materials bring outstanding electrochemical properties for both energy storage and electrocatalysis. However, conventional templating methods are normally less efficient in constructing hollow structures with desirable compositions and architectures. In the past decade, many novel synthetic approaches directly converting templates into hollow structures have been developed. Collectively termed as the "self-templated" strategy, it makes use of various physical/chemical processes to transform solid templates into hollow structures of target materials. Of particular note is the outstanding capability to construct complex hollow architectures of a wide variety of inorganic or hybrid functional materials, thus providing effective solutions for various electrochemical energy applications. In this Account, we present the recent progress in self-templated formation of hollow structures especially with complex architectures, and their remarkable performance in electrochemical energy-related technologies. These advanced self-templated methods are summarized as three categories. "Selective etching" creates hollow structures from solid templates of same materials by removing some of the internal parts, forming multishelled or unusual hollow architectures. "Outward diffusion" utilizes the relocation of mass in templates from inner region to outer region driven by various mechanisms, to construct hollow structures with multiple or hierarchical shells. "Heterogeneous contraction" typically applies to thermally decomposable templates and generates various hollow structures under nonequilibrium heating conditions. We further demonstrate some remarkable electrochemical properties of such hollow structures

  5. Nanotube Forests for Electrochemical Energy Storage from Electrostatic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lin; Jang, Woo-Sik; Lutkenhaus, Jodie

    2011-03-01

    With increasing global energy consumption, efficient energy storage sytems are urgently needed. Currently, lithium-ion batteries are prevalent in many of these applications because of their established reliability and superior performance relative to older technologies; however, Li-ion batteries can be limited by mass transfer and safety concerns. Here, we present nanostructured polymer-based electrodes that potentially address these limitations. We apply layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and nanotemplating to realize LbL-nanotube cathode arrays containing vanadium pentoxide and polyaniline. Both polyaniline and V2O5 store charge via doping/undoping and intercalation/deintercalation, respectively. The aim is to create high surface area electrodes that minimize the diffusion resistance of reactants, which could boost power density. The (LbL) growth profile was monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy and profilometery. Electrochemical properties were characterized using cyclic voltammetery. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm that large areas of LbL nanotubes can be made. Future work will assess how nanostructured cathodes will behave electrochemically as nanotube aspect ratio is varied. NSF-CBET 0938842.

  6. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Advanced Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Advanced Energy Industries at the ESIF to test its advanced photovoltaic inverter technology with the ESIF's power hardware-in-the-loop system and megawatt-scale grid simulators.

  7. Controlling Nanostructure for Catalytic and Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushove, Tapiwa

    Materials with precisely controlled nanostructures are needed to significantly enhance the efficiencies of next-generation chemical conversion and energy storage systems. This dissertation employs light and electrochemical techniques to control nanostructure of catalytic and electrochemical energy storage materials. We also define nanostructure-function relationships for three material systems. This information could help the design and synthesis of materials with superior performance. Single layer (SL), multilayer (ML), and wave-like (WL) hematite nanotube arrays (NA) were fabricated via the electrochemical anodization of iron foils. The films' current responses during fabrication were tracked, allowing for the characterization of NA growth. Four distinct stages were identified: an ohmic response stage, an oxide film formation stage, a chemical dissolution stage, and a steady-state growth stage. Morphological and photoelectrochemical properties of the hematite electrodes were characterized and correlated with their photocatalytic performances. The IPCE of the WLNA at 350 nm was ~3 times that of the SLNA, and ~12 times that of the MLNA. Charge carrier transport and the active electrochemical surface area of the different morphologies were significant determinants of photocatalytic performance. Niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) NA and planar electrodes were fabricated via a similar anodization technique. The Li+ intercalation behavior of the electrodes was characterized. NA electrodes exhibited a four-fold improvement in charge storage capacity and higher rate capabilities relative to planar electrodes due to larger surface areas and shorter ion diffusion lengths in the NA. Light of different wavelengths was used to control the photodeposition of noble metals on semiconducting tungsten trioxide. The metal nanoparticle sizes and weight loadings were functions of the illumination time, while geometries were controlled by the wavelength. Intrinsic variations in the plasmonic

  8. Importance and Challenges of Electrochemical in Situ Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy for Energy Conversion Research.

    PubMed

    Hodnik, Nejc; Dehm, Gerhard; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2016-09-20

    The foreseeable worldwide energy and environmental challenges demand renewable alternative sources, energy conversion, and storage technologies. Therefore, electrochemical energy conversion devices like fuel cells, electrolyzes, and supercapacitors along with photoelectrochemical devices and batteries have high potential to become increasingly important in the near future. Catalytic performance in electrochemical energy conversion results from the tailored properties of complex nanometer-sized metal and metal oxide particles, as well as support nanostructures. Exposed facets, surface defects, and other structural and compositional features of the catalyst nanoparticles affect the electrocatalytic performance to varying degrees. The characterization of the nanometer-size and atomic regime of electrocatalysts and its evolution over time are therefore paramount for an improved understanding and significant optimization of such important technologies like electrolyzers or fuel cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) are to a great extent nondestructive characterization tools that provide structural, morphological, and compositional information with nanoscale or even atomic resolution. Due to recent marked advancement in electron microscopy equipment such as aberration corrections and monochromators, such insightful information is now accessible in many institutions around the world and provides huge benefit to everyone using electron microscopy characterization in general. Classical ex situ TEM characterization of random catalyst locations however suffers from two limitations regarding catalysis. First, the necessary low operation pressures in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-9) mbar for TEM are not in line with typical reaction conditions, especially considering electrocatalytic solid-liquid interfaces, so that the active state cannot be assessed. Second, and somewhat related, is the lack of time resolution for the

  9. Alignment of electronic energy levels at electrochemical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-08-28

    The position of electronic energy levels in a phase depends on the surface potentials at its boundaries. Bringing two phases in contact at an interface will alter the surface potentials shifting the energy levels relative to each other. Calculating such shifts for electrochemical interfaces requires a combination of methods from computational surface science and physical chemistry. The problem is closely related to the computation of potentials of electrochemically inactive electrodes. These so-called ideally polarizable interfaces are impossible to cross for electrons. In this perspective we review two density functional theory based methods that have been developed for this purpose, the workfunction method and the hydrogen insertion method. The key expressions of the two methods are derived from the formal theory of absolute electrode potentials. As an illustration of the workfunction method we review the computation of the potential of zero charge of the Pt(111)-water interface as recently published by a number of groups. The example of the hydrogen insertion method is from our own work on the rutile TiO(2)(110)-water interface at the point of zero proton charge. The calculations are summarized in level diagrams aligning the electronic energy levels of the solid electrode (Fermi level of the metal, valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of the semiconductor) to the band edges of liquid water and the standard potential for the reduction of the hydroxyl radical. All potentials are calculated at the same level of density functional theory using the standard hydrogen electrode as common energy reference. Comparison to experiment identifies the treatment of the valence band of water as a potentially dangerous source of error for application to electrocatalysis and photocatalysis.

  10. Integrating the multifunction necessary for electrochemical energy storage into energy- and size-scalable ultraporous nanoarchitectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Designing high performance energy-storage devices that combine nanometric feature size with well-wired transport paths requires an architectural perspective. We chose carbon aerogel-like nanofoam papers as attractive plug-and-play electrode substrates because of such desirable properties as high specific surface area, electronic conductivity, and through-connected pore structure. Achieving this blend of desirable properties requires an optimal balance of critical architectural features: (1) open, 3D interconnected macropores sized at 100 to 300 nm (a difficult-to-obtain size range in porous carbons) and (2) pore walls of a size that reduce dead weight and volume (preferably ca. 20-nm wall thickness for 100- to 300-nm voids), yet retain mechanical strength and flexibility without compromising electronic conductivity (preferably ca. 20 S/cm). Carbon nanofoam papers provide a low cost and scalable nanocomposite that exists within this ``Goldilocks zone'' of desirable properties and which has catalyzed breakthroughs in our work with asymmetric electrochemical capacitors, air cathodes for metal/air batteries, lithium-ion batteries, 3D batteries, and semifuel cells. New charge-storage or catalytic functionality is imparted to internal carbon walls simply by transporting reactants within the 3D macroporous. Self-limiting modification strategies allow us to incorporate conformal, nanoscopic ``paints'' of metal (Mn, Ti, Ru, Fe) or polymer (redox-active or electron insulating) or to specifically adsorb metal nanoparticles (Pt, Au, Pd, Ag) throughout the macroscopic thickness (0.07 to 0.3 mm) of carbon nanofoam papers as dictated by the requirements of a specific end application. For instance, modification with 10-nm MnOx increases the mass-, geometric-, and volume-normalized capacitance (2- to 10-fold) relative to the native carbon nanofoam without significantly altering its high-rate character and provides a structure that can be used in an asymmetric electrochemical

  11. Center For Advanced Energy Studies Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Blackman, Harold

    2016-07-12

    A collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and the University of Idaho. Conducts research in nuclear energy, advanced materials, carbon management, bioenergy, energy policy, modeling and simulation, and energy efficiency. Educates next generation of energy workforce. Visit us at www.caesenergy.org.

  12. Center For Advanced Energy Studies Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, Harold

    2011-01-01

    A collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and the University of Idaho. Conducts research in nuclear energy, advanced materials, carbon management, bioenergy, energy policy, modeling and simulation, and energy efficiency. Educates next generation of energy workforce. Visit us at www.caesenergy.org.

  13. Studies on electrochemically constructed n- and p-type photoelectrodes for use in solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Donghyeon

    Among several pathways to harvest solar energy, solar water splitting is one of the most efficient methods to convert solar light to hydrogen, which is a clean and easy to store chemical that has the potential to be used as a fuel source. Solar water splitting can be achieved primarily by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs), which utilize semiconductors as photoelectrodes for the water splitting reaction. Photoelectrodes play the crucial role of generating hydrogen but, to date, very few photoelectrodes have been developed that can produce hydrogen in a stable and efficient manner. Thus, development and modification of efficient, stable photoelectrodes are highly desirable to improve performance of solar water splitting PECs. This dissertation demonstrates the development of semiconductors as photoelectrodes and their modifications to advance solar energy conversion performance by newly established electrochemical synthetic routes. To improve the photoelectrochemical performance of photoelectrodes, various strategies were introduced, such as, morphology control, extrinsic doping, and the integration of catalysts. After successfully demonstrating the electrochemical synthesis of photoelectrodes, photoelectrochemical and electrochemical properties of electrodeposited photoelectrodes in PECs are discussed. The chapters can be categorized into three major themes. The first theme is the preparation of Bi-based photoanodes for the water oxidation reaction. Chapter 2 presents a study of Mo-doping into the BiVO4 photoanode to enhance charge separation properties. After Mo-doping was achieved successfully, a FeOOH oxygen evoltuion catalyst was integrated into the Mo-doped BiVO 4 photoanode to increase the water oxidation performance. Chapter 3 introduces another electrochemical synthesis method to control the morphology of Bi-based oxide photoanode materials. The second theme of this dissertation is the preparation of photocathode materials for the water reduction reaction

  14. Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage - Annual Report for 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies conducts research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. Efforts are focused on advanced batteries that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. DOE battery R and D supports two major programs: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), which develops advanced batteries for EVS, and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a fuel economy equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. This report describes the activities of the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program, managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and PNGV Programs, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1998. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Program Summary.

  15. Application of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes to the mineralization of the herbicide diuron.

    PubMed

    Pipi, Angelo R F; Sirés, Ignasi; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Brillas, Enric

    2014-08-01

    Here, solutions with 0.185mM of the herbicide diuron of pH 3.0 have been treated by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) like electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) or solar PEF (SPEF). Trials were performed in stirred tank reactors of 100mL and in a recirculation flow plant of 2.5L using a filter-press reactor with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 electrogeneration. Oxidant hydroxyl radicals were formed from water oxidation at the anode and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2. In both systems, the relative oxidation ability of the EAOPs increased in the sequence EO-H2O2energy consumption. The diuron decay always obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics, with a much greater apparent rate constant in EF and SPEF compared to EO-H2O2. Oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as final carboxylic acids. Ammonium and chloride ions were also released, the latter ion being partially converted into chlorate and perchlorate ions at the BDD surface.

  16. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-05-12

    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  17. Electrodeposition for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaigan, Nima

    Electrodeposition of metals, alloys, metal oxides, conductive polymers, and their composites plays a pivotal role in fabrication processes of some recently developed electrochemical energy devices, most particularly fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries. Unique nanoscale architectures of electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells, including proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), can only be obtained through electrodeposition processes. Promising, cost-effective conductive/protective coatings for stainless steel interconnects used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been achieved employing a variety of electrodeposition techniques. In supercapacitors, anodic deposition of metal oxides, conductive polymers, and their composites is a versatile technique for fabrication of electrodes with distinctive morphology and exceptional specific capacitance. Electrodeposition is also very recently employed for preparation of Sn-based anodes for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Advanced Energy Projects, FY 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase 1 SBIR projects, and Phase 2 SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  19. Recent advances in the electrochemical construction of heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Francke, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fact that the major portion of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals contains heterocyclic units and since the overall number of commercially used heterocyclic compounds is steadily growing, heterocyclic chemistry remains in the focus of the synthetic community. Enormous efforts have been made in the last decades in order to render the production of such compounds more selective and efficient. However, most of the conventional methods for the construction of heterocyclic cores still involve the use of strong acids or bases, the operation at elevated temperatures and/or the use of expensive catalysts and reagents. In this regard, electrosynthesis can provide a milder and more environmentally benign alternative. In fact, numerous examples for the electrochemical construction of heterocycles have been reported in recent years. These cases demonstrate that ring formation can be achieved efficiently under ambient conditions without the use of additional reagents. In order to account for the recent developments in this field, a selection of representative reactions is presented and discussed in this review.

  20. Recent advances in the electrochemical construction of heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Due to the fact that the major portion of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals contains heterocyclic units and since the overall number of commercially used heterocyclic compounds is steadily growing, heterocyclic chemistry remains in the focus of the synthetic community. Enormous efforts have been made in the last decades in order to render the production of such compounds more selective and efficient. However, most of the conventional methods for the construction of heterocyclic cores still involve the use of strong acids or bases, the operation at elevated temperatures and/or the use of expensive catalysts and reagents. In this regard, electrosynthesis can provide a milder and more environmentally benign alternative. In fact, numerous examples for the electrochemical construction of heterocycles have been reported in recent years. These cases demonstrate that ring formation can be achieved efficiently under ambient conditions without the use of additional reagents. In order to account for the recent developments in this field, a selection of representative reactions is presented and discussed in this review. PMID:25550752

  1. Recent advances in DNA-based electrochemical biosensors for heavy metal ion detection: A review.

    PubMed

    Saidur, M R; Aziz, A R Abdul; Basirun, W J

    2017-04-15

    The presence of heavy metal in food chains due to the rapid industrialization poses a serious threat on the environment. Therefore, detection and monitoring of heavy metals contamination are gaining more attention nowadays. However, the current analytical methods (based on spectroscopy) for the detection of heavy metal contamination are often very expensive, tedious and can only be handled by trained personnel. DNA biosensors, which are based on electrochemical transduction, is a sensitive but inexpensive method of detection. The principles, sensitivity, selectivity and challenges of electrochemical biosensors are discussed in this review. This review also highlights the major advances of DNA-based electrochemical biosensors for the detection of heavy metal ions such as Hg(2+), Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+).

  2. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices.

  3. Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik

    2005-09-01

    The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.

  4. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  5. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  6. Advanced carbon manufacturing for energy and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turon Teixidor, Genis

    The science of miniaturization has experienced revolutionary advances during the last decades, witnessing the development of the Integrated Circuit and the emergence of MEMS and Nanotechnology. Particularly, MEMS technology has pioneered the use of non-traditional materials in microfabrication by including polymers, ceramics and composites to the well known list of metals and semiconductors. One of the latest additions to this set of materials is carbon, which represents a very important inclusion given its significance in electrochemical energy conversion systems and in applications where it is used as sensor probe material. For these applications, carbon is optimal in several counts: It has a wide electrochemical stability window, good electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability, and is available in high purity at a low cost. Furthermore carbon is biocompatible. This thesis presents several microfabricated devices that take advantage of these properties. The thesis has two clearly differentiated parts. In the first one, applications of micromachined carbon in the field of energy conversion and energy storage are presented. These applications include lithium ion micro batteries and the development of new carbon electrodes with fractal geometries. In the second part, the focus shifts to biological applications. First, the study of the interaction of living cells with micromachined carbon is presented, followed by the description of a sensor based on interdigitated nano-electrode arrays, and finally the development of the new instrumentation needed to address arrays of carbon electrodes, a multiplexed potentiostat. The underlying theme that connects all these seemingly different topics is the use of carbon microfabrication techniques in electrochemical systems.

  7. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    DOEpatents

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  8. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Sensors for DNA Detection at the Point of Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Kuangwen

    In the post-genomic era, ever-advancing capabilities in DNA detection and analysis have become vital to the detection of infectious diseases and the diagnosis of genetic abnormalities and inheritable diseases. The benefit of such capabilities, however, has yet to reach patients outside of centralized facilities. There thus exists an increasing need to decentralize DNA detection methods and to administer such diagnostics at the "point of care." Electrochemical-based DNA sensors present a compelling approach, but have yet to deliver satisfactory sensitivity, specificity, miniaturization, and real-time monitoring capability to meet the demand of point-of-care diagnostics. Motivated by their potential and their current limitations, in this dissertation, we present a series of strategies that we have undertaken in order to address the key shortcomings of electrochemical DNA sensors and advance them toward point-of-care applications. First, we report a single-step, single reagent, label-free, isothermal electrochemical DNA sensor based on the phenomenon of enzyme catalyzed target recycling amplification. Using this technique, we achieve improved detection limit in comparison to hybridization-based sensors without amplification. We also demonstrate greater than 16-fold amplification of signal at low target concentrations. Next, we present a novel electrochemical DNA sensor that detects single-nucleotide mismatched targets with unprecedented "polarity-switching" responses. This "bipolar" sensor employs a surface-bound and redox-modified (methylene blue) DNA probe architecture, and outputs a decreased Faradaic current when hybridized to a perfectly matched (PM) target, but conversely reports an increased Faradaic current when hybridized to a single-base mismatched (SM) target. Third, we describe the microfluidic electrochemical dynamic allele specific hybridization (microE-DASH) platform for versatile and rapid detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Implementing

  9. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Coatings for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, Isvar Abraxas

    The realization of an energy future based on safe, clean, sustainable, and economically viable technologies is one of the grand challenges facing modern society. Electrochemical energy technologies underpin the potential success of this effort to divert energy sources away from fossil fuels, whether one considers alternative energy conversion strategies through photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of chemical fuels or fuel cells run with sustainable hydrogen, or energy storage strategies, such as in batteries and supercapacitors. This dissertation builds on recent advances in nanomaterials design, synthesis, and characterization to develop novel electrodes that can electrochemically convert and store energy. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on refining the properties of TiO2-based PEC water-splitting photoanodes used for the direct electrochemical conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel. The approach utilized atomic layer deposition (ALD); a growth process uniquely suited for the conformal and uniform deposition of thin films with angstrom-level thickness precision. ALD's thickness control enabled a better understanding of how the effects of nitrogen doping via NH3 annealing treatments, used to reduce TiO2's bandgap, can have a strong dependence on TiO2's thickness and crystalline quality. In addition, it was found that some of the negative effects on the PEC performance typically associated with N-doped TiO2 could be mitigated if the NH 3-annealing was directly preceded by an air-annealing step, especially for ultrathin (i.e., < 10 nm) TiO2 films. ALD was also used to conformally coat an ultraporous conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle (nanoFTO) scaffold with an ultrathin layer of TiO2. The integration of these ultrathin films and the oxide nanoparticles resulted in a heteronanostructure design with excellent PEC water oxidation photocurrents (0.7 mA/cm2 at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and charge transfer efficiency. In Chapter 3, two innovative

  10. Advanced Shipboard Energy Storage System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    detect loss of bus waveform, and supply bus load. GTG integration testing will characterize ESM behavior to resistive and inductive loads, motor loads...Engineering program at Temple University’s College of Engineering. He is the NSWCCD- SSES Energy Storage Module Program Manager and Technical Point of

  11. Advanced Shipboard Energy Storage System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    waveform, detect loss of bus waveform, and supply bus load. GTG integration testing will characterize ESM behavior to resistive and inductive loads...Electrical Engineering program at Temple University’s College of Engineering. He is the NSWCCD- SSES Energy Storage Module Program Manager and Technical

  12. Design and preparation of materials for advanced electrochemical storage.

    PubMed

    Melot, Brent C; Tarascon, J-M

    2013-05-21

    To meet the growing global demand for energy while preserving the environment, it is necessary to drastically reduce the world's dependence on non-renewable energy sources. At the core of this effort will be the ability to efficiently convert, store, transport and access energy in a variety of ways. Batteries for use in small consumer devices have saturated society; however, if they are ever to be useful in large-scale applications such as automotive transportation or grid-storage, they will require new materials with dramatically improved performance. Efforts must also focus on using Earth-abundant and nontoxic compounds so that whatever developments are made will not create new environmental problems. In this Account, we describe a general strategy for the design and development of new insertion electrode materials for Li(Na)-ion batteries that meet these requirements. We begin by reviewing the current state of the art of insertion electrodes and highlighting the intrinsic material properties of electrodes that must be re-engineered for extension to larger-scale applications. We then present a detailed discussion of the relevant criteria for the conceptual design and appropriate selection of new electrode chemical compositions. We describe how the open-circuit voltage of Li-ion batteries can be manipulated and optimized through structural and compositional tuning by exploiting differences in the electronegativity among possible electrode materials. We then discuss which modern synthetic techniques are most sustainable, allowing the creation of new materials via environmentally responsible reactions that minimize the use of energy and toxic solvents. Finally, we present a case study showing how we successfully employed these approaches to develop a large number of new, useful electrode materials within the recently discovered family of transition metal fluorosulfates. This family has attracted interest as a possible source of improved Li-ion batteries in larger

  13. Advances in geothermal energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkis, I.B.; Eltez, M.

    1996-10-01

    One of the earliest examples of large scale use of the geothermal energy is the district heating system in Boise, Idaho. Established in 1892, this system now serves 266 customers--mostly residential. Today, excluding heat pumps, there are about 300 sites in America where geothermal energy is currently used in various applications; including district heating, absorption cooling and refrigeration, industrial processes, aquaculture, horticulture, and snow melting/freeze protection. Among these, 18 geothermal district heating systems are operating with 677 GBtu (714 TJ) total annual heat output. Geothermal activity was first generated in Italy, in 1904, with a 10 kWe capacity. Now, commercial power plants are in service using vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated plants with a world-wide installed capacity of 6 GWe. This paper looks at a hybrid cycle/integrated district HVAC system.

  14. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  15. 2D and 3D photonic crystal materials for photocatalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gillian; Armstrong, Eileen; McNulty, David; O'Hanlon, Sally; Geaney, Hugh; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-01-01

    This perspective reviews recent advances in inverse opal structures, how they have been developed, studied and applied as catalysts, catalyst support materials, as electrode materials for batteries, water splitting applications, solar-to-fuel conversion and electrochromics, and finally as photonic photocatalysts and photoelectrocatalysts. Throughout, we detail some of the salient optical characteristics that underpin recent results and form the basis for light-matter interactions that span electrochemical energy conversion systems as well as photocatalytic systems. Strategies for using 2D as well as 3D structures, ordered macroporous materials such as inverse opals are summarized and recent work on plasmonic-photonic coupling in metal nanoparticle-infiltrated wide band gap inverse opals for enhanced photoelectrochemistry are provided.

  16. 2D and 3D photonic crystal materials for photocatalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gillian; Armstrong, Eileen; McNulty, David; O’Hanlon, Sally; Geaney, Hugh; O’Dwyer, Colm

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This perspective reviews recent advances in inverse opal structures, how they have been developed, studied and applied as catalysts, catalyst support materials, as electrode materials for batteries, water splitting applications, solar-to-fuel conversion and electrochromics, and finally as photonic photocatalysts and photoelectrocatalysts. Throughout, we detail some of the salient optical characteristics that underpin recent results and form the basis for light-matter interactions that span electrochemical energy conversion systems as well as photocatalytic systems. Strategies for using 2D as well as 3D structures, ordered macroporous materials such as inverse opals are summarized and recent work on plasmonic–photonic coupling in metal nanoparticle-infiltrated wide band gap inverse opals for enhanced photoelectrochemistry are provided. PMID:27877904

  17. 50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

  18. NEMO: Advanced energy systems and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P.

    In this report, the contents and major results of the national research program on advanced energy system and technologies (NEMO) are presented. The NEMO-program was one of the energy research programs of the Ministry of Trade and Industry during 1988-1992. Helsinki University of Technology had the responsibility of the overall coordination of the program. NEMO has been the largest resource allocation into advanced energy systems in Finland so far. The total budget was 70 million FIM. The focus of the program has been in solar energy, wind power, and energy storage. Hydrogen and fuel cells have been included in smaller amount. On all major fields of the NEMO-program, useful and high quality results have been obtained. Results of international significance include among others arctic wind energy, new approaches for the energy storage problem in solar energy applications, and the development of a completely new storage battery. International collaboration has been given high priority. The NEMO-program has also been active in informing the industries of the various business and utilization possibilities that advanced energy technologies offer. For example, major demonstration plants of each technology group have been realized. It is recommended that the further R and D should be still more focused on commercial applications. Through research efforts at universities, a good technology base should be maintained, whereas the industries should take a stronger position in commercializing new technology. Parallel to technology R and D, more public resources should be allocated for market introduction.

  19. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  20. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Reynier, Yvan; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  1. Advanced Energy Projects FY 1996 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects Division (AEP) is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific development and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The portfolio of projects is dynamic, but reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy posture. Topical areas presently receiving support include: alternative energy sources; innovative concepts for energy conversion and storage; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; biologically-based energy concepts; renewable and biodegradable materials; novel materials for energy technology; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries of the 70 projects currently being supported are presented. Appendices contain budget information and investigator and institutional indices.

  2. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael

    2013-11-12

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  3. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph Collin; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-07-15

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  4. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER in fuel cells and batteries. We present a critical review on the recent advances in carbon-based metal-free catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries, and discuss the perspectives and challenges in this rapidly developing field of practical significance. PMID:26601241

  5. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER in fuel cells and batteries. We present a critical review on the recent advances in carbon-based metal-free catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries, and discuss the perspectives and challenges in this rapidly developing field of practical significance.

  6. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  7. The New Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    L.J. Bond; K. Kostelnik; R.A. Wharton; A. Kadak

    2006-06-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundation to enable future economic growth. The next generation energy workforce in the U.S. is a critical element in meeting both national and global energy needs. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) was established in 2005 in response to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. CAES, located at the new Idaho National Laboratory (INL), will address critical energy education, research, policy study and training needs. CAES is a unique joint partnership between the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), the State of Idaho, an Idaho University Consortium (IUC), and a National University Consortium (NUC). CAES will be based in a new facility that will foster collaborative academic and research efforts among participating institutions.

  8. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  9. Veterans Advancing Clean Energy and Climate

    ScienceCinema

    Kopser, Joseph; Marr, Andrea; Perez-Halperin, Elizabeth; Eckstein, Robin; Moniz, Ernest

    2016-07-12

    The Champions of Change series highlights ordinary Americans who are doing extraordinary things in their communities to out-innovate, out-educate and out-build the rest of the world. On November 5, 2013, the White House honored 12 veterans and leaders who are using the skills they learned in the armed services to advance the clean energy economy.

  10. Veterans Advancing Clean Energy and Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Kopser, Joseph; Marr, Andrea; Perez-Halperin, Elizabeth; Eckstein, Robin; Moniz, Ernest

    2013-11-11

    The Champions of Change series highlights ordinary Americans who are doing extraordinary things in their communities to out-innovate, out-educate and out-build the rest of the world. On November 5, 2013, the White House honored 12 veterans and leaders who are using the skills they learned in the armed services to advance the clean energy economy.

  11. Porous One-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Design, Fabrication and Applications in Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiulong; Xiong, Fangyu; Tan, Shuangshuang; Huang, Lei; Lan, Esther H; Dunn, Bruce; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-01-20

    Electrochemical energy storage technology is of critical importance for portable electronics, transportation and large-scale energy storage systems. There is a growing demand for energy storage devices with high energy and high power densities, long-term stability, safety and low cost. To achieve these requirements, novel design structures and high performance electrode materials are needed. Porous 1D nanomaterials which combine the advantages of 1D nanoarchitectures and porous structures have had a significant impact in the field of electrochemical energy storage. This review presents an overview of porous 1D nanostructure research, from the synthesis by bottom-up and top-down approaches with rational and controllable structures, to several important electrochemical energy storage applications including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-oxygen batteries and supercapacitors. Highlights of porous 1D nanostructures are described throughout the review and directions for future research in the field are discussed at the end.

  12. Electrochemical corrosion rate probes for high temperature energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, M.S.; Eden, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes were constructed and exposed along with mass loss coupons in a N2/O2/CO2/H2O environment to determine ECR probe operating characteristics. Temperatures ranged from 450 to 800 C and both ECR probes and mass loss coupons were coated with ash. Results are presented in terms of the probe response to temperature, the measured zero baseline, and the quantitative nature of the probes. The effect of Stern-Geary constant and the choice of electrochemical technique used to measure the corrosion rate are also discussed. ECR probe corrosion rates were a function of time, temperature, and process environment and were found to be quantitative for some test conditions. Measured Stern-Geary constants averaged 0.0141 V/decade and the linear polarization technique was found to be more quantitative than the electrochemical noise technique.

  13. Flywheel energy storage advances using HTS bearings.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, T. M.

    1998-09-11

    High-Temperature-Superconducting (HT) bearings have the potential to reduce idling losses and make flywheel energy storage economical. Demonstration of large, high-speed flywheels is key to market penetration. Toward this goal, a flywheel system has been developed and tested with 5-kg to 15-kg disk-shaped rotors. Rlm speeds exceeded 400 mls and stored energies were >80 W-hr. Test implementation required technological advances in nearly all aspects of the flywheel system. Features and limitations of the design and tests are discussed, especially those related to achieving additional energy storage.

  14. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achieve high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.

  15. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achievemore » high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.« less

  16. Nanostructured conductive polymers for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ye; Peng, Lele; Ding, Yu; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2015-10-07

    Conductive polymers combine the attractive properties associated with conventional polymers and unique electronic properties of metals or semiconductors. Recently, nanostructured conductive polymers have aroused considerable research interest owing to their unique properties over their bulk counterparts, such as large surface areas and shortened pathways for charge/mass transport, which make them promising candidates for broad applications in energy conversion and storage, sensors, actuators, and biomedical devices. Numerous synthetic strategies have been developed to obtain various conductive polymer nanostructures, and high-performance devices based on these nanostructured conductive polymers have been realized. This Tutorial review describes the synthesis and characteristics of different conductive polymer nanostructures; presents the representative applications of nanostructured conductive polymers as active electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors and lithium-ion batteries and new perspectives of functional materials for next-generation high-energy batteries, meanwhile discusses the general design rules, advantages, and limitations of nanostructured conductive polymers in the energy storage field; and provides new insights into future directions.

  17. Advanced EMU electrochemically regenerable CO2 and moisture absorber module breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Sudar, M.; Chang, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of the Electrochemically Regenerable Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Absorption Technology to the advanced extravehicular mobility unit was demonstrated by designing, fabricating, and testing a breadboard Absorber Module and an Electrochemical Regenerator. Test results indicated that the absorber module meets or exceeds the carbon dioxide removal requirements specified for the design and can meet the moisture removal requirement when proper cooling is provided. CO2 concentration in the vent gas stream was reduced from 0.52 to 0.027 kPa (3.9 to 0.20 mm Hg) for the full five hour test period. Vent gas dew point was reduced from inlet values of 294 K (69 F) to 278 K (41 F) at the outlet. The regeneration of expended absorbent was achieved by the electrochemical method employed in the testing. An absorbent bed using microporous hydrophobic membrane sheets with circulating absorbent is shown to be the best approach to the design of an Absorber Module based on sizing and performance. Absorber Module safety design, comparison of various absorbents and their characteristics, moisture absorption and cooling study and subsystem design and operation time-lining study were also performed.

  18. Occurrence and Removal of Organic Micropollutants in Landfill Leachates Treated by Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Oturan, Nihal; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Zhang, Hui; Mazeas, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-10-20

    In recent years, electrochemical advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be an effective alternative for the removal of refractory organic compounds from water. This study is focused on the effective removal of recalcitrant organic matter (micropollutants, humic substances, etc.) present in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. A mixture of eight landfill leachates has been studied by the electro-Fenton process using a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon felt cathode or by the anodic oxidation process with a BDD anode. These processes exhibit great oxidation ability due to the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), a highly powerful oxidizing species. Both electrochemical processes were shown to be efficient in the removal of dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) from landfill leachates. Regarding the electro-Fenton process, the replacement of the classical anode Pt by the anode BDD allows better performance in terms of dissolved TOC removal. The occurrence and removal yield of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 15 volatile organic compounds, 7 alkylphenols, 7 polychlorobiphenyls, 5 organochlorine pesticides, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate were also investigated. Both electrochemical processes allow one to reach a quasicomplete removal (about 98%) of these organic micropollutants.

  19. Recent advances in graphene-based nanomaterials for fabricating electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruizhong; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-15

    Due to the large specific surface area, extraordinary mechanical flexibility, chemical stability, and superior electrical and thermal conductivities, graphene (G)-based materials have recently opened up an exciting field in the science and technology of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with continuously growing academic and technological impetus. In the past several years, graphene-based materials have been well designed, synthesized, and investigated for sensing applications. In this review, we discuss the synthesis and application of graphene-based 2D nanomaterials for the fabrication of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) electrochemical sensors. In particular, graphene-based nanomaterials as immobilization matrix of heme proteins for the fabrication of enzymatic H2O2 electrochemical biosensors is first summarized. Then, the application of graphene-based electrocatalysts (metal-free, noble-metals and non-noble metals) in constructing non-enzymatic H2O2 electrochemical sensors is discussed in detail. We hope that this review is helpful to push forward the advancement of this academic issue (189 references).

  20. Anodes - Materials for negative electrodes in electrochemical energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holze, Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    The basic concepts of electrodes and electrochemical cells (including both galvanic and electrolytic ones) are introduced and illustrated with practical examples. Particular attention is paid to negative electrodes in primary and secondary cells, fuel cell electrodes and electrodes in redox flow batteries. General features and arguments pertaining to selection, optimization and further development are highlighted.

  1. Incorporation of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-09-15

    The current study has proved the technical feasibility of including electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in a multistage strategy for the remediation of a sanitary landfill leachate that embraced: (i) first biological treatment to remove the biodegradable organic fraction, oxidize ammonium and reduce alkalinity, (ii) coagulation of the bio-treated leachate to precipitate humic acids and particles, followed by separation of the clarified effluent, and (iii) oxidation of the resulting effluent by an EAOP to degrade the recalcitrant organic matter and increase its biodegradability so that a second biological process for removal of biodegradable organics and nitrogen content could be applied. The influence of current density on an UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process was firstly assessed. The oxidation ability of various EAOPs such as electro-Fenton (EF) with two distinct initial total dissolved iron concentrations ([TDI]0), PEF and solar PEF (SPEF) was further evaluated and these processes were compared with their analogous chemical ones. A detailed assessment of the two first treatment stages was made and the biodegradability enhancement during the SPEF process was determined by a Zahn-Wellens test to define the ideal organics oxidation state to stop the EAOP and apply the second biological treatment. The best current density was 200 mA cm(-2) for a PEF process using a BDD anode, [TDI]0 of 60 mg L(-1), pH 2.8 and 20 °C. The relative oxidation ability of EAOPs increased in the order EF with 12 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < EF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < PEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) ≤ SPEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1), using the abovementioned conditions. While EF process was much superior to the Fenton one, the superiority of PEF over photo-Fenton was less evident and SPEF attained similar degradation to solar photo-Fenton. To provide a final dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 163 mg L(-1) to fulfill the discharge limits into the environment after

  2. Advanced energy projects FY 1994 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Division of Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) provides support to explore the feasibility of novel, energy-related concepts that evolve from advances in basic research. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific definition and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The AEP also supports high-risk, exploratory concepts that do not readily fit into a program area but could have several applications that may span scientific disciplines or technical areas. Projects supported by the Division arise from unsolicited ideas and concepts submitted by researchers. The portfolio of projects is dynamic and reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy outlook. FY 1994 projects include the following topical areas: novel materials for energy technology; renewable and biodegradable materials; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; alternative energy sources; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries are given for 66 projects.

  3. Next-Generation Electrochemical Energy Materials for Intermediate Temperature Molten Oxide Fuel Cells and Ion Transport Molten Oxide Membranes.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Valery V

    2017-02-21

    oxygen ion transport in potential MOM materials and MOFC electrolytes. In addition, we consider the rapid oxygen transport in a molten oxide scale formed on a metal surface during catastrophic oxidation and show that the same transport could be used beneficially in MOMs and MOFCs. A polymer model explaining the oxygen transport in molten oxides is also considered. Understanding the oxygen transport mechanisms in oxide melts is important for the development of new generation energy materials, which will contribute to more efficient operation of electrochemical devices at intermediate temperatures. Here we highlight the progress made in developing this understanding. We also show the latest advances made in search of alternative molten oxide materials having high mixed ion electronic and ionic conductivities for use in MOMs and MOFCs, respectively. Prospects for further research are presented.

  4. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, Digby; Liu, Jun; Liu, Sue; Al-Rifaie, Mohammed; Sikora; Elzbieta

    2000-06-01

    The principal goals of this project are to develop advanced electrochemical emission spectroscopic (EES) methods for monitoring the corrosion of carbon steel in simulated DOE liquid waste and to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms of the corrosion of metals (e.g. iron, nickel, and chromium) and alloys (carbon steel, low alloy steels, stainless steels) in thes e environments. During the first two years of this project, significant advances have been made in developing a better understanding of the corrosion of iron in aqueous solutions as a function of pH, on developing a better understanding of the growth of passive films on metal surfaces, and on developing EES techniques for corrosion monitoring. This report summarizes work on beginning the third year of the 3-year project.

  5. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  6. Ethylene Glycol Intercalated Cobalt/Nickel Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheet Assemblies with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance: Structural Design and Green Synthesis for Advanced Electrochemical Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Zhang, Xiong; Xu, Zhongtang; Sun, Xianzhong; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-09-09

    Because of the rapid depletion of fossil fuels and severe environmental pollution, more advanced energy-storage systems need to possess dramatically improved performance and be produced on a large scale with high efficiency while maintaining low-enough costs to ensure the higher and wider requirements. A facile, energy-saving process was successfully adopted for the synthesis of ethylene glycol intercalated cobalt/nickel layered double hydroxide (EG-Co/Ni LDH) nanosheet assembly variants with higher interlayer distance and tunable transitional-metal composition. At an optimized starting Co/Ni ratio of 1, the nanosheet assemblies display a three-dimensional, spongelike network, affording a high specific surface area with advantageous mesopore structure in 2-5 nm containing large numbers of about 1.2 nm micropores for promoting electrochemical reaction. An unprecedented electrochemical performance was achieved, with a specific capacitance of 4160 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) and of 1313 F g(-1) even at 50 A g(-1), as well as excellent cycling ability. The design and optimization of EG-Co/Ni LDH nanosheets in compositions, structures, and performances, in conjunction with the easy and relatively "green" synthetic process, will play a pivotal role in meeting the needs of large-scale manufacture and widespread application for advanced electrochemical storage.

  7. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-05-27

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  8. Materials for electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2008-11-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices.

  9. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Mesa P.; Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  10. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  11. Advanced treatment of wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Shi, Zhining; Fang, Yue; Shi, Shanshan; Wang, Juan; Wu, Chuanfu

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation (3D-EC) reactor with introduction of activated carbon (AC) as particle micro-electrodes was applied for the advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent of a wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing plant. Under the optimized conditions (current density of 500A/m(2), circulation rate of 5mL/min, AC dosage of 50g, and chloride concentration of 1.0g/L), the average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr), NH3-N, total organic carbon (TOC), and ultraviolet absorption at 254nm (UV254) of the 3D-EC reactor were 64.5%, 60.8%, 46.4%, and 64.8%, respectively; while the corresponding effluent concentrations of CODcr, NH3-N, TOC, and UV254 were 76.6, 20.1, and 42.5mg/L, and 0.08Abs/cm, respectively. The effluent concentration of CODcr was less than 100mg/L, which showed that the treated wastewater satisfied the demand of the integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB 8978-1996). The 3D-EC process remarkably improved the treatment efficiencies with synergistic effects for CODcr, NH3-N, TOC, and UV254 during the stable stage of 44.5%, 38.8%, 27.2%, and 10.9%, respectively, as compared with the sum of the efficiencies of a two-dimensional electrochemical oxidation (2D-EC) reactor and an AC adsorption process, which was ascribed to the numerous micro-electrodes of AC in the 3D-EC reactor. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that electrochemical treatment did not generate more toxic organics, and it was proved that the increase in acute biotoxicity was caused primarily by the production of free chlorine.

  12. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  13. Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope (ADEPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles L. Bennett

    2009-03-26

    In 2006, we proposed to NASA a detailed concept study of ADEPT (the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope), a potential space mission to reliably measure the time-evolution of dark energy by conducting the largest effective volume survey of the universe ever done. A peer-review panel of scientific, management, and technical experts reported back the highest possible 'excellent' rating for ADEPT. We have since made substantial advances in the scientific and technical maturity of the mission design. With this Department of Energy (DOE) award we were granted supplemental funding to support specific extended research items that were not included in the NASA proposal, many of which were intended to broadly advance future dark energy research, as laid out by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF). The proposed work had three targets: (1) the adaptation of large-format infrared arrays to a 2 micron cut-off; (2) analytical research to improve the understanding of the dark energy figure-of- merit; and (3) extended studies of baryon acoustic oscillation systematic uncertainties. Since the actual award was only for {approx}10% of the proposed amount item (1) was dropped and item (2) work was severely restricted, consistent with the referee reviews of the proposal, although there was considerable contradictions between reviewer comments and several comments that displayed a lack of familiarity with the research. None the less, item (3) was the focus of the work. To characterize the nature of the dark energy, ADEPT is designed to observe baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in a large galaxy redshift survey and to obtain substantial numbers of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The 2003 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) made a precise determination of the BAO 'standard ruler' scale, as it was imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at z {approx} 1090. The standard ruler was also imprinted on the pattern of galaxies, and was first detected in 2005 in Sloan

  14. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  15. Mechanistic Study of the Validity of Using Hydroxyl Radical Probes To Characterize Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yin; Chaplin, Brian P

    2017-02-21

    The detection of hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)) is typically accomplished by using reactive probe molecules, but prior studies have not thoroughly investigated the suitability of these probes for use in electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), due to the neglect of alternative reaction mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the suitability of four OH(•) probes (coumarin, p-chlorobenzoic acid, terephthalic acid, and p-benzoquinone) for use in EAOPs. Experimental results indicated that both coumarin and p-chlorobenzoic acid are oxidized via direct electron transfer reactions, while p-benzoquinone and terephthalic acid are not. Coumarin oxidation to form the OH(•) adduct product 7-hydroxycoumarin was found at anodic potentials lower than that necessary for OH(•) formation. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations found a thermodynamically favorable and non-OH(•) mediated pathway for 7-hydroxycoumarin formation, which is activationless at anodic potentials > 2.10 V/SHE. DFT simulations also provided estimates of E° values for a series of OH(•) probe compounds, which agreed with voltammetry results. Results from this study indicated that terephthalic acid is the most appropriate OH(•) probe compound for the characterization of electrochemical and catalytic systems.

  16. Treatment of winery wastewater by electrochemical methods and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Gustek, Stefica Findri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was development of new system for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater (COD = 10240 mg/L; SS = 2860 mg/L) originating from vine-making industry. The system consisted of the main treatment that included electrochemical methods (electro oxidation, electrocoagulation using stainless steel, iron and aluminum electrode sets) with simultaneous sonication and recirculation in strong electromagnetic field. Ozonation combined with UV irradiation in the presence of added hydrogen peroxide was applied for the post-treatment of the effluent. Following the combined treatment, the final removal efficiencies of the parameters color, turbidity, suspended solids and phosphates were over 99%, Fe, Cu and ammonia approximately 98%, while the removal of COD and sulfates was 77% and 62%, respectively. A new approach combining electrochemical methods with ultrasound in the strong electromagnetic field resulted in significantly better removal efficiencies for majority of the measured parameters compared to the biological methods, advanced oxidation processes or electrocoagulation. Reduction of the treatment time represents another advantage of this new approach.

  17. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology Conference: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the conference were to examine current technologies, research efforts, and advanced ideas, and to identify technical barriers which affect the advancement of electrochemical energy storage systems for space applications. Papers were presented and workshops were conducted in four technical areas: advanced concepts, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells and electrolyzers, the nickel electrode, and advanced rechargeable batteries.

  18. A twisted wire-shaped dual-function energy device for photoelectric conversion and electrochemical storage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; You, Xiao; Deng, Jue; Chen, Xuli; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-06-23

    A wire-shaped energy device that can perform photoelectric conversion and electrochemical storage was developed through a simple but effective twisting process. The energy wire exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency of 6.58 % and specific capacitance of 85.03 μF cm(-1) or 2.13 mF cm(-2), and the two functions were alternately realized without sacrificing either performance.

  19. Cost and size estimates for an electrochemical bulk energy storage concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.; Wright, L. O.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary capital cost and size estimates were made for an electrochemical bulk energy storage concept. The electrochemical system considered was an electrically rechargeable flow cell with a redox couple. On the basis of preliminary capital cost estimates, size estimates, and several other important considerations, the redox-flow-cell system emerges as having great promise as a bulk energy storage system for power load leveling. The size of this system would be less than 2 percent of that of a comparable pumped hydroelectric plant. The capital cost of a 10-megawatt, 60- and 85-megawatt-hour redox system is estimated to be $190 to $330 per kilowatt. The other important features of the redox system contributing to its load leveling application are its low adverse environmental impact, its high efficiency, its apparent absence of electrochemically-related cycle life limitations, and its fast response.

  20. Hydrogen Gas Recycling for Energy Efficient Ammonia Recovery in Electrochemical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kuntke, Philipp; Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Widyakristi, Laksminarastri; Ter Heijne, Annemiek; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2017-03-07

    Recycling of hydrogen gas (H2) produced at the cathode to the anode in an electrochemical system allows for energy efficient TAN (Total Ammonia Nitrogen) recovery. Using a H2 recycling electrochemical system (HRES) we achieved high TAN transport rates at low energy input. At a current density of 20 A m(-2), TAN removal rate from the influent was 151 gN m(-2) d(-1) at an energy demand of 26.1 kJ gN(-1). The maximum TAN transport rate of 335 gN m(-2) d(-1) was achieved at a current density of 50 A m(-2) and an energy demand of 56.3 kJ gN(-1). High TAN removal efficiency (73-82%) and recovery (60-73%) were reached in all experiments. Therefore, our HRES is a promising alternative for electrochemical and bioelectrochemical TAN recovery. Advantages are the lower energy input and lower risk of chloride oxidation compared to electrochemical technologies and high rates and independence of organic matter compared to bioelectrochemical systems.

  1. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Fullerene-C60 Nano-Structured Platforms.

    PubMed

    Pilehvar, Sanaz; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-11-23

    Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and favorable characteristics of easy chemical modification, conductivity, and electrochemical properties has led to its tremendous use in (bio)sensor applications. This paper provides a concise review of advances in fullerene-C60 research and its use as a nanomaterial for the development of biosensors. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the synthesis, functionalization, approaches to nanostructuring electrodes with fullerene, and outline some of the exciting applications in the field of (bio)sensing.

  2. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Fullerene-C60 Nano-Structured Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Pilehvar, Sanaz; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and favorable characteristics of easy chemical modification, conductivity, and electrochemical properties has led to its tremendous use in (bio)sensor applications. This paper provides a concise review of advances in fullerene-C60 research and its use as a nanomaterial for the development of biosensors. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the synthesis, functionalization, approaches to nanostructuring electrodes with fullerene, and outline some of the exciting applications in the field of (bio)sensing. PMID:26610583

  3. Advanced energy projects FY 1997 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) program is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts that are high risk, in terms of scientific feasibility, yet have a realistic potential for a high technological payoff. The concepts supported by the AEP are typically at an early stage of scientific development. They often arise from advances in basic research and are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. Some are based on discoveries of new scientific phenomena or involve exploratory ideas that span multiple scientific and technical disciplines which do not fit into an existing DOE program area. In all cases, the objective is to support evaluation of the scientific or technical feasibility of the novel concepts involved. Following AEP support, it is expected that each concept will be sufficiently developed to attract further funding from other sources to realize its full potential. Projects that involve evolutionary research or technology development and demonstration are not supported by AEP. Furthermore, research projects more appropriate for another existing DOE research program are not encouraged. There were 65 projects in the AEP research portfolio during Fiscal Year 1997. Eigheen projects were initiated during that fiscal year. This document consists of short summaries of projects active in FY 1997. Further information of a specific project may be obtained by contacting the principal investigator.

  4. Three dimensional graphene based materials: Synthesis and applications from energy storage and conversion to electrochemical sensor and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Yan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Qian; Gu, Shansi

    2015-07-01

    With superior electrical/thermal conductivities and mechanical properties, two dimensional (2D) graphene has become one of the most intensively explored carbon allotropes in materials science. To exploit the inherent properties fully, 2D graphene sheets are often fabricated or assembled into functional architectures (e.g. hydrogels, aerogels) with desired three dimensional (3D) interconnected porous microstructures. The 3D graphene based materials show many excellent characteristics including increased active material per projected area, accessible mass transport or storage, electro/thermo conductivity, chemical/electrochemical stability and flexibility. It has paved the way for practical requirements in electronics, adsorption as well as catalysis related system. This review shows an extensive overview of the main principles and the recent synthetic technologies about fabricating various innovative 3D graphene based materials. Subsequently, recent progresses in electrochemical energy devices (lithium/lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells and solar cells) and hydrogen energy generation/storage are explicitly discussed. The up to date advances for pollutants detection and environmental remediation are also reviewed. Finally, challenges and outlooks in materials development for energy and environment are suggested.

  5. Free Energies of Formation Measurements on Solid-State Electrochemical Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S.

    1972-01-01

    A simple experiment is proposed that can provide the student with some insight into the chemical properties of solids. It also demonstrates the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of formation of an ionic solid and the emf of an electrochemical cell. (DF)

  6. Model for Calculating Electrolytic Shunt Path Losses in Large Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1976-01-01

    Generalized analysis and solution techniques were developed to evaluate the shunt power losses in electrochemical systems designed with a common or circulating electrolyte supply. Sample data are presented for a hypothetical bulk energy storage redox system, and the general applicability of the analysis technique is discussed.

  7. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  8. Polymer-directed synthesis of metal oxide-containing nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Mai, Yiyong; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-01-07

    Metal oxide-containing nanomaterials (MOCNMs) of controllable structures at the nano-scale have attracted considerable interest because of their great potential applications in electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors. Among many structure-directing agents, polymers and macromolecules, including block copolymers (BCPs) and graphene, exhibit distinct advantages in the template-assisted synthesis of MOCNMs. In this feature article, we introduce the controlled preparation of MOCNMs employing BCPs and graphene as structure-directing agents. Typical synthetic strategies are presented for the control of structures and sizes as well as the improvement of physical properties and electrochemical performance of MOCNMs in LIBs and supercapacitors.

  9. Advancement of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Payment

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Lixing; Shirey, Don; Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Sharma, Chandan; Lawrie, Linda; Strand, Rick; Pedersen, Curt; Fisher, Dan; Lee, Edwin; Witte, Mike; Glazer, Jason; Barnaby, Chip

    2011-09-30

    EnergyPlus{sup TM} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. The 5-year project was managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory and was divided into 5 budget period between 2006 and 2011. During the project period, 11 versions of EnergyPlus were released. This report summarizes work performed by an EnergyPlus development team led by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC). The team members consist of DHL Consulting, C. O. Pedersen Associates, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Oklahoma State University, GARD Analytics, Inc., and WrightSoft Corporation. The project tasks involved new feature development, testing and validation, user support and training, and general EnergyPlus support. The team developed 146 new features during the 5-year period to advance the EnergyPlus capabilities. Annual contributions of new features are 7 in budget period 1, 19 in period 2, 36 in period 3, 41 in period 4, and 43 in period 5, respectively. The testing and validation task focused on running test suite and publishing report, developing new IEA test suite cases, testing and validating new source code, addressing change requests, and creating and testing installation package. The user support and training task provided support for users and interface developers, and organized and taught workshops. The general support task involved upgrading StarTeam (team sharing) software and updating existing utility software. The project met the DOE objectives and completed all tasks successfully. Although the EnergyPlus software was enhanced significantly

  10. Future thrusts of the NASA space power program. [with emphasis on electrochemical energy conversion and storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L.

    1978-01-01

    General objectives and plan directions are given for current program support in the following areas: (1) solar cells and arrays; (2) batteries and fuel cells; (3) thermoelectric, thermionic, and Brayton cycle conversion systems; (4) circuits and subsystems for the management and distribution of power; and (5) the interactions of the environment with the power system and the spacecraft. Particular emphasis is given to the electrochemical energy conversion storage portion of the program where efforts are directed to improving the energy density and life of nickel cadmium batteries, to validating flight-weight silver hydrogen cells, to promoting the safe use of lithium primary batteries, to completing the silver zinc batteries and the orbital transfer fuel cell technology, to increasing the capacity of space batteries, to and to evaluating new electrochemical concepts for very high energy density. The use of the fuel cell electrolyzer concept for energy storage in both the dedicated and the truly regenerative mode is also being investigated.

  11. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability. PMID:26462557

  12. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2015-10-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm(3) and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability.

  13. Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors: Structures that Optimize Specific Energy.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Maral P S; Wilson, Benjamin E; Kashefolgheta, Sadra; Anderson, Evan L; He, Siyao; Bühlmann, Philippe; Stein, Andreas

    2016-02-10

    Key parameters that influence the specific energy of electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are the double-layer capacitance and the operating potential of the cell. The operating potential of the cell is generally limited by the electrochemical window of the electrolyte solution, that is, the range of applied voltages within which the electrolyte or solvent is not reduced or oxidized. Ionic liquids are of interest as electrolytes for EDLCs because they offer relatively wide potential windows. Here, we provide a systematic study of the influence of the physical properties of ionic liquid electrolytes on the electrochemical stability and electrochemical performance (double-layer capacitance, specific energy) of EDLCs that employ a mesoporous carbon model electrode with uniform, highly interconnected mesopores (3DOm carbon). Several ionic liquids with structurally diverse anions (tetrafluoroborate, trifluoromethanesulfonate, trifluoromethanesulfonimide) and cations (imidazolium, ammonium, pyridinium, piperidinium, and pyrrolidinium) were investigated. We show that the cation size has a significant effect on the electrolyte viscosity and conductivity, as well as the capacitance of EDLCs. Imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids provide the highest cell capacitance, and ammonium-based ionic liquids offer potential windows much larger than imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids. Increasing the chain length of the alkyl substituents in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonimide does not widen the potential window of the ionic liquid. We identified the ionic liquids that maximize the specific energies of EDLCs through the combined effects of their potential windows and the double-layer capacitance. The highest specific energies are obtained with ionic liquid electrolytes that possess moderate electrochemical stability, small ionic volumes, low viscosity, and hence high conductivity, the best performing ionic liquid tested being 1-ethyl-3

  14. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  15. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control decisions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the associating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as advanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and locally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination routines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shifting the focus

  16. Evaluation of an integrated continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor: Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Zhou, Xiangtong; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    A continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor (CSMER) was developed by integrating anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrochemical system (MES). The system was capable of treating high strength artificial wastewater and simultaneously recovering electric and methane energy. Maximum power density of 583±9, 562±7, 533±10 and 572±6 mW m(-2) were obtained by each cell in a four-independent circuit mode operation at an OLR of 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). COD removal and energy recovery efficiency were 87.1% and 32.1%, which were 1.6 and 2.5 times higher than that of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Larger amount of Deltaproteobacteria (5.3%) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (47%) can account for the better performance of CSMER, since syntrophic associations among them provided more degradation pathways compared to the CSTR. Results demonstrate the CSMER holds great promise for efficient wastewater treatment and energy recovery.

  17. Structural design of graphene for use in electrochemical energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Song, Shuyan; Liu, Fei; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-10-07

    There are many practical challenges in the use of graphene materials as active components in electrochemical energy storage devices. Graphene has a much lower capacitance than the theoretical capacitance of 550 F g(-1) for supercapacitors and 744 mA h g(-1) for lithium ion batteries. The macroporous nature of graphene limits its volumetric energy density and the low packing density of graphene-based electrodes prevents its use in commercial applications. Increases in the capacity, energy density and power density of electroactive graphene materials are strongly dependent on their microstructural properties, such as the number of defects, stacking, the use of composite materials, conductivity, the specific surface area and the packing density. The structural design of graphene electrode materials is achieved via six main strategies: the design of non-stacking and three-dimensional graphene; the synthesis of highly packed graphene; the production of graphene with a high specific surface area and high conductivity; the control of defects; functionalization with O, N, B or P heteroatoms; and the formation of graphene composites. These methodologies of structural design are needed for fast electrical charge storage/transfer and the transport of electrolyte ions (Li(+), H(+), K(+), Na(+)) in graphene electrodes. We critically review state-of-the-art progress in the optimization of the electrochemical performance of graphene-based electrode materials. The structure of graphene needs to be designed to develop novel electrochemical energy storage devices that approach the theoretical charge limit of graphene and to deliver electrical energy rapidly and efficiently.

  18. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)63−/4− redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  19. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-12-02

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas.

  20. Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Integrated Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heon, Min

    Active RFID tags, which can communicate over tens or even hundreds of meters, MEMS devices of several microns in size, which are designed for the medical and pharmaceutical purposes, and sensors working in wireless monitoring systems, require microscale power sources that are able to provide enough energy and to satisfy the peak power demands in those applications. Supercapacitors have not been an attractive candidate for micro-scale energy storage, since most nanoporous carbon electrode materials are not compatible with micro-fabrication techniques and have failed to meet the requirements of high volumetric energy density and small form factor for power supplies for integrated circuits or microelectronic devices or sensors. However, supercapacitors can provide high power density, because of fast charging/discharging, which can enable self-sustaining micro-modules when combined with energy-harvesting devices, such as solar cell, piezoelectric or thermoelectric micro-generators. In this study, carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films were synthesized via vacuum decomposition of carbide substrates and gas etching of sputtered carbide thin films. This approach allowed manufacturing of porous carbon films on SiC and silicon substrates. CDC films were studied for micro-supercapacitor electrodes, and showed good double layer capacitance. Since the gas etching technique is compatible with conventional micro-device fabrication processes, it can be implemented to manufacture integrated on-chip supercapacitors on silicon wafers.

  1. Characterization of carbon-based electrochemical capacitor technology from Maxwell Energy Products, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.

    1998-04-01

    The electrochemical capacitor devices described in this report were deliverables from the US Department of Energy--Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Contract No. DE-AC07-92ID13404 as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) High Power Energy Storage Program. The Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has responsibility for technical management, testing, and evaluation of high-power batteries and electrochemical capacitors under this Program. The DOE has developed various electrochemical capacitors as candidate power assist devices for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) fast response engine requirement. This contract with Maxwell Energy Products, Inc. (Maxwell) was intended to develop a high-energy-density, high-power-density ultracapacitor that is capable of load leveling batteries in electric vehicles. The performance criteria for this device are delivery of 5 W {center_dot} h/kg of useful energy that can be used by the vehicle at an average power rating of 600 W/kg. The capacitor must also have an overall charge/discharge efficiency of 90%, and a useful life of more than 100,000 discharge cycles. The deliverables reported on here are those prepared by Maxwell Energy Products, Inc. at various stages of their developmental program. Deliverables were sent to the INEEL`s Energy Storage Technologies (EST) Laboratory for independent testing and evaluation. This report describes performance testing on three sets of capacitors delivered over a two year period. Additional testing has been done on Set {number_sign}2 described herein, as well as on an additional deliverable from Maxwell. These tests results will be documented in a follow-up report.

  2. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, S. R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, C.; Perry, N. H.; Mogensen, M. B.; Tuller, H. L.; Wachsman, E. D.

    2014-07-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2- in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material, commonly referred to as chemical expansion. This article reviews the current knowledge of chemical expansion and aspires to facilitate and promote future research in this field by providing a taxonomy for its sources, along with recent atomistic insights of its origin, aided by recent computational modeling and an overview of factors impacting chemical expansion. We discuss the implications of chemical expansion for mechanical stability and functionality in the energy applications above, as well as in other oxide-based systems. The use of chemical expansion as a new means to probe other materials properties, as well as its contribution to recently investigated electromechanical coupling, is also highlighted.

  3. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures.

  4. Removal of artificial sweetener aspartame from aqueous media by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng; Oturan, Nihal; Wu, Jie; Sharma, Virender K; Zhang, Hui; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2017-01-01

    The degradation and mineralization of aspartame (ASP) in aqueous solution were investigated, for the first time, by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in which hydroxyl radicals were formed concomitantly in the bulk from Fenton reaction via in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent and at the anode surface from the water oxidation. Experiments were performed in an undivided cylindrical glass cell with a carbon-felt cathode and a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of Fe(2+) concentration and applied current on the degradation and mineralization kinetics of ASP was evaluated. The absolute rate constant for the reaction between ASP and OH was determined as (5.23 ± 0.02) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) by using the competition kinetic method. Almost complete mineralization of ASP was achieved with BDD anode at 200 mA constant current electrolysis. The formation and generation of the formed carboxylic acids (as ultimate end products before complete mineralization) and released inorganic ion were monitored by ion-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography techniques, respectively. The global toxicity of the treated ASP solution during treatment was assessed by the Microtox(®) method using V. fischeri bacteria luminescence inhibition.

  5. Decolorization and degradation of reactive yellow HF aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Guzman, A; Feria-Reyes, R; Gutierrez-Granados, S; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M

    2016-07-29

    Textile manufacturing is the one responsible for water bodies' contamination through the discharge of colored wastes. This work presents the study of reactive yellow HF (RYHF) dye degradation under two different electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOP), namely anodic oxidation (AO) and electro-Fenton (EF)/boron-doped diamond (BDD) process. For the AO, 100 and 300 mg/L solutions using Pt and BDD as anodes in a 100 mL stirred tank cell were used, with a supporting electrolyte of 0.05 mol/L of Na2SO4 at pH 3 under 30 and 50 mA/cm(2) current density. The EF/BDD process was carried out in a flow reactor at 4 and 7 L/min to degrade 100, 200, and 300 mg/L RYHF solutions under 50 and 80 mA/cm(2). UV-Vis determinations were used for decolorization evaluation, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method provided information on dye degradation rate.

  6. Efficient removal of insecticide "imidacloprid" from water by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Turabik, Meral; Oturan, Nihal; Gözmen, Belgin; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of imidacloprid (ICP) has been carried out by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), anodic oxidation, and electro-Fenton, in which hydroxyl radicals are generated electrocatalytically. Carbon-felt cathode and platinum or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes were used in electrolysis cell. To determine optimum operating conditions, the effects of applied current and catalyst concentration were investigated. The decay of ICP during the oxidative degradation was well fitted to pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics and absolute rate constant of the oxidation of ICP by hydroxyl radicals was found to be k abs(ICP) = 1.23 × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1). The results showed that both anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton process with BDD anode exhibited high mineralization efficiency reaching 91 and 94% total organic carbon (TOC) removal at 2 h, respectively. For Pt-EF process, mineralization efficiency was also obtained as 71%. The degradation products of ICP were identified and a plausible general oxidation mechanism was proposed. Some of the main reaction intermediates such as 6-chloronicotinic acid, 6-chloronicotinaldehyde, and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid were determined by GC-MS analysis. Before complete mineralization, formic, acetic, oxalic, and glyoxylic acids were identified as end-products. The initial chlorine and organic nitrogen present in ICP were found to be converted to inorganic anions Cl(-), NO₃(-), and NH₄(+).

  7. Degradation of herbicide 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid by advanced electrochemical oxidation methods.

    PubMed

    Boye, Birame; Dieng, Momar M; Brillas, Enric

    2002-07-01

    The herbicide 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) has been degraded in aqueous medium by advanced electrochemical oxidation processes such as electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton with UV light, using an undivided cell containing a Pt anode. In these environmentally clean methods, the main oxidant is the hydroxyl radical produced from Fenton's reaction between Fe2+ added to the medium and H2O2 electrogenerated from an 02-diffusion cathode. Solutions of a 4-CPA concentration <400 ppm within the pH range of 2.0-6.0 at 35 degrees C can be completely mineralized at low current by photoelectro-Fenton, while electro-Fenton leads to ca. 80% of mineralization. 4-CPA is much more slowly degraded by anodic oxidation in the absence and presence of electrogenerated H2O2. 4-Chlorophenol, 4-chlorocatechol, and hydroquinone are identified as aromatic intermediates by CG-MS and quantified by reverse-phase chromatography. Further oxidation of these chloroderivatives yields stable chloride ions. Generated carboxylic acids such as glycolic, glyoxylic, formic, malic, maleic, fumaric, and oxalic are followed by ion exclusion chromatography. The highest mineralization rate found for photoelectro-Fenton is accounted for by the fast photodecomposition of complexes of Fe3+ with such short-chain acids, mainly oxalic acid, under the action of UV light.

  8. Critical review of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for water treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Brian P

    2014-05-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have emerged as novel water treatment technologies for the elimination of a broad-range of organic contaminants. Considerable validation of this technology has been performed at both the bench-scale and pilot-scale, which has been facilitated by the development of stable electrode materials that efficiently generate high yields of hydroxyl radicals (OH˙) (e.g., boron-doped diamond (BDD), doped-SnO2, PbO2, and substoichiometic- and doped-TiO2). Although a promising new technology, the mechanisms involved in the oxidation of organic compounds during EAOPs and the corresponding environmental impacts of their use have not been fully addressed. In order to unify the state of knowledge, identify research gaps, and stimulate new research in these areas, this review critically analyses published research pertaining to EAOPs. Specific topics covered in this review include (1) EAOP electrode types, (2) oxidation pathways of select classes of contaminants, (3) rate limitations in applied settings, and (4) long-term sustainability. Key challenges facing EAOP technologies are related to toxic byproduct formation (e.g., ClO4(-) and halogenated organic compounds) and low electro-active surface areas. These challenges must be addressed in future research in order for EAOPs to realize their full potential for water treatment.

  9. New Horizons in Electrochemical Science and Technology. Report of the Committee on Electrochemical Aspects of Energy Conservation and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. National Materials Advisory Board.

    Electrochemical phenomena play a fundamental role in providing essential materials and devices for modern society. This report reviews the status of current knowledge of electrochemical science and technology and makes recommendations for future research and development in this multidisciplinary field. The report identifies new technological…

  10. Thermoplastic Elastomer-Enabled Smart Electrolyte for Thermoresponsive Self-Protection of Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ye; Ha, Heonjoo; Al-Sudani, Atheer; Ellison, Christopher J; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-01

    Thermoresponsive smart electrolytes based on Pluronic solution are developed for active control and thermal self-protection of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Mechanistic studies reveal that the highly effective and reversible self-protection behavior is attributed to the sol-gel transition of the Pluronic solution upon temperature change. The transition temperature and the degree of performance suppression can be tuned over a wide range.

  11. Piezo-Electrochemical Energy Harvesting with Lithium-Intercalating Carbon Fibers.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Eric; Lindbergh, Göran; Zenkert, Dan; Leijonmarck, Simon; Kjell, Maria Hellqvist

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical and electrochemical properties are coupled through a piezo-electrochemical effect in Li-intercalated carbon fibers. It is demonstrated that this piezo-electrochemical effect makes it possible to harvest electrical energy from mechanical work. Continuous polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers that can work both as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and structural reinforcement for composites materials are used in this study. Applying a tensile force to carbon fiber bundles used as Li-intercalating electrodes results in a response of the electrode potential of a few millivolts which allows, at low current densities, lithiation at higher electrode potential than delithiation. More electrical energy is thereby released from the cell at discharge than provided at charge, harvesting energy from the mechanical work of the applied force. The measured harvested specific electrical power is in the order of 1 μW/g for current densities in the order of 1 mA/g, but this has a potential of being increased significantly.

  12. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies and the Automotive Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Verbrugge

    2016-07-12

    The first portion of the lecture will relate global energy challenges to trends in personal transportation. Following this introduction, a short overview of technology associated with lithium ion batteries for traction applications will be provided. Last, I shall present new research results that enable adaptive characterization of lithium ion cells. Experimental and modeling results help to clarify the underlying electrochemistry and system performance. Specifically, through chemical modification of the electrodes, it is possible to place markers within the electrodes that signal the state of charge of a battery through abrupt voltage changes during cell operation, thereby allowing full utilization of the battery in applications. In closing, I shall highlight some promising materials research efforts that are expected to lead to substantially improved battery technology

  13. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies and the Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verbrugge

    2009-11-24

    The first portion of the lecture will relate global energy challenges to trends in personal transportation. Following this introduction, a short overview of technology associated with lithium ion batteries for traction applications will be provided. Last, I shall present new research results that enable adaptive characterization of lithium ion cells. Experimental and modeling results help to clarify the underlying electrochemistry and system performance. Specifically, through chemical modification of the electrodes, it is possible to place markers within the electrodes that signal the state of charge of a battery through abrupt voltage changes during cell operation, thereby allowing full utilization of the battery in applications. In closing, I shall highlight some promising materials research efforts that are expected to lead to substantially improved battery technology

  14. Calculation of Electrochemical Reorganization Energies for Redox Molecules at Self-Assembled Monolayer Modified Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Soumya; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-01-02

    Electrochemical electron transfer reactions play an important role in energy conversion processes with many technological applications. Electrodes modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are useful because the double layer effects are reduced. An important quantity for calculating the electron transfer rate constant is the reorganization energy, which is associated with changes in solute geometry and solvent configuration. In this Letter, an approach for calculating the electrochemical solvent reorganization energy for a redox molecule attached to or near a SAM modified electrode is presented. This integral equations formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) approach accounts for the detailed electronic structure of the molecule, as well as the contributions from the electrode, SAM, and electronic and inertial solvent responses. The calculated total reorganization energies are in good agreement with experimental data for a series of metal complex in aqueous solution. This approach will be useful for calculating electron transfer rate constants for molecular electrocatalysts. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  15. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  16. Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath; Polagye, Brian; Fabien, Brian; Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Marnagh, Cian; Donegan, James

    2016-03-31

    The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at

  17. Electrochemical solvent reorganization energies in the framework of the polarizable continuum model

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Soumya; Horvath, Samantha; Soudackov, Alexander; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-05-13

    Electron transfer reactions at electrochemical interfaces play a critical role in a wide range of catalytic processes. A key parameter in the rate constant expressions for such processes is the reorganization energy, which reflects the energetic cost of the solute and solvent rearrangements upon electron transfer. In this paper, we present dielectric continuum methods for calculating the solvent reorganization energy for electrochemical processes. We extend the simple approach in which the solute is represented as a point charge located a specified distance from the electrode surface to the representation of the solute as a collection of point charges corresponding to the partial atomic charges of the molecule. We also develop a method for calculating the electrochemical solvent reorganization energies with molecular-shaped cavities within the framework of the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The electronic and inertial responses of the solvent are separated according to their respective time scales, and two limiting cases of the relation between the solute and solvent electrons are examined. The effects of the electrode are included with the integral equations formalism PCM (IEF-PCM), in which the molecule-solvent boundary is treated explicitly, but the effects of the electrode-solvent boundary are included through an external Green’s function. This approach accounts for the effects of detailed molecular charge redistribution in a molecular-shaped cavity, as well as the electronic and inertial solvent responses and the effects of the electrode. The calculated total reorganization energies are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements for a series of electrochemical systems. Inclusion of the effects of the electrode is found to be essential for obtaining even qualitatively accurate solvent reorganization energies. These approaches are applicable to a wide range of systems and can be extended to include other types of boundaries, such as a self

  18. Hierarchically designed three-dimensional macro/mesoporous carbon frameworks for advanced electrochemical capacitance storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbing; Li, Peixu; Wu, Shiting; Li, Xinyang; Shi, Enzheng; Shen, Qicang; Wu, Dehai; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Yuan, Quan

    2015-04-13

    Mesoporous carbon (m-C) has potential applications as porous electrodes for electrochemical energy storage, but its applications have been severely limited by the inherent fragility and low electrical conductivity. A rational strategy is presented to construct m-C into hierarchical porous structures with high flexibility by using a carbon nanotube (CNT) sponge as a three-dimensional template, and grafting Pt nanoparticles at the m-C surface. This method involves several controllable steps including solution deposition of a mesoporous silica (m-SiO2 ) layer onto CNTs, chemical vapor deposition of acetylene, and etching of m-SiO2 , resulting in a CNT@m-C core-shell or a CNT@m-C@Pt core-shell hybrid structure after Pt adsorption. The underlying CNT network provides a robust yet flexible support and a high electrical conductivity, whereas the m-C provides large surface area, and the Pt nanoparticles improves interfacial electron and ion diffusion. Consequently, specific capacitances of 203 and 311 F g(-1) have been achieved in these CNT@m-C and CNT@m-C@Pt sponges as supercapacitor electrodes, respectively, which can retain 96 % of original capacitance under large degree compression.

  19. A Novel Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor as a Potential Net Energy Producer for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shi, Bing-Jing; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One possible way to address both water and energy shortage issues, the two of major global challenges, is to recover energy and water resource from wastewater. Herein, a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed to recover energy from wastewater and meantime harvest clean water for reuse. With the help of the microorganisms in the biocatalysis and biodegradation process, net electricity could be recovered from a low-strength synthetic wastewater after estimating total energy consumption of this system. In addition, high-quality clean water was obtained for reuse. The results clearly demonstrate that, under the optimized operating conditions, it is possible to recover net energy from wastewater, while at the same time to harvest high-quality effluent for reuse with this novel wastewater treatment system. PMID:23689529

  20. A novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor as a potential net energy producer for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shi, Bing-Jing; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One possible way to address both water and energy shortage issues, the two of major global challenges, is to recover energy and water resource from wastewater. Herein, a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed to recover energy from wastewater and meantime harvest clean water for reuse. With the help of the microorganisms in the biocatalysis and biodegradation process, net electricity could be recovered from a low-strength synthetic wastewater after estimating total energy consumption of this system. In addition, high-quality clean water was obtained for reuse. The results clearly demonstrate that, under the optimized operating conditions, it is possible to recover net energy from wastewater, while at the same time to harvest high-quality effluent for reuse with this novel wastewater treatment system.

  1. Two-Dimensional MXene with Controlled Interlayer Spacing for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Patrice

    2017-03-10

    In this issue of ACS Nano, Luo et al. report the preparation of pillared two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2 MXenes with controllable interlayer spacings between 1 and 2.708 nm. These materials were further intercalated by ion exchange with Sn(+IV) ions. The results show improved electrochemical performance due to improved ion accessibility into the 2D structure as well as the confinement effect, which limits volume expansion during the Li-alloying reaction. Beyond this specific example, the demonstration that the interlayer spacings of MXenes can be fine-tuned by creating pillared structures based on the spontaneous intercalation of surfactants opens new perspectives in the field of electrochemical energy storage.

  2. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage: Role of nanoscale effects

    DOE PAGES

    Nanda, Jagjit; Martha, Surendra K.; Kalyanaraman, Ramki

    2015-06-02

    In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the art electrode materials used for high-capacity lithium-ion-based batteries and their significant role towards revolutionizing the electrochemical energy storage landscape in the area of consumer electronics, transportation and grid storage application. We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical performance of high-capacity battery electrode materials. Decrease in the particle size of the primary electrode materials from micron to nanometre size improves the ionic and electronic diffusion rates significantly. Nanometre-thick solid electrolyte (such as lithium phosphorous oxynitride) and oxides (such as Al2O3, ZnO, TiO2 etc.) material coatings also improve the interfacial stabilitymore » and rate capability of a number of battery chemistries. Finally, we elucidate these effects in terms of different high-capacity battery chemistries based on intercalation and conversion mechanism.« less

  3. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage: Role of nanoscale effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Jagjit; Martha, Surendra K.; Kalyanaraman, Ramki

    2015-06-02

    In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the art electrode materials used for high-capacity lithium-ion-based batteries and their significant role towards revolutionizing the electrochemical energy storage landscape in the area of consumer electronics, transportation and grid storage application. We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical performance of high-capacity battery electrode materials. Decrease in the particle size of the primary electrode materials from micron to nanometre size improves the ionic and electronic diffusion rates significantly. Nanometre-thick solid electrolyte (such as lithium phosphorous oxynitride) and oxides (such as Al2O3, ZnO, TiO2 etc.) material coatings also improve the interfacial stability and rate capability of a number of battery chemistries. Finally, we elucidate these effects in terms of different high-capacity battery chemistries based on intercalation and conversion mechanism.

  4. Green Energy: Advancing Bio-Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, D.

    2007-07-01

    Developing a model of metabolism linked to H2 production in green algae. Develop tools for parameter discovery and optimization at organism level and advance knowledge of hydrogen-producting photosynthetic organisms.

  5. Bringing Advanced Computational Techniques to Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Julie C

    2012-11-17

    Please find attached our final technical report for the BACTER Institute award. BACTER was created as a graduate and postdoctoral training program for the advancement of computational biology applied to questions of relevance to bioenergy research.

  6. Performance of electrochemical oxidation and photocatalysis in terms of kinetics and energy consumption. New insights into the p-cresol degradation.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Carlos J; Iglesias, Olalla; Dominguez, Sara; Rivero, Maria J; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2016-05-03

    This work reports the comparative performance of two Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), electrochemical oxidation and photocatalysis, as individual technological alternatives for the treatment of effluents containing p-cresol. First, the influence of operating parameters in the oxidation and mineralization yield was carried out together with kinetic analysis. Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), RuO2 and Pt as anodic materials, Na2SO4 and NaCl as supporting electrolytes and different current densities were evaluated in electrochemical oxidation whereas the effect of TiO2 concentration and radiation was studied in the photocatalytic degradation. Then, the parameter Electrical Energy per Order (EEO) was calculated to compare the energy consumption in both AOPs, concluding that under the studied conditions the electrochemical treatment with BDD, Na2SO4 and 125 A m(-2) showed the best energy efficiency, with an EEO of 5.83 kW h m(-3) order(-1) for p-cresol and 58.05 kW h m(-3) order(-1) for DOC removal, respectively.

  7. Advanced Energy Projects: FY 1993, Research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase I SBIR projects, and Phase II SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  8. Development of an Advanced Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for Bacterial Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Joseph C.; Mastali, Mitra; Li, Yang; Gau, Vincent; Suchard, Marc A.; Babbitt, Jane; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Landaw, Elliot M.; McCabe, Edward R.B.; Churchill, Bernard M.; Haake, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors have the capacity for rapid and accurate detection of a wide variety of target molecules in biological fluids. We have developed an electrochemical sensor assay involving hybridization of bacterial 16S rRNA to fluorescein-modified detector probes and to biotin-modified capture probes anchored to the sensor surface. Signal is generated by an oxidation-reduction current produced by the action of horseradish peroxidase conjugated to an anti-fluorescein monoclonal Fab. A previous study found that this electrochemical sensor strategy could identify uropathogens in clinical urine specimens. To improve assay sensitivity, we examined the key steps that affect the current amplitude of the electrochemical signal. Efficient lysis and release of 16S rRNA from both gram-negative and -positive bacteria was achieved with an initial treatment with Triton X-100 and lysozyme followed by alkaline lysis, resulting in a 12-fold increase in electrochemical signal compared with alkaline lysis alone. The distance in nucleotides between the target hybridization sites of the detector and capture probes and the location of fluorescein modification on the detector probe contributed to a 23-fold change in signal intensity. These results demonstrate the importance of target-probe and probe-probe interactions in the detection of bacterial 16S rRNA using an electrochemical DNA sensor approach. PMID:17384207

  9. Energy resolved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for electronic structure mapping in organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nádaždy, V. Gmucová, K.; Schauer, F.

    2014-10-06

    We introduce an energy resolved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method to map the electronic density of states (DOS) in organic semiconductor materials. The method consists in measurement of the charge transfer resistance of a semiconductor/electrolyte interface at a frequency where the redox reactions determine the real component of the impedance. The charge transfer resistance value provides direct information about the electronic DOS at the energy given by the electrochemical potential of the electrolyte, which can be adjusted using an external voltage. A simple theory for experimental data evaluation is proposed, along with an explanation of the corresponding experimental conditions. The method allows mapping over unprecedentedly wide energy and DOS ranges. Also, important DOS parameters can be determined directly from the raw experimental data without the lengthy analysis required in other techniques. The potential of the proposed method is illustrated by tracing weak bond defect states induced by ultraviolet treatment above the highest occupied molecular orbital in a prototypical σ-conjugated polymer, poly[methyl(phenyl)silylene]. The results agree well with those of our previous DOS reconstruction by post-transient space-charge-limited-current spectroscopy, which was, however, limited to a narrow energy range. In addition, good agreement of the DOS values measured on two common π-conjugated organic polymer semiconductors, polyphenylene vinylene and poly(3-hexylthiophene), with the rather rare previously published data demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of COD from real textile wastewaters: Kinetic study and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jiaxiu; Peng, Xiaolan; Li, Miao; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Bing; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the electrochemical oxidation of real wastewaters discharged by textile industry was carried out using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of operational variables, such as applied current density (20-100 mA·cm(-2)), NaCl concentration added to the real wastewaters (0-3 g·L(-1)), and pH value (2.0-10.0), on the kinetics of COD oxidation and on the energy consumption was carefully investigated. The obtained experimental results could be well matched with a proposed kinetic model, in which the indirect oxidation mediated by electrogenerated strong oxidants would be described through a pseudo-first-order kinetic constant k. Values of k exhibited a linear increase with increasing applied current density and decreasing pH value, and an exponential increase with NaCl concentration. Furthermore, high oxidation kinetics resulted in low specific energy consumption, but this conclusion was not suitable to the results obtained under different applied current density. Under the optimum operational conditions, it only took 3 h to complete remove the COD in the real textile wastewaters and the specific energy consumption could be as low as 11.12 kWh·kg(-1) COD. The obtained results, low energy consumption and short electrolysis time, allowed to conclude that the electrochemical oxidation based on BDD anodes would have practical industrial application for the treatment of real textile wastewater.

  11. High Energy Density Aqueous Electrochemical Capacitors with a KI-KOH Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu S; Chun, Sang-Eun; Zhang, Tianqi; Evanko, Brian; Jian, Zelang; Boettcher, Shannon W; Stucky, Galen D; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-09-16

    We report a new electrochemical capacitor with an aqueous KI-KOH electrolyte that exhibits a higher specific energy and power than the state-of-the-art nonaqueous electrochemical capacitors. In addition to electrical double layer capacitance, redox reactions in this device contribute to charge storage at both positive and negative electrodes via a catholyte of IOx-/I- couple and a redox couple of H2O/Had, respectively. Here, we, for the first time, report utilizing IOx-/I- redox couple for the positive electrode, which pins the positive electrode potential to be 0.4-0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. With the positive electrode potential pinned, we can polarize the cell to 1.6 V without breaking down the aqueous electrolyte so that the negative electrode potential could reach -1.1 V vs Ag/AgCl in the basic electrolyte, greatly enhancing energy storage. Both mass spectroscopy and Raman spectrometry confirm the formation of IO3- ions (+5) from I- (-1) after charging. Based on the total mass of electrodes and electrolyte in a practically relevant cell configuration, the device exhibits a maximum specific energy of 7.1 Wh/kg, operates between -20 and 50 °C, provides a maximum specific power of 6222 W/kg, and has a stable cycling life with 93% retention of the peak specific energy after 14,000 cycles.

  12. Advanced Energy Storage Life and Health Prognostics (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop methodologies that will accurately estimate state-of-health (SOH) and remaining useful life (RUL) of electrochemical energy storage devices using both offline and online (i.e., in-situ) techniques through: (1) Developing a statistically robust battery life estimator tool based on both testing and simulation, (2) Developing rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques that enable onboard power assessment, and (3) Developing an energy storage monitoring system that incorporates both passive and active measurements for onboard systems.

  13. Electrochemical determination of the Gibbs free energies of rock-forming minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    This grant provided support for a series of measurements of thermodynamic data for rock-forming minerals using an electrochemical approach. The relative accuracy of electrochemical measurements and the fact that this technique is the only one that directly measures the Gibbs energy of a phase as a function of temperature makes data obtained in this manner ideal for many types of geochemical calculations. A laboratory for these measurements was completed, and data were acquired on a series of metal-oxide buffers. Data were obtained with precisions of approximately {plus_minus}20 J/mole O{sub 2} at a single temperature, and fitted precisions of {plus_minus}50 J/mole O{sub 2}. Tests of the accuracy of these data were completed by running relative to air, to air through an intermediate gas stage, and relative to a solid buffer, and temperatures were calibrated relative to a primary standard obtained from NIST. These tests suggested that precision of currently available electrochemical studies may not reflect the accuracy of these measurements. The chemical potential of oxygen measured at any given temperature for all solid buffers tested appears to be a direct function of the voltage across the electrolyte containing the solid sample. Further tests of this effect, and recalibration of most or all of these reactions are needed if truly accurate data for these basic reactions are to be available. Preliminary to a planned electrochemical measurements on pyroxenes, a thermodynamic model of the system diopside-enstatite was derived. These results suggest that the activity/composition relations derived from solvus data are strongly dependent on the thermodynamic formulation chosen. This appears to be especially true for ordered intermediate compositions like diopside.

  14. Advanced energy projects; FY 1995 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The AEP Division supports projects to explore novel energy-related concepts which are typically at an early stage of scientific development, and high-risk, exploratory concepts. Topical areas presently receiving support are: novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, exploring uses of new scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. There were 46 research projects during FY 1995; ten were initiated during that fiscal year. The summaries are separated into grant and laboratory programs, and small business innovation research programs.

  15. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Liby, Alan L; Rogers, Hiram

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  16. Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how financial support from DOE and technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical study of palladium-based nanomaterials for green energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrom, Cassandra K.

    Rising global energy consumption leads to increased environmental impacts. The continued use of current energy resources, e.g. fossil fuels, will exaggerate the cumulative nature of CO2 byproduct emissions in the atmosphere. The development and implementation of a hydrogen economy, as a solution to offset degradative environmental impacts, will likely enable opportunities for maintaining or improving standards of living while significantly lowering carbon emissions. Palladium has proven to be a strong contender as an enabling material that encompasses many aspects of a prospective hydrogen economy, lending promise to applications such as hydrogen purification, storage and fuel cell catalysis. In my M.Sc. study, Pd-based nanomaterials have been synthesized and examined for their applications in hydrogen storage and fuel cell catalysis. The surface properties of synthesized Pd-based nanomaterials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 gas adsorption/desorption. Electrochemical analysis of the fabricated materials was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was employed to characterize the composition of the formed samples. Hydrogen electrosorption onto activated carbon materials modified with different trimetallic dissociation catalysts (Pd-Ag-Cd) was investigated in an acidic medium. A uniform distribution of the Pd-Ag-Cd catalysts was achieved using a facile room temperature sodium borohydride reduction method. By varying the composition of the alloys, synergistic effects between the metal and carbon support resulted in drastic increases in hydrogen sorption capabilities in contrast to bi-metallic PdAg and PdCd catalysts

  18. Electrolyte for use in high energy lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell and rechargeable electrochemical cell including the electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammone, R. J.; Binder, M.

    1986-04-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide a lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell having an improved capacity. A more specific object of the invention is to provide an electrolyte for such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a rechargeable electrochemical cell that permits the oxidation of dithionite to occur without using chlorine as an intermediate oxidizing agent. It has now been found that the aforementioned objects can be attained by providing an electrolyte including bromine dissolved in the liquid complex Li(s02)3A1C14.

  19. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    Here, the catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do

  20. Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Flexible Electrochemical Energy Storage: from Materials to Devices.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lei; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage (FEES) devices have received great attention as a promising power source for the emerging field of flexible and wearable electronic devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have many excellent properties that make them ideally suited for use in FEES devices. A brief definition of FEES devices is provided, followed by a detailed overview of various structural models for achieving different FEES devices. The latest research developments on the use of CNTs and graphene in FEES devices are summarized. Finally, future prospects and important research directions in the areas of CNT- and graphene-based flexible electrode synthesis and device integration are discussed.

  1. Cost and size estimates for an electrochemical bulk energy storage concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.; Wright, L. O.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary capital cost and size estimates were made for a titanium trichloride, titanium tetrachloride, ferric chloride, ferrous chloride redox-flow-cell electric power system. On the basis of these preliminary estimates plus other important considerations, this electrochemical system emerged as having great promise as a bulk energy storage system for power load leveling. The size of this system is less than two per cent of that of a comparable pumped hydroelectric plant. The estimated capital cost of a 10 MW, 60- and 85-MWh redox-flow system compared well with that of competing systems.

  2. Advanced concepts for controlling energy surety microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Today, researchers, engineers, and policy makers are seeking ways to meet the world's growing demand for energy while addressing critical issues such as energy security, reliability, and sustainability. Many believe that distributed generators operating within a microgrid have the potential to address most of these issues. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a concept called energy surety in which five of these 'surety elements' are simultaneously considered: energy security, reliability, sustainability, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The surety methodology leads to a new microgrid design that we call an energy surety microgrid (ESM). This paper discusses the unique control requirement needed to produce a microgrid system that has high levels of surety, describes the control system from the most fundamental level through a real-world example, and discusses our ideas and concepts for a complete system.

  3. Advanced low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio wastewater treatment by electrochemical and biological coupling process.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Xing, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen pollution in ground and surface water significantly affects the environment and its organisms, thereby leading to an increasingly serious environmental problem. Such pollution is difficult to degrade because of the lack of carbon sources. Therefore, an electrochemical and biological coupling process (EBCP) was developed with a composite catalytic biological carrier (CCBC) and applied in a pilot-scale cylindrical reactor to treat wastewater with a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 2. The startup process, coupling principle, and dynamic feature of the EBCP were examined along with the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO), and initial pH on nitrogen removal. A stable coupling system was obtained after 51 days when plenty of biofilms were cultivated on the CCBC without inoculation sludge. Autotrophic denitrification, with [Fe(2+)] and [H] produced by iron-carbon galvanic cells in CCBC as electron donors, was confirmed by equity calculation of CODCr and nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency was significantly influenced by HRT, DO, and initial pH with optimal values of 3.5 h, 3.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1), and 7.5 ± 0.1, respectively. The ammonia, nitrate, and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90.1 to 95.3 %, 90.5 to 99.0 %, and 90.3 to 96.5 % were maintained with corresponding initial concentrations of 40 ± 2 mg L(-1) (NH3-N load of 0.27 ± 0.01 kg NH3-N m(-3) d(-1)), 20 ± 1 mg L(-1), and 60 ± 2 mg L(-1) (TN load of 0.41 ± 0.02 kg TN m(-3) d(-1)). Based on the Eckenfelder model, the kinetics equation of the nitrogen transformation along the reactor was N e  = N 0 exp (-0.04368 h/L(1.8438)). Hence, EBCP is a viable method for advanced low C/N ratio wastewater treatment.

  4. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  5. In-situ TEM Characterization of Electrochemical Processess in Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Dudney, Nancy J; Alsem, D. H.; Salmon, Norman; More, Karren Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The accelerated development of materials for utilization in electrical energy storage systems will hinge critically upon our understanding of how interfaces (particularly electrode-electrolyte solid liquid interfaces) control the physical and electrochemical energy conversion processes in energy storage systems. A prime example is found in Lt ion-based battery systems, where a passive multiphase layer grows at the electrode/electrolyte interface due to the decomposition of the liquid electrolyte [ l]. Once formed, this solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) protects the active electrode materials from degradation and also regulates the transport and intercalation of Lt ions during battery charge/discharge cycling [2]. Due to the dynamically evolving nature of this nm-scaled interface, it has proven difficult to design experiments that will not only elucidate the fundamental mechanisms controlling SEI nucleation and growth, but will enable the SEI microstructural and chemical evolution as a function of charge/discharge cycling to be monitored in real time.

  6. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  7. Modeling Innovations Advance Wind Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 1981, Glenn Research Center scientist Dr. Larry Viterna developed a model that predicted certain elements of wind turbine performance with far greater accuracy than previous methods. The model was met with derision from others in the wind energy industry, but years later, Viterna discovered it had become the most widely used method of its kind, enabling significant wind energy technologies-like the fixed pitch turbines produced by manufacturers like Aerostar Inc. of Westport, Massachusetts-that are providing sustainable, climate friendly energy sources today.

  8. Reconstitution of supramolecular organization involved in energy metabolism at electrochemical interfaces for biosensing and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Roger, M; de Poulpiquet, A; Ciaccafava, A; Ilbert, M; Guiral, M; Giudici-Orticoni, M T; Lojou, E

    2014-02-01

    How the redox proteins and enzymes involved in bioenergetic pathways are organized is a relevant fundamental question, but our understanding of this is still incomplete. This review provides a critical examination of the electrochemical tools developed in recent years to obtain knowledge of the intramolecular and intermolecular electron transfer processes involved in metabolic pathways. Furthermore, better understanding of the electron transfer processes associated with energy metabolism will provide the basis for the rational design of biotechnological devices such as electrochemical biosensors, enzymatic and microbial fuel cells, and hydrogen production factories. Starting from the redox complexes involved in two relevant bacterial chains, i.e., from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus and the acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, examination of protein-protein interactions using electrochemistry is first reviewed, with a focus on the orientation of a protein on an electrochemical interface mimic of a physiological interaction between two partners. Special attention is paid to current research in the electrochemistry of essential membrane proteins, which is one mandatory step toward the understanding of energy metabolic pathways. The complex and challenging architectures built to reconstitute a membrane-like environment at an electrode are especially considered. The role played by electrochemistry in the attempt to consider full bacterial metabolism is finally emphasized through the study of whole cells immobilized at electrodes as suspensions or biofilms. Before the performances of biotechnological devices can be further improved to make them really attractive, questions remain to be addressed in this particular field of research. We discuss the bottlenecks that need to be overcome in the future.

  9. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  10. Pulse-reverse treatment of carbon nanomaterials for the electrochemical storage of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhylinski, V. V.; Drozdovich, V. B.; Krauklis, A. V.; Zhdanok, S. A.; Zharski, I. M.

    2011-04-01

    The paper dwells upon the investigation of carbon nanomaterials synthesized by an electric arc-method from methane-air mixture under atmospheric pressure in presence of Ni catalyst. These materials may be used for the electrochemical storage of energy. According to the data of transmission electron microscopy the carbon nanomaterials are generally represented by carbon nanotubes with the diameter of 20-80 nm. The pulse-reverse treatment of carbon nanomaterials in concentrated sulphuric electrolytes with addition of fluoride and lithium ions is carried out to increase their discharge capacity in 1 M H2SO4 and 1 M KOH. The properties of carbon nanomaterials are studied using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, chemical energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, potentiostatic charge method of electrochemical saturation of hydrogen and potentiodynamic discharge method. The maximum discharge capacity of 940 C g-1 in 1 M H2SO4 is revealed for CNMs subjected to pulse-reverse treatment in concentrated sulphuric electrolyte containing fluoride and lithium ions.

  11. Nickel nanoparticles effect on the electrochemical energy storage properties of carbon nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomo Bettini, Luca; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Milani, Paolo; Piseri, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The growth of nanostructured nickel : carbon (Ni : C) nanocomposite thin films by the supersonic cluster beam deposition of nickel and carbon clusters co-deposited from two separate beam sources has been demonstrated. Ni : C films retain the typical highly disordered structure with predominant sp2 hybridization, low density, high surface roughness and granular nanoscale morphology of cluster assembled nanostructured carbon, but display enhanced electric conductivity. The electric double layer (EDL) capacitance of Ni : C films featuring the same thickness (200 nm) and different nickel volumetric concentrations (0-35%) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy employing an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH 1 M) as electrolyte solution. Evidence of increased electric conductivity, facilitated EDL formation and negligible porous structure modification was found as consequence of Ni embedding. This results in the ability to synthesize electrodes with tailored specific power and energy density by the accurate control of the amount of deposited Ni and C clusters. Moreover, nickel nanoparticles were shown to catalyze the formation of tubular onion-like carbon structures upon mild thermal treatment in inert atmosphere. Electrochemical characterization of the heated nanocomposite electrodes revealed that the presence of long range ordered sp2 structures further improves the power density and energy storage properties.

  12. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  13. Graphene-MnO 2 and graphene asymmetrical electrochemical capacitor with a high energy density in aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lingjuan; Zhu, Gang; Wang, Jianfang; Kang, Liping; Liu, Zong-Huai; Yang, Zupei; Wang, Zenglin

    The graphene-manganese oxide hybrid material has been prepared by solution-phase assembly of aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets and manganese oxide nanosheets at room temperature. The morphology and structure of the obtained material are examined by scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N 2 adsorption-desorption. Electrochemical properties are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An asymmetric electrochemical capacitor with high energy and power densities based on the graphene-manganese oxide hybrid material as positive electrode and graphene as negative electrode in a neutral aqueous Na 2SO 4 solution as electrolyte is assembled. The asymmetrical electrochemical capacitor could cycle reversibly in a voltage of 0-1.7 V and give an energy density of 10.03 Wh kg -1 even at an average power density of 2.53 kW kg -1. Moreover, the asymmetrical electrochemical capacitor exhibit excellent cycle stability, and the capacitance retention of the asymmetrical electrochemical capacitor is 69% after repeating the galvanostatic charge-discharge test at the constant current density of 2230 mA g -1 for 10,000 cycles.

  14. Power and Energy Architecture for Army Advanced Energy Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    requirement for power and energy in a rapidly modernized, highly digital, and network -centric Army is growing exponentially. Simultaneously the ability to...concept will provide synergy to requirements, platforms, network architectures and technologies based upon visibility, direction and standardization...In short, we must move from a “stranded” energy architecture to a “ networked or grid” architecture. The Army needs to view battlefield energy

  15. Advanced Materials for Sustainable, Clean Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo

    2009-04-01

    The current annual worldwide energy consumption stands at about 15 terawatts (TW, x1012 watts). Approximately 80% of it is supplied from fossil fuels: oil (34 %), coal (25 %), and natural gas (21 %). Biomass makes up 8% of the energy supply, nuclear energy accounts for 6.5 %, hydropower has a 2% share and other technologies such as wind and solar make up the rest. Even with aggressive conservation and new higher efficiency technology development, worldwide energy demand is predicted to double to 30 TW by 2050 and triple to 46 TW by the end of the century. Meanwhile oil and natural gas production is predicted to peak over the next few decades. Abundant coal reserves may maintain the current consumption level for longer period of time than the oil and gas. However, burning the fossil fuels leads to a serious environmental consequence by emitting gigantic amount of green house gases, particularly CO2 emissions which are widely considered as the primary contributor to global warming. Because of the concerns over the greenhouse gas emission, many countries, and even some states and cities in the US, have adopted regulations for limiting CO2 emissions. Along with increased CO2 regulations, is an emerging trend toward carbon “trading,” giving benefits to low “carbon footprint” industries, while making higher emitting industries purchase carbon “allowances”. There have been an increasing number of countries and states adopting the trade and cap systems.

  16. Advanced energy systems annual report, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, K.; Kajatie, A.

    1998-02-01

    Contents: introduction; laboratory staff; research; radiation physics; new and renewable energy systems; fusion and plasma physics; laser physics and applications; teaching activities; academic degrees and theses; course selection; publications; scientific visits and professional activities; visitors to the laboratory; and visits and activities of the staff.

  17. Synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of sodium nickel phosphate for energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Minakshi, Manickam; Mitchell, David; Jones, Rob; Alenazey, Feraih; Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-06-07

    Electrochemical energy production and storage at large scale and low cost, is a critical bottleneck in renewable energy systems. Oxides and lithium transition metal phosphates have been researched for over two decades and many technologies based on them exist. Much less work has been done investigating the use of sodium phosphates for energy storage. In this work, the synthesis of sodium nickel phosphate at different temperatures is performed and its performance evaluated for supercapacitor applications. The electronic properties of polycrystalline NaNiPO4 polymorphs, triphylite and maricite, t- and m-NaNiPO4 are calculated by means of first-principle calculations based on spin-polarized Density Functional Theory (DFT). The structure and morphology of the polymorphs were characterized and validated experimentally and it is shown that the sodium nickel phosphate (NaNiPO4) exists in two different forms (triphylite and maricite), depending on the synthetic temperature (300-550 °C). The as-prepared and triphylite forms of NaNiPO4vs. activated carbon in 2 M NaOH exhibit the maximum specific capacitance of 125 F g(-1) and 85 F g(-1) respectively, at 1 A g(-1); both having excellent cycling stability with retention of 99% capacity up to 2000 cycles. The maricite form showed 70 F g(-1) with a significant drop in capacity after just 50 cycles. These results reveal that the synthesized triphylite showed a high performance energy density of 44 Wh kg(-1) which is attributed to the hierarchical structure of the porous NaNiPO4 nanosheets. At a higher temperature (>400 °C) the maricite form of NaNiPO4 possesses a nanoplate-like (coarse and blocky) structure with a large skewing at the intermediate frequency that is not tolerant of cycling. Computed results for the sodium nickel phosphate polymorphs and the electrochemical experimental results are in good agreement.

  18. Space Experiments to Advance Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Donald G.

    2010-05-01

    High power microwave sources are now available and usable, with modification, or beamed energy propulsion experiments in space. As output windows and vacuum seals are not needed space is a natural environment for high power vacuum tubes. Application to space therefore improves reliability and performance but complicates testing and qualification. Low power communications satellite devices (TWT, etc) have already been through the adapt-to-space design cycle and this history is a useful pathway for high power devices such as gyrotrons. In this paper, space experiments are described for low earth orbit (LEO) and lunar environment. These experiments are precursors to space application for beamed energy propulsion using high power microwaves. Power generation and storage using cryogenic systems are important elements of BEP systems and also have an important role as part of BEP experiments in the space environment.

  19. Recent Advancements in Nanogenerators for Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Cai, Qian; Liao, Fan; Shao, Mingwang; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-11-11

    Nanomaterial-based generators are a highly promising power supply for micro/nanoscale devices, capable of directly harvesting energy from ambient sources without the need for batteries. These generators have been designed within four main types: piezoelectric, triboelectric, thermoelectric, and electret effects, and consist of ZnO-based, silicon-based, ferroelectric-material-based, polymer-based, and graphene-based examples. The representative achievements, current challenges, and future prospects of these nanogenerators are discussed.

  20. Tertiary treatment of a municipal wastewater toward pharmaceuticals removal by chemical and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2016-11-15

    This study focuses on the degradation of pharmaceuticals from a municipal wastewater after secondary treatment by applying various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and electrochemical AOPs (EAOPs) like UVC, H2O2/UVC, anodic oxidation (AO), AO with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), AO-H2O2/UVC and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) using either UVC radiation (PEF-UVC) or UVA radiation (PEF-UVA). The municipal wastewater after secondary treatment was spiked with 5.0 mg L(-1) of trimethoprim (TMP) antibiotic. The efficiency of processes to remove TMP followed the order UVC < AO-H2O2 < PEF-UVA < AO ≈ PEF-UVC < AO-H2O2/UVC < PEF-UVA (pH = 2.8) < H2O2/UVC ≈ PEF-UVC (pH = 2.8), using neutral pH, except when identified. While the UVC radiation alone led to a very low TMP removal, the H2O2/UVC process promoted a very high TMP degradation due to the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) by H2O2 cleavage. In the AO-H2O2/UVC process, the electrogeneration of H2O2 can avoid the risks associated with the transportation, storage and manipulation of this oxidant and, furthermore, OH at the anode surface are also formed. Nevertheless, low contents of H2O2 were detected mainly at the beginning of the reaction, leading to a lower initial reaction rate when compared with the H2O2/UVC system. In the PEF-UVC, the addition of iron at neutral pH led to the visible formation of insoluble iron oxides that can filter the light. At pH 2.8, the iron remained dissolved, thereby promoting the Fenton's reaction and increasing the organics removal. The UVA-driven processes showed limited efficiency when compared with those using UVC light. For all processes with H2O2 electrogeneration, the active chlorine species can be scavenged by the H2O2, diminishing the efficiency of the processes. This can explain the lower efficiency of AO-H2O2 when compared with AO. Moreover, the degradation of the MWWTP effluent spiked with 18 pharmaceuticals in μg L(-1) during AO process was assessed

  1. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  2. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  3. Advanced Offshore Wind Energy - Atlantic Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-11-04

    This project developed relationships among the lead institution, U of Delaware, wind industry participants from 11 companies, and two other universities in the region. The participating regional universities were University of Maryland and Old Dominion University. Research was carried out in six major areas: Analysis and documentation of extreme oceanic wind events & their impact on design parameters, calibration of corrosivity estimates measured on a coastal turbine, measurment and modeling of tower structures, measurement and modeling of the tribology of major drive components, and gearbox conditioning monitoring using acoustic sensors. The project also had several educational goals, including establishing a course in wind energy and training graduate students. Going beyond these goals, three new courses were developed, a graduate certificate program in wind power was developed and approved, and an exchange program in wind energy was established with Danish Technical University. Related to the installation of a Gamesa G90 turbine on campus and a Gamesa-UD research program established in part due to this award, several additional research projects have been carried out based on mutual industry-university interests, and funded by turbine revenues. This award and the Gamesa partnership have jointly led to seven graduate students receiving full safety and climb training, to become “research climbers” as part of their wind power training, and contributing to on-turbine research. As a result of the educational program, already six graduate students have taken jobs in the US wind industry.

  4. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  5. Electrochemical energy storage in montmorillonite K10 clay based composite as supercapacitor using ionic liquid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sandipan; Pramanik, Atin; Chattopadhyay, Shreyasi; De, Goutam; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2016-02-15

    Exploring new electrode materials is the key to realize high performance energy storage devices for effective utilization of renewable energy. Natural clays with layered structure and high surface area are prospective materials for electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). In this work, a novel hybrid composite based on acid-leached montmorillonite (K10), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) was prepared and its electrochemical properties were investigated by fabricating two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor cells against activated carbon (AC) using 1.0M tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et4NBF4) in acetonitrile (AN) as electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitors, capable of operating in a wide potential window of 0.0-2.7V, showed a high energy density of 171Whkg(-1) at a power density of ∼1.98kWkg(-1). Such high EDLC performance could possibly be linked to the acid-base interaction of K10 through its surface hydroxyl groups with the tetraethylammonium cation [(C2H5)4N(+) or TEA(+)] of the ionic liquid electrolyte. Even at a very high power density of 96.4kWkg(-1), the cells could still deliver an energy density of 91.1Whkg(-1) exhibiting an outstanding rate capability. The present study demonstrates for the first time, the excellent potential of clay-based composites for high power energy storage device applications.

  6. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; ...

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueousmore » electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.« less

  7. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueous electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.

  8. Physicochemical modifications and applications of carbon nano-onions for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgohain, Rituraj

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs), concentrically multilayered fullerenes, are prepared by several different methods. We are studying the properties of two specific CNOs: A-CNOs and N-CNOs. A-CNOs are synthesized by underwater arc discharge, and N-CNOs are synthesized by high-temperature graphitization of commercial nanodiamond. In this study the synthesis of A-CNOs are optimized by designing an arc discharge aparatus to control the arc plasma. Moreover other synthesis parameters such as arc power, duty cycles, temperature, graphitic and metal impurities are controlled for optimum production of A-CNOs. Also, a very efficient purification method is developed to screen out A-CNOs from carboneseous and metal impurities. In general, A-CNOs are larger than N-CNOs (ca. 30 nm vs. 7 nm diameter). The high surface area, appropriate mesoporosity, high thermal stability and high electrical conductivity of CNOs make them a promising material for various applications. These hydrophobic materials are functionalized with organic groups on their outer layers to study their surface chemistry and to decorate with metal oxide nanoparticles. Both CNOs and CNO nanocomposites are investigated for application in electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The influences of pH, concentration and additives on the performance of the composites are studied. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate high specific capacitance and high cycling stability with high energy and power density of the composite materials in aqueous electrolyte. Key words: Carbon Nano-onions, Arc discharge, Purification, Functionalization, Supercapacitor.

  9. Recent advances in statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heron, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has traditionally been developed using modal summation and averaging approach, and has led to the need for many restrictive SEA assumptions. The assumption of 'weak coupling' is particularly unacceptable when attempts are made to apply SEA to structural coupling. It is now believed that this assumption is more a function of the modal formulation rather than a necessary formulation of SEA. The present analysis ignores this restriction and describes a wave approach to the calculation of plate-plate coupling loss factors. Predictions based on this method are compared with results obtained from experiments using point excitation on one side of an irregular six-sided box structure. Conclusions show that the use and calculation of infinite transmission coefficients is the way forward for the development of a purely predictive SEA code.

  10. Advanced materials manufacturing for solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mierlo, Frank

    2012-02-01

    The US has a robust technical roadmap to get to a 1/W total installed cost with several potential winners in the race. We dominate in the new technology arena and there is a good chance that tomorrow's winning technology will be from the current crop of contenders. One potential breakthrough is Direct Wafer^TM a new manufacturing technique to make silicon wafers at a fraction of the traditional cost. Current wafer manufacturing is a multi-step, energy- and capital-intensive process that wastes half of the valuable silicon feedstock. 1366's Direct Wafer technology forms a standard, 156mm multi-crystalline wafer directly from molten silicon in a semi-continuous, efficient, high-throughput process that eliminates silicon waste. Direct Wafer^TM cuts the amount of consumables by a factor of four and requires only half the capital per GigaWatt production capacity thus enabling solar to compete successfully with coal generated electricity.

  11. Structure Design and Performance Tuning of Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Tian; Xu, Yue-Feng; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Huang, Ling; Tian, Na; Zhou, Zhi-You; Broadwell, Ian; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2016-11-15

    The performance of nanomaterials in electrochemical energy conversion (fuel cells) and storage (secondary batteries) strongly depends on the nature of their surfaces. Designing the structure of electrode materials is the key approach to achieving better performance. Metal or metal oxide nanocrystals (NCs) with high-energy surfaces and open surface structures have attained significant attention in the past decade since such features possess intrinsically exceptional properties. However, they are thermodynamically metastable, resulting in a huge challenge in their shape-controlled synthesis. The tuning of material structure, design, and performance on the nanoscale for electrochemical energy conversion and storage has attracted extended attention over the past few years. In this Account, recent progress made in shape-controlled synthesis of nanomaterials with high-energy surfaces and open surface structures using both electrochemical methods and surfactant-based wet chemical route are reviewed. In fuel cells, the most important catalytic materials are Pt and Pd and their NCs with high-energy surfaces of convex or concave morphology. These exhibit remarkable activity toward electrooxidation of small organic molecules, such as formic acid, methanol, and ethanol and so on. In practical applications, the successful synthesis of Pt NCs with high-energy surfaces of small sizes (sub-10 nm) realized a superior high mass activity. The electrocatalytic performances have been further boosted by synergetic effects in bimetallic systems, either through surface decoration using foreign metal atoms or by alloying in which the high-index facet structure is preserved and the electronic structure of the NCs is altered. The intrinsic relationship of high electrocatalytic performance dependent on open structure and high-energy surface is also valid for (metal) oxide nanomaterials used in Li ion batteries (LIB). It is essential for the anode nanomaterials to have optimized structures to

  12. Color-Coded Batteries - Electro-Photonic Inverse Opal Materials for Enhanced Electrochemical Energy Storage and Optically Encoded Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-07-01

    For consumer electronic devices, long-life, stable, and reasonably fast charging Li-ion batteries with good stable capacities are a necessity. For exciting and important advances in the materials that drive innovations in electrochemical energy storage (EES), modular thin-film solar cells, and wearable, flexible technology of the future, real-time analysis and indication of battery performance and health is crucial. Here, developments in color-coded assessment of battery material performance and diagnostics are described, and a vision for using electro-photonic inverse opal materials and all-optical probes to assess, characterize, and monitor the processes non-destructively in real time are outlined. By structuring any cathode or anode material in the form of a photonic crystal or as a 3D macroporous inverse opal, color-coded "chameleon" battery-strip electrodes may provide an amenable way to distinguish the type of process, the voltage, material and chemical phase changes, remaining capacity, cycle health, and state of charge or discharge of either existing or new materials in Li-ion or emerging alternative battery types, simply by monitoring its color change.

  13. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H.

    1993-05-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  14. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H.

    1991-09-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant, carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant, and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is therefore especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  15. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  16. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  17. Advanced component technologies for energy-efficient turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Project which was initiated to provide the advanced technology base for a new generation of fuel-conservative engines for introduction into airline service by the late 1980s. Efforts in this project are directed at advancing engine component and systems technologies to a point of demonstrating technology-readiness by 1984. Early results indicate high promise in achieving most of the goals established in the project.

  18. Investigation of performance and durability of polymer electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage and conversion technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Min-Suk

    Polymeric ion exchange membranes are integral components of electrochemical conversion/storage devices such as fuel cells, water electrolyzers, and redox flow batteries. There has been dramatic progress in the research and development of cation exchange membranes (CEM). NafionRTM (perfluorosulfonic acid membranes) is one example of a state-of-the-art CEM and has been successfully demonstrated in various electrochemical energy devices. Unlike CEMs, anion exchange membranes (AEMs) have been of limited utility to date due to their drawbacks, including poor chemical/mechanical stability and low ionic conductivity. However, alkaline environments result in better activity for electrochemical reactions and afford the possibility of using non-platinum group metal (PGM) electrocatalysts. AEMs, therefore, are still being studied in order to resolve existing challenges in terms of conductivity and stability in alkaline media and in strongly oxidizing solutions. In this work, AEMs derived from different types of polymer backbones were prepared, and their chemical stability and electrochemical property were investigated. Polysulfone (PSF) AEMs were prepared by first chloromethylating polysulfone, then by functionalizing chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSF) with different base reagents. PSF-trimethylamine (TMA) AEMs showed a 40-fold reduction in vanadium (IV) ion (VO2+) permeability when compared to a NafionRTM membrane and exceptional oxidative stability after exposure to a 1.5 M vanadium (V) ion (VO2+) solution for 90 days. PSF-TMA AEMs were successfully demonstrated in the all-vanadium redox flow battery. Excellent energy efficiencies (>75 %) were attained and sustained over 75 charge-discharge cycles for a vanadium redox flow battery prepared using the PSF-TMA separator. Crosslinking of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) AEMs using diamine was tried with intentions to improve the mechanical stability and electrochemical property of PPO AEM. Crosslinked PPO AEMs (30

  19. Advanced Energy Conversion Concept for Beamed-Energy Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-21

    geometry ................ 9 Figure HA Methods for incorporating variable geometry In radlally-eymmetric supersonic inlets...41 Figure 11. EB thrust vector geometry for rotating ine source(s) ... ........... 42 Ire 11-19. Energy deposition mode - bottom view...coniguration . ..... ................... 106 Figure V.2. LSD wave Laraglan view ..... ....................... 105 Figure V-.& Cylindrical blad wave geometry

  20. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ollis, T Ben; King, Daniel J; Irminger, Philip; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  1. Advanced beamed-energy and field propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    Specific phenomena which might lead to major advances in payload, range and terminal velocity of very advanced vehicle propulsion are studied. The effort focuses heavily on advanced propulsion spinoffs enabled by current government-funded investigations in directed-energy technology: i.e., laser, microwave, and relativistic charged particle beams. Futuristic (post-year 2000) beamed-energy propulsion concepts which indicate exceptional promise are identified and analytically investigated. The concepts must be sufficiently developed to permit technical understanding of the physical processes involved, assessment of the enabling technologies, and evaluation of their merits over conventional systems. Propulsion concepts that can be used for manned and/or unmanned missions for purposes of solar system exploration, planetary landing, suborbital flight, transport to orbit, and escape are presented. Speculations are made on the chronology of milestones in beamed-energy propulsion development, such as in systems applications of defense, satellite orbit-raising, global aerospace transportation, and manned interplanetary carriers.

  2. Study for promotion of introducing advanced battery energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    An advanced battery energy storage system is examined, with studies focused mainly on its technical development, but also its commercialization, cost, reliability, simplification and compactness. The purpose of this project is to study the parameters which are needed in order to promote introduction of the advanced battery energy storage system. Systems which are expected to be commercialized in the near future are a customer peak-cut system, an isolated island peak-cut system, and emergency electric power sources. When technology reaches maturity, a load-leveling system to be installed at substations of electric utilities are expected to be commercially used. With the study on commercial application as one of the purposes, small scale (50 to 100 kW) advanced battery energy storage systems are expected to be trially employed to peak cut use at customers (prime) end. To promote introduction of the system, it is necessary to make environmental improvement in the institutional aspect.

  3. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  4. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  5. Evaluation of Gibbs free energies of formation of Ce-Cd intermetallic compounds using electrochemical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Kurata, Masaki

    2014-08-01

    Gibbs free energies of formation of six Ce-Cd intermetallic compounds, CeCd, CeCd2, CeCd3, CeCd58/13, CeCd6 and CeCd11, were evaluated systematically using electrochemical techniques in the temperature range of 673-923 K in the LiCl-KCl-CeCl3-CdCl2 molten salt bath. The linear dependence of the Gibbs free energies of formation on temperature yields to the enthalpies and entropies of formation of these intermetallic compounds. By extrapolating the Gibbs free energy of Ce-Cd intermetallic compounds to the Cd distillation temperature, it was clear that the Gibbs free energy of Ce-Cd intermetallic compounds decreases gradually from CeCd6 to CeCd2 and attains minimum value at CeCd2. This suggests on the Cd distillation from the U-Pu-Ce-Cd alloy that the dissolution of U or Pu into CeCd2 should be mostly taken into consideration.

  6. Electrospun-Technology-Derived High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengjiao; Wang, Minxuan; Xu, Hao; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan

    2016-11-07

    Electrospinning, as a novel nontextile filament technology, is an important method to prepare continuous nanofibers and has shown its remarkable advantages, such as a broadly applicable material system, controllable fiber size and structure, and simple process. Electrospun nanofiber membranes prepared by electrospinning have shown promising applications in many fields, such as supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and sodium-ion batteries, owing to their large specific surface area and adjustable network pore structure. The principle of electrospinning and key points relevant to its usage in the preparation of high-performance electrochemical energy storage materials are reviewed herein based on recent publications, particularly focusing on research progress of relative materials. Also, this review describes a distinctive conclusion and perspective on the future challenges and opportunities in electrospun nanomaterials.

  7. LDHs as electrode materials for electrochemical detection and energy storage: supercapacitor, battery and (bio)-sensor.

    PubMed

    Mousty, Christine; Leroux, Fabrice

    2012-11-01

    From an exhaustive overview based on applicative academic literature and patent domain, the relevance of Layered Double Hydroxide (LDHs) as electrode materials for electrochemical detection of organic molecules having environmental or health impact and energy storage is evaluated. Specifically the focus is driven on their application as supercapacitor, alkaline or lithium battery and (bio)-sensor. Inherent to the high versatility of their chemical composition, charge density, anion exchange capability, LDH-based materials are extensively studied and their performances for such applications are reported. Indeed the analytical characteristics (sensitivity and detection limit) of LDH-based electrodes are scrutinized, and their specific capacity or capacitance as electrode battery or supercapacitor materials, are detailed.

  8. MoS2‐Based Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; Chen, Shuangqiang; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-01-01

    Typical layered transition‐metal chalcogenide materials, in particular layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their excellent chemical and physical properties in various research fieldsHere, a general overview of synthetic MoS2 based nanocomposites via different preparation approaches and their applications in energy storage devices (Li‐ion battery, Na‐ion battery, and supercapacitor) is presented. The relationship between morphologies and the electrochemical performances of MoS2‐based nanocomposites in the three typical and promising rechargeable systems is also discussed. Finally, perspectives on major challenges and opportunities faced by MoS2‐based materials to address the practical problems of MoS2‐based materials are presented. PMID:28251051

  9. High-efficiency electrochemical thermal energy harvester using carbon nanotube aerogel sheet electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Hyeongwook; Kim, Taewoo; Song, Hyelynn; Choi, Jongho; Park, Jae Sung; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Yang, Hee Doo; Kihm, Kenneth D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Lee, Hong H.; Kang, Tae June; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-02-01

    Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity is an important energy harvesting strategy. However, abundant heat from these low-grade thermal streams cannot be harvested readily because of the absence of efficient, inexpensive devices that can convert the waste heat into electricity. Here we fabricate carbon nanotube aerogel-based thermo-electrochemical cells, which are potentially low-cost and relatively high-efficiency materials for this application. When normalized to the cell cross-sectional area, a maximum power output of 6.6 W m-2 is obtained for a 51 °C inter-electrode temperature difference, with a Carnot-relative efficiency of 3.95%. The importance of electrode purity, engineered porosity and catalytic surfaces in enhancing the thermocell performance is demonstrated.

  10. High-efficiency electrochemical thermal energy harvester using carbon nanotube aerogel sheet electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hyeongwook; Kim, Taewoo; Song, Hyelynn; Choi, Jongho; Park, Jae Sung; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Yang, Hee Doo; Kihm, Kenneth D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Lee, Hong H.; Kang, Tae June; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity is an important energy harvesting strategy. However, abundant heat from these low-grade thermal streams cannot be harvested readily because of the absence of efficient, inexpensive devices that can convert the waste heat into electricity. Here we fabricate carbon nanotube aerogel-based thermo-electrochemical cells, which are potentially low-cost and relatively high-efficiency materials for this application. When normalized to the cell cross-sectional area, a maximum power output of 6.6 W m−2 is obtained for a 51 °C inter-electrode temperature difference, with a Carnot-relative efficiency of 3.95%. The importance of electrode purity, engineered porosity and catalytic surfaces in enhancing the thermocell performance is demonstrated. PMID:26837457

  11. Holey tungsten oxynitride nanowires: novel anodes efficiently integrate microbial chemical energy conversion and electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Minghao; Han, Yi; Cheng, Xinyu; Hu, Le; Zeng, Yinxiang; Chen, Meiqiong; Cheng, Faliang; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang

    2015-05-20

    Holey tungsten oxynitride nanowires with superior conductivity, good biocompatibility, and good stability achieve excellent performance as anodes for both asymmetric supercapacitors and microbial fuel cells. Moreover, an innovative system is devised based on these as-prepared tungsten oxynitride anodes, which can simultaneously realize both energy conversion from chemical to electric energy and its storage.

  12. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of Electrochemical Processes in Renewable Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Farmand, Maryam

    2013-05-19

    The development of better energy conversion and storage devices, such as fuel cells and batteries, is crucial for reduction of our global carbon footprint and improving the quality of the air we breathe. However, both of these technologies face important challenges. The development of lower cost and better electrode materials, which are more durable and allow more control over the electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface, is perhaps most important for meeting these challenges. Hence, full characterization of the electrochemical processes that occur at the electrodes is vital for intelligent design of more energy efficient electrodes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a short-range order, element specific technique that can be utilized to probe the processes occurring at operating electrode surfaces, as well for studying the amorphous materials and nano-particles making up the electrodes. It has been increasingly used in recent years to study fuel cell catalysts through application of the and #916; and mgr; XANES technique, in combination with the more traditional X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) techniques. The and #916; and mgr; XANES data analysis technique, previously developed and applied to heterogeneous catalysts and fuel cell electrocatalysts by the GWU group, was extended in this work to provide for the first time space resolved adsorbate coverages on both electrodes of a direct methanol fuel cell. Even more importantly, the and #916; and mgr; technique was applied for the first time to battery relevant materials, where bulk properties such as the oxidation state and local geometry of a cathode are followed.

  13. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The conference provided a forum to assess critical needs and technologies for the NASA electrochemical energy conversion and storage program. It was aimed at providing guidance to NASA on the appropriate direction and emphasis of that program. A series of related overviews were presented in the areas of NASA advanced mission models (space stations, low and geosynchronous Earth orbit missions, planetary missions, and space transportation). Papers were presented and workshops conducted in a variety of technical areas, including advanced rechargeables, advanced concepts, critical physical electrochemical issues, and modeling.

  14. Energy intensity, electricity consumption, and advanced manufacturing-technology usage

    SciTech Connect

    Doms, M.E.; Dunne, T.

    1995-07-01

    This article reports on the relationship between the usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and energy consumption patterns in manufacturing plants. Using data from the Survey of Manufacturing Technology and the 1987 Census of Manufactures, we model the energy intensity and the electricity intensity of plants as functions of AMT usage and plant age. The main findings are that plants that utilize AMTs are less-energy intensive than plants not using AMTs, but consume proportionately more electricity as a fuel source. Additionally, older plants are generally more energy intensive and rely on fossil fuels to a greater extent than younger plants. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Advanced Electrochemical Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane via Dark Catalysis by Novel Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Pellets.

    PubMed

    Jasmann, Jeramy R; Borch, Thomas; Sale, Tom C; Blotevogel, Jens

    2016-08-16

    1,4-dioxane is an emerging groundwater contaminant with significant regulatory implications. Because it is resistant to traditional groundwater treatments, remediation of 1,4-dioxane is often limited to costly ex situ UV-based advanced oxidation. By varying applied voltage, electrical conductivity, seepage velocity, and influent contaminant concentration in flow-through reactors, we show that electrochemical oxidation is a viable technology for in situ and ex situ treatment of 1,4-dioxane under a wide range of environmental conditions. Using novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) pellets, we demonstrate for the first time that this prominent catalyst can be activated in the dark even when electrically insulated from the electrodes. TiO2-catalyzed reactors achieved efficiencies of greater than 97% degradation of 1,4-dioxane, up to 4.6 times higher than noncatalyzed electrolytic reactors. However, the greatest catalytic enhancement (70% degradation versus no degradation without catalysis) was observed in low-ionic-strength water, where conventional electrochemical approaches notoriously fail. The TiO2 pellet's dark-catalytic oxidation activity was confirmed on the pharmaceutical lamotrigine and the industrial solvent chlorobenzene, signifying that electrocatalytic treatment has tremendous potential as a transformative remediation technology for persistent organic pollutants in groundwater and other aqueous environments.

  16. Optimization of Design Parameters and Operating Conditions of Electrochemical Capacitors for High Energy and Power Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E.

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical expressions for performance parameters of different electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been optimized by solving them using MATLAB scripts as well as via the MATLAB R2014a optimization toolbox. The performance of the different kinds of ECs under given conditions was compared using theoretical equations and simulations of various models based on the conditions of device components, using optimal values for the coefficient associated with the battery-kind material ( K BMopt) and the constant associated with the electrolyte material ( K Eopt), as well as our symmetric electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) experimental data. Estimation of performance parameters was possible based on values for the mass ratio of electrodes, operating potential range ratio, and specific capacitance of electrolyte. The performance of asymmetric ECs with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using aqueous or organic electrolyte at appropriate operating potential range and specific capacitance was 2.2 and 5.56 times greater, respectively, than for the symmetric EDLC and asymmetric EC using the same aqueous electrolyte, respectively. This enhancement was accompanied by reduced cell mass and volume. Also, the storable and deliverable energies of the asymmetric EC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 12.9 times greater than those of the symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, again with reduced cell mass and volume. The storable energy, energy density, and power density of the asymmetric EDLC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 5.56 times higher than for a similar symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, with cell mass and volume reduced by a factor of 1.77. Also, the asymmetric EDLC with the same type of electrode and suitable electrode mass ratio, working potential range ratio, and proper organic electrolyte

  17. Optimization of Design Parameters and Operating Conditions of Electrochemical Capacitors for High Energy and Power Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E.

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical expressions for performance parameters of different electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been optimized by solving them using MATLAB scripts as well as via the MATLAB R2014a optimization toolbox. The performance of the different kinds of ECs under given conditions was compared using theoretical equations and simulations of various models based on the conditions of device components, using optimal values for the coefficient associated with the battery-kind material (K BMopt) and the constant associated with the electrolyte material (K Eopt), as well as our symmetric electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) experimental data. Estimation of performance parameters was possible based on values for the mass ratio of electrodes, operating potential range ratio, and specific capacitance of electrolyte. The performance of asymmetric ECs with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using aqueous or organic electrolyte at appropriate operating potential range and specific capacitance was 2.2 and 5.56 times greater, respectively, than for the symmetric EDLC and asymmetric EC using the same aqueous electrolyte, respectively. This enhancement was accompanied by reduced cell mass and volume. Also, the storable and deliverable energies of the asymmetric EC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 12.9 times greater than those of the symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, again with reduced cell mass and volume. The storable energy, energy density, and power density of the asymmetric EDLC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 5.56 times higher than for a similar symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, with cell mass and volume reduced by a factor of 1.77. Also, the asymmetric EDLC with the same type of electrode and suitable electrode mass ratio, working potential range ratio, and proper organic electrolyte

  18. SERI Advanced and Innovative Wind-Energy-Concepts Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Jacobs, E.W.

    1983-06-01

    In 1978 the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) was given the responsibility of managing the Advanced and Innovative Wind Energy Concepts (AIWEC) Task by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this program has been to determine the technical and economic potential of advanced wind energy concepts. Assessment and R and D efforts in the AIWEC program have included theoretical performance analyses, wind tunnel testing, and/or costing studies. Concepts demonstrating sufficient potential undergo prototype testing in a Proof-of-Concept research phase. Several concepts, such as the Dynamic Inducer, the Diffuser Augmented wind Turbine, the Electrofluid Dynamic Wind-Driven Generator, the Passive Cyclic Pitch concept, and higher performance airfoil configurations for vertical axis wind turbines, have recently made significant progress. The latter has currently reached the Proof-of-Concept phase. The present paper provides an overview of the technical progress and current status of these concepts.

  19. Advanced water recycling through electrochemical treatment of effluent from dissolved air flotation unit of food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2010-01-01

    This study elucidates the feasibility of electrochemical treatment as a water recycling process in the dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit in the food industry. Effects of operation parameters such as current density, electrolysis time, initial pH of effluent, and mixing process were investigated on the removal of COD, TSS, and TDS of the DAF pretreated effluent. An increase of current density enhances the removal rates and reduces the electrolysis time to reach the maximum performance. The initial pH less than 7 and the addition of mixing process were proven to increase the efficiency of EC treatment. About 80% of COD, 100% of TSS, and 60% of TDS were successfully removed at 500 mA current for 1 hour of electrolysis. The final treated effluent was found to meet the discharge standard from the US Environmental Protection Agency. It was concluded that EC process could be effective as an advanced water resourcing technology in the food industry.

  20. Electrochemical Electron Transfer and Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer: Effects of Double Layer and Ionic Environment on Solvent Reorganization Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Soumya; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2016-06-14

    Electron transfer and proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions at electrochemical interfaces play an essential role in a broad range of energy conversion processes. The reorganization energy, which is a measure of the free energy change associated with solute and solvent rearrangements, is a key quantity for calculating rate constants for these reactions. We present a computational method for including the effects of the double layer and ionic environment of the diffuse layer in calculations of electrochemical solvent reorganization energies. This approach incorporates an accurate electronic charge distribution of the solute within a molecular-shaped cavity in conjunction with a dielectric continuum treatment of the solvent, ions, and electrode using the integral equations formalism polarizable continuum model. The molecule-solvent boundary is treated explicitly, but the effects of the electrode-double layer and double layer-diffuse layer boundaries, as well as the effects of the ionic strength of the solvent, are included through an external Green’s function. The calculated total reorganization energies agree well with experimentally measured values for a series of electrochemical systems, and the effects of including both the double layer and ionic environment are found to be very small. This general approach was also extended to electrochemical PCET and produced total reorganization energies in close agreement with experimental values for two experimentally studied PCET systems. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. Electrochemically assisted deposition of transparent, mechanically robust TiO2 films for advanced applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maino, Giulia; Meroni, Daniela; Pifferi, Valentina; Falciola, Luigi; Soliveri, Guido; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Ardizzone, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, titanium dioxide has received ever growing interest, thanks to its promising applications in numerous fields such as environmental remediation, H2 generation and photovoltaics. Here, transparent and mechanically robust TiO2 films are deposited by a simple and inexpensive electrochemically assisted procedure on various kinds of substrates, both conductive and nonconductive (e.g., glass slides or different metal laminas with variable surface roughness). The obtained films are uniform, crack-free and exhibit excellent chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical robustness. The obtained layers are compared to films prepared by a routine preparation technique, such as dip coating, showing much better morphological, optical, and conductive properties. The photo-activity of TiO2 can be exploited to obtain transparent spectroelectrochemical systems and to control the wetting features of the surface. Applications concerning the modulation of the wettability are presented with respect to both the antifogging and antistain properties. The photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 films are exploited to activate a photoelectrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto an unconductive support. These materials are promising for numerous applications such as smart windows, antifogging mirrors, solar cells, and optically transparent electrodes.

  2. Center for Advanced Power and Energy Research (CAPEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    University structured through a cooperative research agreement. Our organizational focuses include: 1. Modeling of plasma physics 2. Modeling fuel cells 3...Testing new innovation and ideas for advanced fuel cells 4. Development of energy related issue for micro air vehicles (MAVs). 15. SUBJECT TERMS plasma ...1 2 Plasma Modeling

  3. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute

  4. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for high-power electric storage with energy density comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yu, Shuhui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Sritharan, Thirumany; Lu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Although batteries possess high energy storage density, their output power is limited by the slow movement of charge carriers, and thus capacitors are often required to deliver high power output. Dielectric capacitors have high power density with fast discharge rate, but their energy density is typically much lower than electrochemical supercapacitors. Increasing the energy density of dielectric materials is highly desired to extend their applications in many emerging power system applications. In this paper, we review the mechanisms and major characteristics of electric energy storage with electrochemical supercapacitors and dielectric capacitors. Three types of in-house-produced ferroic nonlinear dielectric thin film materials with high energy density are described, including (Pb(0.97)La(0.02))(Zr(0.90)Sn(0.05)Ti(0.05))O(3) (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramic thin films, Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)PbTiO(3) (PZN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramic thin films, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based polymer blend thin films. The results showed that these thin film materials are promising for electric storage with outstandingly high power density and fairly high energy density, comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

  5. Electrospun porous NiCo2O4 nanotubes as advanced electrodes for electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Peng, Shengjie; Cheah, Yanling; Teh, Peifen; Wang, Jin; Wee, Grace; Ko, Yahwen; Wong, Chuiling; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2013-05-03

    Novel, porous NiCo2O4 nanotubes (NCO-NTs) are prepared by a single-spinneret electrospinning technique followed by calcination in air. The obtained NCO-NTs display a one-dimensional architecture with a porous structure and hollow interiors. The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies of the products is investigated. Due to their unique structure, the prepared NCO-NT electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance (1647 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)), excellent rate capability (77.3 % capacity retention at 25 A g(-1)), and outstanding cycling stability (6.4 % loss after 3000 cycles), which indicates it has great potential for high-performance electrochemical capacitors. The desirable enhanced capacitive performance of NCO-NTs can be attributed to the relatively large specific surface area of these porous and hollow one-dimensional nanostructures.

  6. Advanced Graphene-Based Binder-Free Electrodes for High-Performance Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junyi; Li, Yang; Peng, Wenchao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2015-09-23

    The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research effort for the development of high-performance and durable energy-storage devices. Advanced graphene-based electrodes with high electrical conductivity and ion accessibility can exhibit superior electrochemical performance in energy-storage devices. Among them, binder-free configurations can enhance the electron conductivity of the electrode, which leads to a higher capacity by avoiding the addition of non-conductive and inactive binders. Graphene, a 2D material, can be fabricated into a porous and flexible structure with an interconnected conductive network. Such a conductive structure is favorable for both electron and ion transport to the entire electrode surface. In this review, the main processes used to prepare binder-free graphene-based hybrids with high porosity and well-designed electron conductive networks are summarized. Then, the applications of free-standing binder-free graphene-based electrodes in energy-storage devices are discussed. Future research aspects with regard to overcoming the technological bottlenecks are also proposed.

  7. Synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of sodium nickel phosphate for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakshi, Manickam; Mitchell, David; Jones, Rob; Alenazey, Feraih; Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    Electrochemical energy production and storage at large scale and low cost, is a critical bottleneck in renewable energy systems. Oxides and lithium transition metal phosphates have been researched for over two decades and many technologies based on them exist. Much less work has been done investigating the use of sodium phosphates for energy storage. In this work, the synthesis of sodium nickel phosphate at different temperatures is performed and its performance evaluated for supercapacitor applications. The electronic properties of polycrystalline NaNiPO4 polymorphs, triphylite and maricite, t- and m-NaNiPO4 are calculated by means of first-principle calculations based on spin-polarized Density Functional Theory (DFT). The structure and morphology of the polymorphs were characterized and validated experimentally and it is shown that the sodium nickel phosphate (NaNiPO4) exists in two different forms (triphylite and maricite), depending on the synthetic temperature (300-550 °C). The as-prepared and triphylite forms of NaNiPO4vs. activated carbon in 2 M NaOH exhibit the maximum specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 and 85 F g-1 respectively, at 1 A g-1 both having excellent cycling stability with retention of 99% capacity up to 2000 cycles. The maricite form showed 70 F g-1 with a significant drop in capacity after just 50 cycles. These results reveal that the synthesized triphylite showed a high performance energy density of 44 Wh kg-1 which is attributed to the hierarchical structure of the porous NaNiPO4 nanosheets. At a higher temperature (>400 °C) the maricite form of NaNiPO4 possesses a nanoplate-like (coarse and blocky) structure with a large skewing at the intermediate frequency that is not tolerant of cycling. Computed results for the sodium nickel phosphate polymorphs and the electrochemical experimental results are in good agreement.Electrochemical energy production and storage at large scale and low cost, is a critical bottleneck in renewable energy

  8. Spray-Coated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composite Electrodes for Thermal Energy Scavenging Electrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Holubowitch, Nicolas E; Landon, James; Lippert, Cameron A; Craddock, John D; Weisenberger, Matthew C; Liu, Kunlei

    2016-08-31

    Spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (MWCNT/PVDF) composite electrodes, scCNTs, with varying CNT compositions (2 to 70 wt %) are presented for use in a simple thermal energy-scavenging cell (thermocell) based on the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. Their utility for direct thermal-to-electrical energy conversion is explored at various temperature differentials and cell orientations. Performance is compared to that of buckypaper, a 100% CNT sheet material used as a benchmark electrode in thermocell research. The 30 to 70 wt % scCNT composites give the highest power output by electrode area-seven times greater than buckypaper at ΔT = 50 °C. CNT utilization is drastically enhanced in our electrodes, reaching 1 W gCNT(-1) compared to 0.036 W gCNT(-1) for buckypaper. Superior performance of our spray-coated electrodes is attributed to both wettability with better use of a large portion of electrochemically active CNTs and minimization of ohmic and thermal contact resistances. Even composites with as low as 2 wt % CNTs are still competitive with prior art. The MWCNT/PVDF composites developed herein are inexpensive, scalable, and serve a general need for CNT electrode optimization in next-generation devices.

  9. Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik; Keith Perry

    2007-07-01

    Twenty-first century energy challenges include demand growth, national energy security, and global climate protection. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding the educational opportunities at the Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed this strategic plan based on the Balanced Scorecard approach. A Strategy Map (Section 7) summarizes the CAES vision, mission, customers, and strategic objectives. Identified strategic objectives encompass specific outcomes related to three main areas: Research, Education, and Policy. Technical capabilities and critical enablers needed to support these objectives are also identified. This CAES strategic plan aligns with and supports the strategic objectives of the four CAES institutions. Implementation actions are also presented which will be used to monitor progress towards fulfilling these objectives.

  10. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  11. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling for Accelerated Design of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Kim, Gi-heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-06-10

    The physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a battery are many and complex and in many different scales. Without a better knowledge of the interplay among the multi-physics occurring across the varied scales, it is very challenging and time consuming to design long-lasting, high-performing, safe, affordable large battery systems, enabling electrification of the vehicles and modernization of the grid. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory, has been developing thermal and electrochemical models for cells and battery packs. Working with software producers, carmakers, and battery developers, computer-aided engineering tools have been developed that can accelerate the electrochemical and thermal design of batteries, reducing time to develop and optimize them and thus reducing the cost of the system. In the past couple of years, we initiated a project to model the mechanical response of batteries to stress, strain, fracture, deformation, puncture, and crush and then link them to electrochemical and thermal models to predict the response of a battery. This modeling is particularly important for understanding the physics and processes that happen in a battery during a crush-inducing vehicle crash. In this paper, we provide an overview of electrochemical-thermal-mechanical models for battery system understanding and designing.

  12. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  13. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Abdoulaye; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José A; Rodríguez, Rosa M; Brillas, Enric

    2015-06-15

    The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L(-1) of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H2O2. The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between H2O2 and added Fe(2+). The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H2O2 < EF < PEF and faster degradation was always obtained using BDD. PEF process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO4(2-), ClO4(-) and NO3(-) media, whereas in Cl(-) medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC-MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO4(2-) medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl(-) solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) ions were released during the mineralization.

  14. Removal of herbicidal ionic liquids by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes combined with biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Pęziak-Kowalska, Daria; Fourcade, Florence; Niemczak, Michał; Amrane, Abdeltif; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Lota, Grzegorz

    2016-09-12

    Recently a new group of ionic liquids (ILs) with herbicidal properties has been proposed for use in agriculture. Owing to the design of specific physicochemical properties, this group, referred to as herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), allows for reducing herbicide field doses. Several ILs comprising phenoxy herbicides as anions and quaternary ammonium cations have been synthesized and tested under greenhouse and field conditions. However, since they are to be introduced into the environment, appropriate treatment technologies should be developed in order to ensure their proper removal and avoid possible contamination. In this study, didecyldimethylammonium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetate was selected as a model HIL to evaluate the efficiency of a hybrid treatment method. Electrochemical oxidation or electro-Fenton was considered as a pretreatment step, whereas biodegradation was selected as the secondary treatment method. Both processes were carried out in current mode, at 10 mA with carbon felt as working electrode. The efficiency of degradation, oxidation and mineralization was evaluated after 6 h. Both processes decreased the total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values and increased the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) on the COD ratio to a value close to 0.4, showing that the electrolyzed solutions can be considered as 'readily biodegradable.'

  15. Redox enhanced energy storage in an aqueous high-voltage electrochemical capacitor with a potassium bromide electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Haque, Mazharul; Kuzmenko, Volodymyr; Ramani, Namrata; Lundgren, Per; Smith, Anderson D.; Enoksson, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports a detailed electrochemical investigation of a symmetric carbon-carbon electrochemical device with a potassium bromide (KBr) electrolyte. Below 1.6 V, KBr gives electrochemical double layer behavior. At higher voltages the Br- /Br3- redox reaction comes into effect and enhances the energy storage. The redox-enhanced device has a high energy density, excellent stability, as well as high coulombic and energy efficiencies even at 1.9 V. More importantly, the redox contribution can be ;triggered; by pre-cycling at 1.9 V, and remains beneficial after switching to 1.6 V. The triggering operation leads to a 22% increase in stored energy with negligible sacrifice of power. The intriguing behavior is accompanied by a series of complex variations including the shifts of electrode potential limits and the shift of potential of zero voltage. The electro-oxidation of the positive electrode and kinetics of the Br- /Br3- electrode reactions are proposed to be the main causes for the triggering phenomenon. These findings provide means to improve the design and operation of devices that contain bromine, or other redox species with a comparably high electrode potential.

  16. Energy and Economic Trade Offs for Advanced Technology Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Composite materials may raise aspect radio to about 11 to 12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  17. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  18. Removal of arsenic, phosphates and ammonia from well water using electrochemical/chemical methods and advanced oxidation: a pilot plant approach.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Halkijevic, Ivan; Kuspilic, Marin; Findri Gustek, Stefica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a pilot plant purification system and apply it to groundwater used for human consumption, containing high concentrations of arsenic and increased levels of phosphates, ammonia, mercury and color. The groundwater used was obtained from the production well in the Vinkovci County (Eastern Croatia). Due to a complex composition of the treated water, the purification system involved a combined electrochemical treatment, using iron and aluminum electrode plates with simultaneous ozonation, followed by a post-treatment with UV, ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The removal of the contaminant with the waste sludge collected during the electrochemical treatment was also tested. The combined electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatment resulted in the complete removal of arsenic, phosphates, color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia, while the removal of other contaminants of interest was up to 96.7%. Comparable removal efficiencies were obtained by using waste sludge as a coagulant.

  19. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT), 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of NASA's second Space Electrochemical Research and Technology Conference are presented. The objectives of the conference were to examine current technologies, research efforts, and advanced ideas, and to identify technical barriers which affect the advancement of electrochemical energy storage systems for space applications. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, with the intention of coalescing views and findings into conclusions on progress in the field, prospects for future advances, areas overlooked, and the directions of future efforts. Related overviews were presented in the areas of NASA advanced mission models. Papers were presented and workshops conducted in four technical areas: advanced concepts, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells and electrolyzers, the nickel electrode, and advanced rechargable batteries.

  20. Scalable Deployment of Advanced Building Energy Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    January 2011, respectively. These savings were smaller compared with savings opportunities in the cooling season because of the cold weather during the...FINAL REPORT Scalable Deployment of Advanced Building Energy Management Systems ESTCP Project EW-201015 MAY 2013 Veronica Adetola... Management Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

  1. Simulation Toolkit for Renewable Energy Advanced Materials Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Scott; Kemper, Travis; Larsen, Ross; Graf, Peter

    2013-11-13

    STREAMM is a collection of python classes and scripts that enables and eases the setup of input files and configuration files for simulations of advanced energy materials. The core STREAMM python classes provide a general framework for storing, manipulating and analyzing atomic/molecular coordinates to be used in quantum chemistry and classical molecular dynamics simulations of soft materials systems. The design focuses on enabling the interoperability of materials simulation codes such as GROMACS, LAMMPS and Gaussian.

  2. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  3. Exploring highly porous Co2P nanowire arrays for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhou, Weiwei; Qi, Meili; Yin, Jinghua; Xia, Xinhui; Chen, Qingguo

    2017-02-01

    Controllable synthesis of mesoporous conductive metal phosphide nanowire arrays is critical for developing highly-active electrodes of alkaline batteries. Herein we develop a simple combined strategy for rational synthesis of mesoporous Co2P nanowire arrays by hydrothermal-phosphorization method. Free-standing mesoporous Co2P nanowires consisting of interconnected nanoparticles of 10-20 nm grow vertically to the substrate forming arrays. High electrical conductivity and large porosity are obtained in the arrays architecture. When characterized as the cathode of high-rate alkaline batteries, the designed Co2P nanowire arrays are proven with good electrochemical performance with a large capacity (133 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1), stable cycling life with a capacity retention of almost 100% after 5000 cycles at 10 A g-1 owing to the mesoporous nanowire structure with short ion/electron transport path. Our synthetic approach can be useful for construction of other porous metal phosphide arrays for energy storage and conversion.

  4. A study of an advanced confined linear energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Heidemann, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    A literature survey and a test program to develop and evaluate an advanced confined linear energy source were conducted. The advanced confined linear energy source is an explosive or pyrotechnic X-Cord (mild detonating fuse) supported inside a confining tube capable of being hermetically sealed and retaining all products of combustion. The energy released by initiation of the X-Cord is transmitted through the support material to the walls of the confining tube causing an appreciable change in cross sectional configuration and expansion of the tube. When located in an assembly that can accept and use the energy of the tube expansion, useful work is accomplished through fracture of a structure, movement of a load, reposition of a pin, release of a restraint, or similar action. The tube assembly imparts that energy without release of debris or gases from the device itself. This facet of the function is important to the protection of men or equipment located in close proximity to the system during the time of function.

  5. USAF advanced terrestrial energy study. Volume 1: Project summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, E. J.; Yudow, B. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1983-04-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a data base of technical and economic performance parameters of selected energy conversion and energy storage devices. The data base includes not only the state-of-the-art (1980) values of performance parameters, but also the expected values of performance parameters in 1985, 1990, and 2000. For energy conversion technologies, performance parameters were developed over a power output from 1.5 to 5000.0 kW. For energy storage technologies, performance parameters were developed over an energy output range equivalent to the power output at continuous annual operation. The following energy conversion technologies were characterized in this data base: Gas turbines -- Closed cycle and Open cycle, (recuperative and nonrecuperative); Diesels -- Turbocompounded, Turbocharged and Adiabatic; Stirlings -- Free piston and Kinematic; Organic Rankine Cycles; Fuel cells -Phosphoric acid, Solid polymer electrolyte and Molten carbonate; Photovoltaics -- Flat plate, Actively cooled and Photochemical; and Wind turbines -- Vertical and horizontal axes. The following energy storage technologies were characterized: Batteries -- Zn/Cl2, Zn/Br2, Ni/Fe, Li-Al/FeS2, Na/S, Advanced sealed lead/acids and Redox Cr-Fe; and Thermal energy storage devices -- CaCl26H2O, Na2SO410H2O, Na2S2O35H2O, Olivine and Magnesite ceramic brick, and Form-stable polyethylene.

  6. Preparation and electrochemical analysis of electrodeposited MnO2/C composite for advanced capacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In-Tae; Kouda, Nobuo; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2015-12-01

    Mesoporous carbon (MPC) with uniform inner mesopore structure and high specific surface area prepared by an MgO-templated method has been employed for a substrate of MnO2/C composite. The MnO2/C composite was synthesized by anodic or cathodic electrodeposition of MnO2 from MnSO4 or KMnO4 precursor, respectively, on the MPC substrate. The XRD patterns of the composite confirmed that MnO2 was effectively deposited on the substrate under both anodic and cathodic electrodeposition processes. From the SEM images, sheet-like MnO2 was deposited by anodic deposition (a-MnO2/C) while needle-like MnO2 deposition was observed for the cathodic deposition (c-MnO2/C). The voltammetric experiments showed that the capacitive behavior of the composite depended on the preparation method. The difference in the specific capacitance between a-MnO2/C and c-MnO2/C is considered to be mainly due to the shape of MnO2 deposited on the MPC substrate. The electrochemical capacitance of c-MnO2/C was much higher than that of the substrate carbon. The observed capacitance increase in c-MnO2/C was attributed to the pseudo-capacitance of MnO2 that utilized effectively in controlled pore structure of MPC. The composite electrode, prepared by the cathodic deposition (c-MnO2/C), showed high specific capacitance and good durability for constant-current charge-discharge cycling.

  7. Tunable Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductivity and Permittivity of Graphene Oxide Paper for Electrochemical Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Thomas; Bishop, Sean R; Perry, Nicola H; Sasaki, Kazunari; Lyth, Stephen M

    2016-05-11

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a two-dimensional graphitic carbon material functionalized with oxygen-containing surface functional groups. The material is of interest in energy conversion, sensing, chemical processing, gas barrier, and electronics applications. Multilayer GO paper has recently been applied as a new proton conducting membrane in low temperature fuel cells. However, a detailed understanding of the electrical/dielectric properties, including separation of the ionic vs electronic contributions under relevant operating conditions, has so far been lacking. Here, the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of GO paper are investigated in situ from 30 to 120 °C, and from 0 to 100% relative humidity (RH) using impedance spectroscopy. These are related to the water content, measured by thermogravimetric analysis. With the aid of electron blocking measurements, GO is demonstrated to be a mixed electronic-protonic conductor, and the ion transference number is derived for the first time. For RH > 40%, conductivity is dominated by proton transport (with a maximum of 0.5 mS/cm at 90 °C and 100% RH). For RH < 40%, electronic conductivity dominates (with a maximum of 7.4 mS/cm at ∼80 °C and 0% RH). The relative permittivity of GO paper increases with decreasing humidity, from ∼10 at 100% RH to several 1000 at 10% RH. These results underline the potential of GO for application not only as a proton conducting electrolyte but also as a mixed conducting electrode material under appropriate conditions. Such materials are highly applicable in electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and electrolyzers.

  8. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Grocery Stores (Revised) (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, B.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders successfully plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited in these guides. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. Grocery stores were selected as one of the highest priority sectors, because they represent one of the most energy-intensive market segments.

  9. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance, K-12 Schools (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the K-12 Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. We emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluation of the most promising retrofit measure for each building type. K-12 schools were selected as one of the highest priority building sectors, because schools affect the lives of most Americans. They also represent approximately 8% of the energy use and 10% of the floor area in commercial buildings.

  10. Electrochemical energy generation from natural and synthetic salinity gradients using reverse electrodialysis and capacitive mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    Salinity gradient energy (SGE) technologies are emerging systems designed to recover energy from engineered and natural mixing processes. Two electricity producing SGE systems are reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing (CapMix). RED captures mixing energy using a series of ion exchange membranes that drive electrochemical reactions at redox electrodes. CapMix utilizes polarizable electrodes to store charge in the surfaces electric double layer (EDL). Energy generation can then occur when the EDL is expanded and compressed in different concentration solutions. The use of themolytic salt solutions (e.g. ammonium bicarbonate--AmB) within a RED system is promising, as AmB can be regenerated using low-grade waste--heat (e.g. 40--60°C). One disadvantage to using AmB is the potential for gas bubbles (CO2, NH3) to form within the stack. Accumulation of bubbles can impede ion migration, and reduce system performance. The management and minimization of gaseous bubbles in RED flow fields is an important operational issue, and has not previously been addressed within RED literature. Flow field design with and without spacers in a RED stack was analyzed to determine how fluid flow and geometry effected the accumulation and removal of bubbles. In addition, the performance changes, in terms of power and resistance were measured in the presence of bubbles. Gaseous bubble accumulation was minimized using short vertically aligned channels, which resulted in a reduction in the amount of the membrane area which was restricted due to bubbles from ~20% to 7%. The stack power density improved by 12% when all gaseous bubbles were removed from the cell. AmB-RED systems can potentially produce hydrogen or electrical energy through altering the cathodic reaction. With a kinetically favorable cathodic reaction (oxygen reduction reaction), the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass AmB--RED system approached 78 Wh per m--3 (low concentrate). However, when RED was

  11. Masters Study in Advanced Energy and Fuels Management

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Kanchan

    2014-12-08

    There are currently three key drivers for the US energy sector a) increasing energy demand and b) environmental stewardship in energy production for sustainability and c) general public and governmental desire for domestic resources. These drivers are also true for energy nation globally. As a result, this sector is rapidly diversifying to alternate sources that would supplement or replace fossil fuels. These changes have created a need for a highly trained workforce with a the understanding of both conventional and emerging energy resources and technology to lead and facilitate the reinvention of the US energy production, rational deployment of alternate energy technologies based on scientific and business criteria while invigorating the overall economy. In addition, the current trends focus on the the need of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) graduate education to move beyond academia and be more responsive to the workforce needs of businesses and the industry. The SIUC PSM in Advanced Energy and Fuels Management (AEFM) program was developed in response to the industries stated need for employees who combine technical competencies and workforce skills similar to all PSM degree programs. The SIUC AEFM program was designed to provide the STEM graduates with advanced technical training in energy resources and technology while simultaneously equipping them with the business management skills required by professional employers in the energy sector. Technical training include core skills in energy resources, technology and management for both conventional and emerging energy technologies. Business skills training include financial, personnel and project management. A capstone internship is also built into the program to train students such that they are acclimatized to the real world scenarios in research laboratories, in energy companies and in government agencies. The current curriculum in the SIUC AEFM will help fill the need for training both recent

  12. Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

  13. High temperature electrical energy storage: advances, challenges, and frontiers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinrong; Salari, Maryam; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-24

    With the ongoing global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emission and dependence on oil, electrical energy storage (EES) devices such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become ubiquitous. Today, EES devices are entering the broader energy use arena and playing key roles in energy storage, transfer, and delivery within, for example, electric vehicles, large-scale grid storage, and sensors located in harsh environmental conditions, where performance at temperatures greater than 25 °C are required. The safety and high temperature durability are as critical or more so than other essential characteristics (e.g., capacity, energy and power density) for safe power output and long lifespan. Consequently, significant efforts are underway to design, fabricate, and evaluate EES devices along with characterization of device performance limitations such as thermal runaway and aging. Energy storage under extreme conditions is limited by the material properties of electrolytes, electrodes, and their synergetic interactions, and thus significant opportunities exist for chemical advancements and technological improvements. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of different applications associated with high temperature use (40-200 °C), recent advances in the development of reformulated or novel materials (including ionic liquids, solid polymer electrolytes, ceramics, and Si, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4 electrodes) with high thermal stability, and their demonstrative use in EES devices. Finally, we present a critical overview of the limitations of current high temperature systems and evaluate the future outlook of high temperature batteries with well-controlled safety, high energy/power density, and operation over a wide temperature range.

  14. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  15. Advanced materials development for fossil energy conversion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Kingsley, J.J.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.; Youngblood, G.E. ); Hurst, J.K.; Bell, A.E.; Grainger, D.W.; Rananavare, S.B.; Roe, D.K.; Thompson, D.H. )

    1992-05-01

    Research activities being conducted as part of this project include: (1) fundamental studies of electrochemical processes occurring at surfaces and interfaces in fuel cells, and (2) development of novel materials synthesis and processing methodologies for fossil energy conversion applications. Complex impedance and dc polarization studies of the electrocatalytic activity at the cathode have allowed intrinsic materials properties to be separated from extrinsic properties related to morphology. Mixed conduction in cathode materials was shown to dramatically enhance electrocatalytic activity with this approach. Combustion synthesis methods were used to prepare multicomponent perovskite catalysts in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3} system. Electronic properties of these catalysts can be altered by adjusting the composition, which affects both catalytic activity and selectivity. Inverse micelles have been utilized to prepare nanosized nickel sulfide particles, which show promise as hydrodesulfurization catalysts for liquefied coal. Self-assembling organic monolayers and derivatized inorganic surfaces have been used to control nucleation and crystal morphology of inorganic phases.

  16. Recent Advances in the Fabrication and Application of Screen-Printed Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors Based on Carbon Materials for Biomedical, Agri-Food and Environmental Analyses.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gareth; Westmacott, Kelly; Honeychurch, Kevin C; Crew, Adrian; Pemberton, Roy M; Hart, John P

    2016-09-28

    This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with their performance characteristics; the application of these devices for the measurement of selected naturally occurring biomolecules, environmental pollutants and toxins will be discussed.

  17. Recent Advances in the Fabrication and Application of Screen-Printed Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors Based on Carbon Materials for Biomedical, Agri-Food and Environmental Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Gareth; Westmacott, Kelly; Honeychurch, Kevin C.; Crew, Adrian; Pemberton, Roy M.; Hart, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with their performance characteristics; the application of these devices for the measurement of selected naturally occurring biomolecules, environmental pollutants and toxins will be discussed. PMID:27690118

  18. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Soloiu, Valentin A.

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  19. Electrochemical device

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  20. Vertically oriented arrays of ReS2 nanosheets for electrochemical energy storage and electrocatalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Jian; Li, Lu; Tan, Jiawei; ...

    2016-05-17

    Here, transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanolayers show potential as high-performance catalysts in energy conversion and storage devices. Synthetic TMDs produced by chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) methods tend to grow parallel to the growth substrate. Here, we show that with the right precursors and appropriate tuning of the CVD growth conditions, ReS2 nanosheets can be made to orient perpendicular to the growth substrate. This accomplishes two important objectives; first, it drastically increases the wetted or exposed surface area of the ReS2 sheets, and second, it exposes the sharp edges and corners of the ReS2 sheets. We show that these structural features of themore » vertically grown ReS2 sheets can be exploited to significantly improve their performance as polysulfide immobilizers and electrochemical catalysts in lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries and in hydrogen evolution reactions (HER). After 300 cycles, the specific capacity of the Li–S battery with vertical ReS2 catalyst is retained above 750 mA h g–1, with only ~0.063% capacity decay per cycle, much better than the baseline battery (without ReS2), which shows ~0.184% capacity decay per cycle under the same test conditions. As a HER catalyst, the vertical ReS2 provides very small onset overpotential (<100 mV) and an exceptional exchange-current density (~67.6 μA/cm2), which is vastly superior to the baseline electrode without ReS2.« less

  1. Hybrid nickel manganese oxide nanosheet-3D metallic dendrite percolation network electrodes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Eugénio, Sónia; Boudard, Michel; Rapenne, Laetitia; Carmezim, M João; Silva, Teresa M; Montemor, M Fátima

    2015-08-07

    This work reports the fabrication, by electrodeposition and post-thermal annealing, of hybrid electrodes for high rate electrochemical energy storage composed of nickel manganese oxide (Ni0.86Mn0.14O) nanosheets over 3D open porous dendritic NiCu foams. The hybrid electrodes are made of two different percolation networks of nanosheets and dendrites, and exhibit a specific capacitance value of 848 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1). The electrochemical tests revealed that the electrodes display an excellent rate capability, characterized by capacitance retention of approximately 83% when the applied current density increases from 1 A g(-1) to 20 A g(-1). The electrodes also evidenced high charge-discharge cycling stability, which attained 103% after 1000 cycles.

  2. Synthesis, Electrochemical Characterization, and Linear Free Energy Relationship of 1,3-Diphenyl-6-alkyl/arylfulvenes.

    PubMed

    Godman, Nicholas P; Adas, Sonya K; Hellwig, Karl M; Ball, David W; Balaich, Gary J; Iacono, Scott T

    2016-10-21

    A series of 1,3-diphenyl-6-alkyl/arylfulvenes was prepared, and the electrochemical properties were investigated. The addition of phenyl groups about the fulvene raised the reduction potential and helped to stabilize the electrochemically generated radical anion. The addition of various functional groups onto the phenyl ring at the 6-position of 1,3,6-triphenylfulvene results in a linear free energy relationship between reduction potential and the Hammett substituent constant, σ. Further extending the conjugation at the 6-position of 1,3-diphenyl-6-arylfulvenes increases the reversibility of the redox reactions, but does not appear to further stabilize the generated radical anion. This in-depth investigation provides evidence that the compounds studied may have utility in light-harvesting applications.

  3. An efficient time advancing strategy for energy-preserving simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, F.; Coppola, G.; de Luca, L.

    2015-08-01

    Energy-conserving numerical methods are widely employed within the broad area of convection-dominated systems. Semi-discrete conservation of energy is usually obtained by adopting the so-called skew-symmetric splitting of the non-linear convective term, defined as a suitable average of the divergence and advective forms. Although generally allowing global conservation of kinetic energy, it has the drawback of being roughly twice as expensive as standard divergence or advective forms alone. In this paper, a general theoretical framework has been developed to derive an efficient time-advancement strategy in the context of explicit Runge-Kutta schemes. The novel technique retains the conservation properties of skew-symmetric-based discretizations at a reduced computational cost. It is found that optimal energy conservation can be achieved by properly constructed Runge-Kutta methods in which only divergence and advective forms for the convective term are used. As a consequence, a considerable improvement in computational efficiency over existing practices is achieved. The overall procedure has proved to be able to produce new schemes with a specified order of accuracy on both solution and energy. The effectiveness of the method as well as the asymptotic behavior of the schemes is demonstrated by numerical simulation of Burgers' equation.

  4. Research and Development of High-Power and High-Energy Electrochemical Storage Devices

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2014-04-30

    The accomplishments and technology progressmade during the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 05NT42403 (duration: July 11, 2005 through April 30, 2014, funded for $125 million in cost- shared research) are summarized in this Final Technical Report for a total of thirty-seven (37) collaborative programs organized by the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, LLC (USABC). The USABC is a partnership, formed in 1991, between the three U.S. domestic automakers Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, to sponsor development of advanced high-performance batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The USABC provides a unique opportunity for developers to leverage their resources in combination with those of the automotive industry and the Federal government. This type of pre-competitive cooperation minimizes duplication of effort and risk of failure, and maximizes the benefits to the public of the government funds. A major goal of this program is to promote advanced battery development that can lead to commercialization within the domestic, and as appropriate, the foreign battery industry. A further goal of this program is to maintain a consortium that engages the battery manufacturers with the automobile manufacturers and other key stakeholders, universities, the National Laboratories, and manufacturers and developers that supply critical materials and components to the battery industry. Typically, the USABC defines and establishes consensus goals, conducts pre-competitive, vehicle-related research and development (R&D) in advanced battery technology. The R&D carried out by the USABC is an integral part of the DOE’s effort to develop advanced transportation technologies that will significantly improve fuel economy, comply with projected emissions and safety regulations, and use domestically produced fuels. The USABC advanced battery development plan has the following three focus areas: 1. Existing technology

  5. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-10-01

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. This synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  6. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  7. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  8. Study on synthesis and electrochemical properties of hematite nanotubes for energy storage in supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, D. Muthu Gnana Theresa; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-06-24

    Hematite nanotubes (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs) are synthesized via a cost-effective and environmental-friendly hydrothermal technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analyses reveal the formation of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs with high crystallinity and purity. Optical behavior of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs is studied employing UV-visible spectroscopy. Electrochemical properties of the as-prepared electrode material are investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a three electrode cell. The synthesized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs present enhanced pseudocapacitive performance with high specific capacity of 230 Fg{sup −1} at current density of 1 Ag{sup −1}. The prepared α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs can be utilized as a potential electrode material for electrochemical capacitor applications.

  9. Study on synthesis and electrochemical properties of hematite nanotubes for energy storage in supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, D. Muthu Gnana Theresa; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-06-01

    Hematite nanotubes (α-Fe2O3 NTs) are synthesized via a cost-effective and environmental-friendly hydrothermal technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analyses reveal the formation of α-Fe2O3 NTs with high crystallinity and purity. Optical behavior of α-Fe2O3 NTs is studied employing UV-visible spectroscopy. Electrochemical properties of the as-prepared electrode material are investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a three electrode cell. The synthesized α-Fe2O3 NTs present enhanced pseudocapacitive performance with high specific capacity of 230 Fg-1 at current density of 1 Ag-1. The prepared α-Fe2O3 NTs can be utilized as a potential electrode material for electrochemical capacitor applications.

  10. Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2013-02-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a). The AEDG-K12 provides recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-K12 was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  11. Energy and economic trade offs for advanced technology subsonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Whereas current airplanes have been designed for AR = 7, supercritical technology and much higher fuel prices will drive aspect ratio to the AR = 9-10 range. Composite materials may raise aspect ratio to about 11-12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  12. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  13. Mineralization of the recalcitrant oxalic and oxamic acids by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Brillas, Enric

    2011-04-01

    Oxalic and oxamic acids are the ultimate and more persistent by-products of the degradation of N-aromatics by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs). In this paper, the kinetics and oxidative paths of these acids have been studied for several EAOPs using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel or an air-diffusion cathode. Anodic oxidation (AO-BDD) in the presence of Fe(2+) (AO-BDD-Fe(2+)) and under UVA irradiation (AO-BDD-Fe(2+)-UVA), along with electro-Fenton (EF-BDD), was tested. The oxidation of both acids and their iron complexes on BDD was clarified by cyclic voltammetry. AO-BDD allowed the overall mineralization of oxalic acid, but oxamic acid was removed much more slowly. Each acid underwent a similar decay in AO-BDD-Fe(2+) and EF-BDD, as expected if its iron complexes were not attacked by hydroxyl radicals in the bulk. The faster and total mineralization of both acids was achieved in AO-BDD-Fe(2+)-UVA due to the high photoactivity of their Fe(III) complexes that were continuously regenerated by oxidation of their Fe(II) complexes. Oxamic acid always released a larger proportion of NH(4)(+) than NO(3)(-) ion, as well as volatile NO(x) species. Both acids were independently oxidized at the anode in AO-BDD, but in AO-BDD-Fe(2+)-UVA oxamic acid was more slowly degraded as its content decreased, without significant effect on oxalic acid decay. The increase in current density enhanced the oxidation power of the latter method, with loss of efficiency. High Fe(2+) contents inhibited the oxidation of Fe(II) complexes by the competitive oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+). Low current densities and Fe(2+) contents are preferable to remove more efficiently these acids by the most potent AO-BDD-Fe(2+)-UVA method.

  14. Enhanced electrochemical performance of mesoporous NiCo2O4 as an excellent supercapacitive alternative energy storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhojane, Prateek; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the supercapacitive properties of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) synthesized by fast, inexpensive and facile chemical bath method, by avoiding high pressure, high temperature and chemical complexity. Physico-chemical characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman Spectra, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis is performed to characterize the electrode material. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements reveal the surface area 52.86 m2 g-1 and from Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH), typical pores size ranges between 10 and 50 nm, also confirms the mesoporosity. The electrochemical properties are measured by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charging/discharging. The synthesized material exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 1130 F g-1 at 1 mV s-1 sweep rate and 1125 F g-1 at current density of 0.05 A g-1, highest without supporting base like carbon cloth, Ni-foam, Ti- foil used for direct growth (deposition) of electrode material. It is superior to those of its individual and hybrid components prepared by similar technique. Ragone plot shows high specific energy density (49.25 Wh kg-1) and corresponding specific power density (1851.31 W kg-1) even at high current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  15. Designing high-performance electrochemical energy-storage nanoarchitectures to balance rate and capacity.

    PubMed

    Sassin, Megan B; Hoag, Cheyne P; Willis, Bradley T; Kucko, Nathan W; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2013-02-21

    The impressive specific capacitance and high-rate performance reported for many nanometric charge-storing films on planar substrates cannot impact a technology space beyond microdevices unless such performance translates into a macroscale form factor. In this report, we explore how the nanoscale-to-macroscale properties of the electrode architecture (pore size/distribution, void volume, thickness) define energy and power performance when scaled to technologically relevant dimensions. Our test bed is a device-ready electrode architecture in which scalable, manufacturable carbon nanofoam papers with tunable pore sizes (5-200 nm) and thickness (100-300 μm) are painted with ~10 nm coatings of manganese oxide (MnOx). The quantity of capacitance and the rate at which it is delivered for four different MnOx-C variants was assessed by fabricating symmetric electrochemical capacitors using a concentrated aqueous electrolyte. Carbon nanofoam papers containing primarily 10-20 nm mesopores support high MnOx loadings (60 wt%) and device-level capacitance (30 F g(-1)), but the small mesoporous network hinders electrolyte transport and the low void volume restricts the quantity of charge-compensating ions within the electrode, making the full capacitance only accessible at slow rates (5 mV s(-1)). Carbon nanofoam papers with macropores (100-200 nm) facilitate high rate operation (50 mV s(-1)), but deliver significantly lower device capacitance (13 F g(-1)) as a result of lower MnOx loadings (41 wt%). Devices comprising MnOx-carbon nanofoams with interconnecting networks of meso- and macropores balance capacitance and rate performance, delivering 33 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1) and 23 F g(-1) at 50 mV s(-1). The use of carbon nanofoam papers with size-tunable pore structures and thickness provides the opportunity to engineer the electrode architecture to deliver scalable quantities of capacitance (F cm(-2)) in tens of seconds with a single device.

  16. Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Energy Storage and Electrochemistry Applications.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-04

    Top-down methods are of key importance for large-scale graphene and graphene oxide preparation. Electrochemical exfoliation of graphite has lately gained much interest because of the simplicity of execution, the short process time, and the good quality of graphene that can be obtained. Here, we test three different electrolytes, that is, H2 SO4 , Na2 SO4 , and LiClO4 , with a common exfoliation procedure to evaluate the difference in structural and chemical properties that result for the graphene. The properties are analyzed by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We then tested the graphene materials for electrochemical applications, measuring the heterogeneous electron transfer (HET) rates with a Fe(CN)6 (3-/4-) redox probe, and their capacitive behavior in alkaline solutions. We correlate the electrochemical features with the presence of structural defects and oxygen functionalities on the graphene materials. In particular, the use of LiClO4 during the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite allowed the formation of highly oxidized graphene with a C/O ratio close to 4.0 and represents a possible avenue for the mass production of graphene oxide as valid alternative to the current laborious and dangerous chemical procedures, which also have limited scalability.

  17. In situ and ex situ studies of materials with relevance to electrochemical energy storage and energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu

    Surface analytical techniques have been employed for the preparation and characterization of modified surfaces of relevance to electrochemical energy storage and generation in ultrahigh vacuum environments. Complementary in situ spectroscopic studies were also performed using Raman microscopy for monitoring static and dynamic aspects of Li intercalation and deintercalation into transition metal oxides and graphitic materials. The most important conclusions emerging from this investigation can be summarized as follows: (i) Ruthenium-modified Pt(100) surfaces of very high purity and controlled stoichiometry were prepared in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) by irradiating Ru3(CO)12 films condensed on cold Pt substrates at 150 K with X-rays, and subsequent annealing at ca. 620 K. Exposure of non-annealed Ru(thetaRu ≥0.22)/Pt(100) to large exposures of CO at ca. 200 K, yielded smaller theta CO, and temperature programmed desorption peaks ca. 50 K lower than those observed for bare Pt(100). (ii) Raman spectra of isolated single particles of technical grade LiMn2O4 embedded in Au foils were recorded in situ in 1M LiPF6 in EC/DMC solutions in real time during a voltammetric scan using a Raman microscope. Similar experiments involving single KS-44 carbon particles (8--50 mum in diameter) embedded into thermally annealed Ni foils in 1M LiClO4, ethylene carbonate (EC) diethyl carbonate (DEC) solutions allowed the average concentration of Li+ within the volume of the particle probed by the laser beam following application of a potential step to be monitored spectroscopically in real time. Analysis of these transient data yielded deintercalation time constants for Li+ for dilute stage 1 phase consistent with reported values of Li+ diffusion coefficients within graphitic materials. A new Raman band ascribed to bounding graphite layers was found upon continuous cycling of single KS-44 particles deep into the Li+-intercalation region. This feature was attributed to chemical modifications

  18. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  19. Recent Advances in Atomic Metal Doping of Carbon-based Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Bayatsarmadi, Bita; Zheng, Yao; Vasileff, Anthony; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2017-04-12

    Nanostructured metal-contained catalysts are one of the most widely used types of catalysts applied to facilitate some of sluggish electrochemical reactions. However, the high activity of these catalysts cannot be sustained over a variety of pH ranges. In an effort to develop highly active and stable metal-contained catalysts, various approaches have been pursued with an emphasis on metal particle size reduction and doping on carbon-based supports. These techniques enhances the metal-support interactions, originating from the chemical bonding effect between the metal dopants and carbon support and the associated interface, as well as the charge transfer between the atomic metal species and carbon framework. This provides an opportunity to tune the well-defined metal active centers and optimize their activity, selectivity and stability of this type of (electro)catalyst. Herein, recent advances in synthesis strategies, characterization and catalytic performance of single atom metal dopants on carbon-based nanomaterials are highlighted with attempts to understand the electronic structure and spatial arrangement of individual atoms as well as their interaction with the supports. Applications of these new materials in a wide range of potential electrocatalytic processes in renewable energy conversion systems are also discussed with emphasis on future directions in this active field of research.

  20. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  1. Mineralization of salicylic acid in acidic aqueous medium by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using platinum and boron-doped diamond as anode and cathodically generated hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Guinea, Elena; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Solutions containing 164 mg L(-1) salicylic acid of pH 3.0 have been degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation, anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H(2)O(2), electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton at constant current density. Their oxidation power has been comparatively studied in a one-compartment cell with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a graphite or O(2)-diffusion cathode. In the three latter procedures, 0.5mM Fe(2+) is added to the solution to form hydroxyl radical (()OH) from Fenton's reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) generated at the O(2)-diffusion cathode. Total mineralization is attained for all methods with BDD and for photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton with Pt. The poor decontamination achieved in anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton with Pt is explained by the slow removal of most pollutants by ()OH formed from water oxidation at the Pt anode in comparison to their quick destruction with ()OH produced at BDD. ()OH generated from Fenton's reaction oxidizes rapidly all aromatic pollutants, but it cannot destroy final Fe(III)-oxalate complexes. Solar photoelectro-Fenton treatments always yield quicker degradation rate due to the very fast photodecarboxylation of these complexes by UVA irradiation supplied by solar light. The effect of current density on the degradation rate, efficiency and energy cost of all methods is examined. The salicylic acid decay always follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic, alpha-ketoglutaric, glycolic, glyoxylic, maleic, fumaric, malic, tartronic and oxalic acids are detected as oxidation products. A general reaction sequence for salicylic acid mineralization considering all these intermediates is proposed.

  2. The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy Technology (CARET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, E. M.; Henderson, D. O.; Buffinger, D. R.; Fuller, C. W.; Uribe, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy (CARET) is a research and education program which uses the theme of renewable energy to build a minority scientist pipeline. CARET is also a consortium of four universities and NASA Lewis Research Center working together to promote science education and research to minority students using the theme of renewable energy. The consortium membership includes the HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities), Fisk, Wilberforce and Central State Universities as well as Kent State University and NASA Lewis Research Center. The various stages of this pipeline provide participating students experiences with a different emphasis. Some emphasize building enthusiasm for the classroom study of science and technology while others emphasize the nature of research in these disciplines. Still others focus on relating a practical application to science and technology. And, of great importance to the success of the program are the interfaces between the various stages. Successfully managing these transitions is a requirement for producing trained scientists, engineers and technologists. Presentations describing the CARET program have been given at this year's HBCU Research Conference at the Ohio Aerospace Institute and as a seminar in the Solar Circle Seminar series of the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. In this report, we will describe the many positive achievements toward the fulfillment of the goals and outcomes of our program. We will begin with a description of the interactions among the consortium members and end with a description of the activities of each of the member institutions .

  3. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  4. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  5. Design of aqueous redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitors with high specific energies and slow self-discharge

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sang-Eun; Evanko, Brian; Wang, Xingfeng; Vonlanthen, David; Ji, Xiulei; Stucky, Galen D.; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors exhibit high power and long cycle life but have low specific energy compared with batteries, limiting applications. Redox-enhanced capacitors increase specific energy by using redox-active electrolytes that are oxidized at the positive electrode and reduced at the negative electrode during charging. Here we report characteristics of several redox electrolytes to illustrate operational/self-discharge mechanisms and the design rules for high performance. We discover a methyl viologen (MV)/bromide electrolyte that delivers a high specific energy of ∼14 Wh kg−1 based on the mass of electrodes and electrolyte, without the use of an ion-selective membrane separator. Substituting heptyl viologen for MV increases stability, with no degradation over 20,000 cycles. Self-discharge is low, due to adsorption of the redox couples in the charged state to the activated carbon, and comparable to cells with inert electrolyte. An electrochemical model reproduces experiments and predicts that 30–50 Wh kg−1 is possible with optimization. PMID:26239891

  6. Design of aqueous redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitors with high specific energies and slow self-discharge.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sang-Eun; Evanko, Brian; Wang, Xingfeng; Vonlanthen, David; Ji, Xiulei; Stucky, Galen D; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2015-08-04

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors exhibit high power and long cycle life but have low specific energy compared with batteries, limiting applications. Redox-enhanced capacitors increase specific energy by using redox-active electrolytes that are oxidized at the positive electrode and reduced at the negative electrode during charging. Here we report characteristics of several redox electrolytes to illustrate operational/self-discharge mechanisms and the design rules for high performance. We discover a methyl viologen (MV)/bromide electrolyte that delivers a high specific energy of ∼14 Wh kg(-1) based on the mass of electrodes and electrolyte, without the use of an ion-selective membrane separator. Substituting heptyl viologen for MV increases stability, with no degradation over 20,000 cycles. Self-discharge is low, due to adsorption of the redox couples in the charged state to the activated carbon, and comparable to cells with inert electrolyte. An electrochemical model reproduces experiments and predicts that 30-50 Wh kg(-1) is possible with optimization.

  7. Designing high-performance electrochemical energy-storage nanoarchitectures to balance rate and capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassin, Megan B.; Hoag, Cheyne P.; Willis, Bradley T.; Kucko, Nathan W.; Rolison, Debra R.; Long, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    The impressive specific capacitance and high-rate performance reported for many nanometric charge-storing films on planar substrates cannot impact a technology space beyond microdevices unless such performance translates into a macroscale form factor. In this report, we explore how the nanoscale-to-macroscale properties of the electrode architecture (pore size/distribution, void volume, thickness) define energy and power performance when scaled to technologically relevant dimensions. Our test bed is a device-ready electrode architecture in which scalable, manufacturable carbon nanofoam papers with tunable pore sizes (5-200 nm) and thickness (100-300 μm) are painted with ~10 nm coatings of manganese oxide (MnOx). The quantity of capacitance and the rate at which it is delivered for four different MnOx-C variants was assessed by fabricating symmetric electrochemical capacitors using a concentrated aqueous electrolyte. Carbon nanofoam papers containing primarily 10-20 nm mesopores support high MnOx loadings (60 wt%) and device-level capacitance (30 F g-1), but the small mesoporous network hinders electrolyte transport and the low void volume restricts the quantity of charge-compensating ions within the electrode, making the full capacitance only accessible at slow rates (5 mV s-1). Carbon nanofoam papers with macropores (100-200 nm) facilitate high rate operation (50 mV s-1), but deliver significantly lower device capacitance (13 F g-1) as a result of lower MnOx loadings (41 wt%). Devices comprising MnOx-carbon nanofoams with interconnecting networks of meso- and macropores balance capacitance and rate performance, delivering 33 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 and 23 F g-1 at 50 mV s-1. The use of carbon nanofoam papers with size-tunable pore structures and thickness provides the opportunity to engineer the electrode architecture to deliver scalable quantities of capacitance (F cm-2) in tens of seconds with a single device.The impressive specific capacitance and high

  8. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide (AERG): Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Healthcare Facilities (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Shekhar, D.; Pless, S.

    2013-09-01

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Healthcare Facilities is part of a series of retrofit guides commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as detailed descriptions and financial payback metrics for the most important and relevant energy efficiency measures (EEMs), the guides provide a practical roadmap for effectively planning and implementing performance improvements in existing buildings. The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) are intended to address key segments of the U.S. commercial building stock: retail stores, office buildings, K-12 schools, grocery stores, and healthcare facilities. The guides' general project planning considerations are applicable nationwide; the energy and cost savings estimates for recommended EEMs were developed based on energy simulations and cost estimates for an example hospital tailored to five distinct climate regions. These results can be extrapolated to other U.S. climate zones. Analysis is presented for individual EEMs, and for packages of recommended EEMs for two project types: existing building commissioning projects that apply low-cost and no-cost measures, and whole-building retrofits involving more capital-intensive measures.

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of chemical weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    Catalyzed electrochemical oxidation (CEO), a low-temperature electrochemical oxidation technique, is being examined for its potential use in destroying chemical warfare agents. The CEO process oxidizes organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. A bench-scale CEO system was used in three separate tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Intelligence and National Security through the Advanced Concepts Program. The tests examined the effectiveness of CEO in destroying sarin (GB), a chemical nerve agent. The tests used 0.5 mL, 0.95 mL, and 1.0 mL of GB, corresponding to 544 mg, 816 mg, and 1,090 mg, respectively, of GB. Analysis of the off gas showed that, under continuous processing of the GB agent, destruction efficiencies of better than six 9s (99.9999% destroyed) could be achieved.

  10. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, Rodney

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  11. Candidate advanced energy storage concepts for multimegawatt burst power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretz, John E.; Sollo, Charles

    Three candidate advanced energy storage systems are reviewed and compared with the Thermionic Operating Reactor (THOR) concept. The three systems considered are the flywheel generator, the lithium-metal sulfide battery and the alkaline fuel cell. From a minimum mass viewpoint, only the regenerative fuel cell (RFC) can result in a lighter system than THOR. Because of its lower operating temperature, as compared to THOR, a considerable reduction in materials problems is to be expected when compared to the extremely high operating temperatures of the THOR system. Frozen heat pipes and their impact on response time as well as the complexity of the required retraction/extension mechanism of the THOR system would tend to place the RFC system in a much lower category of development risk. Finally, if spot shielding of sensitive electronic and power conditioning equipment becomes necessary for the reactor radiation environment of the THOR system, the weight advantage of the RFC system may become even greater.

  12. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    ScienceCinema

    Tijana Rajh

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology – an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  13. Behaviour of advanced materials impacted by high energy particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Cerutti, F.; Dallocchio, A.; Garlasché, M.; Guinchard, M.; Mariani, N.; Marques dos Santos, S. D.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Boccone, V.

    2013-07-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices (BID) are designed to operate in a harsh radioactive environment and are highly loaded from a thermo-structural point of view. Moreover, modern particle accelerators, storing unprecedented energy, may be exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct beam impacts. In this context, impulse has been given to the development of novel materials for advanced thermal management with high thermal shock resistance like metal-diamond and metal-graphite composites on top of refractory metals such as molybdenum, tungsten and copper alloys. This paper presents the results of a first-of-its-kind experiment which exploited 440 GeV proton beams at different intensities to impact samples of the aforementioned materials. Effects of thermally induced shockwaves were acquired via high speed acquisition system including strain gauges, laser Doppler vibrometer and high speed camera. Preliminary information of beam induced damages on materials were also collected. State-of-the-art hydrodynamic codes (like Autodyn®), relying on complex material models including equation of state (EOS), strength and failure models, have been used for the simulation of the experiment. Preliminary results confirm the effectiveness and reliability of these numerical methods when material constitutive models are completely available (W and Cu alloys). For novel composite materials a reverse engineering approach will be used to build appropriate constitutive models, thus allowing a realistic representation of these complex phenomena. These results are of paramount importance for understanding and predicting the response of novel advanced composites to beam impacts in modern particle accelerators.

  14. Fossil energy: From laboratory to marketplace. Part 2, The role of advanced research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a summary description of the role of advanced research in the overall Fossil Energy R&D program successes. It presents the specific Fossil Energy advanced research products that have been adopted commercially or fed into other R&D programs as part of the crosscutting enabling technology base upon which advanced systems are based.

  15. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials

    DOEpatents

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  16. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  17. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance, K-12 Schools (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit energy efficiency measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. K-12 schools were selected as one of the highest priority building sectors, because schools affect the lives of most Americans. They also represent approximately 8% of the energy use and 10% of the floor area in commercial buildings nationwide. U.S. K-12 school districts spend more than $8 billion each year on energy - more than they spend on computers and textbooks combined. Most occupy older buildings that often have poor operational performance - more than 30% of schools were built before 1960. The average age of a school is about 42 years - which is nearly the expected serviceable lifespan of the building. K-12 schools offer unique opportunities for deep, cost-effective energy efficiency improvements, and this guide provides convenient and practical guidance for exploiting these opportunities in the context of public, private, and parochial schools.

  18. Hydrogen energy for tomorrow: Advanced hydrogen production technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The future vision for hydrogen is that it will be cost-effectively produced from renewable energy sources and made available for widespread use as an energy carrier and a fuel. Hydrogen can be produced from water and when burned as a fuel, or converted to electricity, joins with oxygen to again form water. It is a clean, sustainable resource with many potential applications, including generating electricity, heating homes and offices, and fueling surface and air transportation. To achieve this vision, researchers must develop advanced technologies to produce hydrogen at costs competitive with fossil fuels, using sustainable sources. Hydrogen is now produced primarily by steam reforming of natural gas. For applications requiring extremely pure hydrogen, production is done by electrolysis. This is a relatively expensive process that uses electric current to dissociate, or split, water into its hydrogen and oxygen components. Technologies with the best potential for producing hydrogen to meet future demand fall into three general process categories: photobiological, photoelectrochemical, and thermochemical. Photobiological and photoelectrochemical processes generally use sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Thermochemical processes, including gasification and pyrolysis systems, use heat to produce hydrogen from sources such as biomass and solid waste.

  19. 78 FR 9446 - Advance Nanotech, Inc., Advanced ID Corp., Aeon Holdings, Inc. (n/k/a BCM Energy Partners, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advance Nanotech, Inc., Advanced ID Corp., Aeon Holdings, Inc. (n/k/a BCM Energy Partners, Inc.), ANTS Software, Inc., Beauty Brands Group, Inc., Beijing Century Health Medical, Inc., Chocolate Candy Creations, Inc., Crystallex...

  20. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  1. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  2. Embrace the Dark Side: Advancing the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchyta, Eric

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an ongoing cosmological survey intended to study the properties of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this dissertation, I present work of mine that has advanced the progress of DES. First is an introduction, which explores the physics of the cosmos, as well as how DES intends to probe it. Attention is given to developing the theoretical framework cosmologists use to describe the Universe, and to explaining observational evidence which has furnished our current conception of the cosmos. Emphasis is placed on the dark sector - dark matter and dark energy - the content of the Universe not explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. As its name suggests, the Dark Energy Survey has been specially designed to measure the properties of dark energy. DES will use a combination of galaxy cluster, weak gravitational lensing, angular clustering, and supernovae measurements to derive its state of the art constraints, each of which is discussed in the text. The work described in this dissertation includes science measurements directly related to the first three of these probes. The dissertation presents my contributions to the readout and control system of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam); the name of this software is SISPI. SISPI uses client-server and publish-subscribe communication patterns to coordinate and command actions among the many hardware components of DECam - the survey instrument for DES, a 570 megapixel CCD camera, mounted at prime focus of the Blanco 4-m Telescope. The SISPI work I discuss includes coding applications for DECam's filter changer mechanism and hexapod, as well as developing the Scripts Editor, a GUI application for DECam users to edit and export observing sequence SISPI can load and execute. Next, the dissertation describes the processing of early DES data, which I contributed. This furnished the data products used in the first-completed DES science analysis, and contributed to improving the

  3. A 4 Farad high energy electrochemical double layer capacitor prototype operating at 3.2 V (IES prototype)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varzi, A.; Schütter, C.; Krummacher, J.; Raccichini, R.; Wolff, C.; Kim, G.-T.; Rösler, S.; Blumenröder, B.; Schubert, T.; Passerini, S.; Balducci, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this manuscript we report about the realization and testing of a high-voltage electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) prototype (IES prototype), which has been assembled using innovative electrode and electrolyte components. The IES prototype displays a nominal capacitance of 4 F, a maximum voltage of 3.2 V and its maximal energy and power are in the order of 37 Wh kg-1 and 65 kW kg-1, respectively. Furthermore, it also displays good cycling stability, high capacitance retention after 80 h float test and acceptable self-discharge. Taking into account substantial improvements of the cell design and assembly procedure, the performance of the IES prototype indicates that the components utilized in this device might be suitable alternatives to the state-of-the-art materials used in high energy EDLCs.

  4. SISGR: Improved Electrical Energy Storage with Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitance Based on Novel Carbon Electrodes, New Electrolytes, and Thorough Development of a Strong Science Base

    SciTech Connect

    Ruoff, Rodney S.; Alam, Todd M.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Chabal, Yves; Hwang, Gyeong; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Rogers, Robin

    2014-07-23

    The broad objective of the SISGR program is to advance the fundamental scientific understanding of electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) and thus of ultracapacitor systems composed of a new type of electrode based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) and (primarily) with ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte. Our team has studied the interplay between graphene-based and graphene-derived carbons as the electrode materials in electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) systems on the one hand, and electrolytes including novel ionic liquids (ILs), on the other, based on prior work on the subject.

  5. Development of advanced electrochemical emission spectroscopy for monitoring corrosion in simulated DOE liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.

    1998-06-01

    'Objective of this project is to develop and use Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy (EES) and other electrochemical techniques as in situ tools for exploring corrosion mechanisms of iron and carbon steel in highly alkaline solutions and for continuously monitoring corrosion on structural materials in DOE liquid waste storage system. In particular, the author will explore the fundamental aspects of the passive behavior of pure iron since breakdown of passivity leads to localized corrosion. This report summarizes work after 1 year of a 3 year project.'

  6. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  7. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  8. Fabricating Pt/Sn-In2O3 Nanoflower with Advanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction Performance for High-Sensitivity MicroRNA Electrochemical Detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Dong, Haifeng; Dai, Wenhao; Meng, Xiangdan; Lu, Huiting; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Xueji

    2017-01-03

    Herein, an efficient electrochemical tracer with advanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance was designed by controllably decorating platinum (Pt) (diameter, 1 nm) on the surface of compositionally tunable tin-doped indium oxide nanoparticle (Sn-In2O3) (diameter, 25 nm), and using the Pt/Sn-In2O3 as electrochemical tracer and interfacial term hairpin capture probe, a facile and ultrasensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection strategy was developed. The morphology and composition of the generated Pt/Sn-In2O3 NPs were comprehensively characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic measurements, indicating numerous Pt uniformly anchored on the surface of Sn-In2O3. The interaction between Pt and surface Sn as well as high Pt(111) exposure resulted in the excellent electrochemical catalytic ability and stability of the Pt/Sn-In2O3 ORR. As proof-of-principle, using streptavidin (SA) functionalized Pt/Sn-In2O3 (SA/Pt/Sn-In2O3) as electrochemical tracer to amplify the detectable signal and a interfacial term hairpin probe for target capture probe, a miRNA biosensor with a linear range from 5 pM to 0.5 fM and limit of detection (LOD) down to 1.92 fM was developed. Meanwhile, the inherent selectivity of the term hairpin capture probe endowed the biosensor with good base discrimination ability. The good feasibility for real sample detection was also demonstrated. The work paves a new avenue to fabricate and design high-effective electrocatalytic tracer, which have great promise in new bioanalytical applications.

  9. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  10. Advanced Manufacturing for a U.S. Clean Energy Economy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Manufacturing Office. Manufacturing is central to our economy, culture, and history. The industrial sector produces 11% of U.S. gross domestic product (GDP), employs 12 million people, and generates 57% of U.S. export value. However, U.S. industry consumes about one-third of all energy produced in the United States, and significant cost-effective energy efficiency and advanced manufacturing opportunities remain unexploited. As a critical component of the National Innovation Policy for Advanced Manufacturing, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) is focused on creating a fertile environment for advanced manufacturing innovation, enabling vigorous domestic development of transformative manufacturing technologies, promoting coordinated public and private investment in precompetitive advanced manufacturing technology infrastructure, and facilitating the rapid scale-up and market penetration of advanced manufacturing technologies.

  11. An advanced data-acquisition system for wind energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A. ); Cousineau, K.L. )

    1992-10-01

    NREL has subcontracted with Zond Systems, Inc. to develop an advanced data-acquisition system (ADAS) for wind energy projects. The ADAS can be used to simplify the process of making accurate measurements and analyzing. The system utilizes state-of-the-art electronics and telemetry to provide distributed multi-source, multi-channel data acquisition. Local stand-alone microprocessor-based data acquisition modules (DAMs) can be located near sources of measurement. These allow analog data values to be digitized close to the measurement source, thus eliminating the need for long data runs and slip rings. Signals from digital sensors and transducers can also be directly input to the local DAMS. A PC-based ground station is used to coordinate data transmission to and from all remote DAMS, display real-time values, archive data sets, and process and analyze results. The system is capable of acquiring synchronized time-series data from sensors and transducers under a variety of test configurations in an operational wind-park environment. Data acquisition needs of the wind industry differ significantly from those of most other technologies. Most conventional system designs do not handle data coming from multiple distributed sources, nor do they provide telemetry or the ability to mesh multiple incoming digital data streams. This paper describes the capabilities of the ADAS, and how its design and cost objectives are geared to meet anticipated US wind industry needs.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide arrays with enhanced properties for electrochemical energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • NiO mesoporous nanowall arrays are prepared via hydrothermal method. • Mesoporous nanowall arrays are favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • NiO mesoporous nanowall arrays show good supercapacitor performance. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays are prepared by a facile hydrothermal synthesis method with a following annealing process. The NiO nanowall shows continuous mesopores ranging from 5 to 10 nm and grows vertically on the substrate forming a porous net-like structure with macropores of 20–300 nm. A plausible mechanism is proposed for the growth of mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays. As cathode material of pseudocapacitors, the as-prepared mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays show good pseudocapacitive performances with a high capacitance of 600 F g{sup −1} at 2 A g{sup −1} and impressive high-rate capability with a specific capacitance of 338 F g{sup −1} at 40 A g{sup −1}. In addition, the mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays possess good cycling stability. After 6000 cycles at 2 A g{sup −1}, a high capacitance of 660 F g{sup −1} is attained, and no obvious degradation is observed. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to its highly porous morphology, which provides large reaction surface and short ion diffusion paths, leading to enhanced electrochemical properties.

  13. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed B; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S; Hassan, Hamdy H

    2016-02-26

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results.

  14. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-01-01

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results. PMID:26916054

  15. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-02-01

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results.

  16. Co-Extrusion: Advanced Manufacturing for Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, Corie Lynn

    2016-11-18

    The development of mass markets for large-format batteries, including electric vehicles (EVs) and grid support, depends on both cost reductions and performance enhancements to improve their economic viability. Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) has developed a multi-material, advanced manufacturing process called co-extrusion (CoEx) to remove multiple steps in a conventional battery coating process with the potential to simultaneously increase battery energy and power density. CoEx can revolutionize battery manufacturing across most chemistries, significantly lowering end-product cost and shifting the underlying economics to make EVs and other battery applications a reality. PARC’s scale-up of CoEx for electric vehicle (EV) batteries builds on a solid base of experience in applying CoEx to solar cell manufacturing, deposition of viscous ceramic pastes, and Li-ion battery chemistries. In the solar application, CoEx has been deployed commercially at production scale where multi-channel CoEx printheads are used to print viscous silver gridline pastes at full production speeds (>40 ft/min). This operational scale-up provided invaluable experience with the nuances of speed, yield, and maintenance inherent in taking a new technology to the factory floor. PARC has leveraged this experience, adapting the CoEx process for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery manufacturing. To date, PARC has worked with Li-ion battery materials and structured cathodes with high-density Li-ion regions and low-density conduction regions, documenting both energy and power performance. Modeling results for a CoEx cathode show a path towards a 10-20% improvement in capacity for an EV pouch cell. Experimentally, we have realized a co-extruded battery structure with a Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) cathode at print speeds equivalent to conventional roll coating processes. The heterogeneous CoEx cathode enables improved capacity in thick electrodes at higher C-rates. The proof-of-principle coin cells

  17. Tin Oxide Crystals Exposed by Low-Energy {110} Facets for Enhanced Electrochemical Heavy Metal Ions Sensing: X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Experimental Combined with Density-Functional Theory Evidence.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen; Yang, Meng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Liu, Jin-Huai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2017-02-21

    Herein, we revealed that the electrochemical behaviors on the detection of heavy metal ions (HMIs) would largely rely on the exposed facets of SnO2 nanoparticles. Compared to the high-energy {221} facet, the low-energy {110} facet of SnO2 possessed better electrochemical performance. The adsorption/desorption tests, density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the lower barrier energy of surface diffusion on {110} facet was critical for the superior electrochemical property, which was favorable for the ions diffusion on the electrode, and further leading the enhanced electrochemical performance. Through the combination of experiments and theoretical calculations, a reliable interpretation of the mechanism for electroanalysis of HMIs with nanomaterials exposed by different crystal facets has been provided. Furthermore, it provides a deep insight into understanding the key factor to improve the electrochemical performance for HMIs detection, so as to design high-performance electrochemical sensors.

  18. NiCo2O4 nanostructure materials: morphology control and electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deyang; Yan, Hailong; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Kangwen; Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Yihe; Liu, Xianming; Luo, Jingshan; Luo, Yongsong

    2014-11-14

    Three types of NiCo2O4 nanostructure, homogeneous NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays, heterogeneous NiCo2O4 nanoflake arrays and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle-assembled sisal-like microspheres are synthesized via facile solution methods in combination with thermal treatment. The NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays are evaluated as supercapacitor electrodes and demonstrate excellent electrochemical performances with a high specific capacitance (923 F g(-1) at 2 A g(-1)), good rate capability, and superior cycling stability. The superior capacitive performances are mainly due to the unique one dimensional porous nanoneedle architecture, which provides a faster ion/electron transfer rate, improved reactivity, and enhanced structural stability. The fabrication method presented here is facile, cost-effective and scalable, which may open a new pathway for real device applications.

  19. Electrochemical reduction of toluene to methylcyclohexane for use as an energy carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Miyoshi, Kota; Sato, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    The electrochemical reduction of liquid toluene to methylcyclohexane (MCH) was investigated using a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and high active-area catalysts commonly used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The current density on Pt/C was higher than on PtRu/C, which was comparable to that of alkaline water electrolysis. The potential of hydrogen evolution was shifted negatively by the presence of toluene and MCH. Therefore, the toluene reduction reaction was almost perfectly separated from the hydrogen evolution reaction. Toluene was perfectly reduced to MCH at around 0 V vs. RHE on PtRu/C and no by-products were detected in the solutions after electrolysis. MCH was produced at a Faradaic efficiency of more than 96% by carefully keeping the potential above -30 mV vs. RHE. Through this electrolytic process, we were able to reduce the concentration of toluene from 100% to 7.6%.

  20. A 24.4% solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency by combining concentrator photovoltaic modules and electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Ota, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kayo; Hidaka, Yoshihide; Nishioka, Kensuke; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Fujii, Katsushi

    2015-10-01

    The highest efficiency of 24.4% for the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) energy conversion was obtained in an outdoor field test by combining concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules with InGaP/GaAs/Ge three-junction cells and polymer-electrolyte electrochemical (EC) cells. The high efficiency was obtained by using the high-efficiency CPV modules (∼31% under the present operation conditions) and the direct connection between the CPV modules and the EC cells with an almost optimized number of elements in series. The STH efficiency bottleneck was clarified to be the efficiency of the CPV modules, the over-potential of the EC cells, and matching of the operation point to the maximal-power point of the CPV modules.

  1. Thiocyanates as attractive redox-active electrolytes for high-energy and environmentally-friendly electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Gorska, Barbara; Bujewska, Paulina; Fic, Krzysztof

    2017-03-15

    This manuscript reports on the novel insight into the development of high voltage carbon/carbon electrochemical capacitors operating in aqueous solutions of alkali metals and ammonium thiocyanates (KSCN, NaSCN, LiSCN, and NH4SCN). The effect of salt concentration, electrode porosity and current collectors on the capacitance value, system stability, and power performance has been investigated. Therefore, thiocyanate-based electrolytes were recognized as cheap and highly conductive electrolytic solutions (up to 401 mS cm(-1) for NH4SCN at RT) allowing a cell voltage of 1.6 V in a symmetric carbon/carbon system to be achieved. At the same time, they display an attractive redox activity, enhancing the energy of the device with a good performance during cycling.

  2. Material Characterization in the Electro-Analytic Approach for Applications in Chemical Mechanical Planarization and Electrochemical Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Simon E.

    The work presented in this thesis covers electro-analytical characterization for multiple applications in material science. Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate soluble film formation on metals used in chemical mechanical planarization in order to better understand the removal rate process by studying new chemicals proposed by groups in industry. Second, an ionic liquid was used as an electrolyte in a lithium ion cathode half cell to show the essential functionality of the IL and the temperature advantage over traditional electrolytes. Lastly, a comprehensive measurement for charge recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells was performed using both open-circuit voltage decay and impedance spectroscopy, which may be used to better understand the limiting factors that affect the cell's efficiently. Electrochemical techniques were applied to new methods and materials to extend the development of material manufacturing and advance the measurement process. The fabrication of interconnect structures for semiconductor devices requires low down-pressure chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of Ta barrier layers. Guanidine carbonate (GC) serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for such CMP applications, where the rate of Ta removal can be chemically controlled through pH-tuned selectivity with respect to the removal of Cu lines. Electrochemical techniques are employed in this work to study the surface-modifying roles of GC that make this chemical an attractive complexing agent for Ta CMP. In addition, the effects of including H2O2 (an oxidizer) and dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA, a dissolution inhibitor for Cu) in GC-based CMP solutions are investigated to examine the selective CMP mechanisms of Ta and Cu in these solutions. The results suggest that the removal of Ta is supported in part by structurally weak guanidinium-tantalic-acid surface complexes formed on Ta/Ta2O5. The bicarbonate/carbonate anions of GC also facilitate Ta removal through

  3. The U.S. Department of Energy`s advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Layne, P.W.

    1998-06-01

    Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) are poised to capture the majority of new electric power generation capacity well into the next century. US Department of Energy (DOE) programs supporting the development of ATS technology will enable gas turbine manufacturers to provide ATS systems to the commercial marketplace at the turn of the next century. A progress report on the ATS Program will he presented in this paper. The technical challenges, advanced critical technology requirements, and system configurations meeting the goals of the program will be discussed. Progress has been made in the are as of materials, heat transfer, aerodynamics, and combustion. Applied research conducted by universities, industry, and Government has resulted in advanced designs and power cycle configurations to develop an ATS which operates on natural gas, coal, and biomass fuels. Details on the ATS Program research, development, and technology validation and readiness activities will be presented. The future direction of the program and relationship to other Government programs will be discussed in this paper.

  4. Sustainable resource recovery and energy conversion processes using microbial electrochemical technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Matthew D.

    Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs) are emerging technological platforms for the conversion of waste into usable products. METs utilize naturally occurring bacteria, called exoelectrogens, capable of transferring electrons to insoluble terminal electron acceptors. Electron transfer processes in the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens were exploited here to develop sustainable processes for synthesis of industrially and socially relevant end products. The first process examined was the removal of soluble metals from solution to form catalytic nanoparticles and nanoporous structures. The second process examined was the biocatalytic conversion of electrons into hydrogen gas using electrons supplied directly to an electrode. Nanoparticle formation is desirable because materials on the nanoscale possess different physical, optical, electronic, and mechanical properties compared to bulk materials. In the first process, soluble palladium was used to form catalytic palladium nanoparticles using extracellular electron transfer (EET) processes of G. sulfurreducens, typically the dominant member of mixedculture METs. Geobacter cells reduced the palladium extracellularly using naturally produced pili, which provided extracellular adsorption and reduction sites to help delay the diffusion of soluble metals into the cell. The extracellular reduction prevented cell inactivation due to formation of intracellular particles, and therefore the cells could be reused in multiple palladium reduction cycles. A G. sulfurreducens biofilm was next investigated as a biotemplate for the formation of a nanoporous catalytic palladium structure. G. sulfurreducens biofilms have a dense network of pili and extracellular cytochromes capable of high rates of electron transfer directly to an electrode surface. These pili and cytochromes provide a dense number of reduction sites for nanoparticle formation without the need for any synthetic components. The cells within the biofilm also can

  5. In situ Wilhelmy balance surface energy determination of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) during electrochemical doping-dedoping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangjun; Ederth, Thomas; Inganäs, Olle

    2006-10-24

    Changes in the contact angle between conjugated polymers surface poly(3-hexylthiophene) [P3HT] and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) upon electrochemical doping-dedoping in aqueous electrolyte were determined in situ using a Wilhelmy plate tensiometer in an electrochemical cell. The hydrophobic P3HT was less hydrophobic in the oxidized state than in the neutral state; the more hydrophilic PEDOT was less hydrophilic in the oxidized state than when neutral. The tensiometry results were in good agreement with those measured by contact angle goniometry, and further corroborated by the capillary rise upon doping in a fluid cell with two parallel polymer coated plates, another in situ dynamic determination method. The contact angle changes depend on doping potential, electrolyte type, and concentration. We also deconvoluted the surface energy into components of van der Waals and acid-base interactions, using three probe liquids on the polymer surfaces, ex situ the electrochemical cell. The methods and the obtained results are relevant for the science and technology areas of printed electronics and electrochemical devices and for the understanding of surface energy modification by electrochemical doping.

  6. Advanced Energy Conversion Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Phillips, Dane J.; Laycock, Rustin L.; ONeill, Mark; Henley, Mark W.; Fork, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. There is a need to produce "proof-ofconcept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space surface sites. Space surface receiving sites of particular interest include the areas of permanent shadow near the moon s North and South poles, where WPT technologies could enable access to ice and other useful resources for human exploration. This paper discusses work addressing a promising approach to solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) applied to both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components (only the photovoltaic cells need to be different), economies of manufacturing and scale may be realized by using SLA on both ends of the laser power beaming

  7. Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M.

    1998-05-01

    The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

  8. In-situ short-circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2003-04-15

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  9. In-situ short circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  10. Advanced Energy Storage Life and Health Prognostics (INL) FY 2012 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop methodologies that will accurately estimate state-of-health (SOH) and remaining useful life (RUL) of electrochemical energy storage devices using both offline and online (i.e., in-situ) techniques through: · A statistically robust offline battery calendar life estimator tool based on both testing and simulation, and · Novel onboard sensor technology for improved online battery diagnostics and prognostics.

  11. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  12. Intercalation Pseudocapacitance in Ultrathin VOPO4 Nanosheets: Toward High-Rate Alkali-Ion-Based Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue; Peng, Lele; Chen, Dahong; Yu, Guihua

    2016-01-13

    There is a growing need for energy storage devices in numerous applications where a large amount of energy needs to be either stored or delivered quickly. The present paper details the study of alkali-ion intercalation pseudocapacitance in ultrathin VOPO4 nanosheets, which hold promise in high-rate alkali-ion based electrochemical energy storage. Starting from bulk VOPO4·2H2O chunks, VOPO4 nanosheets were obtained through simple ultrasonication in 2-propanol. These nanosheets as the cathode exhibit a specific capacity of 154 and 136 mAh/g (close to theoretical value 166 mAh/g) for lithium and sodium storage devices at 0.1 C and 100 and ∼70 mAh/g at 5 C, demonstrating their high rate capability. Moreover, the capacity retention is maintained at 90% for lithium ion storage and 73% for sodium ion storage after 500 cycles, showing their reasonable stability. The demonstrated alkali-ion intercalation pseudocapacitance represents a promising direction for developing battery materials with promising high rate capability.

  13. Energy-positive nitrogen removal from reject water using a tide-type biocathode microbial electrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiman; Liu, Jia; He, Weihua; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Feng, Yujie

    2016-12-01

    A tide-type biocathode microbial electrochemical system (TBMES) employing intermittent air accessible method was constructed for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal. The nitrification and denitrification processes occurred in cathode chamber were enhanced by raising frequency of catholyte feeding-draining process and lowering external resistance. At external resistance of 5Ω and frequency of 8cph, the TBMES removed 99.3±0.3% of COD and 57.7±1.1% of total nitrogen when treating synthetic medium with COD/N ratio of 3.0, concomitantly, a maximum power density of 10.6Wm(-3) was achieved. Comparable performances were obtained for reject water treatment with a relatively lower COD/N ratio of 2.5, which were 88.6±1.3%, 53.2±3.8% and 8.9±0.2Wm(-3) for COD removal, total nitrogen removal and maximum power density. The feeding-draining process consumed 14.3% of the total energy produced, and thus obviated energy-intensive aeration and achieved net energy output.

  14. p-Si(1 1 1):H/ionic liquid interface investigated through a combination of electrochemical measurements and reflection high energy electron diffraction surface analysis in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Ko; Maruyama, Shingo; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    A combination study of electrochemical measurements and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) surface analysis experiments in a vacuum was first demonstrated to characterize a p-Si(1 1 1):H/ionic liquid interface. Mott-Schottky plot analysis was made to successfully not only evaluate the acceptor density and flat band potential of the p-Si(1 1 1):H, but also get some insight into its surface states. Furthermore, the electric double layer capacitance and specific adsorption properties at the IL/Si(1 1 1):H interface as well as the electrochemical interface stability will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  16. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  17. Electrochemically Programmable Plasmonic Antennas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Zhiping; Fan, Jonathan A

    2016-07-26

    Plasmonic antennas are building blocks in advanced nano-optical systems due to their ability to tailor optical response based on their geometry. We propose an electrochemical approach to program the optical properties of dipole antennas in a scalable, fast, and energy-efficient manner. These antennas comprise two arms, one serving as an anode and the other a cathode, separated by a solid electrolyte. As a voltage is applied between the antenna arms, a conductive filament either grows or dissolves within the electrolyte, modifying the antenna load. We probe the dynamics of stochastic filament formation and their effects on plasmonic mode programming using a combination of three-dimensional optical and electronic simulations. In particular, we identify device operation regimes in which the charge-transfer plasmon mode can be programmed to be "on" or "off." We also identify, unexpectedly, a strong correlation between DC filament resistance and charge-transfer plasmon mode frequency that is insensitive to the detailed filament morphology. We envision that the scalability of our electrochemical platform can generalize to large-area reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces for on-chip and free-space applications.

  18. Hierarchical micro & mesoporous silicon carbide flakes for high-performance electrochemical capacitive energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myeongjin; Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Jooheon

    2016-03-01

    Hierarchical micro/mesoporous silicon carbide flakes (SiCF) with a high surface area of about 1376 m2 g-1 are obtained by one-step carbonization of waste Si wafer without any chemical or physical activation. The micropores are derived from the partial evaporation of Si atoms during the carbonization process and mesopores are formed by the integration of neighboring micropores. During carbonization process, the proportion of micro and mesopores in SiCF can be controlled by carbonization time by controlling the amount of partial evaporation of Si atoms. The SiCF electrode carbonized for 8 h at 1250 °C exhibits high charge storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 203.7 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 with 87.3% rate performance from 5 to 500 mV s-1 in 1 M KCl aqueous electrolyte. The outstanding electrochemical performance can be the synergistic effect of both enhanced electric double layer properties caused by micropores and reduced resistant pathways for ions diffusion in the pores as well as a large accessible surface area for ion transport/charge storage caused by mesopores. These encouraging results demonstrate that the SiCF carbonized for 8 h at 1250 °C can be promising candidate for high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  19. Highly Selective Oxidation of Carbohydrates in an Efficient Electrochemical Energy Converter: Cogenerating Organic Electrosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Holade, Yaovi; Servat, Karine; Napporn, Teko W; Morais, Cláudia; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Kokoh, Kouakou B

    2016-02-08

    The selective electrochemical conversion of highly functionalized organic molecules into electricity, heat, and added-value chemicals for fine chemistry requires the development of highly selective, durable, and low-cost catalysts. Here, we propose an approach to make catalysts that can convert carbohydrates into chemicals selectively and produce electrical power and recoverable heat. A 100% Faradaic yield was achieved for the selective oxidation of the anomeric carbon of glucose and its related carbohydrates (C1-position) without any function protection. Furthermore, the direct glucose fuel cell (DGFC) enables an open-circuit voltage of 1.1 V in 0.5 m NaOH to be reached, a record. The optimized DGFC delivers an outstanding output power Pmax =2 mW cm(-2) with the selective conversion of 0.3 m glucose, which is of great interest for cogeneration. The purified reaction product will serve as a raw material in various industries, which thereby reduces the cost of the whole sustainable process.

  20. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, Na

  1. Electrochemical polymerization of aniline on carbon-aluminum electrodes for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasoma, Asela; Grant, Robert; Bruce, Alice E.; Bruce, Mitchell R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We report a simple and reliable method to electrochemically synthesize PANi on aluminum carbon (Al/C).Aluminum electrodes were coated with hard black graphite. Polyaniline was then deposited in steps from +0.75 V to +0.825 V (V vs. Ag/AgCl) in low pH growth solutions containing aniline and camphor sulphonic acid. The polyaniline films were rinsed in hydrazine solution and dried in an infrared oven under a nitrogen atmosphere. The films were transferred and are stable in a 50:50 (v/v) propylene carbonate (PC)/acetonitrile (ACN) solvent mixture containing 0.5 M LiClO4 electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge capacities are reported. Microscope (SEM) images of Al/C/PANi and Pt/PANi films show similar structural details and morphology. The specific capacity for Al/C/PANi in nonaqueous solutions was ca. 133 mAh g-1, in good agreement with the reported data for other PANi-based electrodes. The performance studies and SEM images demonstrate similar results for Pt/PANi and Al/C/PANi electrodes.

  2. Electrochemical preparation of Photosystem I-polyaniline composite films for biohybrid solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Gizzie, Evan A; LeBlanc, Gabriel; Jennings, G Kane; Cliffel, David E

    2015-05-13

    In this work, we report for the first time the entrapment of the biomolecular supercomplex Photosystem I (PSI) within a conductive polymer network of polyaniline via electrochemical copolymerization. Composite polymer-protein films were prepared on gold electrodes through potentiostatic electropolymerization from a single aqueous solution containing both aniline and PSI. This study demonstrates the controllable integration of large membrane proteins into rapidly prepared composite films, the entrapment of such proteins was observed through photoelectrochemical analysis. PSI's unique function as a highly efficient biomolecular photodiode generated a significant enhancement in photocurrent generation for the PSI-loaded polyaniline films, compared to pristine polyaniline films, and dropcast PSI films. A comprehensive study was then performed to separately evaluate film thickness and PSI concentration in the initial polymerization solution and their effects on the net photocurrent of this novel material. The best performing composite films were prepared with 0.1 μM PSI in the polymerization solution and deposited to a film thickness of 185 nm, resulting in an average photocurrent density of 5.7 μA cm(-2) with an efficiency of 0.005%. This photocurrent output represents an enhancement greater than 2-fold over bare polyaniline films and 200-fold over a traditional PSI multilayer film of comparable thickness.

  3. Microstructurally tailored ceramics for advanced energy applications by thermoreversible gelcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti, Noah Omar

    Thermoreversible gelcasting (TRG) is an advantageous technique for rapidly producing bulk, net-shape ceramics and laminates. In this method, ceramic powder is suspended in warm acrylate triblock copolymer/alcohol solutions that reversibly gel upon cooling by the formation of endblock aggregates, to produce slurries which are cast into molds. Gel properties can be tailored by controlling the endblock and midblock lengths of the copolymer network-former and selecting an appropriate alcohol solvent. This research focuses on expanding and improving TRG techniques, focusing specifically on advanced energy applications including the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Rapid drying of filled gels can lead to warping and cracking caused by high differential capillary stresses. A new drying technique using concentrated, alcohol-based solutions as liquid desiccants (LDs) to greatly reduce warping is introduced. The optimal LD is a poly(tert-butyl acrylate)/isopropyl alcohol solution with 5 mol% tert-butyl acrylate units. Alcohol emissions during drying are completely eliminated by combining initial drying in an LD with final stage drying in a vacuum oven having an in-line solvent trap. Porous ceramics are important structures for many applications, including SOFCs. Pore network geometries are tailored by the addition of fugitive fillers to TRG slurries. Uniform spherical, bimodal spherical and uniform fibrous fillers are used. Three-dimensional pore structures are visualized by X-ray computed tomography, allowing for direct measurements of physical parameters such as concentration and morphology as well as transport properties such as tortuosity. Tortuosity values as low as 1.52 are achieved when 60 vol% of solids are uniform spherical filler. Functionally graded laminates with layers ranging from 10 mum to > 1 mm thick are produced with a new technique that combines TRG with tape casting. Gels used for bulk casting are not suitable for use with tape casting, and appropriate base

  4. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  5. Materials advances required to reduce energy consumption through the application of heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Several key materials advances are required to reduce energy consumption through application of heavy duty diesel engines. Heavy duty diesel engines are viewed as effecting energy use both directly through fuel consumption, and indirectly through their durability with large energy expenditures required to replace worn-out engines. Materials advances that would improve fuel consumption include materials related to hot gas-path insulation, and materials related to design advances (other than insulation). Most design advances that are focused on fuel consumption or other performance factors also directly influence durability through materials properties. Several major engine components and many conventional (and advanced) materials are examined. If materials development is integrated with design and manufacturing advances, then fuel economy higher than 0.28 BSFC (50 pct thermal efficiency), and durability beyond 750,000 miles may be achievable.

  6. Self-assembled graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer film and its application in electrochemical energy storage device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongrui; Wang, Xiaogong

    2011-03-01

    Graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer films were fabricated through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly, and their performance as electrochemical capacitor electrode was investigated. Cationic azo polyelectrolyte (QP4VP-co-PCN) was synthesized through radical polymerization, postpolymerization azo coupling reaction, and quaternization. Negatively charged graphene nanosheets were prepared by a chemically modified method. The LbL films were obtained by alternately dipping a piece of the pretreated substrates in the QP4VP-co-PCN and nanosheet solutions. The processes were repeated until the films with required numbers of bilayers were obtained. The self-assembly and multilayer surface morphology were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, AFM, SEM, and TEM. The performance of the LbL films as electrochemical capacitor electrode was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. Results show that the graphene nanosheets are densely packed in the multilayers and form random graphene network. The azo polyelectrolyte cohesively interacts with the nanosheets in the multilayer structure, which prevents agglomeration of graphene nanosheets. The sheet resistance of the LbL films decreases with the increase of the layer numbers and reaches the stationary value of 1.0 × 10(6) Ω/square for the film with 15 bilayers. At a scanning rate of 50 mV/s, the LbL film with 9 bilayers shows a gravimetric specific capacitance of 49 F/g in 1.0 M Na(2)SO(4) solution. The LbL films developed in this work could be a promising type of the electrode materials for electric energy storage devices.

  7. Simultaneous Investigation of the Effect of Advanced Thermomechanical Treatment and Repetitive Cyclic Voltammetry on the Electrochemical Behavior of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaeian, Saeed; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Mazaheri, Yousef

    2017-02-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the electrochemical behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel can be modified and improved to a large extent by the application of repetitive cyclic voltammetry in the anodic polarization branch of the alloy. The efficiency of this method was evaluated on the basis of the alloy grain size which is of great importance in corrosion studies. In fact, a coarse grain structure versus a fine grain structure was the subject of the used surface treatment method. Coarsening and refining of the grain size were conducted through a heat treatment and an advanced thermomechanical process. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry tests and also the electrochemical tests performed after that, it was shown that cyclic voltammetry had a significant improving effect on the passive behavior of both fine- and coarse-grained samples. Moreover, superior behavior of fine-grained sample in comparison with coarse-grained one was distinguished by its smaller cyclic voltammogram loops, more noble free potentials, larger capacitive arcs in the Nyquist plots, and less charge carrier densities within the passive film.

  8. Simultaneous Investigation of the Effect of Advanced Thermomechanical Treatment and Repetitive Cyclic Voltammetry on the Electrochemical Behavior of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaeian, Saeed; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Mazaheri, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the electrochemical behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel can be modified and improved to a large extent by the application of repetitive cyclic voltammetry in the anodic polarization branch of the alloy. The efficiency of this method was evaluated on the basis of the alloy grain size which is of great importance in corrosion studies. In fact, a coarse grain structure versus a fine grain structure was the subject of the used surface treatment method. Coarsening and refining of the grain size were conducted through a heat treatment and an advanced thermomechanical process. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry tests and also the electrochemical tests performed after that, it was shown that cyclic voltammetry had a significant improving effect on the passive behavior of both fine- and coarse-grained samples. Moreover, superior behavior of fine-grained sample in comparison with coarse-grained one was distinguished by its smaller cyclic voltammogram loops, more noble free potentials, larger capacitive arcs in the Nyquist plots, and less charge carrier densities within the passive film.

  9. Controllable Synthesis of Copper Oxide/Carbon Core/Shell Nanowire Arrays and Their Application for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jiye; Chen, Minghua; Xia, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Rational design/fabrication of integrated porous metal oxide arrays is critical for the construction of advanced electrochemical devices. Herein, we report self-supported CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by the combination of electro-deposition and chemical vapor deposition methods. CuO/C nanowires with diameters of ~400 nm grow quasi-vertically to the substrates forming three-dimensional arrays architecture. A thin carbon shell is uniformly coated on the CuO nanowire cores. As an anode of lithium ion batteries, the resultant CuO/C nanowire arrays are demonstrated to have high specific capacity (672 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C) and good cycle stability (425 mAh·g−1 at 1 C up to 150 cycles). The core/shell arrays structure plays positive roles in the enhancement of Li ion storage due to fast ion/electron transfer path, good strain accommodation and sufficient contact between electrolyte and active materials. PMID:28347084

  10. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  11. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  12. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on Tribes in the lower 48 states selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  13. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native governments selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  14. Advancing Energy Development in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  15. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

  16. Scalable Deployment of Advanced Building Energy Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Building Automation and Control Network BDAS Building Data Acquisition System BEM building energy model BIM building information modeling BMS...A prototype toolkit to seamlessly and automatically transfer a Building Information Model ( BIM ) to a Building Energy Model (BEM) has been...circumvent the need to manually construct and maintain a detailed building energy simulation model . This detailed

  17. Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, David C.; Wynosky, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced, low drag, nacelle configurations were defined for some of the more promising propulsion systems identified in the earlier Benefit/Cost Study, to assess the benefits associated with these advanced technology nacelles and formulate programs for developing these nacelles and low volume thrust reversers/spoilers to a state of technology readiness in the early 1990's. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. Design feasibility was also established for two low volume thrust reverse/spoiler concepts that meet or exceed the required effectiveness for these engines. These nacelle and thrust reverse/spoiler designs were shown to be applicable in engines with takeoff thrust sizes ranging from 24,000 to 60,000 pounds. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 percent and direct operating cost plus interest improvements from 1.6 to 2.2 percent.

  18. High electrochemical energy storage in self-assembled nest-like CoO nanofibers with long cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Atin; Maiti, Sandipan; Sreemany, Monjoy; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2016-04-01

    Developing efficient electrode material is essential to keep pace with the demand for high energy density together with high power density and long cycle life in next generation energy storage devices. Herein, we report the electrochemical properties of hydrothermally synthesized CoO nanofibers of diameter 30-80 nm assembled in a nest-like morphology which showed a very high reversible lithium storage capacity of 2000 mA h g-1 after 600 cycles at 0.1 mA cm-2 as lithium-ion battery anode. Systematic investigation by ex situ transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy at different cycling stages indicated that the extraordinary performance could be related to an enhancement in the Co2+↔Co x+ (2 < x ≤ 3) redox process in addition to the commonly believed structural and morphological evolution during cycling favoring generation of large number of accessible active sites for lithium insertion. Further, when examined as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M KOH, a capacitance of 1167 F g-1 is achieved from these 1D CoO nanofibers after 10,000 charge discharge cycles at a high current density of 5 A g-1 demonstrating good application potential.

  19. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  20. Ag/N-doped reduced graphene oxide incorporated with molecularly imprinted polymer: An advanced electrochemical sensing platform for salbutamol determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Xu, Zhifeng; Liu, Mengqin; Deng, Peihong; Tang, Siping; Jiang, Jianbo; Feng, Haibo; Qian, Dong; He, Lingzhi

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the metallic silver and non-metallic nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag-N-RGO) was first synthesized by a simple and cost-effective strategy, and then a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was formed in situ at the surface of the prepared composite via electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine in the presence of salbutamol as the template molecule. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that the bifunctional graphene-based composite shows improved catalytic performance than that of pristine graphene doped with one-component or none. The MIP sensor based on Ag-N-RGO owns high porous surface structure, resulting in the increased current response and enhanced recognition capacity than that of non-imprinted sensor. The outstanding performance of the developed sensor derives from the combined advantages of Ag-N-RGO with effective catalytic property and MIP with excellent selectivity. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical response of the developed sensor is linearly proportional to the concentration of salbutamol in the range of 0.03-20.00µmolL(-1) with a low detection limit of 7 nmol L(-1). The designed sensor has exhibited the multiple advantages such as low cost, simple manufacture, convenient use, excellent selectivity and good reproducibility. Finally, the proposed method has been extended for the determinations of salbutamol in human urine and pork samples, and the satisfactory recoveries between 98.9-105.3% are achieved.

  1. Hierarchical Co@C Nanoflowers: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties as an Advanced Negative Material for Alkaline Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Zichao; Cao, Bingqiang; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-11-04

    Hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers have been facilely synthesized via a simple route based on a low-temperature solid-phase reaction. The obtained hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers, each constructed of a number of nanosheets, display a three-dimensional architecture with an average grain size of about 300 nm. The electrochemical properties of the Co@C nanoflowers as the negative material for Ni/Co cells have been systemically researched. In particular, Co@C material exhibits high discharge-specific capacity and good cycling stability. The discharge-specific capacity of our Co@C-3 electrode can reach 612.1 mA h g(-1), and the specific capacity of 415.3 mA h g(-1) is retained at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) after 120 cycles, indicating its great potential for high-performance Ni/Co batteries. Interestingly, the as-synthesized Co@C electrode also exhibits favorable rate capability. These desirable properties can be attributed to porous pathways, which allow fast transportation of ions and electrons and easy accessibility to the electrolyte. The dominant electrochemical mechanism of Co@C can be attributed to the reduction-oxidation reaction between metallic cobalt and cobalt hydroxide in alkaline solution.

  2. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  3. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  4. CO2 Capture Using Electrical Energy: Electrochemically Mediated Separation for Carbon Capture and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-16

    IMPACCT Project: MIT and Siemens Corporation are developing a process to separate CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants by using electrical energy to chemically activate and deactivate sorbents, or materials that absorb gases. The team found that certain sorbents bond to CO2 when they are activated by electrical energy and then transported through a specialized separator that deactivates the molecule and releases it for storage. This method directly uses the electricity from the power plant, which is a more efficient but more expensive form of energy than heat, though the ease and simplicity of integrating it into existing coal-fired power plants reduces the overall cost of the technology. This process could cost as low as $31 per ton of CO2 stored.

  5. Advanced Silicon Detectors for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of silicon detectors for high energy astrophysics missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Background: Motivation for Event-Driven CCD; 2) Report of Grant Activity; 3) Packaged EDCCD; 4) Measured X-ray Energy Resolution of the Gen1 EDCCDs Operated in "Conventional Mode"; and 5) EDCCD Gen 1.5-Lot 1 Planning.

  6. Advanced Bio-Energy Systems for Air Force Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    This investigation was sponsored by the US Air Force to determine the potential of using innovative biomass energy conversion technology interface...base environment before full implementation is possible. The investigation found that a biomass energy island system could be achieved through a

  7. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Richard M. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Individual papers presented at the conference address the following topics: development of a micro-fiber nickel electrode for nickel-hydrogen cell, high performance nickel electrodes for space power application, bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries, effect of KOH concentration and anions on the performance of a Ni-H2 battery positive plate, advanced dependent pressure vessel nickel hydrogen spacecraft cell and battery design, electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery design, a novel unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cell, fuel cell systems for first lunar outpost - reactant storage options, the TMI regenerable solid oxide fuel cell, engineering development program of a closed aluminum-oxygen semi-cell system for an unmanned underwater vehicle, SPE OBOGS on-board oxygen generating system, hermetically sealed aluminum electrolytic capacitor, sol-gel technology and advanced electrochemical energy storage materials, development of electrochemical supercapacitors for EMA applications, and high energy density electrolytic capacitor.

  8. Leveling the Playing Field: China’s Development of Advanced Energy Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-02

    China’s aggressive development of advanced energy weapons and long-range delivery systems — combined with an analysis of their strategic...3 Game Changers : A Review... Changers ................................................................................................ 13 China’s Intentions

  9. Preliminary Study of Advanced Turboprops for Low Energy Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.; Strack, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The fuel savings potential of advanced turboprops (operational about 1985) was calculated and compared with that of an advanced turbofan for use in an advanced subsonic transport. At the design point, altitude 10.67 km and Mach 0.80, turbine-inlet temperature was fixed at 1590 K while overall pressure ratio was varied from 25 to 50. The regenerative turboprop had a pressure ratio of only 10 and an 85 percent effective rotary heat exchanger. Variable camber propellers were used with an efficiency of 85 percent. The study indicated a fuel savings of 33 percent, a takeoff gross weight reduction of 15 percent, and a direct operating cost reduction of 18 percent was possible when turboprops were used instead of the reference turbofan at a range of 10 200 km. These reductions were 28, 11, and 14 percent, respectively, at a range of 5500 km. Increasing overall pressure ratio from 25 to 50 saved little fuel and slightly increased takeoff gross weight.

  10. Development of high power and energy density microsphere silicon carbide-MnO2 nanoneedles and thermally oxidized activated carbon asymmetric electrochemical supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeongjin; Kim, Jooheon

    2014-06-21

    In order to achieve high energy and power densities, a high-voltage asymmetric electrochemical supercapacitor has been developed, with activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and a silicon carbide-MnO2 nanoneedle (SiC-N-MnO2) composite as the positive electrode. A neutral aqueous Na2SO4 solution was used as the electrolyte. SiC-N-MnO2 was prepared by packing growing MnO2 nanoneedle crystal species in only one direction on the silicon carbide surface. AC was oxidized by thermal treatment in order to introduce oxygen-containing functional groups. Owing to the high capacitance and excellent rate performance of SiC-N-MnO2 and AC, as well as the synergistic effects of the two electrodes, a constructed asymmetric supercapacitor exhibited superior electrochemical performance. The optimized asymmetric supercapacitor could be cycled reversibly in the voltage range from 0 to 1.9 V, and it exhibited a specific capacitance of 59.9 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 2 mV s(-1) and excellent energy density and power density (30.06 W h kg(-1) and 113.92 W kg(-1), respectively) with a specific capacitance loss of less than 3.1% after 1000 charge-discharge cycles, indicating excellent electrochemical stability. These encouraging results show great potential in terms of developing energy storage devices with high energy and power densities for practical applications.

  11. An Electrochemical Capacitor with Applicable Energy Density of 7.4 Wh/kg at Average Power Density of 3000 W/kg.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Teng; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Gongming; Mathis, Tyler; Liu, Tianyu; Li, Cheng; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2015-05-13

    Electrochemical capacitors represent a new class of charge storage devices that can simultaneously achieve high energy density and high power density. Previous reports have been primarily focused on the development of high performance capacitor electrodes. Although these electrodes have achieved excellent specific capacitance based on per unit mass of active materials, the gravimetric energy densities calculated based on the weight of entire capacitor device were fairly small. This is mainly due to the large mass ratio between current collector and active material. We aimed to address this issue by a 2-fold approach of minimizing the mass of current collector and increasing the electrode performance. Here we report an electrochemical capacitor using 3D graphene hollow structure as current collector, vanadium sulfide and manganese oxide as anode and cathode materials, respectively. 3D graphene hollow structure provides a lightweight and highly conductive scaffold for deposition of pseudocapacitive materials. The device achieves an excellent active material ratio of 24%. Significantly, it delivers a remarkable energy density of 7.4 Wh/kg (based on the weight of entire device) at the average power density of 3000 W/kg. This is the highest gravimetric energy density reported for asymmetric electrochemical capacitors at such a high power density.

  12. A facile hydrothermal recovery of nano sealed MnO2 particle from waste batteries: An advanced material for electrochemical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylarappa, M.; Venkata Lakshmi, V.; Vishnu Mahesh, K. R.; Nagaswarupa, H. P.; Raghavendra, N.

    2016-09-01

    This work deliberates a method for manganese (Mn) recovery as manganese oxide obtained by leaching of waste batteries with 3M sulphuric acid. The Experimental test for the recovery of Mn present within the waste dry cell batteries were carried out by a reductive leachant. Elemental composition of leached sample was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Surface morphology of the recovered MnO2 was examined by using Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM). Phase composition was confirmed from X-ray Diffractro meter (XRD). The obtained leached solution was treated with 4M NaOH, yielded to Manganese Dioxide with high extraction degree, while it do not touches the Zn content within the solutions. The recovered samples were characterized using XRD, EDAX, SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The electrochemical properties of the as-recovered sample from leached solution was examined used cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Remarkably, the 80 wt.% MnO2 displays reversibility, diffusion constant, smaller equivalent series resistance and charge transfer resistance in 0.5M NaOH showed superior results as compared to alternative electrolytes. The ideal capacitive behaviour of MnO2 electrode and nano particle was applied to photocatalytic degradation of dyes.

  13. Anion exchange membranes for electrochemical oxidation-reduction energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P. M.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gahn, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Oxidation-reduction couples in concentrated solutions separated by appropriate ion selective membranes were considered as an attractive approach to bulk electrical energy storage. A key problem is the development of the membrane. Several promising types of anionic membranes are discussed which were developed and evaluated for redox energy storage systems. The copolymers of ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate with either 2-vinylpyridine or vinylbenzl chloride gave stable resistance values compared to the copolymer of vinylbenzlchloride and divinylbenzene which served as the baseline membrane. A polyvinylchloride film aminated with tetraethylenepentamine had a low resistance but a high ion transfer rate. A slurry coated vinylpyridine had the lowest ion transfer rate. All these membranes functioned well in laboratory cells at ambient temperatures with the acidic chloride oxidant/reductant system, Fe 3, Fe 2/Ti 3, Ti 4.

  14. The emerging chemistry of sodium ion batteries for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Dipan; Talaie, Elahe; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-03-09

    Energy storage technology has received significant attention for portable electronic devices, electric vehicle propulsion, bulk electricity storage at power stations, and load leveling of renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind power. Lithium ion batteries have dominated most of the first two applications. For the last two cases, however, moving beyond lithium batteries to the element that lies below-sodium-is a sensible step that offers sustainability and cost-effectiveness. This requires an evaluation of the science underpinning these devices, including the discovery of new materials, their electrochemistry, and an increased understanding of ion mobility based on computational methods. The Review considers some of the current scientific issues underpinning sodium ion batteries.

  15. Development of evaluation techniques for electrochemical energy storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L H; Nazimek, K

    1980-03-15

    The development of standardized techniques for the comparative evaluation of electric vehicle battery technologies is summarized. The methodology considers both the traditional measures of battery performance (energy density, energy storage costs, and cycle life) and the equally important usage related battery characteristics (probability of technical success, operating and maintenance parameters, and safety/environmental impact). This comparative rationale is supplemented by the ability to generate battery test programs normalized to specific technologies and electric vehicle mission specifications. These test programs allow the evaluation of different battery technologies at comparable levels of electric vehicle performance. It was found that cost optimized electric passenger vehicles will have range specifications of 100 to 110 KM, depending on the specific performance of the battery. Longer range vehicles are penalized by higher first costs while shorter range vehicles suffer from reduced battery life and the need for more frequent alternative car rentals (presumably petroleum fueled) for trips which exceed the EV's range capability.

  16. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-03-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of advanced nanomaterials for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ming

    Energy is essential for life. It is thus important to continue understanding how to reduce energy consumption, and increase energy generation. The use of nanoscale materials (nanomaterials) are expected to reduce resources and energy needed in fabricating electrical and electronic devices and help in reducing energy consumption. For example, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) which have uniform band structures, are expected to find application in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. These devices will have smaller dimension, cost fewer resources and less energy to fabricate, and consume less energy due to minimum electron scattering in their ideally defect-free tubular structures. On the other hand, nanomaterials are also expected to improve the performance of thermoelectric devices that can convert heat into energy. In this thesis, we first investigated low-temperature synthesis of BNNTs (Chapter 1). Effects of substrate temperatures, bias voltages, and catalysts are discussed and a selective-phase growth model is proposed. During the course of this investigation, we discovered Si nanotubes (SiNTs) by catalytic plasma treatment (Chapter 2). The detailed growth parameters and characterizations are presented and a modified growth model is discussed. In addition, electronic properties are measured by AFM. Since Si has exceptional thermoelectric properties, the newly discovered SiNTs are prospects for related applications. We have thus evaluated the potential conversion efficiency and production cost of various nanostructured thermoelectric materials (Chapter 3 and 4). Based on state-of-the-art dish-stirling systems, we evaluate the feasibility of replacing stirling engines by thermoelectric modules. Finally, we have decided to investigate the properties of boron-nanocarbon ensembles (Chapter 5 and 6) as prospective thermoelectric materials. Detailed characterizations includes SEM, HRTEM, Raman, XRD are presented. Seebeck coefficient and electrical

  18. Wireless Sensors and Networks for Advanced Energy Management

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-05-06

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified low-cost, very low-power wireless sensors and networks as a critical enabling technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. Research areas for developing such sensor and network platforms include microsensor arrays, ultra-low power electronics and signal conditioning, data/control transceivers, and robust wireless networks. A review of some of the research in the following areas will be discussed: (1) Low-cost, flexible multi-sensor array platforms (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, humidity, NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2}, occupancy, etc.) that enable energy and emission reductions in applications such as buildings and manufacturing; (2) Modeling investments (energy usage and savings to drive capital investment decisions) and estimated uptime improvements through pervasive gathering of equipment and process health data and its effects on energy; (3) Robust, self-configuring wireless sensor networks for energy management; and (4) Quality-of-service for secure and reliable data transmission from widely distributed sensors. Wireless communications is poised to support technical innovations in the industrial community, with widespread use of wireless sensors forecasted to improve manufacturing production and energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Progress being made in wireless system components, as described in this paper, is helping bring these projected improvements to reality.

  19. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Mao, Xun; Gurung, Anant; Baloda, Meenu; Lin, Yuehe; He, Yuqing

    2010-08-31

    This book chapter summarizes the recent advance in nanomaterials for electrochemical biosensors and bioassays. Biofunctionalization of nanomaterials for biosensors fabrication and their biomedical applications are discussed.

  20. Electrochemical considerations for determining absolute frontier orbital energy levels of conjugated polymers for solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Claudia M; Li, Wei; Kaifer, Angel E; Stockdale, David; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2011-05-24

    Narrow bandgap conjugated polymers in combination with fullerene acceptors are under intense investigation in the field of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The open circuit voltage, and thereby the power conversion efficiency, of the devices is related to the offset of the frontier orbital energy levels of the donor and acceptor components, which are widely determined by cyclic voltammetry. Inconsistencies have appeared in the use of the ferrocenium/ferrocene (Fc + /Fc) redox couple, as well as the values used for the absolute potentials of standard electrodes, which can complicate the comparison of materials properties and determination of structure/property relationships.

  1. 25th anniversary article: polymer-particle composites: phase stability and applications in electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Schaefer, Jennifer L; Yang, Zichao; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2014-01-15

    Polymer-particle composites are used in virtually every field of technology. When the particles approach nanometer dimensions, large interfacial regions are created. In favorable situations, the spatial distribution of these interfaces can be controlled to create new hybrid materials with physical and transport properties inaccessible in their constituents or poorly prepared mixtures. This review surveys progress in the last decade in understanding phase behavior, structure, and properties of nanoparticle-polymer composites. The review takes a decidedly polymers perspective and explores how physical and chemical approaches may be employed to create hybrids with controlled distribution of particles. Applications are studied in two contexts of contemporary interest: battery electrolytes and electrodes. In the former, the role of dispersed and aggregated particles on ion-transport is considered. In the latter, the polymer is employed in such small quantities that it has been historically given titles such as binder and carbon precursor that underscore its perceived secondary role. Considering the myriad functions the binder plays in an electrode, it is surprising that highly filled composites have not received more attention. Opportunities in this and related areas are highlighted where recent advances in synthesis and polymer science are inspiring new approaches, and where newcomers to the field could make important contributions.

  2. Applications of advanced electrochemical techniques in the study of microbial fuel cells and corrosion protection by polymer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Aswin Karthik

    The results of a detailed evaluation of the properties of the anode and the cathode of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) and the factors determining the power output of the MFC using different electrochemical techniques are presented in Chapter 1. In the MFC under investigation, the biocatalyst - Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 - oxidizes the fuel and transfers the electrons directly into the anode which consists of graphite felt. Oxygen is reduced at the cathode which consists of Pt-plated graphite felt. A proton exchange membrane separates the anode and the cathode compartments. The electrolyte was a PIPES buffer solution and lactate was used as the fuel. Separate tests were performed with the buffer solution containing lactate and with the buffer solution with lactate and MR-1 as anolytes. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) carried out at the open-circuit potential (OCP) has been used to determine the electrochemical properties of the anode and the cathode at different anolyte conditions. Cell voltage (V) -- current (I) curves were recorded using a potentiodynamic sweep between the open-circuit cell voltage and the short- circuit cell voltage. Power (P)-V curves were constructed from the recorded V-I data and the cell voltage, Vmax, at which the maximum power could be obtained, was determined. P- time (t) curves were obtained by applying Vmax or using a resistor between the anode and the cathode that would result in a similar cell voltage. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded for the anode for the different anolytes. Finally, anodic polarization curves were obtained for the anode with different anolytes and a cathodic polarization curve was recorded for the cathode. The internal resistance (Rint) of the MFC has been determined as a function of the cell voltage V using EIS for the MFC described above and a MFC in which stainless steel (SS) balls had been added to the anode compartment. The experimental values of Rint of the MFCs studied here are

  3. Advanced bio-energy systems for Air Force installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, W. J.; Bond, D. H.

    1981-10-01

    This investigation was sponsored by the US Air Force to determine the potential of using innovative biomass energy conversion technology interface with in place energy generating hardware to sustain total annual facility energy requirements on a forested airbase. The investigation found that Eglin AFB, FL, has high potential for such a system, but that certain components and subsystems require test, evaluation and demonstration in an Air Force base environment before full implementation is possible. The investigation found that a biomass energy island system could be achieved through a centralized biomass gasification/combined cycle system to produce 135,000 1b/hr 150 psig steam (saturated) and 27 Mwh/hr electrical power from 1480 green tons of wood chips daily. A phased implementation system is recommended, consisting of separate integrable test and evaluation modules for combined cycle wood gasification and for cogeneration, which would dovetail into an expanded basewide energy self sufficient system. The investigation did not consider harvestation of base woodlands, which is the subject of a separate effort to define the wood resource aspects of a total biomass self-sufficient system.

  4. Redox exchange induced MnO2 nanoparticle enrichment in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanowires for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Duay, Jonathon; Lee, Sang Bok

    2010-07-27

    MnO2 nanoparticle enriched poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires are fabricated by simply soaking the PEDOT nanowires in potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution. The structures of these MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires are characterized by SEM and TEM, which show that the MnO2 nanoparticles have uniform sizes and are finely dispersed in the PEDOT matrix. The chemical constituents and bonding of these composite nanowires are characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy, which indicate that the formation and dispersion of these MnO2 nanoparticles into the nanoscale pores of the PEDOT nanowires are most likely triggered by the reduction of KMnO4 via the redox exchange of permanganate ions with the functional group on PEDOT. Varying the concentrations of KMnO4 and the reaction time controls the loading amount and size of the MnO2 nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of these MnO2 nanoparticle loaded PEDOT nanowires. Due to their extremely high exposed surface area with nanosizes, the pristine MnO2 nanoparticles in these MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires show very high specific capacitance (410 F/g) as the supercapacitor electrode materials as well as high Li+ storage capacity (300 mAh/g) as cathode materials of Li ion battery, which boost the energy storage capacity of PEDOT nanowires to 4 times without causing excessive volume expansion in the polymer. The highly conductive and porous PEDOT matrix facilitates fast charge/discharge of the MnO2 nanoparticles and prevents them from agglomerating. These synergic properties enable the MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires to be promising electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

  5. Energy savings by means of fuel-cell electrodes in electrochemical industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Ilan, A.; Juda, W.; Finnigan, B. P.

    1981-11-01

    A pretreatment protocol for improvement in the performance of Prototech's zinc electrowinning cell with purification of the Zn SO4 feed solution, was developed. Measurable improvements in cell voltage and current efficiency, and a reduction in energy consumption was obtained. The anode operating potential determination together with the overall (anode-to-cathode) cell potential, evaluate cell performance with alternative platinum catalysts, porous supports and current collectors. Life tests were carried out with a number of types with various loadings of platinum and with a standard loading of palladium. Testing with anodes with all levels of platinum loading demonstrated sustained energy efficient performance. Hydrogen gas feed and liquid recirculation with depth were adjusted. The additives used to pretreat the feed were modified. A depth cell was tested at depths of 1, 2, and 3 feet. Increase in cell voltage with increased cell size was largely offset by replacement of the edge wise graphite current collector with a porous metallic current collector, as well as by improved contact between electrode and current collector.

  6. Improved electrochemical performance of the Cr doped cathode materials for energy storage/conversion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeeta, Agnihotri, Shruti; Arya, Anil; Sharma, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    Successful synthesis of a nanostructured Cr-doped LiFePO4 cathode material has been prepared by a sol-gel technique followed by a single step thermal treatment at 750° C for 12 hours. As olivine type LiFePO4 has already gained much attention due to its advantages over other cathode materials, doping of metal ion is done in the paper to improve its drawback of lower conductivity. FESEM couples with EDX were done to characterize the morphology and particle size of the materials. LiFe(1-x)CrxPO4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3) materials have average particle size of 30 to 50 nm. EDX analysis confirmed the precursor used and also confirmed the presence of carbon which is in good agreement with chemical analysis result. Electrical conductivity of the prepared cathode materials is estimated of the order of 10-5 Scm-1 by AC impedance analysis. The energy density and power density of the cathode materials is improved drastically after addition of Cr as dopant. The estimated parameters appear at desirable value for use of materials as cathode in energy storage/conversion devices.

  7. Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Donghai; Kou, Rong; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Nie, Zimin; Li, Juan; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Pope, Michael A.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2010-02-25

    Surfactant or polymer directed self-assembly has been widely investigated to prepare nanostructured metal oxides, semiconductors and polymers, but this approach is mostly limited to two-phase materials, organic/inorganic hybrids, and nanoparticle or polymer-based nanocomposites. Self-assembled nanostructures from more complex, multiscale and multiphase building blocks have been explored with limited success. Here, we demonstrate a ternary self-assembly approach using graphene as fundamental building blocks to construct metal oxide-graphene nanocomposites. A new class of layered nanocomposites is formed containing stable, ordered alternating layers of nanocrystalline metal oxides with graphene/graphene stacks. Alternatively, the graphene material can be incorporated into liquid-crystal-templated nanoporous structures to form high surface area, conductive networks. The self-assembly method can be also used to fabricate free standing, flexible metal oxide-graphene nanocomposite films and electrodes. We investigate the Li-ion insertion properties of the self-assembled electrodes for energy storage and show that the SnO2-graphene nanocomposite films can achieve near theoretical specific energy density without a significant charge/discharge degradation.

  8. Electrochemical Fabrication of Monolithic Electrodes with Core/Shell Sandwiched Transition Metal Oxide/Oxyhydroxide for High-Performance Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shaozhong; Pu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Du, Hongxiu; Zhou, Qingwen; Liu, Ziqiang; Zhu, Chao; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Huigang

    2016-10-05

    Transition metal oxides/oxyhydroxides (TMOs) are promising high-capacity materials for electrochemical energy storage. However, the low rate and poor cyclability hinder practical applications. In this work, we developed a general electrochemical route to fabricate monolithic core/shell sandwiched structures, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical properties of TMO electrodes by electrically wiring the insulating active materials and alleviating the adverse effects caused by volume changes using engineered porous structures. As an example, a lithium ion battery anode of porous MnO sandwiched between CNT and carbon demonstrates a high capacity of 554 mAh g(-1) even after 1000 cycles at 2 A g(-1). An all-solid-state symmetric pseudocapacitor consisting of CNT@MnOOH@polypyrrole exhibits a high specific capacitance of 148 F g(-1) and excellent capacitance retention (92% after 10000 cycles at 2 A g(-1)). Several other examples and applications have further confirmed the effectiveness of improving the electrochemical properties by core/shell sandwiched structures.

  9. Recent advances in metal hydrides for clean energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2013-06-01

    Metal hydrides are a fascinating class of materials that can be utilized for a surprising variety of clean energy applications, including smart solar collectors, smart windows, sensors, thermal energy storage, and batteries, in addition to their traditional application for hydrogen storage. Over the past decade, research on metal hydrides for hydrogen storage increased due to global governmental incentives and an increased focus on hydrogen storage research for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operation. Tremendous progress has been made in so-called complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications with the discovery of many new hydrides containing covalently bound complex anions. Many of these materials have applications beyond hydrogen storage and are being investigated for lithium-ion battery separator and anode materials. In this issue of MRS Bulletin , we present the state of the art of key evolving metal-hydride-based clean energy technologies with an outlook toward future needs.

  10. Advanced Energy-Efficient Filtration: Fan Filter Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this project is to provide assistance in development of a standard test procedure for fan-filter units, which are gaining popularity for use in California cleanrooms. In particular, LBNL carried out collaboration with various stakeholders in the industry and took a lead in developing a draft standard method for testing the energy performance of fan-filter units, and provided assistance to California public utility companies by testing the draft method in PG&E's testing facility. Through testing more units in the future with a robust standard method, baseline performance information can be developed for use in possible energy incentive programs.

  11. Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

    2011-06-30

    The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

  12. Au-embedded ZnO/NiO hybrid with excellent electrochemical performance as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yihui; Bai, Zhiming; Zhang, Guangjie; Shen, Yanwei; Liang, Qijie; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-04

    Here we design a nanostructure by embedding Au nanoparticles into ZnO/NiO core-shell composites as supercapacitors electrodes materials. This optimized hybrid electrodes exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance including a long-term cycling stability and a maximum specific areal capacitance of 4.1 F/cm(2) at a current density of 5 mA/cm(2), which is much higher than that of ZnO/NiO hierarchical materials (0.5 F/cm(2)). Such an enhanced property is attributed to the increased electro-electrolyte interfaces, short electron diffusion pathways and good electrical conductivity. Apart from this, electrons can be temporarily trapped and accumulated at the Fermi level (EF') because of the localized schottky barrier at Au/NiO interface in charge process until fill the gap between ZnO and NiO, so that additional electrons can be released during discharge. These results demonstrate that suitable interface engineering may open up new opportunities in the development of high-performance supercapacitors.

  13. EC-LEDS Mexico: Advancing Clean Energy Goals

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-01

    EC-LEDS works with the government of Mexico to help meet its goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. The program targets specific, highly technical areas where Mexico has indicated the program can add value and make an impact.

  14. Grid Integration Studies: Advancing Clean Energy Planning and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya

    2016-07-01

    Integrating significant variable renewable energy (VRE) into the grid requires an evolution in power system planning and operation. To plan for this evolution, power system stakeholders can undertake grid integration studies. This Greening the Grid document reviews grid integration studies, common elements, questions, and guidance for system planners.

  15. Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

  16. Advanced Nano-Composites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to increase energy efficiency and operating lifetime of wear-intensive industrial components and systems by developing and commercializing a family of ceramic-based monolithic composites that have shown remarkable resistance to wear in laboratory tests.

  17. Electrochemical Sensors for Clinic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jianming; Li, Guang

    2008-01-01

    Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future. PMID:27879810

  18. The electrochemical fluorination of polymeric materials for high energy density aqueous and non-aqueous battery and fuel cell separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized system was established and the electrochemical fluorination of trichloroethylene, polyacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride was attempted. Both solid substrates as well as membranes were used. Some difficulties were found in handling and analyzing the solid substrates and membranes. Further studies are needed in this area. A microprocessor aided electrochemical fluorination system capable of obtaining highly reproducible experimental results was established.

  19. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Advanced Solar Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This instructional unit consists of materials designed to help students understand terms associated with solar energy; identify components of advanced solar systems; and identify applications of solar energy in business, industry, agriculture, and photovoltaics. Included in the unit are the following materials: suggested activities, instructional…

  20. ADVANCED ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE: AN ANALYSIS USING THE GLOBAL CHANGE ASSESSMENT MODEL (GCAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J. A.; Wise, M. A.; MacCracken, C. N.

    1994-05-01

    We report results from a "top down" energy-economy model employing "bottom up" assumptions embedded in an integrated assessment framework, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The analys~s shows that from the perspective of long-term energy system development, differences. in results from the "top down" and "bottom up" research communities would appear to be more closely linked to differences in assumptions regarding the economic cost associated with advanced technologies than to differences In modeling approach. The adoption of assumptions regarding advanced energy technologies were shown to have a profound effect on the future rate of anthropogenic climate change. The cumulative effect of the five sets of advanced energy technologies is to reduce annual emissions from fossil fuel use to levels which stabilize atmospheric concentrations below 550 ppmv, the point at which atmospheric concentrations are double those that existed in the m~ddleo f the eighteenth century. While all energy technologies play roles in reducing future fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, the introduction of advanced biomass energy production technology plays a particularly important role. If biomass energy can be made available at $2.40/GJ or less in quantities sufficient to make it the core energy supply technology in the middle of the next century, then emissions can be cut dramatically relative to the reference case. The problem of emiss~ons reduction becomes one of technology development and deployment in this case, and not one of fiscal and regulatory intervention.

  1. Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System: Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Food Waste from Residential & Food Service Digestion Fats, Oil, and Grease...FOG) from Food Service Anaerobic Methane Wastewater Treatment Bi lid Digestion Fuel Cells oso s Think Holistically! Your Take Away Points...Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells

  2. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review ofAdvanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and InformationSystems

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2003-08-01

    In this article, the fourth in a series, we provide a review of advanced applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the Federal sector. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second article [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. The third article [3] evaluated several products that exemplify the current state of practice in EMCIS. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of articles provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

  3. Materials implications of advanced thermal and kinetic energy threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitpatrick, R.; Mescall, J.

    1983-05-01

    The behavior of materials subjected to laser radiation rather than issues of target acquisition, pointing and tracking, fire control, and damage recognition are discussed. These target acquisition and fire control requirements represents extremely difficult technological problems that must be solved if the Laser is ever to be used as a weapon against hard targets. Questions that must be resolved are outlined as follows: Can laser beams be propagated over large distances along predictable paths? Can available active and passive countermeasures be overcome? Is there a place for large scale, high power, high value directed energy weapons on the battlefield? While these questions are being addressed, the Army materials community is developing a data base on materials and structures vulnerability. This data base will not only serve the hardening community, which has the task of offering protection against directed energy, but also will help the weapon developers determine the effectiveness of their systems.

  4. River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials (River DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Daniel P.

    2013-07-03

    The purpose of this project is to develop a generator called a Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED). It uses a galloping prism to convert water flow into linear motion. This motion is converted into electricity via a dielectric elastomer generator (DEG). The galloping mechanism and the DEG are combined to create a system to effectively generate electricity. This project has three research objectives: 1. Oscillator development and design a. Characterize galloping behavior, evaluate control surface shape change on oscillator performance and demonstrate shape change with water flow change. 2. Dielectric Energy Generator (DEG) characterization and modeling a. Characterize and model the performance of the DEG based on oscillator design 3. Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED) system modeling and integration a. Create numerical models for construction of a system performance model and define operating capabilities for this approach Accomplishing these three objectives will result in the creation of a model that can be used to fully define the operating parameters and performance capabilities of a generator based on the GHEED design. This information will be used in the next phase of product development, the creation of an integrated laboratory scale generator to confirm model predictions.

  5. Advances in low energy neutral atom imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Moore, K.R. ); Gruntman, M. . Space Sciences Center)

    1993-01-01

    Recently proposed low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging techniques use a collisional process to convert the low energy neutrals into ions before detection. At low energies, collisional processes limit the angular resolution and conversion efficiencies of these devices. However, if the intense ultraviolet light background can be suppressed, direct LENA detection is possible. We present results from a series of experiments designed to develop a novel filtering structure based on free-standing transmission gratings. If the grating period is sufficiently small, free standing transmission gratings can be employed to substantially polarize ultraviolet (UV) light in the wavelength range 300 [Angstrom] to 1500 [Angstrom]. If a second grating is placed behind the first grating with its axis of polarization oriented at a right angle to the first's, a substantial attenuation of UV radiation is achievable. ne neutrals will pass through the remaining open area of two gratings and be detected without UV background complications. We have obtained nominal 2000 [Angstrom] period (1000 [Angstrom] bars with 1000 [Angstrom] slits) free standing, gold transmission gratings and measured their UV and atomic transmission characteristics. The geometric factor of a LENA imager based on this technology is comparable to that of other proposed LENA imagers. In addition, this of imager does not distort the neutral trajectories, allowing for high angular resolution.

  6. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  7. Degradation of the insecticide propoxur by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using a boron-doped diamond/air-diffusion cell.

    PubMed

    Guelfi, Diego Roberto Vieira; Gozzi, Fábio; Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Machulek, Amílcar; de Oliveira, Silvio César

    2016-03-17

    A solution with 0.38 mM of the pesticide propoxur (PX) at pH 3.0 has been comparatively treated by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). The trials were carried out with a 100-mL boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion cell. The EO-H2O2 process had the lowest oxidation ability due to the slow reaction of intermediates with (•)OH produced from water discharge at the BDD anode. The EF treatment yielded quicker mineralization due to the additional (•)OH formed between added Fe(2+) and electrogenerated H2O2. The PEF process was the most powerful since it led to total mineralization by the combined oxidative action of hydroxyl radicals and UVA irradiation. The PX decay agreed with a pseudo-first-order kinetics in EO-H2O2, whereas in EF and PEF, it obeyed a much faster pseudo-first-order kinetics followed by a much slower one, which are related to the oxidation of its Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes, respectively. EO-H2O2 showed similar oxidation ability within the pH range 3.0-9.0. The effect of current density and Fe(2+) and substrate contents on the performance of the EF process was examined. Two primary aromatic products were identified by LC-MS during PX degradation.

  8. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  9. No Photon Left Behind: Advanced Optics at ARPA-E for Buildings and Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branz, Howard M.

    2015-04-01

    Key technology challenges in building efficiency and solar energy utilization require transformational optics, plasmonics and photonics technologies. We describe advanced optical technologies funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy. Buildings technologies include a passive daytime photonic cooler, infra-red computer vision mapping for energy audit, and dual-band electrochromic windows based on plasmonic absorption. Solar technologies include novel hybrid energy converters that combine high-efficiency photovoltaics with concentrating solar thermal collection and storage. Because the marginal cost of thermal energy storage is low, these systems enable generation of inexpensive and dispatchable solar energy that can be deployed when the sun doesn't shine. The solar technologies under development include nanoparticle plasmonic spectrum splitting, Rugate filter interference structures and photovoltaic cells that can operate efficiently at over 400° C.

  10. Advanced Nanostructured Molecular Sieves for Energy Efficient Industrial Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Kunhao Li, Michael Beaver

    2012-01-18

    Due to the very small relative volatility difference between propane and propylene, current propane/propylene separation by distillation requires very tall distillation towers (150-250 theoretical plates) and large reflux ratios (up to 15), which is considered to be the most energy consuming large-scale separation process. Adsorptive separation processes are widely considered to be more energy-efficient alternatives to distillation. However, slow diffusion kinetics/mass transport rate through the adsorbent bed often limits the performance of such processes, so further improvements are possible if intra-particle mass transfer rates can be improved. Rive Technology, Inc. is developing and commercializing its proprietary mesoporous zeolite technology for catalysis and separation. With well-controlled intracrystalline mesoporosity, diffusion kinetics through such mesoporous zeolite based catalysts is much improved relative to conventional zeolites, leading to significantly better product selectivity. This 'proof-of-principle' project (DE-EE0003470) is intended to demonstrate that Rive mesoporous zeolite technology can be extended and applied in adsorptive propane/propylene separation and lead to significant energy saving compared to the current distillation process. In this project, the mesoporous zeolite Y synthesis technology was successfully extended to X and A zeolites that are more relevant to adsorbent applications. Mesoporosity was introduced to zeolite X and A for the first time while maintaining adequate adsorption capacity. Zeolite adsorbents were tested for liquid phase separation performance using a pulse flow test unit and the test results show that the separation selectivity of the mesoporous zeolite adsorbent is much closer to optimal for a Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) separation process and the enhanced mesoporosity lead to >100% increase of overall mass transport rate for propane and propylene. These improvements will significantly improve the

  11. A new monitoring method for electrochemical aggregates by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, P.; Fischle, H.-J.

    A variant of ac impedance spectroscopy is applied to monitor and control electrochemical cells and appliances without need for reference values and knowledge of control points in advance. Electrolyzers, fuels cells, energy stores, sensors and electrochemical reactors are steered to an optimum operating state by continuous evaluation of capacitance and the derivatives thereof. Dry and humid electrode-electrolyte interfaces are distinguished with the aid of the low-frequency impedance. The problem is solved in order to determine electrolyte concentrations unambiguously from electrolyte resistance, although the conductivity of the solution has a maximum and changes nonlinearly with the concentration.

  12. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  13. Advanced Modeling of Renewable Energy Market Dynamics: May 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Little, R.; Lloyd, K.; Malikov, G.; Passolt, G.; Arent, D.; Swezey, B.; Mosey, G.

    2007-08-01

    This report documents a year-long academic project, presenting selected techniques for analysis of market growth, penetration, and forecasting applicable to renewable energy technologies. Existing mathematical models were modified to incorporate the effects of fiscal policies and were evaluated using available data. The modifications were made based on research and classification of current mathematical models used for predicting market penetration. An analysis of the results was carried out, based on available data. MATLAB versions of existing and new models were developed for research and policy analysis.

  14. Advanced materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Vandersande, Jan W.; Wood, Charles

    1992-01-01

    A number of refractory semiconductors are under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for application in thermal to electric energy conversion for space power. The main thrust of the program is to improve or develop materials of high figure of merit and, therefore, high conversion efficiencies over a broad temperature range. Materials currently under investigation are represented by silicon-germanium alloys, lanthanum telluride, and boron carbide. The thermoelectric properties of each of these materials, and prospects for their further improvements, are discussed. Continued progress in thermoelectric materials technology can be expected to yield reliable space power systems with double to triple the efficiency of current state of the art systems.

  15. USAF Advanced Terrestrial Energy Study. Volume 2. Technology Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    system is sized to produce 24 kWhr per day.) - Daily insolation in the plane of the photovoltaic collector is 1204 Rtu /ft2 day for flat-plate systems...which is measured in Rtu per hour. * Photovoltaics and Wind Turbines. These systems have zero fuel consumption. * Electricity Required for Charging...PRICE AND ENERGY CONTENT Fuel Price, 1QRf Dollars/Million Btu Fnergv Content, Fitel 19Q0 IQR9 1QO 2000 Rtu /TT.S. rallon JP-4 8.55 8.92 8.82 R.82

  16. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  17. Vertically oriented arrays of ReS2 nanosheets for electrochemical energy storage and electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jian; Li, Lu; Tan, Jiawei; Sun, Hao; Li, Baichang; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Singh, Chandra Veer; Lu, Toh -Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2016-05-17

    Here, transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanolayers show potential as high-performance catalysts in energy conversion and storage devices. Synthetic TMDs produced by chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) methods tend to grow parallel to the growth substrate. Here, we show that with the right precursors and appropriate tuning of the CVD growth conditions, ReS2 nanosheets can be made to orient perpendicular to the growth substrate. This accomplishes two important objectives; first, it drastically increases the wetted or exposed surface area of the ReS2 sheets, and second, it exposes the sharp edges and corners of the ReS2 sheets. We show that these structural features of the vertically grown ReS2 sheets can be exploited to significantly improve their performance as polysulfide immobilizers and electrochemical catalysts in lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries and in hydrogen evolution reactions (HER). After 300 cycles, the specific capacity of the Li–S battery with vertical ReS2 catalyst is retained above 750 mA h g–1, with only ~0.063% capacity decay per cycle, much better than the baseline battery (without ReS2), which shows ~0.184% capacity decay per cycle under the same test conditions. As a HER catalyst, the vertical ReS2 provides very small onset overpotential (<100 mV) and an exceptional exchange-current density (~67.6 μA/cm2), which is vastly superior to the baseline electrode without ReS2.

  18. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Eric; Leach, Matt; Pless, Shanti

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Facile synthesis of urchin-like NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres with enhanced electrochemical properties in energy and environmentally related applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Yao, Xian-Zhi; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2014-03-12

    A facile synthesis of novel urchin-like NiCo2O4 hierarchical hollow microspheres has been developed based on a template-free solvothermal and subsequent calcination method. The growth process of NiCo2O4 hollow microsphere precursors has been investigated, and a plausible mechanism was proposed. Because of their unique structure and high specific surface area, these NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres displayed enhanced electrochemical properties in methanol electrooxidation and determination of heavy-metal ions compared with solid urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres, Co3O4, and NiO microspheres. The good electrochemical performances suggested that these unique hierarchical NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres could be promising materials for energy and environmentally related applications.