Science.gov

Sample records for advanced electronic packaging

  1. The Assurance Challenges of Advanced Packaging Technologies for Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microelectronic parts performance are driving towards finer feature sizes, three-dimensional geometries and ever-increasing number of transistor equivalents that are resulting in increased die sizes and interconnection (I/O) counts. The resultant packaging necessary to provide assemble-ability, environmental protection, testability and interconnection to the circuit board for the active die creates major challenges, particularly for space applications, Traditionally, NASA has used hermetically packaged microcircuits whenever available but the new demands make hermetic packaging less and less practical at the same time as more and more expensive, Some part types of great interest to NASA designers are currently only available in non-hermetic packaging. It is a far more complex quality and reliability assurance challenge to gain confidence in the long-term survivability and effectiveness of nonhermetic packages than for hermetic ones. Although they may provide more rugged environmental protection than the familiar Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs), the non-hermetic Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) packages that are the focus of this presentation present a unique combination of challenges to assessing their suitability for spaceflight use. The presentation will discuss the bases for these challenges, some examples of the techniques proposed to mitigate them and a proposed approach to a US MIL specification Class for non-hermetic microcircuits suitable for space application, Class Y, to be incorporated into M. IL-PRF-38535. It has recently emerged that some major packaging suppliers are offering hermetic area array packages that may offer alternatives to the nonhermetic CCGA styles but have also got their own inspectability and testability issues which will be briefly discussed in the presentation,

  2. Advanced image processing package for FPGA-based re-programmable miniature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovod, Vladimir I.; Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.

    2005-05-01

    Nova Sensors produces miniature electronics for a variety of real-time digital video camera systems, including foveal sensors based on Nova's Variable Acuity Superpixel Imager (VASITM) technology. An advanced image-processing package has been designed at Nova Sensors to re-configure the FPGA-based co-processor board for numerous applications including motion detection, optical, background velocimetry and target tracking. Currently, the processing package consists of 14 processing operations that cover a broad range of point- and area-applied algorithms. Flexible FPGA designs of these operations and re-programmability of the processing board allows for easy updates of the VASITM sensors, and for low-cost customization of VASITM sensors taking into account specific customer requirements. This paper describes the image processing algorithms implemented and verified in Xilinx FPGAs and provides the major technical performances with figures illustrating practical applications of the processing package.

  3. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  4. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  5. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  6. Modular electronics packaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

  7. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  8. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  9. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayali, Sammy

    2000-01-01

    NEPP program objectives are to: (1) Access the reliability of newly available electronic parts and packaging technologies for usage on NASA projects through validations, assessments, and characterizations, and the development of test methods/tools; (2)Expedite infusion paths for advanced (emerging) electronic parts and packaging technologies by evaluations of readiness for manufacturability and project usage consideration; (3) Provide NASA projects with technology selection, application, and validation guidelines for electronic parts and packaging hardware and processes; nd (4) Retain and disseminate electronic parts and packaging quality assurance, reliability validations, tools, and availability information to the NASA community.

  10. Reliability Assessment of Advanced Flip-clip Interconnect Electronic Package Assemblies under Extreme Cold Temperatures (-190 and -120 C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Shapiro, Andrew; Napala, Phil A.; Martin, Patrick A.

    2005-01-01

    Flip-chip interconnect electronic package boards have been assembled, underfilled, non-destructively evaluated and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess the reliability of this advanced packaging interconnect technology for future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature missions. In this very preliminary study, the employed temperature range covers military specifications (-55 C to 100 C), extreme cold Martian (-120 C to 115 C) and asteroid Nereus (-180 C to 25 C) environments. The resistance of daisy-chained, flip-chip interconnects were measured at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements are reported and the tests to date have not shown significant change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work has been carried out to understand the reliability of flip-chip interconnect packages under extreme temperature applications (-190 C to 85 C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance. Adaptation of suitable diagnostic techniques to identify the failure mechanisms is in progress. This presentation will describe the experimental test results of flip-chip testing under extreme temperatures.

  11. Advances in electronic packaging technologies by ultra-small microvias, super-fine interconnections and low loss polymer dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Venkatesh

    The fundamental motivation for this dissertation is to address the widening interconnect gap between integrated circuit (IC) demands and package substrates specifically for high frequency digital-RF systems applications. Moore's law for CMOS ICs predicts that transistor density on ICs will double approximately every 18 months. Packaging of ICs at the 32nm and 22nm nodes in the next few years will require 20mum (peripheral) and 80mum (area array) I/O pad pitch on the IC, which must be matched by flip-chip interconnection and substrate wiring pad pitch of the same 20-80mum dimension. System on a Package (SOP) technology pioneered by Georgia Tech PRC enables future "mega-function" electronic and bio-electronic systems through ultra-thin film component integration from the current 50/cm2 to over 10000/cm2. This puts added wiring density and performance demands on the substrate. The other driving force in this thesis research is the increasing adoption of high frequency wireless and wired communication pushing the need for package substrate materials that are stable into multiple GHz frequencies. The current state-of-the-art in IC package substrates is at 20mum lines/spaces and 50-60mum microvia diameter using epoxy dielectrics with loss tangent above 0.01. The research targets are to overcome the barriers of current technologies and demonstrate a set of advanced materials and process technologies capable of 5-10mum lines and spaces, and 10-30mum diameter microvias in a multilayer 3-D wiring substrate using 10-25mum thin film dielectrics with loss tangent in the <0.005. The research elements are organized as follows with a clear focus on understanding and characterization of fundamental materials structure-processing-property relationships and interfaces to achieve the next generation targets: (1) Low CTE Core Substrate. (2) Low Loss Dielectrics with 25mum and smaller microvias. (3) Sub-10mum Width Cu Conductors. (4) Integration of the various dielectric and conductor

  12. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  13. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  14. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  15. Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyke, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

  16. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  17. (abstract) Electronic Packaging for Microspacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasler, David

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this presentation is to give a brief look into the future of electronic packaging for microspacecraft applications. Advancements in electronic packaging technology areas have developed to the point where a system engineer's visions, concepts, and requirements for a microspacecraft can now be a reality. These new developments are ideal candidates for microspacecraft applications. These technologies are capable of bringing about major changes in how we design future spacecraft while taking advantage of the benefits due to size, weight, power, performance, reliability , and cost. This presentation will also cover some advantages and limitations of surface mount technology (SMT), multichip modules (MCM), and wafer scale integration (WSI), and what is needed to implement these technologies into microspacecraft.

  18. ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

    The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of…

  19. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  20. Electronic Spreadsheet Packages for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Larry M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes capabilities and advantages of spreadsheet software, including its ability to perform "what-if" analysis quickly and easily. Also noted are additional advantages; applications, including use in the library environment; history and development; new-generation spreadsheets; and enhanced packaging in the near future. A spreadsheet software…

  1. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  2. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  3. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  4. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission needs. The NEPP Program focuses on the reliability aspects of electronic devices. Three principal aspects to this reliability: (1) lifetime, (2) effects of space radiation and the space environment, and (3) creation and maintenance of the assurance support infrastructure required for success.

  5. Application of silicon piezoresistive stress test chips in electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yida

    In this work, both special (100) and (111) silicon test chips containing an array of optimized piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been successfully applied within several electronic packaging configurations. Unlike (100) silicon test chips, (111) silicon test chips are able to measure the complete stress state on the die surface. After calibration and characterization of the test chips, they were packaged into various assemblies. The post packaging resistances of the sensors were then recorded at room temperature, as a function of temperature excursion, and during long term packaging reliability qualification tests (thermal cycling and thermal aging). The stresses on the die surface were calculated using the measured resistance changes and the appropriate theoretical equations. For comparison purposes, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the packaging processes were also performed, and the stress predictions were correlated with the experimental test chip data. AAA2 (100) silicon test chips containing optimized four element dual polarity rosettes have been applied within 44 pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) packages and 240 pin Quad Flat Packs (QFP's). In these plastic package experiments, comparison of the stress levels induced by various molding compounds was emphasized. Advanced (111) silicon test chips (BMW-1 or BMW-2) comprising an array of optimized eight-element dual polarity piezoresistive sensor rosettes were encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's, 160 pin QFP's, Chip on Board (COB) packages, and 281 pin ceramic Pin Grid Array (PGA) packages. In addition to molding compound evaluations, BMW-1 test chips encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's were used to detect the presence of delaminations between the die surface and the encapsulant. In the wire bonded COB package studies, die surface stress evaluations were conducted after die attachment, and throughout the cure cycle of the liquid encapsulant. The stresses were also studied as a

  6. HALT to qualify electronic packages: a proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2014-03-01

    A proof of concept of the Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) technique was explored to assess and optimize electronic packaging designs for long duration deep space missions in a wide temperature range (-150°C to +125°C). HALT is a custom hybrid package suite of testing techniques using environments such as extreme temperatures and dynamic shock step processing from 0g up to 50g of acceleration. HALT testing used in this study implemented repetitive shock on the test vehicle components at various temperatures to precipitate workmanship and/or manufacturing defects to show the weak links of the designs. The purpose is to reduce the product development cycle time for improvements to the packaging design qualification. A test article was built using advanced electronic package designs and surface mount technology processes, which are considered useful for a variety of JPL and NASA projects, i.e. (surface mount packages such as ball grid arrays (BGA), plastic ball grid arrays (PBGA), very thin chip array ball grid array (CVBGA), quad flat-pack (QFP), micro-lead-frame (MLF) packages, several passive components, etc.). These packages were daisy-chained and independently monitored during the HALT test. The HALT technique was then implemented to predict reliability and assess survivability of these advanced packaging techniques for long duration deep space missions in much shorter test durations. Test articles were built using advanced electronic package designs that are considered useful in various NASA projects. All the advanced electronic packages were daisychained independently to monitor the continuity of the individual electronic packages. Continuity of the daisy chain packages was monitored during the HALT testing using a data logging system. We were able to test the boards up to 40g to 50g shock levels at temperatures ranging from +125°C to -150°C. The HALT system can deliver 50g shock levels at room temperature. Several tests were performed by subjecting

  7. Skylab electronic technological advancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornback, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The present work describes three electronic devices designed for use in the Skylab airlock module: the teleprinter system, the quartz crystal microbalance contamination monitor (QCM), and the speaker. Design considerations, operation, characteristics, and system development are described for these systems, with accompanying diagrams, graphs, and photographs. The teleprinter is a thermal dot printer used to produce hard copy messages by electrically heating print elements in contact with heat-sensitive paper. The QCM was designed to estimate contamination buildup on optical surfaces of the earth resources experiment package. A vibrating quartz crystal is used as a microbalance relating deposited mass to shifts in the crystal's resonant frequency. Audio devices provide communication between crew members and between crew and STDN, and also provide audible alarms, via the caution and warning system, of out-of-limit-conditions.

  8. A Review of Failure Analysis Methods for Advanced 3D Microelectronic Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Srinath, Purushotham Kaushik Muthur; Goyal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Advanced three dimensional (3D) packaging is a key enabler in driving form factor reduction, performance benefits, and package cost reduction, especially in the fast paced mobility and ultraportable consumer electronics segments. The high level of functional integration and the complex package architecture pose a significant challenge for conventional fault isolation (FI) and failure analysis (FA) methods. Innovative FI/FA tools and techniques are required to tackle the technical and throughput challenges. In this paper, the applications of FI and FA techniques such as Electro Optic Terahertz Pulse Reflectometry, 3D x-ray computed tomography, lock-in thermography, and novel physical sample preparation methods to 3D packages with package on package and stacked die with through silicon via configurations are reviewed, along with the key FI and FA challenges.

  9. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS) electronic packaging and cabling development summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawe, R. H.; Arnett, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Electronic packaging and cabling activities performed in support of the Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS) Advanced Systems Technology (AST) project are detailed. It describes new electronic compartment, electronic assembly, and module concepts, and a new high-density, planar interconnection technique called discrete multilayer (DML). Development and qualification of high density cabling techniques, using small gage wire and microminiature connectors, are also reported.

  10. Advanced packaging technology for high frequency photonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    An advanced packaging concept has been developed for optical devices. This concept allows multiple fibers to be coupled to photonic integrated circuits, with no fiber penetration of the package walls. The principles used to accomplish this concept involves a second-order grating to couple light in or out of the photonic circuit, and a binary optic lens which receives this light and focuses it into a single-mode optical fiber. Design, fabrication and electrical/optical measurements of this packaging concept are described.

  11. CAD/CAM in packaging aerospace electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargione, F.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that hard-wired, welded circuits hold an important place in aerospace systems because they allow short production runs to be prepared quickly. However, the electronic system designs are very complicated and demanding to work on manually. The article describes a design process which saves time and effort without reducing the designer's freedom. It is shown that the CAD/CAM equipment produces all the drawings and extracts from the data needed to generate NC tapes for drilling and welding boards. In addition, it produces the artwork for etching the boards. Discussion covers the advance the system represents in cost effectiveness, versatility, and reliability.

  12. Reliability of high I/O high density CCGA interconnect electronic packages under extreme thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-03-01

    Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surfacemount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions.

  13. Fluxless laser soldering for electronic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Conventional soldering typically requires the use of reactive fluxes to promote wetting. The resulting flux residues are removed primarily with halogenated or chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. With the mandated phaseout of CFCs by the year 2000, there has been a concentrated effort to develop alternative, environmentally compatible manufacturing and cleaning technologies that will satisfy the restrictions placed on CFCs, but still yield high quality product. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating a variety of alternative fluxless soldering technologies which can be applied to electronic packaging. Laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere has shown great potential as an environmentally compatible process. The effects of laser heating with a 100 watt CW Nd:YAG laser, joint design, and base/filler metal reactions on achieving fluxless wetting with good metallurgical bonds were examined. Satisfactory Ni-Au plated Kovar{reg_sign} solder joints were made with 80In-15Pb-5Ag and 63Sn-37Pb (wt. %) solder alloys in a slightly reducing cover gas. Wetting generally increased with increasing laser power, decreasing laser beam spot size, and decreasing part travel speed. The materials and processing interaction effects are identified and discussed.

  14. Fluxless laser soldering for electronic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F M; Keicher, D M

    1991-01-01

    Conventional soldering typically requires the use of reactive fluxes to promote wetting. The resulting flux residues are removed primarily with halogenated or chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. With the mandated phaseout of CFCs by the year 2000, there has been a concentrated effort to develop alternative, environmentally compatible manufacturing and cleaning technologies that will satisfy the restrictions placed on CFCs, but still yield high quality product. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating a variety of alternative fluxless soldering technologies which can be applied to electronic packaging. Laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere has shown great potential as an environmentally compatible process. The effects of laser heating with a 100 watt CW Nd:YAG laser, joint design, and base/filler metal reactions on achieving fluxless wetting with good metallurgical bonds were examined. Satisfactory Ni-Au plated Kovar{reg sign} solder joints were made with 80In-15Pb-5Ag and 63Sn-37Pb (wt. %) solder alloys in a slightly reducing cover gas. Wetting generally increased with increasing laser power, decreasing laser beam spot size, and decreasing part travel speed. The materials and processing interaction effects are identified and discussed.

  15. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  16. Packaging films for electronic and space-related hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, E. M.; Hamberg, O.

    1985-08-01

    Flexible packaging films are used to bag and/or wrap precision cleaned electronic or space hardware to protect them from environmental degradation during shipping and storage. Selection of packaging films depends on a knowledge of product requirements and packaging film characteristics. The literature presently available on protective packaging films has been updated to include new materials and to amplify space-related applications. Presently available packaging film materials are compared for their various characteristics: electrostatic discharge (ESD) control, flame retardancy, water vapor transmission rate, particulate shedding, molecular contamination, and transparency. The tradeoff between product requirements and the characteristics of the packaging films available are discussed. Selection considerations are given for the application of specific materials of space hardware-related applications. Applications for intimate, environmental, and electrostatic protective packaging are discussed.

  17. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  18. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  19. Alumina Based 500 C Electronic Packaging Systems and Future Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2012-01-01

    NASA space and aeronautical missions for probing the inner solar planets as well as for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines require high-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics. A 96% aluminum oxide and Au thick-film metallization based packaging system including chip-level packages, printed circuit board, and edge-connector is in development for high temperature SiC electronics. An electronic packaging system based on this material system was successfully tested and demonstrated with SiC electronics at 500 C for over 10,000 hours in laboratory conditions previously. In addition to the tests in laboratory environments, this packaging system has more recently been tested with a SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) on low earth orbit through the NASA Materials on the International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE7). A SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE7 suite to International Space Station via a Shuttle mission and tested on the orbit for eighteen months. A summary of results of tests in both laboratory and space environments will be presented. The future development of alumina based high temperature packaging using co-fired material systems for improved performance at high temperature and more feasible mass production will also be discussed.

  20. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500 C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550 C. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500 C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500 C are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  1. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  2. JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (Editor); Gamota, George

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

  3. The 1984 IR and D (Independent Research and Development) advanced packaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clatterbaugh, G. V.; Charles, H. C., Jr.

    1986-06-01

    An advanced multiyear electronic packaging project has been started. The project is a comprehensive interactive one involving theory, modeling, structure fabrication, and reliability testing. Highlights of the first year's activities are presented in this report. Important results include: the creation of integrated thermal and thermomechanical models, the prediction of lifetimes under environmental and operational stress conditions, model verification and validation by carefully controlled experimentation, development of assembly techniques, and the invention of a new method for preparing controlled solder joint height and geometry.

  4. Laser-based sample preparation for electronic package failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Brandon M.; Mathews, Scott A.; Duignan, Michael T.; Skoglund, Lars D.; Wang, Zhiyong; Dias, Rajen C.

    2002-06-01

    Failure analysis has come to play a key role in ensuring quality and reliability in semiconductor devices, associated packaging and printed wiring boards. Tools are increasingly available to those investigating high-density integrated circuits at the die level, particularly for edit and repair operations. Until recently however, this capability has been limited by the inherent low-resolution mechanical/manual processes used for destructive analysis on electronics packaging. A laser-based tool has been developed to selectively and locally enable access to traces and layers within packages and provide a way to perform edits to an area of interest.

  5. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  6. Advanced functional network analysis in the geosciences: The pyunicorn package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Runge, Jakob; Schultz, Hanna C. H.; Wiedermann, Marc; Zech, Alraune; Feldhoff, Jan; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Kutza, Hannes; Radebach, Alexander; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Functional networks are a powerful tool for analyzing large geoscientific datasets such as global fields of climate time series originating from observations or model simulations. pyunicorn (pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) is an open-source, fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for constructing functional networks (aka climate networks) representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large datasets and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures for networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn allows to study the complex dynamics of geoscientific systems as recorded by time series by means of recurrence networks and visibility graphs. The range of possible applications of the package is outlined drawing on several examples from climatology.

  7. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  8. Advances in methods and algorithms in a modern quantum chemistry program package.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yihan; Molnar, Laszlo Fusti; Jung, Yousung; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Brown, Shawn T; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Levchenko, Sergey V; O'Neill, Darragh P; DiStasio, Robert A; Lochan, Rohini C; Wang, Tao; Beran, Gregory J O; Besley, Nicholas A; Herbert, John M; Lin, Ching Yeh; Van Voorhis, Troy; Chien, Siu Hung; Sodt, Alex; Steele, Ryan P; Rassolov, Vitaly A; Maslen, Paul E; Korambath, Prakashan P; Adamson, Ross D; Austin, Brian; Baker, Jon; Byrd, Edward F C; Dachsel, Holger; Doerksen, Robert J; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D; Dutoi, Anthony D; Furlani, Thomas R; Gwaltney, Steven R; Heyden, Andreas; Hirata, So; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Kedziora, Gary; Khalliulin, Rustam Z; Klunzinger, Phil; Lee, Aaron M; Lee, Michael S; Liang, Wanzhen; Lotan, Itay; Nair, Nikhil; Peters, Baron; Proynov, Emil I; Pieniazek, Piotr A; Rhee, Young Min; Ritchie, Jim; Rosta, Edina; Sherrill, C David; Simmonett, Andrew C; Subotnik, Joseph E; Woodcock, H Lee; Zhang, Weimin; Bell, Alexis T; Chakraborty, Arup K; Chipman, Daniel M; Keil, Frerich J; Warshel, Arieh; Hehre, Warren J; Schaefer, Henry F; Kong, Jing; Krylov, Anna I; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2006-07-21

    Advances in theory and algorithms for electronic structure calculations must be incorporated into program packages to enable them to become routinely used by the broader chemical community. This work reviews advances made over the past five years or so that constitute the major improvements contained in a new release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry package, together with illustrative timings and applications. Specific developments discussed include fast methods for density functional theory calculations, linear scaling evaluation of energies, NMR chemical shifts and electric properties, fast auxiliary basis function methods for correlated energies and gradients, equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for ground and excited states, geminal wavefunctions, embedding methods and techniques for exploring potential energy surfaces. PMID:16902710

  9. Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-03-01

    Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A

  10. Probabilistic Fatigue Life Analysis of High Density Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Kolawa, E. A.; Sutharshana, S.; Newlin, L. E.; Creager, M.

    1996-01-01

    The fatigue of thin film metal interconnections in high density electronics packaging subjected to thermal cycling has been evaluated using a probabilistic fracture mechanics methodology. This probabilistic methodology includes characterization of thin film stress using an experimentally calibrated finite element model and simulation of flaw growth in the thin films using a stochastic crack growth model.

  11. Photopatternable silicone compositions for electronic packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Brian R.; Gardner, Geoff B.; Alger, James S.; Cummings, Michelle R.; Princing, Jennifer; Lee, Yeong; Meynen, Herman; Gonzales, Mario; Vandevelde, Bart; Vanden Bulcke, Mathieu; Winters, Christophe; Beyne, Eric

    2004-05-01

    A growing need for low stress high temperature thick film materials has prompted the development of new spin-coatable photopatternable silicones (Dow Corning WL-5000 series) to assist manufactures in building the next generation of electronic devices. These new negative-tone materials can be easily coated onto electronic substrates and patterned using standard i-line and broadband lithographic processes. Films ranging from 6 to 50 μm have been demonstrated with patterned features resolved to an aspect ratio of less than 1.3. The etched regions provide a sloped sidewall and curved surfaces to facilitate metallization processes. The films are cured at low temperatures (150 to 250°C) to provide low modulus values in the range of 150 to 500 MPa, are inherently hydrophobic, and are based on cure chemistry that is acid free and delivers thermally stable cross-links. As a result, the films show very little shrinkage during thermal cure (~2%), do not require extended high temperature processing, and provide a very low residual stress (<8 MPa). They also show excellent thermal stability and mechanical integrity when exposed to high temperatures. A simple wet process has been developed to facilitate film rework and allow for sacrificial layer applications.

  12. Electronic packaging: new results in singulation by Laser Microjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Frank; Sibailly, Ochelio; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2004-07-01

    Cutting electronic packages that are produced in a matrix array fashion is an important process and deals with the ready-to-use devices. Thus an increase in the singulation yield is directly correlated to an increase in benefit. Due to the usage of different substrate materials, the saws encounter big problems in terms of lifetime and constancy of cut quality in these applications. Today"s equipment manufacturers are not yet in the position to propose an adequate solution for all types of packages. Compared to classical laser cutting, the water-jet guided laser technology minimizes the heat damages in any kind of sample. This new material processing method consists in guiding a laser beam inside a hair thin, lowpressure water-jet by total internal reflection, and is applied to package singulation since two years approximately. Using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser guided by a water jet, an LTCC-ceramics based package is singulated according to a scribe and break process. Speeds of 2-10 mm/s are reached in the LTTC and 40 mm/s in the mold compound. The process is wear-free and provides very good edge quality of the LTCC and the mold compound as well as reliable separation of the packages.

  13. Electron speckle photography: some recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Fu-pen

    2006-09-01

    When the speckle pattern is displaced, the displacement vector can be obtained by performing a correlation comparison between the two patterns, either optically or numerically. The so-called speckle photography technique has become an important metrological, strain analysis and fluid mechanics tool. The resolution of speckle technique depends on the size of the speckles employed. For an optical recording system, it is essentially limited to the wavelength of the light used and is about 0.5μm within the visible spectrum. In 1982 Chiang introduced the electron speckle photography concept whereby sub-micron and nanometer speckles were created via a process of physical vapor deposition and recording was made by an electron microscope, either a SEM or a TEM. As a result the resolution of speckle photography was increased by several orders of magnitude. With the advancement of digital speckle techniques the method is now fully automated. This paper discusses the current state art of this technique, and its application to the determination of differential thermal strains in electronic packaging, shear band formation in the lamellar interfaces of TiAl and prediction of the crack growth, the size effect of MEMS material SU-8, the micro-mechanical properties of artificial tissues, and the mechanical properties of metal oxide nanofibers. Also discussed in the paper are potential applications of this technique to nanotechnology and bio mechanics.

  14. Application of particle damper on electronic packages for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeramuthuvel, P.; Shankar, K.; Sairajan, K. K.

    2016-10-01

    Particle damping is an effective method of passive vibration control, which is of recent research interest. This paper presents a novel application of particle damper on an electronic package of a spacecraft, tested at ISRO Satellite Centre. The effectiveness of particle damper on the random vibration response of electronic package for spacecraft application exposed to random vibration environments experienced during the launch is studied. The use of particle damper under shock environments are also demonstrated. Optimal particle damper parameters were used based on the design guidelines derived from previous publications of the authors. The comparison of particle damper effectiveness under random vibration loads with respect to the shape of the particle damper capsule and packing ratio are also examined.

  15. Thermal management of electronic packages for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, K.N.; Chacko, M.J.; Mani, L. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the state of the art for thermal mathematical modeling of electronic packages during transient operation. The methods for calculating thermal contact conductance, view factors, and heat transfer coefficients are reviewed, and an algorithm for computer software is provided. Monte Carlo treatment of the data uncertainties is explained. The computer algorithm uniquely incorporates the subroutines for calculating the thermal contact conductance, absorption factor, and statistical representation of the thermal parameters for Monte Carlo analysis.

  16. Analyses of some problems occurring in electron assembly packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, H. R.

    1981-10-01

    Five working papers on electronic assembly packaging problems discussed: analysis of stresses in electronic component leads; an estimate of temperature response in an electronic component due to a soldering operation; analysis of tress in an electronic component and solder joint due to encapsulation; effective thickness of a conformal coating on an electronic component; and uniaxial compression testing as a means of determining bulk modulus of a syntatic elastomer. Uniaxial compression testing of thin samples to determine the material bulk modulus is reviewed. Elasticity equations supply an expression for the bulk modulus in terms of the applied uniaxial stress, the observed strain, and Poisson's ratio. For special cases in which Poisson's ratio approaches 1/2, the bulk modulus is determined to be very nearly equal to the ratio of the applied stress to the observed strain.

  17. Characterization of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A.J.; Heffner, R.H.; Hundley, M.F.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our goal has been to extend the Laboratory`s competency in nuclear and advanced materials by characterizing (measuring and interpreting) physical properties of advanced electronic materials and in this process to bridge the gap between materials synthesis and theoretical understanding. Attention has focused on discovering new physics by understanding the ground states of materials in which electronic correlations dominate their properties. Among several accomplishments, we have discovered and interpreted pressure-induced superconductivity in CeRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, boron content in UBe{sub 13-x}B{sub x} and the origin of small gaps in the spin and charge excitation spectra of Ce{sub 3}Bi{sub 4}Pt{sub 3}, and we provided seminal understanding of large magnetoresistive effects in La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. This work has established new research directions at LANL and elsewhere, involved numerous collaborators from throughout the world and attracted several postdoctoral fellows.

  18. The Application of High Density Electronic Packaging for Spacecraft Cost and Mass Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Lynn E.; Prokop, Jon S.; Sandborn, Peter; Evans, Kristan

    1995-01-01

    It has become clear over the past few years that packaging of spacecraft electronic systems must be improved. Not only have the weight and volume taken up by conventional packaging and interconnect systems become excessive, but active devices have advanced to the point where system performance is often limited by the packaging. Since electronic systems account for up to 30% of the size and weight budgets of a spacecraft, the utilization of high density electronic packaging will be a very important path to overall spacecraft miniaturization. In the late 1970's high density interconnection technologies were being introduced into mainframe computer applications. Subsequently, these technologies have been applied to avionics, telecommunication, biomedical and automotive systems. In each application the driving forces behind the adoption of these technologies were; improved electrical performance, miniaturization, reduced power consumption, increased reliability and reduced manufacturing costs. The application of these technologies to planetary missions could provide significant benefits by way of reduced cost and design time if commercial technology and best commercial manufacturing practices are accepted. A mixed signal telecommunication function has been used as an example to illustrate the potential mass, volume and power reduction achievable with the implementation of high density packaging technologies. The tradeoff analysis which was performed demonstrated that packaging technology selection is application specific, and system level impact must be considered early on in the design process. The results of this study which compare size, performance, cost, risk and system level impact are given. Finally, the technical and cultural obstacles which have inhibited the implementation of these technologies is discussed. Specifically, the issues of space qualified hardware and technology availability is addressed. Space qualification is perceived by industry as being the

  19. Ultra-thin layer packaging for implantable electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, A.; Aellen, T.; Uhl, S.; Graf, B.; Keppner, H.; Tardy, Y.; Burger, J.

    2013-07-01

    State of the art packaging for long-term implantable electronic devices generally uses reliable metal and glass housings; however, these are limited in the miniaturization potential and cost reduction. This paper focuses on the development of biocompatible hermetic thin-film packaging based on poly-para-xylylene (Parylene-C) and silicon oxide (SiOx) multilayers for smart implantable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. For the fabrication, a combined Parylene/SiOx single-chamber deposition system was developed. Topological aspects of multilayers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Material compositions and layer interfaces were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To evaluate the multilayer corrosion protection, water vapor permeation was investigated using a calcium mirror test. The calcium mirror test shows very low water permeation rates of 2 × 10-3 g m-2 day-1 (23 °C, 45% RH) for a 4.7 µm multilayer, which is equivalent to a 1.9 mm pure Parylene-C coating. According to the packaging standard MIL-STD-883, the helium gas tightness was investigated. These helium permeation measurements predict that a multilayer of 10 µm achieves the hermeticity acceptance criterion required for long-term implantable medical devices.

  20. Diamond-based heat spreaders for power electronic packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemet, Thomas

    As any semiconductor-based devices, power electronic packages are driven by the constant increase of operating speed (higher frequency), integration level (higher power), and decrease in feature size (higher packing density). Although research and innovation efforts have kept these trends continuous for now more than fifty years, the electronic packaging technology is currently facing a challenge that must be addressed in order to move toward any further improvements in terms of performances or miniaturization: thermal management. Thermal issues in high-power packages strongly affect their reliability and lifetime and have now become one of the major limiting factors of power modules development. Thus, there is a strong need for materials that can sustain higher heat flux levels while safely integrating into the electronic package architecture. In such context, diamond is an attractive candidate because of its outstanding thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and high electrical resistivity. Its low heat capacity relative to metals such as aluminum or copper makes it however preferable for heat spreading applications (as a heat-spreader) rather than for dissipating the heat flux itself (as a heat sink). In this study, a dual diamond-based heat-spreading solution is proposed. Polycrystalline diamond films were grown through laser-assisted combustion synthesis on electronic substrates (in the U.S) while, in parallel, diamond-reinforced copper-matrix composite films were fabricated through tape casting and hot pressing (in France). These two types of diamond-based heat-spreading films were characterized and their microstructure and chemical composition were related to their thermal performances. Particular emphasize was put on the influence of interfaces on the thermal properties of the materials, either inside a single material (grain boundaries) or between dissimilar materials (film/substrate interface, matrix/reinforcement interface). Finally, the packaging

  1. penORNL: a parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport package using PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    The parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code package penORNL was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to enable advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) simulations on high-performance computing systems. This paper discusses the implementations, capabilities and parallel performance of the new code package. penORNL uses PENELOPE for its physics calculations and provides all available PENELOPE features to the users, as well as some new features including source definitions specifically developed for SEM simulations, a pulse-height tally capability for detailed simulations of gamma and x-ray detectors, and a modified interaction forcing mechanism to enable accurate energy deposition calculations. The parallel performance of penORNL was extensively tested with several model problems, and very good linear parallel scaling was observed with up to 512 processors. penORNL, along with its new features, will be available for SEM simulations upon completion of the new pulse-height tally implementation.

  2. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruo-Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; Zhang, Tong; Oakes, Ken D.; Peng, Rui; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Feng, Zhili

    2015-04-01

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ~70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering. A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. These results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications.Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ~70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to

  3. Advances in nonlethal electronic weaponry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, James F.

    1998-12-01

    Non-lethal electronic weapons in the form of tasers (a stand-off incapacitation device with a range of about 15 feet) and stun guns (which are not a gun, but a close contact stun device) have been used by law enforcement for over 18 years. The taser has dominated this market, since it does not require the close physical contact (with the resultant injuries) that the stun gun requires. Tasers are effective against even determined assailants where OC or pepper sprays consistently fail. The taser also does not have the close range lethality of low impact munitions. These electronic non-lethal weapons have saved the lives of thousands of suspects and have prevented the injury of thousands of law enforcement officers. Recent advances in laser sight technology have permitted the development of a patented dual laser sight that not only increased accuracy, but have made these weapons even more intimidating, increasing surrender rates. Now increased ranges are feasible and r & d on non-lethal military weapons to replace the anti-personnel landmine has resulted in new, unmanned, non-lethal taser weapons for law enforcement corrections and border patrol perimeter control use.

  4. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Insertion of New Electronics Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program's new electronics technology trends. The topics include: 1) The Changing World of Radiation Testing of Memories; 2) Even Application-Specific Tests are Costly!; 3) Hypothetical New Technology Part Qualification Cost; 4) Where we are; 5) Approaching FPGAs as a More Than a "Part" for Reliability; 6) FPGAs Beget Novel Radiation Test Setups; 7) Understanding the Complex Radiation Data; 8) Tracking Packaging Complexity and Reliability for FPGAs; 9) Devices Supporting the FPGA Need to be Considered; 10) Summary of the New Electronic Technologies and Insertion into Flight Programs Workshop; and 11) Highlights of Panel Notes and Comments

  5. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  6. Advances in food packaging films from milk proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercial petroleum-based food packaging films are poor oxygen barriers, do not biodegrade, and some are suspected to even leach compounds into the food product. For instance, three-perfluorinated coatings were banned from convenience food packaging earlier this year. These shortcomings are a ...

  7. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ruo -Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; Oakes, Ken D.; Peng, Rui; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Tong

    2015-03-24

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ~70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering. A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. Furthermore, these results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications.

  8. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Ruo -Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; Oakes, Ken D.; Peng, Rui; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Tong

    2015-03-24

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ~70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering.more » A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. Furthermore, these results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications.« less

  9. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruo-Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; Zhang, Tong; Oakes, Ken D; Peng, Rui; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Feng, Zhili

    2015-04-28

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ∼ 70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering. A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. These results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications. PMID:25824693

  10. Advanced packaging methods for high-power LED modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Rafael C.; Weber, Constanze; Ehrhardt, Christian; Wilke, Martin

    2014-02-01

    LED luminaires are already beyond retrofit systems, which are limited in heat dissipation due to the old fitting standards. Actual LED luminaries are based on new LED packages and modules. Heat dissipation through the first and second level interconnect is a key issue for a successful LED package. Therefore the impact of known bonding technologies as gluing and soldering and new technologies like sintering and transient liquid phase soldering were analyzed and compared. A realized hermetic high power LED package will be shown as example. The used new techniques result in a module extremely stable against further assembly processes and harsh operating conditions.

  11. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  12. EPANET - AN ADVANCED WATER QUALITY MODELING PACKAGE FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPANET is a third generation software package for modeling water quality within drinking water distribution systems. he program performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality conditions within pressurized pipe networks. n addition to substance concentration wa...

  13. Stress-induced Effects Caused by 3D IC TSV Packaging in Advanced Semiconductor Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sukharev, V.; Kteyan, A.; Choy, J.-H.; Hovsepyan, H.; Markosian, A.; Zschech, E.; Huebner, R.

    2011-11-10

    Potential challenges with managing mechanical stress and the consequent effects on device performance for advanced 3D through-silicon-via (TSV) based technologies are outlined. The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze a design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-die out-of-spec variations in device electrical characteristics caused by the layout and through-silicon-via (TSV)/package-induced mechanical stress. The limited characterization/measurement capabilities for 3D IC stacks and a strict ''good die'' requirement make this type of analysis critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation to assess the mechanical stress across the device layers in silicon chips stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology is proposed. A calibration technique based on fitting to measured stress components and electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices is presented. A strategy for generation of a simulation feeding data and respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to generate a database for multi-scale material parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. For model validation, high-resolution strain measurements in Si channels of the test-chip devices are needed. At the nanoscale, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the only technique available for sub-10 nm strain measurements so far.

  14. Robust, Rework-able Thermal Electronic Packaging: Applications in High Power TR Modules for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Hunter, Don; Miller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires improvements in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and are now being implemented side-by-side with more standard technology typically used in flight hardware.

  15. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the goals and mission of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. The program has been supporting NASA for over 20 years. The focus is on the reliability aspects of electronic devices. In this work the program also supports the electronics industry. There are several areas that the program is involved in: Memories, systems on a chip (SOCs), data conversion devices, power MOSFETS, power converters, scaled CMOS, capacitors, linear devices, fiber optics, and other electronics such as sensors, cryogenic and SiGe that are used in space systems. Each of these area are reviewed with the work that is being done in reliability and effects of radiation on these technologies.

  16. Design of improved polyester dielectric insulators for electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneggenburger, Lizabeth Ann

    1998-12-01

    The need for faster, smaller, lighter microelectronic components has created an extensive market for complex, high-density integrated circuits which in turn has placed major demands on electronic packages and their associated material structures. One packaging technology which can accommodate the increased density and complexity of today's modern systems while still providing the high electrical and thermal performance necessitated by modern integrated circuits is the multichip module (MCM). Here is described a higher performance, better reliability, and lower cost polyester dielectric insulator for new MCM substrates. The MCM structure proposed consists of a low dielectric constant polyester thermoset laminated onto a dimensionally stable, coefficient of thermal expansion controlled liquid crystalline copolyester carrier film. First, the foaming methods used to lower the dielectric constant of the copolyester thermoset to 2.5 (25sp° C, 1 kHz) are described. Second, the nature of the increase in melting temperature of the liquid crystalline copolyesters upon annealing near their original melting temperature to improve the dimensional stability is elucidated. Lastly, a description of a new photosensitive copolyester dielectric insulator is presented.

  17. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    DOEpatents

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  18. Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

    1995-09-01

    Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

  19. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted. PMID:26403162

  20. More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

  1. Hermetic electronic packaging of an implantable brain-machine-interface with transcutaneous optical data communication.

    PubMed

    Schuettler, Martin; Kohler, Fabian; Ordonez, Juan S; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Future brain-computer-interfaces (BCIs) for severely impaired patients are implanted to electrically contact the brain tissue. Avoiding percutaneous cables requires amplifier and telemetry electronics to be implanted too. We developed a hermetic package that protects the electronic circuitry of a BCI from body moisture while permitting infrared communication through the package wall made from alumina ceramic. The ceramic package is casted in medical grade silicone adhesive, for which we identified MED2-4013 as a promising candidate. PMID:23366777

  2. Advanced cryocooler electronics for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, D.; Danial, A.; Davis, T.; Godden, J.; Jackson, M.; McCuskey, J.; Valenzuela, P.

    2004-06-01

    Space pulse-tube cryocoolers require electronics to control the cooling temperature and self-induced vibration. Other functions include engineering diagnostics, telemetry and safety protection of the unit against extreme environments and operational anomalies. The electronics must survive the harsh conditions of launch and orbit, and in some cases severe radiation environments for periods exceeding 10 years. A number of our current generation high reliability radiation hardened electronics units have been launched and others are in various stages of assembly or integration on a number of space flight programs. This paper describes the design features and performance of our next generation flight electronics designed for the STSS payloads. The electronics provides temperature control with better than +/-50 mK short-term stability. Self-induced vibration is controlled to low levels on all harmonics up to the 16th. A unique active power filter limits peak-to-peak reflected ripple current on the primary power bus to less than 3% of the average DC current. The 3 kg unit is capable of delivering 180 W continuous to NGST's high-efficiency cryocooler (HEC).

  3. Extreme service packaging for silicon carbide electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinel, Maxime Jean-Francois

    Electronic devices based on silicon carbide (SiC) represent a good choice for a variety of new high temperature, high power electronic applications. Moreover, SiC ceramics have great potentials for use in harsh environments. Nevertheless, many technical challenges still need to be addressed, including high temperature stability. Results obtained on several levels in the development of a SiC-based package are presented. The sealing of ceramic packages is generally accomplished using specialty glasses. Several commercial glasses were tested in view of their application as glass sealants. The reactions between SiC and certain oxides present in the glasses were responsible for the formation of CO gas. Selection criteria were developed based on thermodynamic calculations. This approach provides valuable information in tailoring suitable glasses. The oxidation of SiC in air results in the formation of silica that does not prove to be protective above about 1800 K because of interfacial reactions with its SiC substrate. The oxidation of both single crystal and polycrystalline SiC, between 973 and 2053 K, resulted in the formation of quartz, cristobalite or tridymite, which are the stable crystalline polymorphs of silica at ambient pressure. The polymorphs were pure SiO2, and contamination of the oxide scales from the oxidizing environment did not occur. The only variable affecting the occurrence of a specific polymorph was the oxidation temperature. Cristobalite was formed at temperatures ≥ 1673 K, tridymite between 1073 and 1573 K, while quartz formed at 973 K. Cristobalite was observed to grow in a spherulitic fashion from amorphous silica. This was not the case for tridymite and quartz, which appeared to grow as oriented crystalline films. The presence of a thin layer of silicon oxycarbide was detected at the SiC/SiO 2 interface. Formation of reliable and homogeneous interconnects can be a critical issue for demanding applications. The approach that was undertaken to

  4. Packaging Technologies for 500C SiC Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Various SiC electronics and sensors are currently under development for applications in 500C high temperature environments such as hot sections of aerospace engines and the surface of Venus. In order to conduct long-term test and eventually commercialize these SiC devices, compatible packaging technologies for the SiC electronics and sensors are required. This presentation reviews packaging technologies developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors to address both component and subsystem level packaging needs for high temperature environments. The packaging system for high temperature SiC electronics includes ceramic chip-level packages, ceramic printed circuit boards (PCBs), and edge-connectors. High temperature durable die-attach and precious metal wire-bonding are used in the chip-level packaging process. A high temperature sensor package is specifically designed to address high temperature micro-fabricated capacitive pressure sensors for high differential pressure environments. This presentation describes development of these electronics and sensor packaging technologies, including some testing results of SiC electronics and capacitive pressure sensors using these packaging technologies.

  5. Risk Management of Microelectronics: The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph information provides information on how the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program evaluates the reliability of technologies for Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts, and their suitability for spacecraft applications.

  6. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2012-10-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), evaluated a number of control strategies for packaged cooling equipment that can be implemented in an advanced controller, which can be retrofit into existing packaged heat pump units to improve their operational efficiency. This report documents the results of that analysis.

  7. Advanced Electronics. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1778.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppler, Thomas

    This document is a curriculum guide for a 180-hour course in advanced electronics for 11th and 12th grades that has four instructional units. The instructional units are orientation, discrete components, integrated circuits, and electronic systems. The document includes a course flow chart; a two-page section that describes the course, lists…

  8. A comparison and benchmark of two electron cloud packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Amundson, James F; Spentzouris, Panagiotis G; Veitzer, Seth A

    2012-01-01

    We present results from precision simulations of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using two distinct codes. These two codes are (i)POSINST, a F90 2D+ code, and (ii)VORPAL, a 2D/3D electrostatic and electromagnetic code used for self-consistent simulations of plasma and particle beam problems. A specific benchmark has been designed to demonstrate the strengths of both codes that are relevant to the EC problem in the Main Injector. As differences between results obtained from these two codes were bigger than the anticipated model uncertainties, a set of changes to the POSINST code were implemented. These changes are documented in this note. This new version of POSINST now gives EC densities that agree with those predicted by VORPAL, within {approx}20%, in the beam region. The root cause of remaining differences are most likely due to differences in the electrostatic Poisson solvers. From a software engineering perspective, these two codes are very different. We comment on the pros and cons of both approaches. The design(s) for a new EC package are briefly discussed.

  9. Programmed electronic advance for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dogadko, P.

    1987-03-03

    An ignition advance control is described for an internal combustion engine including a crankshaft, a throttle control, and at least one cylinder, the ignition advance control comprising a spark ignition circuit associated with the cylinder and including trigger means operative to cause an ignition spark, means for generating a control pulse associated with the cylinder, latch means for enabling the trigger means in response to generation of the control pulse, means for generating a constant plurality of sequentially occurring electrical reference pulses during each revolution of the crankshaft, means for counting the reference pulses developed during each revolution of the crankshaft, means for firing the enabled trigger means in response to the counting means counting a predetermined number of the reference pulses to cause the ignition spark at a predetermined ignition point in each revolution of the crankshaft, means for sensing the position of the throttle control, and means responsive to the throttle sensing means for varying the predetermined number of reference pulses solely in accordance with the position of the throttle control to vary the predetermined ignition point as appropriate for the position of the throttle control.

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Advanced Framing Systems and Packages

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing advanced 2x6, 24-inch on-center framing, single top plates, open headers, and 2-stud corners reduced board feet of lumber by more than 1,000 feet, cut energy use by 13%, and cut material and labor costs by more than $1,000 on a typical home.

  11. Properties of polystrene bead foam as an encapsulant for electronic packages. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fossey, D.J.

    1981-04-01

    Polystyrene bead foam (PSBF) was evaluated as an encapsulant for electronic packages. Various properties of PSBF pertinent to the expected environmental conditioning of a prototype electronic package were determined and evaluated for their effects on individual electronic components, within the package. It was determined that PSBF densities of 0.2 to 0.4 g/cm/sup 3/ provided adequate protection without damaging fragile electronic components. PSBF densities above 0.4 g/cm/sup 3/ provide adequate protection from the shock and vibration spectra evaluated, but could damage fragile electronic components during the encapsulation process and thermal cycling. Buildup of electrostatic voltage during encapsulation can be reduced to safe levels by grounding the case of the electronic package. Only the 0.6 g/cm/sup 3/ PSBF could be made impervious to moisture penetration.

  12. Water-jet guided laser: possibilities and potential for singulation of electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Frank R.; Spiegel, Akos; Vago, Nandor; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2002-06-01

    Singulation of packages is an important step in the manufacturing of IC devices. Presently, the most widely used technique is abrasive sawing. Due to the combination of different materials used in packages such as copper and mold compound, the saw rapidly blunts and also conventional laser cutting by a water-jet with the high precision and speed of a laser cut and is now applied into electronic package singulation.

  13. Ultra high speed image processing techniques. [electronic packaging techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T.; Hoeschele, D. F.; Connery, R.; Ehland, J.; Billings, J.

    1981-01-01

    Packaging techniques for ultra high speed image processing were developed. These techniques involve the development of a signal feedthrough technique through LSI/VLSI sapphire substrates. This allows the stacking of LSI/VLSI circuit substrates in a 3 dimensional package with greatly reduced length of interconnecting lines between the LSI/VLSI circuits. The reduced parasitic capacitances results in higher LSI/VLSI computational speeds at significantly reduced power consumption levels.

  14. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  15. Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2012-06-01

    This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

  16. AIN-Based Packaging for SiC High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savrun, Ender

    2004-01-01

    Packaging made primarily of aluminum nitride has been developed to enclose silicon carbide-based integrated circuits (ICs), including circuits containing SiC-based power diodes, that are capable of operation under conditions more severe than can be withstood by silicon-based integrated circuits. A major objective of this development was to enable packaged SiC electronic circuits to operate continuously at temperatures up to 500 C. AlN-packaged SiC electronic circuits have commercial potential for incorporation into high-power electronic equipment and into sensors that must withstand high temperatures and/or high pressures in diverse applications that include exploration in outer space, well logging, and monitoring of nuclear power systems. This packaging embodies concepts drawn from flip-chip packaging of silicon-based integrated circuits. One or more SiC-based circuit chips are mounted on an aluminum nitride package substrate or sandwiched between two such substrates. Intimate electrical connections between metal conductors on the chip(s) and the metal conductors on external circuits are made by direct bonding to interconnections on the package substrate(s) and/or by use of holes through the package substrate(s). This approach eliminates the need for wire bonds, which have been the most vulnerable links in conventional electronic circuitry in hostile environments. Moreover, the elimination of wire bonds makes it possible to pack chips more densely than was previously possible.

  17. Advanced packaging and integration technologies for microsensors, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ned, A. A.; Kurtz, A. D.

    1994-08-01

    Advanced microfabrication processes have been developed for producing a hermetic cover wafer with low resistance dielectrically isolated through-wafer interconnects. The feasibility of manufacturing encapsulated pressure sensors, utilizing the cover-wafer approach, has been demonstrated. Such pressure sensors represent a new generation of environmentally protected, cost effective devices. The accomplishments of Phase 1 include the following: (1) the study of conversion of single crystal silicon into porous silicon; (2) the study of conversion of porous silicon into oxide; (3) process for producing through-wafer interconnects has been established; and (4) the stresses in the cover wafer have been investigated, which enabled the fabrication of flat cover-wafers. The surface and cross-sectional morphology of the cover wafer was investigated, the hermeticity and dielectric isolation of the oxidized rings was verified, the sensors compatible with the cover-wafer approach were fabricated and tested, and a new generation of sensors designed.

  18. Electrically conductive and thermally conductive materials for electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zongrong

    The aim of this dissertation is to develop electrically or thermally conductive materials that are needed for electronic packaging and microelectronic cooling. These materials are in the form of coatings and are made from pastes. The research work encompasses paste formulation, studying the process of converting a paste to a conductive material, relating the processing conditions to the structure and performance, and evaluating performance attributes that are relevant to the application of these conductive materials. The research has resulted in new information that is valuable to the microelectronic industry. Work on electrically conductive materials emphasizes the development of electrical interconnection materials in the form of air-firable glass-free silver-based electrically conductive thick films, which use the Ti-Al alloy as the binder and are in contrast to conventional films that use glass as the binder. The air-firability, as enabled by minor additions of tin and zinc to the paste, is in contrast to previous glass-free films that are not firable. The recommended firing condition is 930°C in air. The organic vehicle in the paste comprises ethyl cellulose, which undergoes thermal decomposition during burnout of the paste. The ethyl cellulose is dissolved in ether, which facilitates the burnout. Excessive ethyl cellulose hinders the burnout. A higher heating rate results in more residue after burnout. The presence of silver particles facilitates drying and burnout. Firing in air gives lower resistivity than firing in oxygen. Firing in argon gives poor films. Compared to conventional films that use glass as the binder, these films, when appropriately fired, exhibit lower electrical resistivity (2.5 x 10-6 O.cm) and higher scratch resistance. Work on thermally conductive materials addresses thermal interface materials, which are materials placed at the interface between a heat sink and a heat source for the purpose of improving the thermal contact. Heat

  19. Advanced Electronics Systems 1, Industrial Electronics 3: 9327.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The 135 clock-hour course for the 12th year consists of outlines for blocks of instruction on transistor applications to basic circuits, principles of single sideband communications, maintenance practices, preparation for FCC licenses, application of circuits to advanced electronic systems, nonsinusoidal wave shapes, multivibrators, and blocking…

  20. Advanced copper/low-k IC devices: Packaging process development and materials integrtion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chungpaiboonpatana, Surasit

    Cu/low-k technology provides a number of key advantages including higher interconnect density, improved electrical performance, enhanced thermal performance, and reduced cost. Nevertheless, Cu/low-k IC technology poses many challenges to the packaging industry today. Specifically, low-k dielectric is much more fragile mechanically and copper surfaces are readily oxidized thereby weakening their adhesion to the ILD/metallization layers. The purpose of the study is to provide integrated and reliable materials and process solutions for the packaging of advanced Cu/low-k devices through fundamental materials science understanding. Novel solutions for advanced wirebond and flip-chip technologies are developed, along with resolutions for local and global material interaction issues. The zero-th packaging level study examines a novel direct gold wirebonding onto the Cu/low-k terminal pad structure. The first packaging level study attempts to eliminate the Cu/low-k wiresweeping issue through assembly material interactions with both bonding and transfer molding processes. The second packaging level study exams at the impact of Cu/low-k and processing material implementations on the copper trace cracking failures at the substrate level of a package. An integrated first and second level study on high performance flip chip technology using 8M Cu/low-k silicon chip is performed by the optimization of the underfill and substrate materials selections. Lastly, electromigration phenomena and corrosion mechanisms of copper metallization are developed for biased stressing assembly environment through the fundamental of electrochemistry. Throughout the experiment, the 90/130nm technology node of copper wafer fabrication using Black Diamond low-k dielectric is implemented in several large form-factor package assemblies. Functional test vehicles are assembled, reliability-stressed, and failure-analyzed according to the JEDEC standards for the validity of the integrated materials

  1. Materials science in pre-plated leadframes for electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lilin

    Au/Pd/Ni pre-plated leadframes (PPF) are high performance frames for accommodating high-end electronic packages. Cost and reliability are major concerns in their wide application. The present work, from a materials science point view, deepens the understanding of PPFs, optimizes the conventional PPFs, develops a novel PPF architecture and models the residual stress relaxation in heteroepitaxial thin films. The wire pull test, the solderability test, and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to characterize the PPFs in order to understand the relationship between performance and microstructure. We optimized the electroplating profiles and determined the minimum thickness of the Pd layer with the PPF performance satisfying the industry standards. Further increasing the Pd layer thickness beyond the critical thickness will not enhance the performance more, but increase the product cost. With the optimized electroplating profile, the electroplated Au layer is epitaxially deposited on the Pd layer, and so does the Pd layer on the Ni layer. Misfit dislocations and nanotwins are present at the interface between the Pd and Ni layers, which are generated to release the about 10.4% misfit strain between the Pd and Ni lattices. This work demonstrates that the electro-deposition technique can electroplate epitaxy-like Pd films on the highly (200) textured Ni films, which are grown on the Cu substrates. A novel technique for impeding Cu out-diffusion in Cu alloy based pre-plated leadframes was developed by electroplating a 3-4 nm thick Sn layer on a Cu alloy base prior to electroplating a Ni layer. A 10-14 nm thick epitaxy-like and dense (Cu,Ni)3Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) layer is automatically formed en route of diffuse reaction, which leads to a drastic reduction in Cu out-diffusion and hence improves significantly the protection of the leadframes against oxidation and corrosion attack. The oxidation behaviours were quantified by Electron

  2. Reactive infiltration in fabricating silicon carbide composites for electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liming

    The silicon carbide (SiC) composite is a promising material to improve thermal dissipation and thermal expansion matching for electronic packaging, but its wide application has been greatly hindered by the high fabrication cost. To address this cost issue, two new reactive infiltration methods have been proposed and developed to fabricate SiC composite in a net-shape manner. They are Method 1--locally magnesium-enhanced infiltration and Method 2--globally carbon-enhanced infiltration. In Method 1, a magnesium wetting agent was strategically inserted at the interface between SiC powder and Al-Si alloy. The molten Al-Si alloy was assisted by chemical reaction to infiltrate into the porous SiC powder in an inert atmosphere sealed in a quartz tube or a steel cup. The infiltration kinetics was characterized by measuring the infiltration weight gain with respect to time. It was found that the infiltration kinetics could be divided into three stages: infiltration initiation, rapid infiltration, and slow infiltration, and most of the weight gain occurred in the rapid infiltration stage. The rapid infiltration was due to the magnesium-silicon oxide reaction and the magnesium accumulation at the infiltration front. Modeling of the infiltration kinetics showed the magnesium dilution increased the dynamic contact angle, which in turn decreased the infiltration rate. The SiC oxidation, Mg content and temperature were shown to be important factors affecting the infiltration. In Method 2, a carbon wetting agent is coated globally on every SiC particle. To accomplish this coating, a slip casting, drying, curing and carbonization process was developed. A crucibleless infiltration method was designed to fabricate SiC composites in an open atmosphere protected by nitrogen. The temperature change of SiC preform during infiltration was monitored to determine the infiltration kinetics. The silicon-carbon reaction was found to create a spontaneous infiltration of molten Si or molten Al

  3. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  4. Advanced superconducting materials for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, M. R.

    1980-10-01

    Developments in the fabrication of tunnel junctions using Nb- and V-base transition-metal compounds and alloys are summarized. Particular attention is given to the advances in codeposition of these refractory high-transition-temperature superconductors and the properties of thin films deposited by the dual-electron-beam coevaporation technique. Problems associated with these materials are identified, and prospects for the future are discussed. Of the materials reviewed, Nb3Sn is singled out as one deserving further development.

  5. Designing for Small Volume Assembly of Advanced Electronics Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.; Bonner, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a general methodology to Design for Producibility and Reliability (DFPAR) for very small volume production runs. In cases where the entire volume for fabrication is less than five products, traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) is inadequate due to reliance on statistics of much larger volumes and the Central Limit Theorem. Data acquisition for process parameter estimation from such a small sample size is difficult; however, it is critical to producing high reliability product.

  6. Electronic spark advance-type ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, H.

    1986-12-09

    An electronic spark advance-type ignition system is described for an internal combustion engine comprising: an ignition coil; a magnetic pickup for generating a pair of pulse signals with a time interval therebetween substantially corresponding to a maximum advance angle in terms of crankshaft rotation degrees for each rotation of a crankshaft of the engine; signal generating means responsive to the pair of pulse signals for the pickup for generating a pair of comparison signals of different levels within each of the crankshaft rotation degrees of the maximum advance angle and the other crankshaft rotation degrees; and control means for comparing the signal levels of each of the pairs of comparison signals to generate an energization starting position signal and an ignition timing determining ignition position signal for the ignition coil, the signal generating means including means for controlling the waveform of one of the pair of comparison signals so that the ignition position signal is advanced in angle with respect to the energization starting position signal. The energization starting position signal is generated under all conditions prior to the timing of generation of the earlier one of the next pair of pulse signals generated from the pickup. The ignition position signal is generated within the maximum advance angle at a point in time following generation of the earlier one of the next pair of pulse signals by at least a predetermined amount.

  7. Design and Development of a CPCI-Based Electronics Package for Space Station Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolacz, John S.; Clapper, Randy S.; Wade, Raymond P.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing a Compact-PCI (CPCI) based electronics package for controlling space experiment hardware on the International Space Station. Goals of this effort include an easily modified, modular design that allows for changes in experiment requirements. Unique aspects of the experiment package include a flexible circuit used for internal interconnections and a separate enclosure (box in a box) for controlling 1 kW of power for experiment fuel heating requirements. This electronics package was developed as part of the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) mini-facility which is part of the Fluids and Combustion Facility s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments and will reside on the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FEANICS mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA s future space missions. A description of the electronics package and the results of functional testing are the subjects of this report. The report concludes that the use of innovative packaging methods combined with readily available COTS hardware can provide a modular electronics package which is easily modified for changing experiment requirements.

  8. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  9. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  10. New 1-k PROM for the coincidence-counter electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A new programmable read-only memory (PROM) for the Los Alamos-designed neutron coincidence electronics package is described. The new 1-k PROM allows remote control of the electronics by a computer or a remote terminal through an RS-232 serial data port. No modifications of the existing unit are required.

  11. Introduction and NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation includes an introduction to the space radiation environment, the effects on electronics, the environment in action, flight projects, mission needs, and radiation hardness assurance (RHA).

  12. Advanced electronics for the CTF MEG system.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, J; Vrba, J; Spear, P; McKenzie, D; Willis, R; Loewen, R; Robinson, S E; Fife, A A

    2004-01-01

    Development of the CTF MEG system has been advanced with the introduction of a computer processing cluster between the data acquisition electronics and the host computer. The advent of fast processors, memory, and network interfaces has made this innovation feasible for large data streams at high sampling rates. We have implemented tasks including anti-alias filter, sample rate decimation, higher gradient balancing, crosstalk correction, and optional filters with a cluster consisting of 4 dual Intel Xeon processors operating on up to 275 channel MEG systems at 12 kHz sample rate. The architecture is expandable with additional processors to implement advanced processing tasks which may include e.g., continuous head localization/motion correction, optional display filters, coherence calculations, or real time synthetic channels (via beamformer). We also describe an electronics configuration upgrade to provide operator console access to the peripheral interface features such as analog signal and trigger I/O. This allows remote location of the acoustically noisy electronics cabinet and fitting of the cabinet with doors for improved EMI shielding. Finally, we present the latest performance results available for the CTF 275 channel MEG system including an unshielded SEF (median nerve electrical stimulation) measurement enhanced by application of an adaptive beamformer technique (SAM) which allows recognition of the nominal 20-ms response in the unaveraged signal. PMID:16012695

  13. Low Temperature Reliability of Electronic Packages/Assemblies for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Newell, Michael; Bachman, James

    2002-01-01

    A NASA-wide team, funded under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), was formed to collaborate and to establish reliability of various electronic parts/packaging and assemblies for operation under extreme cold temperatures. One of the primary objectives of the NEPP is to expedite the infusion of cutting edge technologies into the present and future NASA missions. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) emerging electronic parts/packages due to their lower weight, increased functionality, and lower cost are excellent candidates for space missions if they are characterized to show that they will meet the stringent reliability and quality requirements. Characterizations, especially for the extreme cold temperatures, are required since very limited data are available by manufacturers or users. For severe military environments, the temperature conditions to -65 C are the lowest temperature for which these parts/packages and assemblies are qualified. New data beyond this relatively benign cold temperature are required for numerous NASA missions. Several parts/packages, based on the project recommendation for their immediate and future needs, were selected for detailed characterization to cold temperature regimes down to liquid nitrogen (-196 C), covering both Mars cold temperature (-125 C) and asteroid (- 180 C) lander environmental requirements. Numerous parts/packages and assemblies were characterized during extreme temperature environmental tests. Several electrical parameters were characterized at discrete temperatures to -185 C to determine if they remain within their specification ranges. Both packages and circuit boards were subjected to nondestructive testing including optical, X-ray, and acoustic microscopy to document their integrity prior to environment exposure. Package/board assemblies were also subjected to X-ray to characterize solder joint integrity including void levels. Both parts and assemblies were subjected to thermal cycling with a large

  14. Electron energy loss spectroscopy in advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) with an electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS) yields a powerful tool for the microcharacterization of materials. However, the application of this technique to advanced materials problems can only be fully appreciated when the information obtained using EELS is related to that obtained from other analytical spectroscopies. In this chapter, we briefly discuss the relative performance of X-ray, Auger and Photoelectron Spectroscopies with EELS pointing out the limitations and merits of each. This comparison is followed by examples of the application of EELS to investigations involving high {Tc} superconductors, artificial metallic superlattices, amorphous magnetic materials and the characterization of metallic hydride phases. 14 refs., 22 figs.

  15. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  16. Packaging Technology Developed for High-Temperature SiC Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic- and thick-film-materials-based prototype electronic package designed for silicon carbide (SiC) high-temperature sensors and electronics has been successfully tested at 500 C in an oxygen-containing air environment for 500 hours. This package was designed, fabricated, assembled, and electronically evaluated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field with an in-house-fabricated SiC semiconductor test chip. High-temperature electronics and sensors are necessary for harsh-environment space and aeronautical applications, such as space missions to the inner solar system or the emission control electronics and sensors in aeronautical engines. Single-crystal SiC has such excellent physical and chemical material properties that SiC-based semiconductor electronics can operate at temperatures over 600 C, which is significantly higher than the limit for Si-based semiconductor devices. SiC semiconductor chips were recently demonstrated to be operable at temperatures as high as 600 C, but only in the probe station environment because suitable packaging technology for sensors and electronics at temperatures of 500 C and beyond did not exist. Thus, packaging technology for SiC-based sensors and electronics is immediately needed for both application and commercialization of high-temperature SiC sensors and electronics. In response to this need, researchers at Glenn designed, fabricated, and assembled a prototype electronic package for high-temperature electronics, sensors, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate and gold (Au) thick-film materials. This prototype package successfully survived a soak test at 500 C in air for 500 hours. Packaging components tested included thick-film high-temperature metallization, internal wire bonds, external lead bonds, and a SiC diode chip die-attachment. Each test loop, which was composed of thick-film printed wire, wire bond, and lead bond was subjected to a 50-mA direct current for 250

  17. Detecting corrosion in plastic encapsulated micro-electronics packages

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, N.R.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

    1998-08-01

    In the past, most defense microelectronics components were packaged in ceramic, hermetic enclosures. PEMs are not hermetic because the plastic molding compounds are permeable to moisture. This lack of hermeticity creates an unknown liability, especially with respect to corrosion of the metallization features. This potential liability must be addressed to ensure long-term reliability of these systems is maintained under conditions of long-term dormant storage. However, the corrosion process is difficult to monitor because it occurs under the encapsulating plastic and is therefore not visible. The authors have developed techniques that allow them to study corrosion of Al bondpads and traces under relevant atmospheric corrosion conditions. The cornerstone of this capability is the ATC 2.6, a microelectronic test device designed at Sandia National Laboratories. Corrosion tests were performed by exposing test chips to aggressive environments. The electrical response of the ATC indicated an increase in bondpad resistance with exposure time. Note that the change in resistance is not uniform from one bondpad to another. This illustrates the stochastic nature of the corrosion process. The change in resistance correlated with visual observation of corrosion of the bondpads on the unencapsulated test chips.

  18. Actuator and electronics packaging for extrinsic humanoid hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The lower arm assembly for a humanoid robot includes an arm support having a first side and a second side, a plurality of wrist actuators mounted to the first side of the arm support, a plurality of finger actuators mounted to the second side of the arm support and a plurality of electronics also located on the first side of the arm support.

  19. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Report -- 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.; DeVoto, D.; Moreno, G.; Rugh, J.; Waye, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the research into advanced liquid cooling, integrated power module cooling, high temperature air cooled power electronics, two-phase cooling for power electronics, and electric motor thermal management by NREL's Power Electronics group in FY13.

  20. Development and testing of the Junkeeper Control Corporation integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Additional developmental work on the existing programmable electronic controller and hydronic package for use with solar heating and cooling systems is summarized. The controller/hydronics subsystems passed all acceptance tests and performance criteria. The subsystems were shown marketable for public use.

  1. Dissemination Package for Transition into Electronics (TIE) Project, October 1979-June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen Valley Coll., San Jose, CA.

    This dissemination package consists of a variety of advertising materials, forms, questionnaires, tests, and handouts developed as a part of the Transition into Electronics (TIE) Project. (The TIE Project was a project that developed, implemented, and evaluated a model designed to encourage persons to pursue education and training leading to…

  2. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  3. Reliability of lead-free solders in electronic packaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woojin

    The electromigration of flip chip solder bump (eutetic SnPb) has been studied at temperatures of 100, 125 and 150°C and current densities of 1.9 to 2.75 x 104 A/cm2. The under-bump-metallization on the chip side is thin film Al/Ni(V)/Cu and on the board side is thick Cu. By simulation, we found that current crowding occurs at the corner on the chip side where the electrons enter the solder ball. We are able to match this simulation to the real electromigration damage in the sample. The experimental result showed that voids initiated from the position of current crowding and propagated across the interface between UBM and the solder ball. The Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds formed during the reflow is known to adhere well to the thin film UBM, but they detached from the UBM after current stressing. Therefore, the UBM itself becomes part of the reliability problem of the flip chip solder joint under electromigration. Currently there is a renewed interest in Sn whisker growth owing to the introduction of Pb-free solder in electronic manufacturing. The leadframe is electroplated or finished with a layer of Pb-free solder. The solder is typically pure Sn or eutectic SnCu (0.7 atomic % Cu). It is a serious reliability concern in the use of the eutectic SnCu solder as leadframe surface finish due to the growth of long whiskers on it. The origin of the driving force of compressive stress can be mechanical, thermal, and chemical. Among them, the chemical force is the most important contribution to the whisker growth and its origin is due to the reaction between Sn and Cu to form intermetallic compound (IMC) at room temperature. For whisker or hillock growth, the surface cannot be free of oxide and it must be covered with oxide and the oxide must be a protective one so that it removes effectively all the vacancy sources and sinks on the surface. Hence, only those metals, which grow protective oxides such as Al and Sn, are known to have hillock growth or whisker growth. We

  4. Electronic scanning pressure measuring system and transducer package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F. (Inventor); Parra, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    An electronic scanning pressure system that includes a plurality of pressure transducers is examined. A means obtains an electrical signal indicative of a pressure measurement from each of the plurality of pressure transducers. A multiplexing means is connected for selectivity supplying inputs from the plurality of pressure transducers to the signal obtaining means. A data bus connects the plurality of pressure transducers to the multiplexing means. A latch circuit is connected to supply control inputs to the multiplexing means. An address bus is connected to supply an address signal of a selected one of the plurality of pressure transducers to the latch circuit. In operation, each of the pressure transducers is successively scanned by the multiplexing means in response to address signals supplied on the address bus to the latch circuit.

  5. Thermal contact electronic packaging in solar pointing space environment

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, A.M. ); McKim, G.S. . Space Systems Div.)

    1991-02-01

    A thermal design for a solar pointing space shuttle mission is presented. The apparatus, which will measure solar flux intensity variations, contains sensors and data acquisition electronics which must be maintained within certain temperature constraints. The thermal design, which utilizes parallel heat flow paths and conduction fins to reject dissipated heat, is shown by finite difference thermal modeling to maintain component temperatures within these constraints. In the thermal modeling, arithmetic nodes are used to represent surface radiosity for radiation heat transfer. Also, the concept of mean fin conduction length and effective fin capacitance are introduced as means of simplifying the model representation of the conduction fins. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the chip/fin contact conductance.

  6. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  7. Advanced Electronic Systems. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Dale R.

    This curriculum for a 1-semester or 1-year course in electronics is designed to take students from basic through advanced electronic systems. It covers several electronic areas, such as digital electronics, communication electronics, industrial process control, instrumentation, programmable controllers, and robotics. The guide contains…

  8. Inclusion of the electron-phonon interaction in the BerkeleyGW computational package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Lany, Stephan

    The BerkeleyGW package is a highly optimized and efficient code for calculating, among others, the dielectric response, bandstructures, lifetimes, and optical absorption of materials from nanostructures and two-dimensional sheets to bulk materials. In the past the only interactions included in BerkeleyGW were electron-electron interactions, with other packages being used to include the effect of, say, electron-phonon interactions. One common approach is to use Wannier functions to interpolate all needed quantities to a very fine grids in energy and momentum, which leads to very accurate electron-phonon couplings and lifetimes. However, in materials with complex, even unknown, chemical environments the generation of Wannier functions can be quite time consuming and constitutes another step in an already difficult calculation. The BerkeleyGW package has a wavefunction-based interpolation scheme that is used in solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation and which is much more easily automated than Wannier interpolation. In this talk, we discuss results for the carrier lifetimes due to the electron-phonon interaction using this interpolation scheme. In particular, we discuss the computational efficiency and scalability, and the prospects for applying this method to a wide range of materials to get first principles lifetimes, and related quantities, such as mobilities and diffusion lengths. Derek Vigil-Fowler's work is supported by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Director's Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  9. Advanced electron microscopy characterization of multimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Subarna Raj

    Research in noble metal nanoparticles has led to exciting progress in a versatile array of applications. For the purpose of better tailoring of nanoparticles activities and understanding the correlation between their structures and properties, control over the composition, shape, size and architecture of bimetallic and multimetallic nanomaterials plays an important role on revealing their new or enhanced functions for potentials application. Advance electron microscopy techniques were used to provide atomic scale insights into the structure-properties of different materials: PtPd, Au-Au3Cu, Cu-Pt, AgPd/Pt and AuCu/Pt nanoparticles. The objective of this work is to understand the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials and describe synthesis, characterization, surface properties and growth mechanism of various bimetallic and multimetallic nanoparticles. The findings have provided us with novel and significant insights into the physical and chemical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. Different synthesis routes allowed us to synthesize bimetallic: Pt-Pd, Au-Au3Cu, Cu-Pt and trimetallic: AgPd/Pt, AuCu/Pt, core-shell and alloyed nanoparticles with monodispersed sizes, controlled shapes and tunable surface properties. For example, we have synthesized the polyhedral PtPd core-shell nanoparticles with octahedral, decahedral, and triangular plates. Decahedral PtPd core-shell structures are novel morphologies for this system. For the first time we fabricated that the Au core and Au3Cu alloyed shell nanoparticles passivated with CuS2 surface layers and characterized by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the high-resolution micrographs reveals that these nanoparticles have decahedral structure with shell periodicity, and that each of the particles is composed by Au core and Au3Cu ordered superlattice alloyed shell surrounded by CuS 2 surface layer. Additionally, we have described both experimental and theoretical methods of

  10. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  11. SPRING - an image processing package for single-particle based helical reconstruction from electron cryomicrographs.

    PubMed

    Desfosses, Ambroise; Ciuffa, Rodolfo; Gutsche, Irina; Sachse, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Helical reconstruction from electron cryomicrographs has become a routine technique for macromolecular structure determination of helical assemblies since the first days of Fourier-based three-dimensional image reconstruction. In the past decade, the single-particle technique has had an important impact on the advancement of helical reconstruction. Here, we present the software package SPRING that combines Fourier based symmetry analysis and real-space helical processing into a single workflow. One of the most time-consuming steps in helical reconstruction is the determination of the initial symmetry parameters. First, we propose a class-based helical reconstruction approach that enables the simultaneous exploration and evaluation of many symmetry combinations at low resolution. Second, multiple symmetry solutions can be further assessed and refined by single-particle based helical reconstruction using the correlation of simulated and experimental power spectra. Finally, the 3D structure can be determined to high resolution. In order to validate the procedure, we use the reference specimen Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). After refinement of the helical symmetry, a total of 50,000 asymmetric units from two micrographs are sufficient to reconstruct a subnanometer 3D structure of TMV at 6.4Å resolution. Furthermore, we introduce the individual programs of the software and discuss enhancements of the helical reconstruction workflow. Thanks to its user-friendly interface and documentation, SPRING can be utilized by the novice as well as the expert user. In addition to the study of well-ordered helical structures, the development of a streamlined workflow for single-particle based helical reconstruction opens new possibilities to analyze specimens that are heterogeneous in symmetries. PMID:24269218

  12. Advances in digital video for electronic media.

    PubMed

    McAfooes, J A

    1997-01-01

    From media's early days of film strips and records, to today's multimedia CD-ROMs, nurses have embraced educational tools. Today, the capabilities of these tools have placed a tremendous demand for providing information any time, any where. This has led to increasing digitization of sights and sounds. Once digitized, this information can travel over information highways made up of telephone lines, fiberoptic cables, microwaves and satellites, or it can be stored on magnetic and optical media. Technological advances have made it possible for computer users to create, store and retrieve high quality digital still and moving video and audio for inclusion in electronic media. Methods for digitizing include capturing and converting the information with cameras, scanners and capture boards. Digital video compression/decompression (codec) standards vary in quality. Potential uses of digital video abound including video on demand, videoconferencing, distance learning, telemedicine, on-line education and computer-based training. Examples illustrating the differences in digital video formats will be shown during the presentation. PMID:10175444

  13. Development of reliable electronic packaging solutions for spacecraft avionics miniaturization using embedded passice devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzel, Don

    2003-01-01

    Miniaturization of electronic packages will play a key rule in future space avionics systems. Smaller avionics packages will reduce payloads while providing greater functionality for information processing and mission instrumentation. Current surface mount technology discrete passive devices not only take up significant space but also add weight. To that end, the use of embedded passive devices, such as capacitors, inductors and resistors will be instrumental in allowing electronics to be made smaller and lighter. Embedded passive devices fabricated on silicon or like substrates using thin film technology, promise great savings in circuit volume, as well as potentially improving electrical performance by decreasing parasitic losses. These devices exhibit a low physical profile and allow the circuit footprint to be reduced by stacking passive elements within a substrate. Thin film technologies used to deposit embedded passive devices are improving and costs associated with the process are decreasing.

  14. Heterogeneous Integration, An Approach to High Density and High Flexibility Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAgostino, S. A.; Schatzel, D. V.

    2001-01-01

    Key to the design of spacecraft for exploration of the outer planets will be the development of highly integrated and mass/volume efficient electronic systems. Exploration of the outer planets will require optimized propulsion approaches which mandates mass minimization. If one looks at a mission such as the Europa Lander, a high mass/volume efficiency feeds back directly into lower mass for radiation shielding. Concurrently the long mission lengths will drive the need for fault isolation and fault tolerance. The ability to build distributed electronic systems is an inherent requirement and one which is enabled by heterogeneous integration. The electronic packaging approach must be capable of interconnecting various components at a scale comparable with that on the components themselves (chip scale) and it must facilitate efficient integration of the electronics with elements of the spacecraft such as structure or antennae. The concept of 'Heterogeneous Integration' is being explored in the System On A Chip (SOAC) Project at JPL. The goal, of this approach to electronic packaging, is to enable the fabrication and assembly of complete electronic subsystems from components fabricated by a range of processes. Included in such a system could be MEMS sensors, SOI mixed signal ASICs, micro scale passive components and micro power. Secondarily the compact size will enable distributed architectures and integrated assemblies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Thumb tack physical model evaluation of polystyrene bead foam as an encapsulant for electronic packages

    SciTech Connect

    Fossey, D.J.; Swanson, G.D.

    1980-03-01

    A physical model in the shape of a thumb tack is used to measure forces on electronic component lead wires when soldered into printed wiring boards. Encapsulation of electronic packages in polystyrene bead foam of 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 g/cm/sup 3/ densities was evaluated. No solder joint damage was seen. Crushing pressures on metal transistors also were safe for all densities. Experimental data agreed well with theoretical calculations based on the concept of constrained thermal expansion.

  16. CCD photoresponse calibration and contrast adjustment for reliable material discrimination in the inspection of electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Ralph M.; Kerstens, Pieter J. M.; Dorundo, Alan D.

    1992-08-01

    Inspection of complex electronic packages requires discrimination between the various materials used in such packages. Variations in the appearance of these materials and in the equipment''s illumination complicates the segmentation process. In addition, some materials have similar reflectance and absorption characteristics. As a result, the segmentation process is sensitive to small variations in the illumination settings, photoresponse nonuniformity, and contrast fluctuations. In this paper, we present two techniques that reduce these variations: (1) a new method to calibrate and correct the photoresponse characteristics of optical inspection systems, and (2) a method to automatically correct for contrast variations between the inspected packages. This results in a more repetitive appearance of the used packaging materials, which in turn results in improved segmentation performance. The photoresponse correction procedure, models the output of each photosite as a linear function of input illumination and the parameters of the model are measured. The response is corrected using image processing hardware. Experimental results show that the nonuniformity is corrected to within +/- 1 of the A/D dynamic range which agrees with the error analysis. The contrast adjustment method adjusts the image contrast based on histogram features and is adjusted using vendor and custom developed hardware. The relationship between the two techniques is also discussed.

  17. Surface chemical deposition of advanced electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkevig, Cameron

    The focus of this work was to examine the direct plating of Cu on Ru diffusion barriers for use in interconnect technology and the substrate mediated growth of graphene on boron nitride for use in advanced electronic applications. The electrodeposition of Cu on Ru(0001) and polycrystalline substrates (with and without pretreatment in an iodine containing solution) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current--time transient measurements (CTT), in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EC-AFM data show that at potentials near the OPD/UPD threshold, Cu crystallites exhibit pronounced growth anisotropy, with lateral dimensions greatly exceeding vertical dimensions. XPS measurements confirmed the presence and stability of adsorbed I on the Ru surface following pre-treatment in a KI/H2SO4 solution and following polarization to at least -200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. CV data of samples pre-reduced in I-containing electrolyte exhibited a narrow Cu deposition peak in the overpotential region and a UPD peak. The kinetics of the electrodeposited Cu films was investigated by CTT measurements and applied to theoretical models of nucleation. The data indicated that a protective I adlayer may be deposited on an airexposed Ru electrode as the oxide surface is electrochemically reduced, and that this layer will inhibit reformation of an oxide during the Cu electroplating process. A novel method for epitaxial graphene growth directly on a dielectric substrate of systematically variable thickness was studied. Mono/multilayers of BN(111) were grown on Ru(0001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), exhibiting a flat (non-nanomesh) R30(✓3x✓3) structure. BN(111) was used as a template for growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C2H4 at 1000 K. Characterization by LEED, Auger, STM/STS and Raman indicate the graphene is in registry with the BN substrate, and exhibits a HOPG-like 0 eV bandgap density

  18. Acceleration of the GAMESS-UK electronic structure package on graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Karl A; Sherwood, Paul; Guest, Martyn F; Naidoo, Kevin J

    2011-07-30

    The approach used to calculate the two-electron integral by many electronic structure packages including generalized atomic and molecular electronic structure system-UK has been designed for CPU-based compute units. We redesigned the two-electron compute algorithm for acceleration on a graphical processing unit (GPU). We report the acceleration strategy and illustrate it on the (ss|ss) type integrals. This strategy is general for Fortran-based codes and uses the Accelerator compiler from Portland Group International and GPU-based accelerators from Nvidia. The evaluation of (ss|ss) type integrals within calculations using Hartree Fock ab initio methods and density functional theory are accelerated by single and quad GPU hardware systems by factors of 43 and 153, respectively. The overall speedup for a single self consistent field cycle is at least a factor of eight times faster on a single GPU compared with that of a single CPU. PMID:21541963

  19. TGF electron avalanches and gamma-ray emission with LEPTRACK - a new detailed simulation software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    In designing the MXGS coded mask imager of the ASIM mission on the ISS, to detect and locate gamma-rays from Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes, it was necessary to write software to simulate the expansion of gamma-ray photons from 15-20 km altitudes for an initial estimate of TGF spectra and diffuse beam structure likely to be observed at orbital altitudes. From this a new detailed LEPTRACK simulation software package has been developed to track all electron-photon scattering via Bremsstrahlung and ionization, and via any spatial electric-magnetic field geometies which will drive the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA) process at the heart of TGF origin. LEPTRACK uses the standard physics of keV-MeV photon interactions, Bremsstrahlung scattering, Binary-Electron-Bethe models of electron ionization-scattering, positron Bhabha scattering and annihilation. Unlike simulation packages GEANT4, EGS, etc, the physics of these processes is transferred outside the software and controlled by a standard database of text files of total scattering cross sections, differential energy transfer and deflection angle PDFs - easy to read and plot - but which can also be changed, if the user understands the physics involved and wishes to create their own modified database. It also uses a superparticle spatial mesh system to control particle density and flux fields, electric field evolution, and exponential avalanche growth. Results will be presented of TGF simulations using macro electric field geometries expected in storm clouds and micro field geometries expected around streamer tips - and combinations of both - and will include video displays showing the evolving ionization structure of electron trajectories, the time evolution of photon-electron-positron density and flux fields, local molecular ion densities, the dielectric effect of induced local electric fields - and the important effect of the local earth magnetic field on circular lepton feedback and TGF beam direction

  20. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  1. Drafting. Advanced Print Reading--Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document is a workbook for drafting students learning the basics of reading and interpreting electronic drawings and diagrams. The workbook contains eight units covering the following material: basic symbols; circuit symbols; electron tube symbols; winding symbols; semiconductor symbols; miscellaneous symbols; schematic diagrams; and…

  2. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    DOEpatents

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  3. Advances in Defocused-Beam Electron-Probe Microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, P. K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2010-03-01

    Advances in defocused-beam electron-probe microanalysis are presented, with an Excel VBA algorithm which uses a polynomial alpha factor correction algorithm coupled with a catanorm procedure to correct DBA data.

  4. Computer controlled cryo-electron microscopy--TOM² a software package for high-throughput applications.

    PubMed

    Korinek, Andreas; Beck, Florian; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Nickell, Stephan; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2011-09-01

    Automated data acquisition expedites structural studies by electron microscopy and it allows to collect data sets of unprecedented size and consistent quality. In electron tomography it greatly facilitates the systematic exploration of large cellular landscapes and in single particle analysis it allows to generate data sets for an exhaustive classification of coexisting molecular states. Here we describe a novel software philosophy and architecture that can be used for a great variety of automated data acquisition scenarios. Based on our original software package TOM, the new TOM(2) package has been designed in an object-oriented way. The whole program can be seen as a collection of self-sufficient modules with defined relationships acting in a concerted manner. It subdivides data acquisition into a set of hierarchical tasks, bonding data structure and the operations to be performed tightly together. To demonstrate its capacity for high-throughput data acquisition it has been used in conjunction with instrumentation combining the latest technological achievements in electron optics, cryogenics and robotics. Its performance is demonstrated with a single particle analysis case study and with a batch tomography application. PMID:21704708

  5. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Results and Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program's mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronic technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. This viewgraph presentation reviews the NEPP program's goals and objectives, and reviews many of the missions that the NEPP program has impacted, both in and out of NASA. Also included are examples of the evaluation that the program performed.

  6. Advanced optical system simulation in a coupled CAD/optical analysis package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Michael A.; Campillo, Chris J.; Jenkins, David G.

    1999-05-01

    Software packages capable of simulating complex optical systems have the power to shorten the design process for non-imaging illumination, projection display, and other imaging illumination systems, Breault Research Organization's Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) and Robert McNeel and Associates' Rhinoceros computer aided design software, together, allow complicated optical systems to be simulated and analyzed. Through the use of Rhinoceros, an optical system can be accurately modeled in a 3D design environment. ASAP is then used to assign optical properties to the Rhinoceros CAD model. After the optical system has been characterized, it can be analyzed and optimized, by way of features specific to the ASAP optical analysis engine. Using this simulation technique, an HID arc source manufactured by Ushio America, Inc. is accurately represented. 2D CCD images are gathered for the source's emitting-volume across its spectral bandwidth. The images are processed within ASAP, via the inverse Abel command, to produce a 3D emitting-volume. This emitting-volume is combined with an accurate model of the source geometry and its optical properties, to finalize a functioning virtual source model. The characterized source is then joined with a simulated optical system for detailed performance analysis: namely, a projection display system.

  7. Advances in DC photocathode electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce M. Dunham; P. Heartmann; Reza Kazimi; Hongxiu Liu; B. M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; Charles K. Sinclair

    1998-07-01

    At Jefferson Lab, a DC photoemission gun using GaAs and GaAs-like cathodes provides a source of polarized electrons for the main accelerator. The gun is required to produce high average current with long operational lifetimes and high system throughout. Recent work has shown that careful control of the parameters affecting cathode lifetime lead to dramatic improvements in source operation. These conditions include vacuum and the related effect of ion backbombardment, and precise control of all of the electrons emitted from the cathode. In this paper, the authors will review recent results and discuss implications for future photocathode guns.

  8. Advances in superconducting quantum electronic microcircuit fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschman, R. K.; Notarys, H. A.; Mercereau, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Standard microelectronic fabrication techniques have been utilized to produce batch quantities of superconducting quantum electronic devices and circuits. The overall goal is a fabrication technology yielding circuits that are rugged and stable and capable of being fabricated controllably and reproducibly in sizeable quantities. Our progress toward this goal is presented, with primary emphasis on the most recent work, which includes the use of electron-beam lithography and techniques of hybrid microelectronics. Several prototype microcircuits have been successfully fabricated. These microcircuits are formed in a thin-film parent material consisting of layers of superconducting and normal metals, and use proximity-effect structures as the active circuit elements.

  9. Center for Space Power and Advanced Electronics, Auburn University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, Dan W.; Hopkins, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    The union of Auburn University's Center for Space Power and Advanced Electronics and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center to form a Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) is discussed. An area of focus for the CCDS will be the development of silicon carbide electronics technology, in terms of semiconductors and crystal growth. The discussion is presented in viewgraph form.

  10. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  11. Towards roll-to-roll fabrication of electronics, optics, and optoelectronics for smart and intelligent packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kololuoma, Terho K.; Tuomikoski, Markus; Makela, Tapio; Heilmann, Jali; Haring, Tomi; Kallioinen, Jani; Hagberg, Juha; Kettunen, Ilkka; Kopola, Harri K.

    2004-06-01

    Embedding of optoelectrical, optical, and electrical functionalities into low-cost products like packages and printed matter can be used to increase their information content. These functionalities make also possible the realization of new type of entertaining, impressive or guiding effects on the product packages and printed matter. For these purposes, components like displays, photodetectors, light sources, solar cells, battery elements, diffractive optical elements, lightguides, electrical conductors, resistors, transistors, switching elements etc. and their integration to functional modules are required. Additionally, the price of the components for low-end products has to be in cent scale or preferably below that. Therefore, new, cost-effective, and volume scale capable manufacturing techniques are required. Recent developments of liquid-phase processable electrical and optical polymeric, inorganic, and hybrid materials - inks - have made it possible to fabricate functional electrical, optical and optoelectrical components by conventional roll-to-roll techniques such as gravure printing, embossing, digital printing, offset, and screen printing on flexible paper and plastic like substrates. In this paper, we show our current achievements in the field of roll-to-roll fabricated, optics, electronics and optoelectronics. With few examples, we also demonstrate the printing and hot-embossing capabilities of table scale printing machines and VTT Electronic's 'PICO' roll-to-roll pilot production facility.

  12. PSI3: an open-source Ab Initio electronic structure package.

    PubMed

    Crawford, T Daniel; Sherrill, C David; Valeev, Edward F; Fermann, Justin T; King, Rollin A; Leininger, Matthew L; Brown, Shawn T; Janssen, Curtis L; Seidl, Edward T; Kenny, Joseph P; Allen, Wesley D

    2007-07-15

    PSI3 is a program system and development platform for ab initio molecular electronic structure computations. The package includes mature programming interfaces for parsing user input, accessing commonly used data such as basis-set information or molecular orbital coefficients, and retrieving and storing binary data (with no software limitations on file sizes or file-system-sizes), especially multi-index quantities such as electron repulsion integrals. This platform is useful for the rapid implementation of both standard quantum chemical methods, as well as the development of new models. Features that have already been implemented include Hartree-Fock, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, coupled cluster, and configuration interaction wave functions. Distinctive capabilities include the ability to employ Gaussian basis functions with arbitrary angular momentum levels; linear R12 second-order perturbation theory; coupled cluster frequency-dependent response properties, including dipole polarizabilities and optical rotation; and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections with correlated wave functions. This article describes the programming infrastructure and main features of the package. PSI3 is available free of charge through the open-source, GNU General Public License. PMID:17420978

  13. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the size of the shakers and the strength of the attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use stationary vibration shaker tables to provide a driven-base input. The modes can be obtained at much higher excitation levels than fixed-base excitation modes using portable shakers and flexible attachments. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical (finite element) predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1989-08-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the strength of the structure and stinger attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use high force shaker-tables to provide a driven-base input. Some of the issues of concern are: properly simulating the fixed boundary conditions, applying modal estimation algorithms to motion-to-motion frequency response functions vs. motion-to-force frequency response functions, non-linearity effects and testing at very low input levels vs. levels equal to those of the field environment, complications involved with shaker resonances, exciting the ''response-critical'' modes of the structure, and consistency of the modal parameters using driven-base tests vs. fixed-base modal tests. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  16. Advanced fabrication technologies for nano-electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Weckwerth, M.V.; Baca, W.E.

    1996-03-01

    Three novel fabrication technologies are presented which greatly increase the tools available for the realization of nano-electronic devices. First, a sub-micron area post structure descending from a metallic airbridge allows gating of regions as small as 0.1 {mu}m in diameter. This has enabled the study of such quantum phenomena as coupling of parallel quantum point contacts, and electron focusing around a tunable quantum antidot. We also describe two new techniques for backgating multiquantum well structures with submicron lateral resolution. These techniques enable separate ohmic contacts to individual quantum wells spaced as closely as 100 {Angstrom}, and thus allow the fabrication of novel quantum tunneling devices. The first technique uses regrowth over a patterned ion-implanted substrate. The second involves a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) processing scheme, whereby the original substrate is etched away and the backside then patterned using conventional methods.

  17. Recent Advancements in Functionalized Paper-Based Electronics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-08-17

    Building electronic devices on ubiquitous paper substrates has recently drawn extensive attention due to its light weight, low cost, environmental friendliness, and ease of fabrication. Recently, a myriad of advancements have been made to improve the performance of paper electronics for various applications, such as basic electronic components, energy storage devices, generators, antennas, and electronic circuits. This review aims to summarize this progress and discuss different perspectives of paper electronics as well as the remaining challenges yet to be overcome in this field. Other aspects included in this review are the fundamental characteristics of paper, modification of paper with functional materials, and various methods for device fabrication. PMID:27463253

  18. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  19. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Roadmap for FY15 and Beyond and Recent Radiation Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Roadmap for FY15 and Beyond. This roadmap provides a snapshot for current plans and collaborations on testing and evaluation of electronics as well as a discussion of the technology selection approach.

  20. Information Business: Applying Infometry (Informational Geometry) in Cognitive Coordination and Genetic Programming for Electronic Information Packaging and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Bor-sheng

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of infometry, or informational geometry, to meet the challenges of information service businesses. Highlights include theoretical models for cognitive coordination and genetic programming; electronic information packaging; marketing electronic information products, including cost-benefit analyses; and recapitalization, including…

  1. Advanced power electronics and electric machinery program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler) announced in January 2002 a new cooperative research effort. Known as "FreedomCAR" (derived from "Freedom" and "Cooperative Automotive Research"), it represents DOE's commitment to developing public/private partnerships to fund high-risk, high-payoff research into advanced automotive technologies. Efficient fuel cell technology, which uses hydrogen to power automobiles without air pollution, is a very promising pathway to achieving the ultimate vision. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001.

  2. Packaging Concerns and Techniques for Large Devices: Challenges for Complex Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is going to have to accept the use of non-hermetic packages for complex devices. There are a large number of packaging options available. Space application subjects the packages to stresses that they were probably not designed for (vacuum for instance). NASA has to find a way of having assurance in the integrity of the packages. There are manufacturers interested in qualifying non-hermetic packages to MIL-PRF-38535 Class V. Government space users are agreed that Class V should be for hermetic packages only. NASA is working on a new Class for non-hermetic packages for M38535 Appendix B, "Class Y". Testing for package integrity will be required but can be package specific as described by a Package Integrity Test Plan. The plan is developed by the manufacturer and approved by DSCC and government space.

  3. Recent advances in electronic structure theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piecuch, Piotr; Kowalski, Karol; Pimienta, Ian S. O.; McGuire, Michael J.

    The recently developed new approach to the many-electron correlation problem in atoms and molecules, termed the method of moments of coupled-cluster (CC) equations (MMCC), is reviewed. The ground-state MMCC formalism and its extension to excited electronic states via the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOMCC) approach are discussed. The main principle of all MMCC methods is that of the non-iterative energy corrections which, when added to the ground- and excited-state energies obtained in the standard CC calculations, such as CCSD or EOMCCSD, recover the exact, full configuration interaction (CI) energies. Three types of the MMCC approximations are reviewed in detail: (i) the CI-corrected MMCC methods, which can be applied to ground and excited states; (ii) the renormalized and completely renormalized CC methods for ground states; and (iii) the quasi-variational MMCC approaches for the ground-state problem, including the quadratic MMCC models. It is demonstrated that the MMCC formalism provides a new theoretical framework for designing 'black-box' CC approaches that lead to an excellent description of entire potential energy surfaces of ground- and excited-state molecular systems with an ease of use of the standard single-reference methods. The completely renormalized (CR) CCSD(T) and CCSD(TQ) methods and their quadratic and excited-state MMCC analogues remove the failing of the standard CCSD, CCSD(T), EOMCCSD and similar methods at larger internuclear separations and for states that normally require a genuine multireference description. All theoretical ideas are illustrated by numerical examples involving bond breaking, excited vibrational states, reactive potential energy surfaces and difficult cases of excited electronic states. The description of the existing and well-established variants of the MMCC theory, such as CR-CCSD(T), is augmented by the discussion of future prospects and potentially useful recent developments, including the extension of the black

  4. Advanced flexible electronics: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedell, Stephen W.; Shahrjerdi, Davood; Fogel, Keith; Lauro, Paul; Bayram, Can; Hekmatshoar, Bahman; Li, Ning; Ott, John; Sadana, Devendra

    2014-06-01

    Thin, lightweight and flexible electronics are being regarded as an important evolutionary step in the development of novel technological products. Interestingly, this trend has emerged in a wide range of industries; from microelectronics to photovoltaics and even solid state lighting. Historically, most attempts to enable flexibility have focused on the introduction of new material systems that, so far, severely compromise the performance compared to state-of-the-art products. The few approaches that do attempt to render contemporary high-performance materials flexible rely on layer transfer techniques that are complicated, expensive and material-specific. In this paper, we review a method of removing surface layers from brittle substrates called Controlled Spalling Technology that allows one to simple peel material or device layers from their host substrate after they have been fabricated. This allows one to fabricate high-performance electronic products in a manner of their choosing, and make them flexible afterwards. This technique is simple, inexpensive and largely independent of substrate material or size. We demonstrate the power and generality of Controlled Spalling by application to a number of disparate applications including high-performance integrated circuits, high-efficiency photovoltaics and GaN-based solid state lighting.

  5. I-SPINE: a software package for advances in image-guided and minimally invasive spine procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Jeong; Cleary, Kevin R.; Zeng, Jianchao; Gary, Kevin A.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Watson, Vance; Lindisch, David; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-05-01

    While image guidance is now routinely used in the brain in the form of frameless stereotaxy, it is beginning to be more widely used in other clinical areas such as the spine. At Georgetown University Medical Center, we are developing a program to provide advanced visualization and image guidance for minimally invasive spine procedures. This is a collaboration between an engineering-based research group and physicians from the radiology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedics departments. A major component of this work is the ISIS Center Spine Procedures Imaging and Navigation Engine, which is a software package under development as the base platform for technical advances.

  6. The effect of electronic package on satisfaction in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Khosrawi, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional teaching methods used in medical education cannot wholly respond to the rapid changes and growth of information as well as continuous changes in the educational needs of society, especially patients with chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of examining the effect of electronic package on satisfaction in MS patients. Materials and Methods: The research was a quasi-experimental study. It was carried out at the MS Kashani Center affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. One hundred twenty-eight patients with MS were allocated randomly into two equal groups of 64 each for education by booklet (control) and education by multimedia software (experimental) for 2 weeks. Data were collected by processing questionnaires, which consisted of questions about satisfaction (17 items) and questions about demographic and disease characteristics (9 items), answered by both groups before and 2 weeks after education. SPSS version 14 (DARYA software, Iran) was used to conduct statistical tests such as the independent t-test and the paired t-test for analyzing the data. The statistical significance level was less than 0.05. Results: The results show that there was not any significant difference between the satisfaction scores of the electronic package and control groups before intervention, but that there was a significant difference after 2 weeks’ intervention (P = 0.010). Conclusion: The electronic programs comprised an attractive education method. So this technology can increase motivation in MS patients to study more about the disease process. PMID:27308261

  7. Hermetic Packages For Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Martin I.; Lee, Karen A.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Carpenter, Alain; Wamhof, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Advanced hermetic packages developed to house electronic circuits operating at frequencies from 1 to 100 gigahertz and beyond. Signals coupled into and out of packages electromagnetically. Provides circuit packages small, lightweight, rugged, and inexpensive in mass production. Packages embedded in planar microstrip and coplanar waveguide circuits, in waveguide-to-planar and planar-to-waveguide circuitry, in waveguide-to-waveguide circuitry, between radiating (antenna) elements, and between planar transmission lines and radiating elements. Other applications in automotive, communication, radar, remote sensing, and biomedical electronic systems foreseen.

  8. Initial performance of Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Baca, D.M.; Chan, K.C.D.; Cheairs, R.B.; Fortgang, C.M.; Gierman, S.M.; Johnson, W.J.D.; Holcomb, D.E.; Kinross-Wright, J.; McCann, S.W.; Meier, K.L.; Plato, J.G.; Sheffield, R.L.; Sherwood, B.A.; Sigler, F.E.; Timmer, C.A.; Warren, R.W.; Weber, M.E.; Wilson, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    We report recent results on the high-brightness electron linac and initial performance of the Advanced FEL at Los Alamos. The design and construction of the Advanced FEL beamline are based upon integration of advanced technologies such as high-brightness photoinjector, high-gradient compact linac, and permanent-magnet beamline components. With the use of microwiggler, both permanent magnet and pulsed electromagnet, and compact optical resonator, the Advanced FEL will be the first of its kind small enough to be mounted on an optical table and yet capable of providing highpower optical output spanning the near-ir and visible regions. A schematic of the Advanced FEL is shown in. The source of high-current electron pulses is a laser-gated photoelectron injector which forms-an integral part of a high-gradient 1.2-m long rf linear accelerator. The latter is capable of accelerating electrons up to 20 MeV with room temperature operation and 25 MeV at 77K. The electrons are produced in 10-ps pulses with peak currents as high as 300 A. These electron pulses are transported in a brightness-preserving beamline consisting of permanent magnet dipoles and quadrupoles. The beamline has three 30{degrees} bends. The first bend allows for the photocathode drive laser input; the second allows for the FEL output and the third turns the electron beam into the floor for safety reasons. Additional information on the design physics of the Advanced FEL can be found elsewhere.

  9. Initial performance of Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Baca, D.M.; Chan, K.C.D.; Cheairs, R.B.; Fortgang, C.M.; Gierman, S.M.; Johnson, W.J.D.; Holcomb, D.E.; Kinross-Wright, J.; McCann, S.W.; Meier, K.L.; Plato, J.G.; Sheffield, R.L.; Sherwood, B.A.; Sigler, F.E.; Timmer, C.A.; Warren, R.W.; Weber, M.E.; Wilson, W.L.

    1992-09-01

    We report recent results on the high-brightness electron linac and initial performance of the Advanced FEL at Los Alamos. The design and construction of the Advanced FEL beamline are based upon integration of advanced technologies such as high-brightness photoinjector, high-gradient compact linac, and permanent-magnet beamline components. With the use of microwiggler, both permanent magnet and pulsed electromagnet, and compact optical resonator, the Advanced FEL will be the first of its kind small enough to be mounted on an optical table and yet capable of providing highpower optical output spanning the near-ir and visible regions. A schematic of the Advanced FEL is shown in. The source of high-current electron pulses is a laser-gated photoelectron injector which forms-an integral part of a high-gradient 1.2-m long rf linear accelerator. The latter is capable of accelerating electrons up to 20 MeV with room temperature operation and 25 MeV at 77K. The electrons are produced in 10-ps pulses with peak currents as high as 300 A. These electron pulses are transported in a brightness-preserving beamline consisting of permanent magnet dipoles and quadrupoles. The beamline has three 30{degrees} bends. The first bend allows for the photocathode drive laser input; the second allows for the FEL output and the third turns the electron beam into the floor for safety reasons. Additional information on the design physics of the Advanced FEL can be found elsewhere.

  10. The role of materials and processes in high density electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. R.

    Problems encountered by packaging engineers in applications of current miniaturized components and methods for electronics components are surveyed. Attention is focused on mass vapor phase soldering of pins into back planes. The process was ameliorated by the advent of CAD techniques as the layout per square inch increased. Location of components end-to-end simplified the process and improved circuit reliability. Tolerances were reduced to 0.03 in. separation, which required retooling the 0.1 in. standard test grids. Chip carriers with up to 64 leads were then devised and withstood 1000 cycles from -55 to 125 C without failure. The new process forced the integration of chip and board assembly operations. Studies are still required for quantifying the actual cost savings (if any) of the whole process.

  11. Hermetically sealable package for hybrid solid-state electronic devices and the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Wilson N. (Inventor); Gray, Ormal E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A light-weight, inexpensively fabricated, hermetically sealable, repairable package for small electronic or electromechanical units, having multiple connections, is described. A molded ring frame of polyamide-imide plastic (Torlon) is attached along one edge to a base plate formed of a highly heat conducting material, such as aluminum or copper. Bores are placed through a base plate within the area of the edge surface of ring frame which result in an attachment of the ring frame to the base plate during molding. Electrical leads are molded into the ring frame. The leads are L-shaped gold-plated copper wires imbedded within widened portions of the side wall of the ring frame. Within the plastic ring frame wall the leads are bent (typically, though not necessarily at 90 deg) so that they project into the interior volume of the ring frame for connection to the solid state devices.

  12. Advances in molecular quantum chemistry contained in the Q-Chem 4 program package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yihan; Gan, Zhengting; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Gilbert, Andrew T. B.; Wormit, Michael; Kussmann, Joerg; Lange, Adrian W.; Behn, Andrew; Deng, Jia; Feng, Xintian; Ghosh, Debashree; Goldey, Matthew; Horn, Paul R.; Jacobson, Leif D.; Kaliman, Ilya; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kuś, Tomasz; Landau, Arie; Liu, Jie; Proynov, Emil I.; Rhee, Young Min; Richard, Ryan M.; Rohrdanz, Mary A.; Steele, Ryan P.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Woodcock, H. Lee, III; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Zuev, Dmitry; Albrecht, Ben; Alguire, Ethan; Austin, Brian; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Bernard, Yves A.; Berquist, Eric; Brandhorst, Kai; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Brown, Shawn T.; Casanova, David; Chang, Chun-Min; Chen, Yunqing; Chien, Siu Hung; Closser, Kristina D.; Crittenden, Deborah L.; Diedenhofen, Michael; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Do, Hainam; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Edgar, Richard G.; Fatehi, Shervin; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Ghysels, An; Golubeva-Zadorozhnaya, Anna; Gomes, Joseph; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Harbach, Philipp H. P.; Hauser, Andreas W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Holden, Zachary C.; Jagau, Thomas-C.; Ji, Hyunjun; Kaduk, Benjamin; Khistyaev, Kirill; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihan; King, Rollin A.; Klunzinger, Phil; Kosenkov, Dmytro; Kowalczyk, Tim; Krauter, Caroline M.; Lao, Ka Un; Laurent, Adèle D.; Lawler, Keith V.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Lin, Ching Yeh; Liu, Fenglai; Livshits, Ester; Lochan, Rohini C.; Luenser, Arne; Manohar, Prashant; Manzer, Samuel F.; Mao, Shan-Ping; Mardirossian, Narbe; Marenich, Aleksandr V.; Maurer, Simon A.; Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Neuscamman, Eric; Oana, C. Melania; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; O'Neill, Darragh P.; Parkhill, John A.; Perrine, Trilisa M.; Peverati, Roberto; Prociuk, Alexander; Rehn, Dirk R.; Rosta, Edina; Russ, Nicholas J.; Sharada, Shaama M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Small, David W.; Sodt, Alexander; Stein, Tamar; Stück, David; Su, Yu-Chuan; Thom, Alex J. W.; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Vanovschi, Vitalii; Vogt, Leslie; Vydrov, Oleg; Wang, Tao; Watson, Mark A.; Wenzel, Jan; White, Alec; Williams, Christopher F.; Yang, Jun; Yeganeh, Sina; Yost, Shane R.; You, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Igor Ying; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Yan; Brooks, Bernard R.; Chan, Garnet K. L.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Goddard, William A., III; Gordon, Mark S.; Hehre, Warren J.; Klamt, Andreas; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Schmidt, Michael W.; Sherrill, C. David; Truhlar, Donald G.; Warshel, Arieh; Xu, Xin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Baer, Roi; Bell, Alexis T.; Besley, Nicholas A.; Chai, Jeng-Da; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D.; Furlani, Thomas R.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Jung, Yousung; Kong, Jing; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Liang, WanZhen; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Rassolov, Vitaly A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Herbert, John M.; Krylov, Anna I.; Gill, Peter M. W.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

  13. MsSpec-1.0: A multiple scattering package for electron spectroscopies in material science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sébilleau, Didier; Natoli, Calogero; Gavaza, George M.; Zhao, Haifeng; Da Pieve, Fabiana; Hatada, Keisuke

    2011-12-01

    We present a multiple scattering package to calculate the cross-section of various spectroscopies namely photoelectron diffraction (PED), Auger electron diffraction (AED), X-ray absorption (XAS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS). This package is composed of three main codes, computing respectively the cluster, the potential and the cross-section. In the latter case, in order to cover a range of energies as wide as possible, three different algorithms are provided to perform the multiple scattering calculation: full matrix inversion, series expansion or correlation expansion of the multiple scattering matrix. Numerous other small Fortran codes or bash/csh shell scripts are also provided to perform specific tasks. The cross-section code is built by the user from a library of subroutines using a makefile. Program summaryProgram title: MsSpec-1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEJT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 504 438 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 448 180 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Any Operating system: Linux, MacOs RAM: Bytes Classification: 7.2 External routines: Lapack ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/) Nature of problem: Calculation of the cross-section of various spectroscopies. Solution method: Multiple scattering. Running time: The test runs provided only take a few seconds to run.

  14. DAMQT 2.0: A new version of the DAMQT package for the analysis of electron density in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Rafael; Rico, Jaime Fernández; Ramírez, Guillermo; Ema, Ignacio; Zorrilla, David

    2015-07-01

    DAMQT 2.0 is a new version of the DAMQT package for the analysis of electron density in molecules and the fast computation of the density, density deformations, electrostatic potential and field, and Hellmann-Feynman forces. Algorithms for the partition of the electron density and the computation of related properties like density deformations, electrostatic potential and field and Hellmann-Feynman forces have been improved and their codes, fully rewritten. MPI versions of the most computational demanding modules are now included in the package for parallel computation. The Graphical User Interface has been also enhanced, with new features including a 2D plotter and significant improvements in the 3D viewer.

  15. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (APEEM) subprogram within the Vehicle Technologies Program provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on understanding and improving the way the various new components of tomorrow's automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  16. Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, H. W.; Graves, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is described. Tunnel junctions were fabricated, the tunneling spectra of several molecules absorbed on the surface of aluminum oxide measured, and mode assignments made for several of the prominent peaks in spectra using results obtained from optical…

  17. BORON NITRIDE CAPACITORS FOR ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone

    2010-11-01

    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  18. Recent progress of the Los Alamos advanced free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Austin, R.H.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.; Goldstein, J.C.; Gierman, S.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Kong, S.H.; Plato, J.G.; Russell, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    Many industrial and research applications can benefit from the availability of a compact, user-friendly, broadly tunable and high average power free electron laser (FEL). Over the past four years, the Los Alamos Advanced FEL has been built with these design goals. The key to a compact FEL is the integration of advanced beam technologies such as a high-brightness photoinjector, a high-gradient compact linac, and permanent magnet beamline components. These technologies enable the authors to shrink the FEL size yet maintain its high average power capability. The Advanced FEL has been in operation in the near ir (4-6 {mu}m) since early 1993. Recent results of the Advanced FEL lasing at saturation and upgrades to improve its average power are presented.

  19. Advanced Accelerating Structures and Their Interaction with Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gai Wei

    2009-01-22

    In this paper, we give a brief description of several advanced accelerating structures, such as dielectric loaded waveguides, photonic band gap, metamaterials and improved iris-loaded cavities. We describe wakefields generated by passing high current electron beams through these structures, and applications of wakefields to advanced accelerator schemes. One of the keys to success for high gradient wakefield acceleration is to develop high current drive beam sources. As an example, the high current RF photo injector at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator, passed a {approx}80 nC electron beam through a high gradient dielectric loaded structure to achieve a 100 MV/m gradient. We will summarize recent related experiments on beam-structure interactions and also discuss high current electron beam generation and propagation and their applications to wakefield acceleration.

  20. Advanced accelerating structures and their interaction with electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we give a brief description of several advanced accelerating structures, such as dielectric loaded waveguides, photonic band gap, metamaterials and improved iris-loaded cavities. We describe wakefields generated by passing high current electron beams through these structures, and applications of wakefields to advanced accelerator schemes. One of the keys to success for high gradient wakefield acceleration is to develop high current drive beam sources. As an example, the high current RF photo injector at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator, passed a {approx}80 nC electron beam through a high gradient dielectric loaded structure to achieve a 100 MV/m gradient. We will summarize recent related experiments on beam-structure interactions and also discuss high current electron beam generation and propagation and their applications to wakefield acceleration.

  1. Future Opportunities for Advancing Glucose Test Device Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano “ink” composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, “ink,” and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers. PMID:22027300

  2. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Overview and the New Tenets for Cost Conscious Mission Assurance on Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The NEPP Program focuses on the reliability aspects of electronic devices (integrated circuits such as a processor in a computer). There are three principal aspects of this reliability: 1) Lifetime, inherent failure and design issues related to the EEE parts technology and packaging; 2) Effects of space radiation and the space environment on these technologies, and; 3) Creation and maintenance of the assurance support infrastructure required for mission success. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment, and to ensure that appropriate EEE parts research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. NEPPs FY15 goals are to represent the NASA voice to the greater aerospace EEE parts community including supporting anti-counterfeit and trust, provide relevant guidance to cost-effective missions, aid insertion of advanced (and commercial) technologies, resolve unexpected parts issues, ensure access to appropriate radiation test facilities, and collaborate as widely as possible with external entities. In accordance with the changing mission profiles throughout NASA, the NEPP Program has developed a balanced portfolio of efforts to provide agency-wide assurance for not only traditional spacecraft developments, but also those in-line with the new philosophies emerging worldwide. In this presentation, we shall present an overview of this program and considerations for EEE parts assurance as applied to cost conscious missions.

  3. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  4. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man. PMID:22346690

  5. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  6. Synthesis and properties of transparent cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins for opto-electronic devices packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nan; Liu, WeiQu; Yan, ZhenLong; Wang, ZhengFang

    2013-01-01

    Cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins were successfully synthesized through a two-step reaction route: (і) hydrosilylation of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) and 1,2-epoxy-4-vinyl-cyclohexane (VCMX), (іі) blocking of unreacted Sisbnd H in (і) with n-butanol. The molecular structures of the cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 29Si NMR). High grafting efficiencies of epoxy groups were confirmed by 1H NMR combined with weighting results, indicating over 90 mol% of cycloaliphatic epoxy were grafted on the silicone resins. Subsequently, Sisbnd H groups from TMCTS were almost totally consumed after the blocking reactions. In comparison with commercial available cycloaliphatic epoxy resin 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ERL-4221) cured by MHHPA, the cured cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins exhibited better thermal stability, lower water absorption and higher UV/thermal resistance. Moreover, the characteristics of transmittance (>90%, 800 nm), 5 wt.% mass loss temperature (>330 °C) and no yellowing during thermal aging at 120 °C or UV aging for 288 h of the cured cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins, made them possible for power light-emitting diode (LED) encapsulants, or other packaging materials, like optical lenses, and electronic sealings.

  7. Radiation cross-linked plastics: a versatile material solution for packaging, automotive, Electrotechnic and Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouif, Sophie

    2004-09-01

    Used since the beginning of the 1970s for the production of halogen-free and heat-resistant cables and wires, for conditioning polyethylene hot-water pipes or for the manufacture of heat shrinkable tubes and of tyres, radiation cross-linking is developing fastly today on the scale of plastic-moulded parts, and not only by the mean of EB, but also under gamma rays. Indeed, it improves considerably the performances of a great number of plastics among thermoplastics, elastomers and thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Radiation cross-linking reinforces the dimensional stability of polymers in chemically aggressive and high-temperature conditions. Radiation cross-linked-based engineering plastics offers OEM and end users in many branches of industry both technical and economical advantages in comparison with high-performances plastics. They constitute a technical and economical compromise between engineering plastics that failed and high-performances plastic, often over-tailored and expensive. This modern industrial technology gives way to new applications and perspectives in various sectors (packaging, automotive, electrotechnic and electronics, including connectors, surface-mounted devices, integrated circuits, 3D-MID, etc.) that are described in the paper.

  8. A novel bottom-up copper filling of blind silicon vias in 3D electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li; Shi, Tielin; Su, Lei; Xue, Dongmin; Liao, Guanglan

    2015-04-01

    Through silicon via is a promising technology that has benefits of high density, excellent performance and heterogeneous integration for 3D stacked devices, where blind silicon via plating in via first and via middle approaches is widely used. However, using conventional damascene copper plating technology to achieve high quality copper filling of blind vias is very difficult. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel approach for realizing bottom-up copper filling of blind silicon vias. Electroplating of the blind vias is carried out by using a titanium barrier layer, instead of the traditional copper seed layer, as the conductive medium. A vacuum process is introduced to push photoresist completely into the blind vias. By controlling the exposure and development processes, the photoresist at the top and middle of the vias is removed while that at the bottom it is retained for protecting the seed layer. After etching the exposed seed layer, we obtain a unique metal layer structure in which the copper seed layer is reserved at the via bottom, facilitating spontaneous bottom-up plating. Using this approach, we realize high quality copper filling of blind silicon vias of 30 µm in diameter and 120 µm in depth, which will be of noteworthy benefit in 3D electronic packaging.

  9. Collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms I. Package outline and high energy code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Jakub; Houfek, Karel

    2014-11-01

    Being motivated by the applied researchers’ persisting need for accurate scattering data for the collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms, we developed a computer package-Hex-that is designed to provide trustworthy results for all basic discrete and continuous processes within non-relativistic framework. The package consists of several computational modules that implement different methods, valid for specific energy regimes. Results of the modules are kept in a common database in the unified form of low-level scattering data (partial-wave T-matrices) and accessed by an interface program which is able to produce various derived quantities like e.g. differential and integral cross sections. This article is the first one of a series of articles that are concerned with the implementation and testing of the modules. Here we give an overview of their structure and present (a) the command-line interface program hex-db that can be also easily compiled into a derived code or used as a backend for a web-page form and (b) simple illustrative module specialized for high energies, hex-dwba, that implements distorted and plane wave Born approximation. Catalogue identifier: AETH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data etc.: 30367 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data etc.: 232032 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++11 Operating system: Any system with a C++11 compiler (e.g. GCC 4.8.1; tested on OpenSUSE 13.1 and Windows 8). RAM: Test run 3 MiB. CPC Library Classification: 2.4 Electron scattering External libraries:GSL [49], FFTW3[52], SQLite3 [46]. All of the libraries are open-source and maintained. Nature of problem: Extraction of derived (observable) quantities from partial

  10. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  11. Advanced Power Electronics for LED Drivers: Advanced Technologies for integrated Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: MIT is teaming with Georgia Institute of Technology, Dartmouth College, and the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) to create more efficient power circuits for energy-efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through advances in 3 related areas. First, the team is using semiconductors made of high-performing gallium nitride grown on a low-cost silicon base (GaN-on-Si). These GaN-on-Si semiconductors conduct electricity more efficiently than traditional silicon semiconductors. Second, the team is developing new magnetic materials and structures to reduce the size and increase the efficiency of an important LED power component, the inductor. This advancement is important because magnetics are the largest and most expensive part of a circuit. Finally, the team is creating an entirely new circuit design to optimize the performance of the new semiconductors and magnetic devices it is using.

  12. VIPER: an advanced software package to support high-throughput LC-MS peptide identification

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, Matthew E.; Tolic, Nikola; Jaitly, Navdeep; Shaw, Jason L.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-06-01

    High throughput liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics analyses have necessitated development of software to manipulate large volumes of detailed data and produce confident peptide/protein identifications. VIPER unites important data processing steps in a single software package that can be used to visualize peptide mass and LC elution (i.e. retention) time “feature” relationships from individual analyses, match these LC-MS features to accurate mass and time (AMT) tags of peptides previously identified in LC-MS/MS analyses, and to identify and quantify pairs of isotopically labeled peptides.

  13. Advanced electronic displays and their potential in future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that electronic displays represent one of the keys to continued integration and improvement of the effectiveness of avionic systems in future transport aircraft. An employment of modern electronic display media and generation has become vital in connection with the increases in modes and functions of modern aircraft. Requirements for electronic systems of future transports are examined, and a description is provided of the tools which are available for cockpit integration, taking into account trends in information processing and presentation, trends in integrated display devices, and trends concerning input/output devices. Developments related to display media, display generation, and I/O devices are considered, giving attention to a comparison of CRT and flat-panel display technology, advanced HUD technology and multifunction controls. Integrated display formats are discussed along with integrated systems and cockpit configurations.

  14. Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, Darrel

    This chapter is a high-level overview of the materials used in an electronic package including: metals used as conductors in the package, ceramics and glasses used as dielectrics or insulators and polymers used as insulators and, in a composite form, as conductors. There is a need for new materials to meet the ever-changing requirements for high-speed digital and radio-frequency (RF) applications. There are different requirements for digital and RF packages that translate into the need for unique materials for each application. The interconnect and dielectric (insulating) requirements are presented for each application and the relevant materials properties and characteristics are discussed. The fundamental materials characteristics are: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, thermal and electric conductivity, resistivity, moisture absorption, glass-transition temperature, strength, time-dependent deformation (creep), and fracture toughness. The materials characteristics and properties are dependant on how they are processed to form the electronic package so the fundamentals of electronic packaging processes are discussed including wirebonding, solder interconnects, flip-chip interconnects, underfill for flip chip and overmolding. The relevant materials properties are given along with requirements (including environmentally friendly Pb-free packages) that require new materials to be developed to meet future electronics needs for both digital and RF applications.

  15. DAMQT: A package for the analysis of electron density in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Rafael; Rico, Jaime Fernández; Ramírez, Guillermo; Ema, Ignacio; Zorrilla, David

    2009-09-01

    DAMQT is a package for the analysis of the electron density in molecules and the fast computation of the density, density deformations, electrostatic potential and field, and Hellmann-Feynman forces. The method is based on the partition of the electron density into atomic fragments by means of a least deformation criterion. Each atomic fragment of the density is expanded in regular spherical harmonics times radial factors, which are piecewise represented in terms of analytical functions. This representation is used for the fast evaluation of the electrostatic potential and field generated by the electron density and nuclei, as well as for the computation of the Hellmann-Feynman forces on the nuclei. An analysis of the atomic and molecular deformations of the density can be also carried out, yielding a picture that connects with several concepts of the empirical structural chemistry. Program summaryProgram title: DAMQT1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEDL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 278 356 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31 065 317 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 and C++ Computer: Any Operating system: Linux, Windows (Xp, Vista) RAM: 190 Mbytes Classification: 16.1 External routines: Trolltech's Qt (4.3 or higher) ( http://www.qtsoftware.com/products), OpenGL (1.1 or higher) ( http://www.opengl.org/), GLUT 3.7 ( http://www.opengl.org/resources/libraries/glut/). Nature of problem: Analysis of the molecular electron density and density deformations, including fast evaluation of electrostatic potential, electric field and Hellmann-Feynman forces on nuclei. Solution method: The method of Deformed Atoms in Molecules, reported elsewhere [1], is used for partitioning the molecular electron density

  16. Preconditioning techniques for constrained vector potential integral equations, with application to 3-D magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages

    SciTech Connect

    Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing constrained vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.

  17. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry. PMID:22346620

  18. 76 FR 12144 - Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 2, 2011. It appears to the... securities of Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the... of investors require a suspension of trading in Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc. Therefore, it...

  19. A thick photoresist process for advanced wafer level packaging applications using JSR THB-151N negative tone UV photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Vempati; Kripesh, Vaidyanathan; Yoon, Seung Wook; Tay, Andrew A. O.

    2006-09-01

    The development of thick photoresist molds using JSR THB-151N negative tone UV photoresist for the electroplating of interconnects in advanced packaging technologies has been demonstrated. Two different thick photoresist molds 65 and 130 µm high with aspect ratios of up to 2.6 have been fabricated with good reproducibility using single and double coating processes. Optimized lithography parameters using a UV aligner to achieve straight and near-vertical side-wall profiles are also reported. Near-vertical side walls similar to that obtained using SU-8 photoresist have been obtained. JSR photoresist has been found to be easily striped with no residues in solvent stripper solutions, making it suitable for wafer bumping applications and the processing of MEMS devices. Through-mold electroplating of copper and solder is also demonstrated. The simultaneous fabrication of 1167 000 high density interconnects on 8 inch wafers, using lithography and electroplating technologies, is also reported.

  20. Advances in modeling and simulation of vacuum electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Mondelli, A.A.; Levush, B.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1999-05-01

    Recent advances in the modeling and simulation of vacuum electronic devices are reviewed. Design of these devices makes use of a variety of physical models and numerical code types. Progress in the development of these models and codes is outlined and illustrated with specific examples. The state of the art in device simulation is evolving to the point such that devices can be designed on the computer, thereby eliminating many trial and error fabrication and test steps. The role of numerical simulation in the design process can be expected to grow further in the future.

  1. Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding Evaluation Activities on a Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy for Nuclear Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, F; Punshon, C; Dorsch, T; Fielding, P; Richard, D; Yang, N; Hill, M; DeWald, A; Rebak, R; Day, S; Wong, L; Torres, S; McGregor, M; Hackel, L; Chen, H-L; Rankin, J

    2003-09-11

    The current waste package design for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA, employs gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in fabricating the waste packages. While GTAW is widely used in industry for many applications, it requires multiple weld passes. By comparison, single-pass welding methods inherently use lower heat input than multi-pass welding methods which results in lower levels of weld distortion and also narrower regions of residual stresses at the weld TWI Ltd. has developed a Reduced Pressure Electron Beam (RPEB) welding process which allows EB welding in a reduced pressure environment ({le} 1 mbar). As it is a single-pass welding technique, use of RPEB welding could (1) achieve a comparable or better materials performance and (2) lead to potential cost savings in the waste package manufacturing as compared to GTAW. Results will be presented on the initial evaluation of the RPEB welding on a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (a candidate alloy for the Yucca Mountain waste packages) in the areas of (a) design and manufacturing simplifications, (b) material performance and (c) weld reliability.

  2. Initial performance of Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Austin, R.H.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Los Alamos compact Advanced FEL has lased at 4.7 and 5.2 {mu}m with a 1-cm period wiggler and a high-brightness electron beam at 16.8 and 15.8 MeV, respectively. The measured electron beam normalized emittance is 1.7 {pi}{center_dot}mm{center_dot}mrad at a peak current of 100 A, corresponding to a beam brightness greater than 2 {times} 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}rad{sup 2}. Initial results indicate that the AFEL small signal gain is {approximately}8% at 0.3 nC (30 A peak). The maximum output energy is 7 mJ over a 2-{mu}s macropulse. The AFEL performance can be significantly enhanced by improvements in the rf and drive laser stability.

  3. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Advanced Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling

    2015-01-01

    Novel approach enables high-speed special-purpose processors Advanced reconfigurable and reprogrammable communication systems will require sub-130-nanometer electronics. Legacy single event upset (SEU) radiation-tolerant circuits are ineffective at speeds greater than 125 megahertz. In Phase I of this project, ICs, LLC, demonstrated new base-level logic circuits that provide SEU immunity for sub-130-nanometer high-speed circuits. In Phase II, the company developed an innovative self-restoring logic (SRL) circuit and a system approach that provides high-speed, SEU-tolerant solutions that are effective for sub-130-nanometer electronics scalable to at least 22-nanometer processes. The SRL system can be used in the design of NASA's next-generation special-purpose processors, especially reconfigurable communication processors.

  4. Advanced Diagnostics for Developing High-Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.-J.; Yakimenko, V.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  5. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH-BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  6. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  7. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  8. Advanced nanoimprint patterning for functional electronics and biochemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao

    Nano-fabrication has been widely used for a variety of disciplines, including electronics, material science, nano-optics, and nano-biotechnology. This dissertation focuses on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) based novel nano-patterning techniques for fabricating functional structures, and discusses their applications in advanced electronics and high-sensitivity molecular sensing. In this dissertation, examples of using nano-fabricated structures for promising electronic applications are presented. For instance, 10 nm and 18 nm features are NIL-fabricated for Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling transistors and graphene nano-ribbon transistors, using shadow evaporation and line-width shrinking techniques, respectively. An ultrafast laser melting based method is applied on flexible plastic substrates to correct defects of nano-features. Nano-texturing of sapphire substrate is developed to improve the light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by 70 %. A novel multi-layer nano-patterned Si-mediated catalyst is discovered to grow straight and uniform Si nanowires with optimized properties in size, location, and crystallization on amorphous SiO2 substrate. Nano-structures are also functionalized into highly sensitive bio-chemical sensors. Plasmonic nano-bar antenna arrays are demonstrated to effectively sense infrared molecules >10 times better than conventional plasmonic sensors. As small as 20 nm wide nano-channel fluidic devices are developed to linearize and detect DNA molecules for potential DNA sequencing. An integrated fluidic system is built to incorporate plasmonic nano-structures for 30X-enhanced fluorescence detection of large DNA molecules.

  9. Using advanced electron microscopy for the characterization of catalytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrz, William D.

    Catalysis will continue to be vitally important to the advancement and sustainability of industrialized societies. Unfortunately, the petroleum-based resources that currently fuel the energy and consumer product needs of an advancing society are becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extract as supplies diminish and the quality of sources degrade. Therefore, the development of sustainable energy sources and the improvement of the carbon efficiency of existing chemical processes are critical. Further challenges require that these initiatives are accomplished in an environmentally friendly fashion since the effects of carbon-based emissions are proving to be a serious threat to global climate stability. In this dissertation, materials being developed for sustainable energy and process improvement initiatives are studied. Our approach is to use materials characterization, namely advanced electron microscopy, to analyze the targeted systems at the nano- or Angstrom-scale with the goal of developing useful relationships between structure, composition, crystalline order, morphology, and catalytic performance. One area of interest is the complex Mo-V-M-O (M=Te, Sb, Ta, Nb) oxide system currently being developed for the selective oxidation/ammoxidation of propane to acrylic acid or acrylonitrile, respectively. Currently, the production of acrylic acid and acrylonitrile rely on propylene-based processes, yet significant cost savings could be realized if the olefin-based feeds could be replaced by paraffin-based ones. The major challenge preventing this feedstock replacement is the development of a suitable paraffin-activating catalyst. Currently, the best candidate is the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O complex oxide catalyst that is composed of two majority phases that are commonly referred to as M1 and M2. However, there is a limited understanding of the roles of each component with respect to how they contribute to catalyst stability and the reaction mechanism. Aberration

  10. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information... United States by way of Canada or Mexico is not subject to the advance electronic information...

  11. Investigation of relativistic runaway electrons in electron cyclotron resonance heating discharges on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, C. S.; Lee, S. G.

    2014-07-15

    The behavior of relativistic runaway electrons during Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) discharges is investigated in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research device. The effect of the ECRH on the runaway electron population is discussed. Observations on the generation of superthermal electrons during ECRH will be reported, which will be shown to be consistent with existing theory for the development of a superthermal electron avalanche during ECRH [A. Lazaros, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1263 (2001)].

  12. Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids: Child-Resistant Packaging, Nicotine Content, and Sales to Minors2

    PubMed Central

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R.; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy of the labeled quantity of the nicotine content of the e-liquids sold in unlicensed vape stores, whether the packaging of e-liquids sold within the vape stores was child-resistant, whether minors were present within vape stores, and whether sales to minors occurred. This study was conducted across North Dakota prior to implementation of a new e-cigarette state law and provided a baseline assessment before enactment of the new legal requirements. Design and Methods We tested samples of e-liquids and performed observations in 16 stores that were selling e-cigarettes but were not legally required to be licensed for tobacco retail. The e-liquids were analyzed for nicotine content using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for nicotine analysis. Results Of the 70 collected e-liquid samples that claimed to contain nicotine, 17% contained more than the labeled quantity and 34% contained less than the labeled quantity by 10% or more, with one sample containing 172% more than the labeled quantity. Of the 94 e-liquid containers sampled, only 35% were determined to be child-resistant. Minors were present in stores, although no sales to minors occurred. Conclusions Mislabeling of nicotine in e-liquids is common and exposes the user to the harmful effects of nicotine. The lack of child-resistant packaging for this potentially toxic substance is a serious public health problem. E-cigarettes should be included in the legal definition of tobacco products, child-resistant packaging and nicotine labeling laws should be enacted and strictly enforced, and vape stores should be licensed by states. PMID:27079973

  13. Deep Impact Delta II Launch Vehicle Cracked Thick Film Coating on Electronic Packages Technical Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Kichak, Robert A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Wilson, Timmy R.

    2009-01-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft was launched on a Boeing Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on January 12, 2005. Prior to the launch, the Director of the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OS&MA) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) lead a team to render an independent opinion on the rationale for flight and the risk code assignments for the hazard of cracked Thick Film Assemblies (TFAs) in the E-packages of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Deep Impact Mission. The results of the evaluation are contained in this report.

  14. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.

  15. Advancement in thermal interface materials for future high-performance electronic applications. Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Huber, Dale L.; Rightley, Michael J.; Emerson, John Allen

    2006-02-01

    As electronic assemblies become more compact and increase in processing bandwidth, escalating thermal energy has become more difficult to manage. The major limitation has been nonmetallic joining using poor thermal interface materials (TIM). The interfacial, versus bulk, thermal conductivity of an adhesive is the major loss mechanism and normally accounts for an order magnitude loss in conductivity per equivalent thickness. The next generation TIM requires a sophisticated understanding of material and surface sciences, heat transport at submicron scales, and the manufacturing processes used in packaging of microelectronics and other target applications. Only when this relationship between bond line manufacturing processes, structure, and contact resistance is well-understood on a fundamental level will it be possible to advance the development of miniaturized microsystems. This report examines using thermal and squeeze-flow modeling as approaches to formulate TIMs incorporating nanoscience concepts. Understanding the thermal behavior of bond lines allows focus on the interfacial contact region. In addition, careful study of the thermal transport across these interfaces provides greatly augmented heat transfer paths and allows the formulation of very high resistance interfaces for total thermal isolation of circuits. For example, this will allow the integration of systems that exhibit multiple operational temperatures, such as cryogenically cooled detectors.

  16. Development and Applications of Advanced Electronic Structure Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Franziska

    This dissertation contributes to three different areas in electronic structure theory. The first part of this thesis advances the fundamentals of orbital active spaces. Orbital active spaces are not only essential in multi-reference approaches, but have also become of interest in single-reference methods as they allow otherwise intractably large systems to be studied. However, despite their great importance, the optimal choice and, more importantly, their physical significance are still not fully understood. In order to address this problem, we studied the higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) in the context of electronic structure methods. We were able to gain a physical understanding of the resulting orbitals and proved a connection to unrelaxed natural orbitals in the case of Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to second order (MP2). In the quest to find the optimal choice of the active space, we proposed a HOSVD for energy-weighted integrals, which yielded the fastest convergence in MP2 correlation energy for small- to medium-sized active spaces to date, and is also potentially transferable to coupled-cluster theory. In the second part, we studied monomeric and dimeric glycerol radical cations and their photo-induced dissociation in collaboration with Prof. Leone and his group. Understanding the mechanistic details involved in these processes are essential for further studies on the combustion of glycerol and carbohydrates. To our surprise, we found that in most cases, the experimentally observed appearance energies arise from the separation of product fragments from one another rather than rearrangement to products. The final chapters of this work focus on the development, assessment, and application of the spin-flip method, which is a single-reference approach, but capable of describing multi-reference problems. Systems exhibiting multi-reference character, which arises from the (near-) degeneracy of orbital energies, are amongst the most

  17. The VENUS/NWChem Software Package. Tight Coupling Between Chemical Dynamics Simulations and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun, Rui; De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.; Hase, William L.

    2014-03-01

    The interface for VENUS and NWChem, and the resulting software package for direct dynamics simulations are described. The coupling of the two codes is considered to be a tight coupling. The two codes are compiled and linked together and act as one executable with data being passed between the two codes through routine calls. The advantages of this type of coupling are discussed. The interface has been designed to have as little interference as possible with the core codes of both VENUS and NWChem. VENUS is the code that propagates the direct dynamics trajectories and, therefore, is the program that drives the overall execution of VENUS/NWChem. VENUS has remained an essentially sequential code, which uses the highly parallel structure of NWChem. Subroutines of the interface which accomplish the data transmission and communication between the two computer programs are described. Recent examples of the use of VENUS/NWChem for direct dynamics simulations are summarized.

  18. High density packaging technology ultra thin package & new tab package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Osamu; Shimamoto, Haruo; Ueda, Tetsuya; Shimomura, Kou; Hata, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Toru; Fukushima, Jiro; Banjo, Toshinobu; Yamamoto, Isamu

    1989-09-01

    As electronic devices become more highly integrated, the demand for small, high pin count packages has been increasing. We have developed two new types of IC packages in response to this demand. One is an ultra thin small outline package (TSOP) which has been reduced in size from the standard SOP and the other, which uses Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) technology, is a super thin, high pin count TAB in cap (T.I.C.) package. In this paper, we present these packages and their features along with the technologies used to improve package reliability and TAB. Thin packages are vulnerable to high humidity exposure, especially after heat shock.1 The following items were therefore investigated in order to improve humidity resistance: (1) The molding compound thermal stress, (2) Water absorption into the molding compound and its effect on package cracking during solder dipping, (3) Chip attach pad area and its affect on package cracking, (4) Adhesion between molding resin and chip attach pad and its affect on humidity resistance. With the improvements made as a result of these investigations, the reliability of the new thin packages is similar to that of the standard thicker plastic packages.

  19. Integrated microsystems packaging approach with LCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, Paul; Shacklette, Lawrence W.

    2006-05-01

    Within the government communication market there is an increasing push to further miniaturize systems with the use of chip-scale packages, flip-chip bonding, and other advances over traditional packaging techniques. Harris' approach to miniaturization includes these traditional packaging advances, but goes beyond this level of miniaturization by combining the functional and structural elements of a system, thus creating a Multi-Functional Structural Circuit (MFSC). An emerging high-frequency, near hermetic, thermoplastic electronic substrate material, Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP), is the material that will enable the combination of the electronic circuit and the physical structure of the system. The first embodiment of this vision for Harris is the development of a battlefield acoustic sensor module. This paper will introduce LCP and its advantages for MFSC, present an example of the work that Harris has performed, and speak to LCP MFSCs' potential benefits to miniature communications modules and sensor platforms.

  20. Application of advanced electronics to a future spacecraft computer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Advancements in hardware and software technology are summarized with specific emphasis on spacecraft computer capabilities. Available state of the art technology is reviewed and candidate architectures are defined.

  1. Microelectronic Packaging Trends and the Role of Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Madhav

    The microelectronic packaging industry is undergoing major changes to keep pace with the ever-increasing demands imposed by high performing chips and by end-use system applications. Solutions using advanced materials for microprocessor interconnect scaling and chip package interconnects, novel concepts in heat management systems, and improvements in package substrates continue to drive major packaging efforts. Advances in electrochemical technologies have played an important role in the evolution of such solutions for miniaturization of microelectronic devices and packages. Indeed, since the development of through-mask plating for thin film heads in the1960s and 1970s, an enormous amount of industrial and academic R&D effort has positioned electrochemical processing among the most sophisticated processing technologies employed in the microelectronics industry today [1-4]. Electrochemical processing is perhaps better understood than some of the dry processing technologies used in the microelectronics industry. Compared to other competing dry processing technologies, it has emerged as a more environmentally-friendly and cost-effective fabrication method. Electrochemical processing has, thus, become an integral part of advanced wafer processing fabs and an enabling technology for nanofabrication [5]. As the electronics industry faces the challenges of extending Moore's law, electrochemical processing is expected to continue to enable further miniaturization of high-performance chip interconnects, packages, and printed circuit boards. Evolving novel approaches to electrochemical processing using nano-materials and nano-fabrication techniques have started to make tremendous impact on further miniaturization of high performance devices and packages. A detailed discussion of different facets of technology advances in electronic packaging is difficult to present in the limited space of this chapter. The current chapter, therefore, makes an effort to capture some of the key

  2. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

  3. A method for wafer level hermetic packaging of SOI-MEMS devices with embedded vertical feedthroughs using advanced MEMS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert Torunbalci, Mustafa; Emre Alper, Said; Akin, Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a novel, inherently simple, and low-cost fabrication and hermetic packaging method developed for SOI-MEMS devices, where a single SOI wafer is used for the fabrication of MEMS structures as well as vertical feedthroughs, while a single glass cap wafer is used for hermetic encapsulation and routing metallization. Hermetic encapsulation can be achieved either with the silicon-glass anodic or Au-Si eutectic bonding techniques. The dies sealed with anodic and Au-Si eutectic bonding provide a low vertical feedthrough resistance around 50 Ω. Glass-to-silicon anodically and Au-Si eutectic bonded seals yield a very stable cavity pressure below 10 mTorr with thin-film getters, which are measured to be stable even after 311 d. The package pressure can be adjusted from 5 mTorr to 20 Torr by using different outgassing, cavity depth, and gettering options. The packaging yield is observed to be around 64% and 84% for the anodic and Au-Si eutectic packages, respectively. The average shear strength of the anodic and eutectic packages is measured to be higher than 17 MPa and 42 MPa, respectively. Temperature cycling, high temperature storage, and ultra-high temperature shock tests result in no degradation in the hermeticity of the packaged chips, proving perfect thermal reliability.

  4. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  5. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in... Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.92 Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of... electronic data interchange system no later than either 30 minutes or 1 hour prior to the carrier's...

  6. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in... Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.92 Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of... electronic data interchange system no later than either 30 minutes or 1 hour prior to the carrier's...

  7. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in... Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.92 Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of... electronic data interchange system no later than either 30 minutes or 1 hour prior to the carrier's...

  8. All in the Packaging: Structural and Electronic Effects of Nanoconfinement on Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, Craig; Pool, Vanessa; Idzerda, Yves; Douglas, Trevor

    2011-09-20

    Encapsulation of inorganic nanoparticles within oligomeric protein cages can provide a multivalent approach for the synthesis of biocompatible nanomaterials by combining the nanoparticle-forming catalytic abilities of the cage interior with the biointeractive exterior surface of the cage. Protein cages provide more than simply a passive compartment for nanoparticle formation: protein-templated nanoparticles can exhibit structural and electronic properties that are dramatically different from materials synthesized without protein templating. Mixed Fe/Mn oxides formed under hydrothermal conditions form a structural series ranging from the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) to the Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} (hausmannite) spinel structure as the Mn fraction is increased from 0 to 100%, while similar materials formed inside of human ferritin transition instead from maghemite to a layered Mn oxide structure similar to chalcophanite. The electronic properties of the protein-templated nanoparticles, as determined from soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, also differ from those of their protein-free counterparts, in agreement with the structural results. Protein-templated synthesis may provide the opportunity for powerful control over nanomaterial properties through nanoconfinement, but the ultimate physical basis for these effects remains to be determined.

  9. Advances in tunable powerful lasers: The advanced free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.; Sheffield, R.

    1993-12-31

    In the past several decades, remarkable progress in laser science and technology has made it possible to obtain laser light from the ultra-violet to the far infra-red from a variety of laser types, and at power levels from milliwatts to kilowatts (and, some day, megawatts). However, the availability of tunable lasers at ``high`` power (above a few tens of watts) is more limited. Figure 1, an assessment of the availability of tunable lasers, shows the covered range to be about 400 to 2000 nanometers. A variety of dye lasers cover the visible and near infra red, each one of which is tunable over approximately a 10% range. In the same region, the TI:saphire laser is adjustable over a 20 to 25% range. And finally, optical parametric oscillators can cover the range from about 400 nanometers out to about 2000 nm (even farther at reduced energy output). The typical output energy per pulse may vary from a few to one hundred millijoules, and since repetition rates of 10 to 100 Hertz are generally attainable, average output powers of tens of watts are possible. In recent years, a new approach to powerful tunable lasers -- the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) -- has emerged. In this paper we will discuss advances in FEL technology which not only enable tunability at high average power over a very broad range of wavelengths, but also make this device more usable. At present, that range is about one micron to the far infra red; with extensions of existing technology, it should be extendable to the vacuum ultra violet region.

  10. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes from electron avalanches in thunderstorms - the detailed structure and time evolution of electron, photon, optical and radio emission - results from a new simulation software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    To design the MXGS coded mask imager of the ASIM mission to the ISS, to detect and locate TGF gamma-rays, a first order software package was written at UV to simulate the vertical expansion of gamma-ray photons from 15-20 km altitudes up to 300-600 km orbital altitudes, to make some estimate of the probable TGF spectra and diffuse beam structure that might be observed by MXGS. A new software package includes the simulation of the Runaway Electron Avalanche (REA) origin of TGFs by electron ionization and Bremsstrahlung scattering and photon emission. It uses the standard KeV-MeV scattering physics of electron and photon interactions, close range Moller electron ionization, Binary-Electron-Bethe models of electron scattering, positron Bhabha scattering and annihilation, electron excitation and photon emission. It also uses a super particle spatial mesh system to control particle-momentum flux densities, electric field evolution and exponential avalanche growth and falloff. The package takes care of all high energy scattering physics, leaving the user free to concentrate on defining the three components of scattering medium, electric-magnetic field geometry, and free electron flux field geometry whose details are the main unknown in TGF research. Results will be presented from TGF simulations using realistic electric fields expected within and above storm clouds, and will include video displays showing the evolving ionization structure of electron trajectories, the time evolution of photon flux fields, electron-positron flux fields, their important circular feedback movement in the local earth magnetic field, local molecular ion densities, and the dielectric effect of induced local electric fields. The second aim of the package is as a step in creating open source software which could evolve into a standard research software package approved by the REA-TGF research community to correctly simulate all the relevant physical processes involved in the complex phenomenon

  11. High-speed singulation of electronic packages using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in a water jet and realization of a 200-W green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Frank R.; Hu, Wentao; Spiegel, Akos; Vago, Nandor; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2003-07-01

    Each electronic chip is packaged in order to connect the integrated circuit and the printed circuit board. In consequence high-speed singulation of packages is an important step in the manufacturing process of electronic devices. The widely used technique of abrasive sawing encounters problems due to the combination of different materials used in packages such as copper and mold compound. The sawing blade rapidly blunts because of the copper adhering to the saw blade and covering the diamonds. In fact, the abrasive saw, well adapted to silicon wafer sawing, has problems to adapt to package materials. It has already been shown that the water jet guided laser can be used for efficient high quality singulation of leadframe based packages. In this technique a low-pressure water jet guides the laser beam like an optical fiber, providing efficient cooling of the cutting kerf at exactly the point that was heated during the laser pulse. We present new cutting results using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with 100 W average power, and the combination setup for generating a 200 W green laser beam. The timing between the two lasers can be precisely controlled.

  12. Exciting: a full-potential all-electron package implementing density-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Gulans, Andris; Kontur, Stefan; Meisenbichler, Christian; Nabok, Dmitrii; Pavone, Pasquale; Rigamonti, Santiago; Sagmeister, Stephan; Werner, Ute; Draxl, Claudia

    2014-09-10

    Linearized augmented planewave methods are known as the most precise numerical schemes for solving the Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory (DFT). In this review, we describe how this method is realized in the all-electron full-potential computer package, exciting. We emphasize the variety of different related basis sets, subsumed as (linearized) augmented planewave plus local orbital methods, discussing their pros and cons and we show that extremely high accuracy (microhartrees) can be achieved if the basis is chosen carefully. As the name of the code suggests, exciting is not restricted to ground-state calculations, but has a major focus on excited-state properties. It includes time-dependent DFT in the linear-response regime with various static and dynamical exchange-correlation kernels. These are preferably used to compute optical and electron-loss spectra for metals, molecules and semiconductors with weak electron-hole interactions. exciting makes use of many-body perturbation theory for charged and neutral excitations. To obtain the quasi-particle band structure, the GW approach is implemented in the single-shot approximation, known as G(0)W(0). Optical absorption spectra for valence and core excitations are handled by the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which allows for the description of strongly bound excitons. Besides these aspects concerning methodology, we demonstrate the broad range of possible applications by prototypical examples, comprising elastic properties, phonons, thermal-expansion coefficients, dielectric tensors and loss functions, magneto-optical Kerr effect, core-level spectra and more. PMID:25135665

  13. Advanced simulation of electron heat transport in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong; Xiao, Y.; Klasky, Scott A; Lofstead, J.

    2009-01-01

    Electron transport in burning plasmas is more important since fusion products first heat electrons. First-principles simulations of electron turbulence are much more challenging due to the multi-scale dynamics of the electron turbulence, and have been made possible by close collaborations between plasma physicists and computational scientists. The GTC simulations of collisionless trapped electron mode (CTEM) turbulence show that the electron heat transport exhibits a gradual transition from Bohm to gyroBohm scaling when the device size is increased. The deviation from the gyroBohm scaling can be induced by large turbulence eddies, turbulence spreading, and non-diffusive transport processes. Analysis of radial correlation function shows that CTEM turbulence eddies are predominantly microscopic but with a significant tail in the mesoscale. A comprehensive analysis of kinetic and fluid time scales shows that zonal flow shearing is the dominant decorrelation mechanism. The mesoscale eddies result from a dynamical process of linear streamers breaking by zonal flows and merging of microscopic eddies. The radial profile of the electron heat conductivity only follows the profile of fluctuation intensity on a global scale, whereas the ion transport tracks more sensitively the local fluctuation intensity. This suggests the existence of a nondiffusive component in the electron heat flux, which arises from the ballistic radial E x B drift of trapped electrons due to a combination of the presence of mesoscale eddies and the weak de-tuning of the toroidal precessional resonance that drives the CTEM instability. On the other hand, the ion radial excursion is not affected by the mesoscale eddies due to a parallel decorrelation, which is not operational for the trapped electrons because of a bounce averaging process associated with the electron fast motion along magnetic field lines. The presence of the nondiffusive component raises question on the applicability of the usual

  14. Advanced Simulation of Electron Heat Transport in Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Z.; Xiao, Y.; Holod, I.; Zhang, W. L.; Deng, Wenjun; Klasky, Scott A; Lofstead, J.; Kamath, Chandrika; Wichmann, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Electron transport in burning plasmas is more important since fusion products first heat electrons. First-principles simulations of electron turbulence are much more challenging due to the multi-scale dynamics of the electron turbulence, and have been made possible by close collaborations between plasma physicists and computational scientists. The GTC simulations of collisionless trapped electron mode (CTEM) turbulence show that the electron heat transport exhibits a gradual transition from Bohm to gyroBohm scaling when the device size is increased. The deviation from the gyroBohm scaling can be induced by large turbulence eddies, turbulence spreading, and non-diffusive transport processes. Analysis of radial correlation function shows that CTEM turbulence eddies are predominantly microscopic but with a significant tail in the mesoscale. A comprehensive analysis of kinetic and fluid time scales shows that zonal flow shearing is the dominant decorrelation mechanism. The mesoscale eddies result from a dynamical process of linear streamers breaking by zonal flows and merging of microscopic eddies. The radial profile of the electron heat conductivity only follows the profile of fluctuation intensity on a global scale, whereas the ion transport tracks more sensitively the local fluctuation intensity. This suggests the existence of a nondiffusive component in the electron heat flux, which arises from the ballistic radial E x B drift of trapped electrons due to a combination of the presence of mesoscale eddies and the weak de-tuning of the toroidal precessional resonance that drives the CTEM instability. On the other hand, the ion radial excursion is not affected by the mesoscale eddies due to a parallel decorrelation, which is not operational for the trapped electrons because of a bounce averaging process associated with the electron fast motion along magnetic field lines. The presence of the nondiffusive component raises question on the applicability of the usual

  15. Simplification of Low-Temperature Sintering Nanosilver for Power Electronics Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yunhui; Chen, Gang; Cao, Yunjiao; Li, Xin; Han, Dan; Chen, Xu

    2013-06-01

    Conventional solders cannot meet the requirements for high-temperature applications. Recently, a low-temperature sintering technique involving a nanosilver paste has been developed for attaching semiconductor chips to substrates. Sintered nanosilver joints showed high reliability in high-temperature applications. We used the nanosilver paste to attach 10 mm × 10 mm chips by introducing a pressure as low as only 1 MPa during drying at 185°C. Die-shear tests showed that shear strengths of higher than 50 MPa could be generated by applying 5 MPa at 225°C for only 10 s or 1 MPa at 150°C for 600 s, followed by sintering for only 60 s at 275°C. The sintering temperature could be reduced to 250°C in most applications with a slight reduction in shear strength. As a result of good bonding, significant plastic flow and ductile fracture of the sheared silver joint could be observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM also showed that the fracture of the sheared silver joint was a cohesive failure.

  16. Low dielectric constant fibers from a fluorinated polymide for electronic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eashoo, M.; Buckley, L.J.; St. Clair, A.K.

    1996-10-01

    As the electronics industry moves toward higher frequencies, the need for laminate materials with enhanced dielectric properties is crucial. Since uniaxial composites are highly filled with reinforcing materials, fibers will play a significant role in lowering the overall dielectric constant of multi-layer printed wiring boards. Past fibers from a low dielectric constant ({epsilon}{prime} = 2.5) polyimide made from 2,2-bis (3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) and 2,2-bis [4-(4-aminophenoxy) phenyl] hexafluoropropane (4BDAF) were wet-spun into an ethyl alcohol/water bath using a dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/Polymer solution. Relatively weak filaments ({Epsilon}{prime} = 5.1 GPa) result from processing with DMAc, as the fiber core is very porous. A new spinning method, using controlled miscibility between the solvent and the coagulant, yielded solid core fibers using methylene chloride as the solvent. These 6FDA-4BDAF fibers have textile-like mechanical properties having; a modulus of 7-8 GPa, a tensile strength of 300-380 MPa, and a break strain of 4-7%.

  17. Al-SiC powder preparation for electronic packaging aluminum composites by plasma spray processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Manchang; Kang, Suk Bong; Euh, Kwangjun

    2004-06-01

    Powders of pure aluminum (Al) with 55 and 75 vol.% SiC particles were ball milled in a conventional rotating ball mill with stainless steel and ZrO2 balls for 1-10 h. The morphology and microstructure of the milled powders have been observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). The milled powders were plasma sprayed onto a graphite substrate to obtain Al matrix composites with high SiC volume fraction. SiC particles in the milled powders existed in two forms; i.e., the combination of Al into composite powder and individual. Plastic Al particles were broken during ball milling, and fine Al particles can be coated onto the surface of SiC particles. Iron contamination in the milled powders occurred when stainless steel balls were used. The iron level can be effectively controlled by using ZrO2 ball media. The milling efficiency by ZrO2 balls is inferior to that by stainless steel balls. Longer milling time was required with ZrO2 balls to achieve the same effect as obtained with stainless steel balls. SiC particles in the sprayed composites from the milled powders exhibited a reasonably uniform distribution and high volume fraction.

  18. 78 FR 46621 - Status of the Office of New Reactors' Implementation of Electronic Distribution of Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Reactor Correspondence AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Implementation of electronic distribution of advanced reactor correspondence; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC... the Division of Operating Reactor Licensing (DORL) in October 2008. All four regions are...

  19. Transmission Electron Microscopy Advances Reveal Subtle Comet Dust Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, H. A.; Bradley, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    TEM advances in multi-SDD-detector EDX mapping applied to Wild 2 dust and likely-cometary CP IDPs demonstrates chondritic fine-grained material at terminal particles is unlike GEMS and consistent with debris generated during the deceleration process.

  20. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Other Information Subject to Restricted Access § 103.31a Advance electronic... following types of advance electronic information are per se exempt from disclosure under §...

  1. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public... Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? Yes, except when advance written or electronic authorization is not possible or practical and approval is in...

  2. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  3. Electron Beam Transport in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ronald L

    2013-01-31

    The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy electron beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the electron beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single electron trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams were generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The electron beam was simulated by combining thousands of single electrons, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the electrons with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.

  4. Preface: Special Topic Section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, Angelos; Martinez, Todd J.; Alavi, Ali; Kresse, Georg

    2015-09-14

    This Special Topic section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces contains a collection of research papers that showcase recent advances in the high accuracy prediction of materials and surface properties. It provides a timely snapshot of a growing field that is of broad importance to chemistry, physics, and materials science.

  5. SaX: An open source package for electronic-structure and optical-properties calculations in the GW approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Samos, Layla; Bussi, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    We present here SaX (Self-energies and eXcitations), a plane-waves package aimed at electronic-structure and optical-properties calculations in the GW framework, namely using the GW approximation for quasi-particle properties and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the excitonic effects. The code is mostly written in FORTRAN90 in a modern style, with extensive use of data abstraction (i.e. objects). SaX employs state of the art techniques and can treat large systems. The package is released with an open source license and can be also download from http://www.sax-project.org/. Program summaryProgram title: SaX (Self-energies and eXcitations) Catalogue identifier: AEDF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 779 771 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 894 755 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN, plus some C utilities Computer: Linux PC, Linux clusters, IBM-SP5 Operating system: Linux, Aix Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: depending on the system complexity Classification: 7.3 External routines: Message-Passing Interface (MPI) to perform parallel computations. ESPRESSO ( http://www.quantum-espresso.org) Nature of problem: SaX is designed to calculate the electronic band-structure of semiconductors, including quasi-particle effects and optical properties including excitonic effects. Solution method: The electronic band-structure is calculated using the GW approximation for the self-energy operator. The optical properties are calculated solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the GW approximation. The wavefunctions are expanded on a plane-waves basis set, using norm-conserving pseudopotentials. Restrictions: Many objects are non-local matrix represented in plane wave basis

  6. Effects of temperature, packaging and electron beam irradiation processing conditions on the property behaviour of Poly (ether-block-amide) blends.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kieran A; Kennedy, James E; McEvoy, Brian; Vrain, Olivier; Ryan, Damien; Cowman, Richard; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2014-06-01

    The radiation stability of Poly (ether-block-amide) (PEBA) blended with a multifunctional phenolic antioxidant and a hindered amide light stabiliser was examined under various temperatures, packaging and electron beam processing conditions. FTIR revealed that there were slight alterations to the PEBA before irradiation; however, these became more pronounced following irradiation. The effect of varying the temperature, packaging and processing conditions on the resultant PEBA properties was apparent. For example, rheology demonstrated that the structural properties could be enhanced by manipulating the aforementioned criteria. Mechanical testing exhibited less radiation resistance when the PEBA samples were vacuum packed and exposed to irradiation. MFI and AFM confirmed that the melting strength and surface topography could be reduced/increased depending on the conditions employed. From this study it was concluded that virgin PEBA submerged in dry ice with non-vacuum packaging during the irradiation process, provided excellent radiation resistance (20.9% improvement) in contrast to the traditional method. PMID:24863239

  7. Electron Trajectory Reconstruction for Advanced Compton Imaging of Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimley, Brian Christopher

    Gamma-ray imaging is useful for detecting, characterizing, and localizing sources in a variety of fields, including nuclear physics, security, nuclear accident response, nuclear medicine, and astronomy. Compton imaging in particular provides sensitivity to weak sources and good angular resolution in a large field of view. However, the photon origin in a single event sequence is normally only limited to the surface of a cone. If the initial direction of the Compton-scattered electron can be measured, the cone can be reduced to a cone segment with width depending on the uncertainty in the direction measurement, providing a corresponding increase in imaging sensitivity. Measurement of the electron's initial direction in an efficient detection material requires very fine position resolution due to the electron's short range and tortuous path. A thick (650 mum), fully-depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) developed for infrared astronomy has 10.5-mum position resolution in two dimensions, enabling the initial trajectory measurement of electrons of energy as low as 100 keV. This is the first time the initial trajectories of electrons of such low energies have been measured in a solid material. In this work, the CCD's efficacy as a gamma-ray detector is demonstrated experimentally, using a reconstruction algorithm to measure the initial electron direction from the CCD track image. In addition, models of fast electron interaction physics, charge transport and readout were used to generate modeled tracks with known initial direction. These modeled tracks allowed the development and refinement of the reconstruction algorithm. The angular sensitivity of the reconstruction algorithm is evaluated extensively with models for tracks below 480 keV, showing a FWHM as low as 20° in the pixel plane, and 30° RMS sensitivity to the magnitude of the out-of-plane angle. The measurement of the trajectories of electrons with energies as low as 100 keV have the potential to make electron

  8. Advanced Opto-Electronics (LIDAR and Microsensor Development)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C. (Technical Monitor); Spangler, Lee H.

    2005-01-01

    Our overall intent in this aspect of the project were to establish a collaborative effort between several departments at Montana State University for developing advanced optoelectronic technology for advancing the state-of-the-art in optical remote sensing of the environment. Our particular focus was on development of small systems that can eventually be used in a wide variety of applications that might include ground-, air-, and space deployments, possibly in sensor networks. Specific objectives were to: 1) Build a field-deployable direct-detection lidar system for use in measurements of clouds, aerosols, fish, and vegetation; 2) Develop a breadboard prototype water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system based on highly stable, tunable diode laser technology developed previously at MSU. We accomplished both primary objectives of this project, in developing a field-deployable direct-detection lidar and a breadboard prototype of a water vapor DIAL system. Paper summarizes each of these accomplishments.

  9. Design, Production, Evaluation, and Revision of a Self-Instructional Package for the HP-45 Electronic Slide Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Vernon K.

    The author designed an instructional package including slides and tape cassettes for individual use by students learning to use a hand calculator to perform computations. Students (n=17) using the package were given pretests and posttests of ability and attitude. On the three sets of cognitive objectives, mastery was achieved by 96 percent, 76…

  10. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging.

    PubMed

    Van Aert, Sandra; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T; den Dekker, Arnold J; Van Dyck, Dirk; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy. PMID:26870383

  11. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging

    PubMed Central

    Van Aert, Sandra; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T.; den Dekker, Arnold J.; Van Dyck, Dirk; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy. PMID:26870383

  12. Advances in electron kinetics and theory of gas discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kolobov, Vladimir I.

    2013-10-15

    Electrons, like people, are fertile and infertile: high-energy electrons are fertile and able to reproduce.”—Lev TsendinModern physics of gas discharges increasingly uses physical kinetics for analysis of non-equilibrium plasmas. The description of underlying physics at the kinetic level appears to be important for plasma applications in modern technologies. In this paper, we attempt to grasp the legacy of Professor Lev Tsendin, who advocated the use of the kinetic approach for understanding fundamental problems of gas discharges. We outline the fundamentals of electron kinetics in low-temperature plasmas, describe elements of the modern kinetic theory of gas discharges, and show examples of the theoretical approach to gas discharge problems used by Lev Tsendin. Important connections between electron kinetics in gas discharges and semiconductors are also discussed. Using several examples, we illustrate how Tsendin's ideas and methods are currently being developed for the implementation of next generation computational tools for adaptive kinetic-fluid simulations of gas discharges used in modern technologies.

  13. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival. 122.48a Section 122.48a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest...

  14. [The role of electronic techniques for advanced neuroelectrophysiology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Lijun; Cao, Maoyong

    2008-12-01

    The rapid development in the fields of electroscience, computer science, and biomedical engineering are propelling the electrophysiologyical techniques. Recent technological advances have made it possible to simultaneously record the activity of large numbers of neurons in awake and behaving animals using implanted extracellular electrodes. Several laboratories use chronically implanted electrode arrays in freely moving animals because they allow stable recordings of discriminated single neurons and/or field potentials from up to hundreds of electrodes over long time periods. In this review, we focus on the new technologies for neuroelectrophysiology. PMID:19166233

  15. Materials issues for advanced electronic and optoelectronic connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, J.; Wen, S.

    1990-09-01

    Trends of increased speed, density and power of electronic devices and circuitry translate to a need for connector substrate materials with improved form-ability and mechanical stability. Many contact surface requirements will continue to be met by precious metals for low contact force and tin in moderate contact force connectors. However, the demands for lower insertion forces, increased wear resistance, higher operating temperatures and improved corrosion resistance will challenge materials experts and connector designers to develop and utilize cost-effective replacements for tin and gold in electronic connectors. The stability and compatibility requirements of optoelectronic connectors provide challenges over a wide range of materials with the added dimension of accommodating essential optical characteristics.

  16. Advanced manufacturing of SIMOX for low power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alles, Michael; Krull, Wade

    1996-04-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) has emerged as a key technology for low power electronics. The merits of SOI technology have been demonstrated, and are gaining acceptance in the semiconductor industry. In order for the SOI approach to be viable, several factors must converge, including the availability of SOI substrates in sufficient quantity, of acceptable quality, and at a competitive price. This work describes developments in SIMOX manufacturing technology and summarizes progress in each of these areas.

  17. Advanced Strained-Superlattice Photocathodes for Polarized Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Aaron Moy

    2005-01-31

    Polarized electrons have been essential for high-energy parity-violating experiments and measurements of the nucleon spin structure. The availability of a polarized electron beam was crucial to the success of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) in achieving a precise measurement of the electroweak mixing angle, and polarized electron beams will be required for all future linear colliders. Polarized electrons are readily produced by GaAs photocathode sources. When a circularly polarized laser beam tuned to the bandgap minimum is directed to the negative-electron-affinity (NEA) surface of a GaAs crystal, longitudinally polarized electrons are emitted into vacuum. The electron polarization is easily reversed by reversing the laser polarization. The important properties of these photocathodes for accelerator applications are: degree of polarization of the extracted beam; ability to extract sufficient charge to meet accelerator pulse-structure requirements; efficiency and stability of operation; and absence of any asymmetries in the beam properties (charge, position, energy, etc.) upon polarization reversal. The performance of GaAs photocathodes has improved significantly since they were first introduced in 1978 [1]. The theoretical maximum polarization of 50% for natural GaAs was first exceeded in 1991 using the lattice mismatch of a thin InGaAs layer epitaxially grown over a GaAs substrate to generate a strain in the former that broke the natural degeneracy between the heavy- and light-hole valence bands [2]. Polarizations as high as 78% were produced for the SLC from photocathodes based on a thin GaAs epilayer grown on GaAsP [3,4]. After 10 years of experience with many cathode samples at several laboratories [5], the maximum polarization using the GaAs/GaAsP single strained-layer cathode remained limited to 80%, while the quantum efficiency (QE) for a 100-nm epilayer is only 0.3% or less. Two factors were known to limit the polarization of these cathodes: (1) the

  18. Applications of advanced electric/electronic technology to conventional aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbold, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The desirability of seven advanced technologies as applied to three commercial aircraft of 1985 to 1995 was investigated. Digital fly by wire, multiplexing, ring laser gyro, integrated avionics, all electric airplane, electric load management, and fiber optics were considered for 500 passenger, 50 passenger, and 30 passenger aircraft. The major figure of merit used was Net Value of Technology based on procurement and operating cost over the life of the aircraft. An existing computer program, ASSET, was used to resize the aircraft and evalute fuel usage and maintenance costs for each candidate configuration. Conclusions were that, for the 500 passenger aircraft, all candidates had a worthwhile payoff with the all electric airplane having a large payoff.

  19. An Advanced Time Averaging Modelling Technique for Power Electronic Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankuloski, Goce

    For stable and efficient performance of power converters, a good mathematical model is needed. This thesis presents a new modelling technique for DC/DC and DC/AC Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) converters. The new model is more accurate than the existing modelling techniques such as State Space Averaging (SSA) and Discrete Time Modelling. Unlike the SSA model, the new modelling technique, the Advanced Time Averaging Model (ATAM) includes the averaging dynamics of the converter's output. In addition to offering enhanced model accuracy, application of linearization techniques to the ATAM enables the use of conventional linear control design tools. A controller design application demonstrates that a controller designed based on the ATAM outperforms one designed using the ubiquitous SSA model. Unlike the SSA model, ATAM for DC/AC augments the system's dynamics with the dynamics needed for subcycle fundamental contribution (SFC) calculation. This allows for controller design that is based on an exact model.

  20. A package for the ab-initio calculation of one- and two-photon cross sections of two-electron atoms, using a CI B-splines method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.

    2003-02-01

    A package is presented for the fully ab-initio calculation of one- and two-photon ionization cross sections for two-electron atomic systems (H -, He, Mg, Ca, …) under strong laser fields, within lowest-order perturbation theory (LOPT) and in the dipole approximation. The atomic structure is obtained through configuration interaction (CI) of antisymmetrized two-electron states expanded in a B-spline finite basis. The formulation of the theory and the relevant codes presented here represent the accumulation of work over the last ten years [1-11,13-15]. Extensions to more than two-photon ionization is straightforward. Calculation is possible for both the length and velocity form of the laser-atom interaction operator. The package is mainly, written in standard FORTRAN language and uses the publicly available libraries SLATEC, LAPACK and BLAS.

  1. Advanced characterization of twins using automated electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S. I.; Bingert, J. F.; Mason, T. A.; Larson, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained using an automated, crystallographically-based technique for twin identification. The technique is based on the automated collection of spatially specific orientation measurements by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The key features of the analysis are identification of potential twin boundaries by their misorientation character, identification of the distinct boundary planes among the symmetrically equivalent candidates, and validation of these boundaries through comparison with the boundary and twin plane traces in the sample cross section. Results on the application of this technique to deformation twins in zirconium are analyzed for the effect of twin type and amount and sense of uniaxial deformation. The accumulation of strain tends to increase the misorientation deviation at least to the degree of the trace deviation compared with recrystallization twins in nickel. In addition to the results on characterizing the twin character, results on extending the twin analysis to automated identification of parent and daughter material for structures exhibiting twin deformation are reported as well.

  2. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Barnaby D.A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M.C.; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D.; Robinson, Richard D.; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A.; Hovden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data. PMID:27272459

  3. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barnaby D A; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M C; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D; Robinson, Richard D; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A; Hovden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data. PMID:27272459

  4. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  5. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials. Part III - Biodegradation of thermoformed rigid PLA packaging under industrial composting conditions.

    PubMed

    Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Adamus, Grazyna; Janeczek, Henryk; Richert, Jozef; Malinowski, Rafal; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a forensic engineering study on the biodegradation behaviour of prototype packaging thermoformed from PLA-extruded film and plain PLA film under industrial composting conditions. Hydrolytic degradation in water was conducted for reference. The effects of composting duration on changes in molar mass, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity of the polymeric material were monitored using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The chemical structure of water soluble degradation products of the polymeric material was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results show that the biodegradation process is less dependent on the thermoforming process of PLA and more dependent on the composting/degradation conditions that are applied. The increase in the dispersity index, leading to the bimodal molar mass distribution profile, suggests an autocatalytic hydrolysis effect at the early stage of the composting process, during which the bulk hydrolysis mechanism dominantly operates. Both the prototype PLA-packaging and PLA rigid film samples were shown to have a gradual increase in opacity due to an increase in the degree of crystallinity. PMID:27103398

  6. Status and Perspectives of Ion Track Electronics for Advanced Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Muñoz, H. Gerardo; Alfonta, L.; Mandabi, Y.; Dias, J. F.; de Souza, C. T.; Bacakova, L. E.; Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Kiv, A. E.; Fuks, D.; Papaleo, R. M.

    New multifunctional ion irradiation-based three-dimensional electronic structures are developed for biotechnological applications, specifically for sensing of biomaterials, bacteria and mammalian cells. This is accomplished by combined micrometric surface and nanometric bulk microstructuring of insulators (specifically of polymer foils and SiO2/Si hybride structures) by adequate ion beams. Our main goal is the production of a cheap small universal generic working platform with multifunctional properties for biomedical analysis. Surface engineering of this platform enables cell bonding and its bulk engineering enables the extraction of cell secrets, for the sake of intercepting and analyzing the biomolecules used in cell communication. The exact knowledge of the spectrum of these cell-secreted signalling molecules should enable one to identify unambiguously the cell type. This knowledge will help developing strategies for preventive quorum sensing of bacteria, with the aim of fighting bacterial infections in an ecologically secure way.

  7. Advances and applications of electronic speckle pattern interferometry /ESPI/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokberg, O. J.

    1980-05-01

    The principle of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is explained by means of comparison with conventional holography. Because ESPI image recording and reconstruction are performed by videotechniques, laboratory experiments may be studied through real-time presentations of readily interpretable vibration patterns on a large TV screen, with a new image being formed every 1/25 sec. These properties, combined with the high sensitivity, noncontact, and nondestructive properties of the method, make ESPI a measuring tool uniquely suited for studies of extremely unstable objects. Among examples of applications covered are: the testing of sonar transducers in both air and water, the analysis of loudspeakers, studies of the behavior of piezoelectric transducers, the classification of turbine blade resonances, and the observation of the human eardrum.

  8. ES2MS: An interface package for passing self-consistent charge density and potential from Electronic Structure codes To Multiple Scattering codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junqing; Natoli, Calogero R.; Krüger, Peter; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Sébilleau, Didier; Song, Li; Hatada, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    We present an interface package, called ES2MS, for passing self-consistent charge density and potential from Electronic Structure (ES) codes To Multiple Scattering (MS) codes. MS theory is based on the partitioning of the space by atomic-size scattering sites, so that the code provides the charge densities and potentials for each scattering site. For pseudo potential codes, the interface solves Poisson equation to construct the all-electron potential on the radial mesh which is used to solve the transition operators (T-matrix) and Green's functions in MS codes. We show the algorithm of the interface and the example for X-ray absorption spectra of graphene.

  9. Unbunched beam electron-proton instability in the PSR and advanced hadron facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tai-Sen; Pisent, A.; Neuffer, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the possibility of the occurrence of transverse instability induced by trapped electrons in unbunched beams in the Proton Storage Ring and the proposed Advance Hadron Facility (AHF) at Los Alamos, as well as in the proposed Kaon Factory at TRIUMF. We found that the e-p instability may be possible for unbunched beams in the PSR but is unlikely to occur in the advanced hadron facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  11. Advanced educational program in optoelectronics for undergraduates and graduates in electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladescu, Marian; Schiopu, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The optoelectronics education included in electronics curricula at Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technology of "Politehnica" University of Bucharest started in early '90s, and evolved constantly since then, trying to address the growing demand of engineers with a complex optoelectronics profile and to meet the increased requirements of microelectronics, optoelectronics, and lately nanotechnologies. Our goal is to provide a high level of theoretical background combined with advanced experimental tools in laboratories, and also with simulation platforms. That's why we propose an advanced educational program in optoelectronics for both grades of our study program, bachelor and master.

  12. On the feasibility to investigate point defects by advanced electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kisielowski, C.; Jinschek, J.R.

    2002-10-02

    Transmission Electron Microscopy evolves rapidly as a primary tool to investigate nano structures on a truly atomic level. Its resolution reaches into the sub Angstrom region by now. Together with a better correction of lens aberrations, sensitivities are drastically enhanced. Utilizing advanced electron microscopes, it is feasible to promote experiments that aim to detect single atoms. This enables local investigations of non-stoichiometry. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art.

  13. PAMELA: An open-source software package for calculating nonlocal exact exchange effects on electron gases in core-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Andrew W.; Wong, Bryan M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a new pseudospectral approach for incorporating many-body, nonlocal exact exchange interactions to understand the formation of electron gases in core-shell nanowires. Our approach is efficiently implemented in the open-source software package PAMELA (Pseudospectral Analysis Method with Exchange & Local Approximations) that can calculate electronic energies, densities, wavefunctions, and band-bending diagrams within a self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson formalism. The implementation of both local and nonlocal electronic effects using pseudospectral methods is key to PAMELA's efficiency, resulting in significantly reduced computational effort compared to finite-element methods. In contrast to the new nonlocal exchange formalism implemented in this work, we find that the simple, conventional Schrödinger-Poisson approaches commonly used in the literature (1) considerably overestimate the number of occupied electron levels, (2) overdelocalize electrons in nanowires, and (3) significantly underestimate the relative energy separation between electronic subbands. In addition, we perform several calculations in the high-doping regime that show a critical tunneling depth exists in these nanosystems where tunneling from the core-shell interface to the nanowire edge becomes the dominant mechanism of electron gas formation. Finally, in order to present a general-purpose set of tools that both experimentalists and theorists can easily use to predict electron gas formation in core-shell nanowires, we document and provide our efficient and user-friendly PAMELA source code that is freely available at http://alum.mit.edu/www/usagi.

  14. Advanced Undergraduate-Laboratory Experiment on Electron Spin Resonance in Single-Crystal Ruby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lee A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An electron-spin-resonance experiment which has been successfully performed in an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory is described. A discussion of that part of the theory of magnetic resonance necessary for the understanding of the experiment is also provided in this article. (DT)

  15. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative functionalization via a single electron transfer (SET) process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Tang, Conghui; Jiao, Ning

    2012-05-01

    Copper salts have been developed as versatile catalysts for oxidative coupling reactions in organic synthesis. During these processes, Cu-catalysts are often proposed to serve as a one-electron oxidant to promote the single-electron transfer process. Recently, the transition-metal catalyzed direct dehydrogenative transformation has attracted considerable attention. This tutorial review summarizes the recent advances in the copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative functionalization via a single electron transfer (SET) process achieving C-C, C-N, C-O, C-halogen atoms, C-P, and N-N bond formation. PMID:22349590

  16. Unveiling nanometric plasmons optical properties with advanced electron spectroscopy in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociak, Mathieu

    Since the pioneering work of Yamamoto, the use of electron spectroscopy such as Cathodoluminescence (CL) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in a Scanning (Transmission) Electron Microscope (STEM) has considerably helped improving our understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles. The resemblance of spectroscopic signals from electron and pure optical techniques leads to the intuition that both types of techniques are very close, an idea theoretically discussed by F.J. Garcia de Abajo and coworkers. However, it is also quite intuitive that CL and EELS should be different. For example, EELS helps detecting any sort of modes while CL can only detect radiative ones. On the other hand, even between optical spectroscopy techniques, clear differences such as energy shifts or spectral shapes changes are expected in the case of plasmons. The lack of adapted instrumentation capable of performing combined EELS and CL, as well as theoretical developments allowing to account for the generic difference between EELS and CL and their optical counterparts impeached a comprehensive understanding of plasmons physics with the otherwise amazing electron spectroscopies. In this talk, I will present recent experimental results showing combined EELS and CL spectral mapping of plasmonic properties for nanoparticles with several shapes (triangles, cubes, stars...) and composition (gold, silver, aluminum...). Helped with different theoretical tools, I will try to show how these results can be related to their optical counterparts (extinction, scattering), and what type of physical insights can be gained from these combined measurements. Finally, if time allows, pointing the weaknesses of state-of-the-art CL and EELS (in terms of spectral range and/or spectral resolution), I will present EELS results obtained on highly monochromated electron beams that could cope with these limitations

  17. Advanced composite materials and subcooled liquid change-of-phase (COP) cooling for thermal management in advanced electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.E.; Ehlers, S.L.; Mudawar, I.

    1996-12-31

    High performance, high density airborne and spaceborne electronic systems (both DoD and commercial) are performance and reliability limited by materials and thermal management. There is a continual need to improve performance and reliability in high density systems and to reduce adverse effects induced by excessive weight, dissipated heat, and related environmental incompatibilities. The penalties effected by these limitations prevail from cradle-to-grave in the life of high performance airborne systems, beginning at the development stage, continuing through manufacturing and procurement, and throughout system life, ultimately raising the cost of ownership. The objective of this effort is to investigate the use of selected high specific property composites and change-of-phase (COP) (i.e., liquid to vapor) cooling (using non-CFC, perfluorohexane fluids) to combat these limitations. High density (e.g., 2 kw SEM-E configuration), miniaturized avionics are assumed. Material systems for enclosure and module packaging as well as COP mechanisms will be discussed at this time relative to a retrofit scenario, interfacing with existing aircraft environmental control systems (ECS) for coolant reconditioning.

  18. Environmental Loss Characterization of an Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Insulation Package Using a Mock Heater Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schifer, Nicholas A.; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two highefficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. While electrical power output can be precisely quantified, thermal power input to the Stirling cycle cannot be directly measured. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, the Mock Heater Head was developed with the same relative thermal paths as a convertor using a conducting rod to represent the Stirling cycle and tested to provide a direct comparison to numerical and empirical models used to predict convertor net heat input. The Mock Heater Head also served as the pathfinder for a higher fidelity version of validation test hardware, known as the Thermal Standard. This paper describes how the Mock Heater Head was tested and utilized to validate a process for the Thermal Standard.

  19. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  20. Battery packaging - Technology review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows "lessons learned" in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  1. Compact integrated piezoelectric vibration control package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Ronald L., Jr.; Russo, Farla M.; Palombo, Daniel A.

    1997-06-01

    Using recent advances in small, surface-mount electronics, coupled with proprietary packaging techniques, ACX has developed the SmartPackTM. The design and realization of this self-contained, active piezoelectric control device are described in this paper. The SmartPack uses a local control architecture, consisting of two parallel, analog, positive position feedback (PPF) filters, along with nearly collocated piezo strain sensors and actuators, to control multiple structural vibration modes. A key issue is the management of waste heat from the power electronics required to drive the piezo actuators. This issue is addressed through thermal/electrical modeling of the packaged amplifier. The effectiveness of the device is demonstrated through multi-mode active damping on a 24 inch square plate.

  2. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Lunney, D.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O.; Kalvas, T.; and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  3. Advancing Efficient All-Electron Electronic Structure Methods Based on Numeric Atom-Centered Orbitals for Energy Related Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Volker

    This talk describes recent advances of a general, efficient, accurate all-electron electronic theory approach based on numeric atom-centered orbitals; emphasis is placed on developments related to materials for energy conversion and their discovery. For total energies and electron band structures, we show that the overall accuracy is on par with the best benchmark quality codes for materials, but scalable to large system sizes (1,000s of atoms) and amenable to both periodic and non-periodic simulations. A recent localized resolution-of-identity approach for the Coulomb operator enables O (N) hybrid functional based descriptions of the electronic structure of non-periodic and periodic systems, shown for supercell sizes up to 1,000 atoms; the same approach yields accurate results for many-body perturbation theory as well. For molecular systems, we also show how many-body perturbation theory for charged and neutral quasiparticle excitation energies can be efficiently yet accurately applied using basis sets of computationally manageable size. Finally, the talk highlights applications to the electronic structure of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials, as well as to graphene-based substrates for possible future transition metal compound based electrocatalyst materials. All methods described here are part of the FHI-aims code. VB gratefully acknowledges contributions by numerous collaborators at Duke University, Fritz Haber Institute Berlin, TU Munich, USTC Hefei, Aalto University, and many others around the globe.

  4. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  5. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose. PMID:20127544

  6. Hot-Electron Gallium Nitride Two Dimensional Electron Gas Nano-bolometers For Advanced THz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Rahul

    Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in semiconductor heterostructures was identified as a promising medium for hot-electron bolometers (HEB) in the early 90s. Up until now all research based on 2DEG HEBs is done using high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. These systems have demonstrated very good performance, but only in the sub terahertz (THz) range. However, above ˜0.5 THz the performance of AlGaAs/GaAs detectors drastically deteriorates. It is currently understood, that detectors fabricated from standard AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures do not allow for reasonable coupling to THz radiation while maintaining high conversion efficiency. In this work we have developed 2DEG HEBs based on disordered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor, that operate at frequencies beyond 1THz at room temperature. We observe strong free carrier absorption at THz frequencies in our disordered 2DEG film due to Drude absorption. We show the design and fabrication procedures of novel micro-bolometers having ultra-low heat capacities. In this work the mechanism of 2DEG response to THz radiation is clearly identified as bolometric effect through our direct detection measurements. With optimal doping and detector geometry, impedances of 10--100 O have been achieved, which allow integration of these devices with standard THz antennas. We also demonstrate performance of the antennas used in this work in effectively coupling THz radiation to the micro-bolometers through polarization dependence and far field measurements. Finally heterodyne mixing due to hot electrons in the 2DEG micro-bolometer has been performed at sub terahertz frequencies and a mixing bandwidth greater than 3GHz has been achieved. This indicates that the characteristic cooling time in our detectors is fast, less than 50ps. Due to the ultra-low heat capacity; these detectors can be used in a heterodyne system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a local oscillator (LO) which typically provides output powers in the micro

  7. FY2011 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2012-01-31

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), thermal management, and traction drive system technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  8. FY2012 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), thermal management, and traction drive system technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow's automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  9. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (APEEM) subprogram within the Vehicle Technologies Program provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE) and electric motor technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  10. Temporal Electron-bunch Shaping from a Photoinjector for Advanced Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, Francois; Piot, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Advanced-accelerator applications often require the production of bunches with shaped temporal distributions. An example of sought-after shape is a linearly-ramped current profile that can be improve the transformer ratio in beam-driven acceleration, or produce energy-modulated pulse for, e.g., the subsequent generation of THz radiation. Typically,  such a shaping is achieved by manipulating ultra-relativistic electron bunches. In this contribution we discuss the possibility of shaping the bunch via photoemission and demonstrate using particle-in-cell simulations the production of MeV electron bunches with quasi-ramped current profile.

  11. Users Guide on Scaled CMOS Reliability: NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark; Cooper, Mark; Johnston, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of advanced CMOS technology is a complex problem that is usually addressed from the standpoint of specific failure mechanisms rather than overall reliability of a finished microcircuit. A detailed treatment of CMOS reliability in scaled devices can be found in Ref. 1; it should be consulted for a more thorough discussion. The present document provides a more concise treatment of the scaled CMOS reliability problem, emphasizing differences in the recommended approach for these advanced devices compared to that of less aggressively scaled devices. It includes specific recommendations that can be used by flight projects that use advanced CMOS. The primary emphasis is on conventional memories, microprocessors, and related devices.

  12. Electronic systems for transverse coupled-bunch feedback in the Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.; Lambertson, G.R.; Lo, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    In order to effectively control a large number of transverse coupled-bunch modes in the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring, a broad-band, bunch-by-bunch feedback system has been designed, and is beginning to undergo testing and commissioning. This paper addresses, in some detail, the major electronic components of the feedback system. In particular, the components described include: broad-band microwave position detection receivers, closed orbit offset signal rejection circuitry, and baseband quadrature processing circuitry.

  13. Development of a Power Electronics Controller for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, Douglas K.; Priest, Joel F.; Keiter, Douglas E.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Under a U.S. Department of Energy program for radioisotope power systems, Lockheed Martin is developing an Engineering Unit of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This is an advanced version of the previously reported SRG110 generator. The ASRG uses Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Incorporated under a NASA Research Announcement contract. The ASRG makes use of a Stirling controller based on power electronics that eliminates the tuning capacitors. The power electronics controller synchronizes dual-opposed convertors and maintains a fixed frequency operating point. The controller is single-fault tolerant and uses high-frequency pulse width modulation to create the sinusoidal currents that are nearly in phase with the piston velocity, eliminating the need for large series tuning capacitors. Sunpower supports this effort through an extension of their controller development intended for other applications. Glenn Research Center (GRC) supports this effort through system dynamic modeling, analysis and test support. The ASRG design arrived at a new baseline based on a system-level trade study and extensive feedback from mission planners on the necessity of single-fault tolerance. This paper presents the baseline design with an emphasis on the power electronics controller detailed design concept that will meet space mission requirements including single fault tolerance.

  14. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  15. Advances in molecular electronics: Synthesis and testing of potential molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, David Wilson, Jr.

    New potential molecular electronics devices have been synthesized based on our knowledge of previous systems that have come out of our group. Previous studies and current studies have shown that simple molecular systems demonstrate negative differential resistance (NDR) and memory characteristics. The new systems rely primarily on the redox properties of the compounds to improve upon the solid state properties already observed. Most of these new organic compounds use thiol-based "alligator clips" for attachment to metal surfaces. Some of the compounds, however, contain different "alligator clips," primarily isonitriles, for attachment to metal substrates. It is our hope that these new "alligator clips" will offer lower conductivity barriers (higher current density). Electrochemical tests have been performed in order to evaluate those redox properties and in the hope of using those electrochemical results as a predictive tool to evaluate the usefulness of those compounds. Also, organic structures with polymerizable functionalities have been synthesized in order to cross-link the molecules once they are a part of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). This has been shown to enable the electrochemical growth of polypyrrole from a SAM in a controllable manner.

  16. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  17. DensToolKit: A comprehensive open-source package for analyzing the electron density and its derivative scalar and vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Hernández-Pérez, Julio M.

    2015-11-01

    DensToolKit is a suite of cross-platform, optionally parallelized, programs for analyzing the molecular electron density (ρ) and several fields derived from it. Scalar and vector fields, such as the gradient of the electron density (∇ρ), electron localization function (ELF) and its gradient, localized orbital locator (LOL), region of slow electrons (RoSE), reduced density gradient, localized electrons detector (LED), information entropy, molecular electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities K and G, among others, can be evaluated on zero, one, two, and three dimensional grids. The suite includes a program for searching critical points and bond paths of the electron density, under the framework of Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules. DensToolKit also evaluates the momentum space electron density on spatial grids, and the reduced density matrix of order one along lines joining two arbitrary atoms of a molecule. The source code is distributed under the GNU-GPLv3 license, and we release the code with the intent of establishing an open-source collaborative project. The style of DensToolKit's code follows some of the guidelines of an object-oriented program. This allows us to supply the user with a simple manner for easily implement new scalar or vector fields, provided they are derived from any of the fields already implemented in the code. In this paper, we present some of the most salient features of the programs contained in the suite, some examples of how to run them, and the mathematical definitions of the implemented fields along with hints of how we optimized their evaluation. We benchmarked our suite against both a freely-available program and a commercial package. Speed-ups of ∼2×, and up to 12× were obtained using a non-parallel compilation of DensToolKit for the evaluation of fields. DensToolKit takes similar times for finding critical points, compared to a commercial package. Finally, we present some perspectives for the future development

  18. An aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; MacDowell, A.A.; Duarte, R.; Doran, A.; Forest, E.; Kelez, N.; Marcus, M.; Munson, D.; Padmore, H.; Petermann, K.; Raoux, S.; Robin, D.; Scholl, A.; Schlueter, R.; Schmid, P.; Stohr, J.; Wan, W.; Wei, D.H.; Wu, Y.

    2003-11-01

    Design of a new aberration corrected Photoemission electron microscope PEEM3 at the Advanced Light Source is outlined. PEEM3 will be installed on an elliptically polarized undulator beamline and will be used for the study of complex materials at high spatial and spectral resolution. The critical components of PEEM3 are the electron mirror aberration corrector and aberration-free magnetic beam separator. The models to calculate the optical properties of the electron mirror are discussed. The goal of the PEEM3 project is to achieve the highest possible transmission of the system at resolutions comparable to our present PEEM2 system (50 nm) and to enable significantly higher resolution, albeit at the sacrifice of intensity. We have left open the possibility to add an energy filter at a later date, if it becomes necessary driven by scientific need to improve the resolution further.

  19. Contributions of Electron Cyclotron Waves to Performance in Advanced Regimes on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, C. C.; Burrell, K. H.; DeBoo, J. C.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Prater, R.; Smith, S. P.; Staebler, G. M.; Turnbull, A. D.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Austin, M. E.; Brennan, D. P.; Takahashi, R.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.

    2011-12-23

    High-power electron cyclotron (EC) waves are used to increase performance in several Advanced Tokamak (AT) regimes on DIII-D where there is a simultaneous need for high noninductive current and high beta. In the Quiescent High-confinement mode (QH-mode), a direct measurement of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) profile is made using modulation techniques, and a trapped electron mode (TEM) dominated regime with core T{sub e}>T{sub i} is created. In the 'highq{sub min}' AT scenario, ECCD provides part of the off-axis noninductive current and helps to produce a tearing stable equilibrium. In the hybrid regime, strong central current drive from EC waves and other sources increases the noninductive current fraction to {approx_equal}100%. Surprisingly, the core safety factor remains above unity, meaning good alignment between the current drive profile and the desired plasma current profile is not necessary in this scenario.

  20. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging. Final report, July 1990-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, N.J.; Barkhimer, R.L.; Steinmeyer, D.C.; Kelly, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine. Electronic fuel injection, Turbocharging, Diesel combustion, Cold starting, Flame photography.

  1. Effects of Bonding Wires and Epoxy Molding Compound on Gold and Copper Ball Bonds Intermetallic Growth Kinetics in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, C. L.; Classe, F. C.; Chan, B. L.; Hashim, U.

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bonding wires and epoxy mold compounds (EMC) on intermetallic compound (IMC) diffusion kinetics and apparent activation energies ( E aa) of CuAl and AuAl IMCs in a fineline ball grid array package. The objective of this study is to study the CuAl and AuAl IMC growth rates with different epoxy mold compounds and to determine the apparent activation energies of different combination of package bills of materials. IMC thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion ( D o) and E aa various aging conditions of different EMCs and bonding wires. Apparent activation energies ( E aa) of both wire types were investigated after high temperature storage life tests (HTSL) for both molding compounds. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The E aa obtained for CuAl IMC diffusion kinetics are 1.08 and 1.04 eV with EMC A and EMC B, respectively. For AuAl IMC diffusion kinetics, the E aa obtained are 1.04 and 0.98 eV, respectively, on EMC A and EMC B. These values are close to previous HTSL studies conducted on Au and Cu ball bonds and are in agreement to the theory of HTSL performance of Au and Cu bonding wires.Overall, EMC B shows slightly lower apparent activation energy ( E aa) valueas in CuAl and AuAl IMCs. This proves that the different types of epoxy mold compounds have some influence on IMC growth rates.

  2. Advanced electron microscopy characterization of tri-layer rare-earth oxide superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Patrick; Disa, Ankit; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Klie, Robert; University of Illinois-Chicago Team; Yale University Team

    2015-03-01

    Rare-earth nickelates are known to display complex electronic and magnetic behaviors owed to a very localized and sensitive Ni-site atomic and electronic structure. Toward realizing the goal of manipulating of the energetic ordering of Ni d orbitals and 2D conduction, the present work focuses on the experimental characterization of thin film superlattice structures consisting of alternating layers of LaTiO3 and LaNiO3 sandwiched between a dull insulator, LaAlO3. Using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-based methods, properties such as interfacial sharpness, electron transfer, O presence, and local electronic structure can be probed at the atomic scale, and will be discussed at length. By combining both energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and electronic energy loss (EEL) spectroscopies in an aberration-corrected STEM, it is possible to attain energy and spatial resolutions of 0.35 eV and 100 pm, respectively. Focus of the talk will remain not only on the aforementioned properties, but will also include details and parameters of the acquisitions to facilitate future characterization at this level.

  3. Reliability of BGA Packages for Highly Reliable Application and Chip Scale Package Board Level Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1997-01-01

    Diffenent aspects of advanced surface mount package technology have been investigated for aerospace applications. Three key areas included understanding assembly reliability behavior of conventional surface Mount, Ball Grid Arrays (BGAs), and Chip Scale Packages.

  4. Unravelling electronic and structural requisites of triplet-triplet energy transfer by advanced electron paramagnetic resonance and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentin, M.; Salvadori, E.; Barone, V.; Carbonera, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, in combination with Density Functional theory (DFT), have been applied to the comparative study of carotenoid triplet states in two major photosynthetic antenna complexes, the Peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein of dinoflagellates and the light-harvesting complex II of higher plants. Carotenoid triplet states are populated by triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) from chlorophyll molecules to photoprotect the system from singlet oxygen formation under light-stress conditions. The TTET process is strongly dependent on the relative arrangement and on the electronic properties of the triplet states involved. The proposed spectroscopic approach exploits the concept of spin conservation during TTET, which leads to recognisable spin polarisation effects in the time-resolved and field-swept echo-detected EPR spectra. The electron spin polarisation produced at the carotenoid acceptor site depends on the initial polarisation of the chlorophyll donor and on the relative geometrical arrangement of the donor-acceptor zero-field splitting axes. We have demonstrated that a proper analysis of the spectra in the framework of spin angular momentum conservation allows to derive the pathways of TTET and to gain insight into the structural requirements of this mechanism for those antenna complexes, whose X-ray structure is available. We have further proved that this method, developed for natural antenna complexes of known X-ray structure, can be extended to systems lacking structural information in order to derive the relative arrangement of the partners in the energy transfer process. The structural requirements for efficient TTET, obtained from time-resolved and pulse EPR, have been complemented by a detailed description of the electronic structure of the carotenoid triplet state, provided by pulse Electron-Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR) experiments. Triplet-state hyperfine couplings of the α- and β-protons of the

  5. System packager strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-03-01

    Advances in combined equipment technologies, the ability to supply fuel flexibility and new financial support structures are helping power systems packagers meet a diverse series of client and project needs. Systems packagers continue to capture orders for various size power plants around the globe. A competitive buyer`s market remains the order of the day. In cogeneration markets, clients continue to search for efficiency rather than specific output for inside-the-fence projects. Letter-perfect service remains a requisite as successful suppliers strive to meet customers` ever-changing needs for thermal and power applications.

  6. Gold-copper nanostars as photo-thermal agents: synthesis and advanced electron microscopy characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazán-Díaz, Lourdes; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Velázquez-Salazar, J. Jesús; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Romeu, David; Reyes-Gasga, José; Herrera-Becerra, Raúl; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Guisbiers, Grégory

    2015-12-01

    Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra.Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06491k

  7. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in an Average Power Position (I-24) in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. M . Ryskamp; R. C. Howard; R. C. Pedersen; S. T. Khericha

    1998-10-01

    The Fissile Material Disposition Program Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan details a series of test irradiations designed to investigate the use of weapons-grade plutonium in MOX fuel for light water reactors (LWR) (Cowell 1996a, Cowell 1997a, Thoms 1997a). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons-derived test fuel contains small amounts of gallium (about 2 parts per million). A concern exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel and into the clad, inducing embrittlement. For preliminary out-of-pile experiments, Wilson (1997) states that intermetallic compound formation is the principal interaction mechanism between zircaloy cladding and gallium. This interaction is very limited by the low mass of gallium, so problems are not expected with the zircaloy cladding, but an in-pile experiment is needed to confirm the out-of-pile experiments. Ryskamp (1998) provides an overview of this experiment and its documentation. The purpose of this Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP) is to demonstrate the safe irradiation and handling of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide (MOX) Fuel Average Power Test (APT) experiment as required by Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) 3.9.1 (LMITCO 1998). This ESAP addresses the specific operation of the MOX Fuel APT experiment with respect to the operating envelope for irradiation established by the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO 1997a). Experiment handling activities are discussed herein.

  8. Recent Advances in Flexible and Stretchable Bio-Electronic Devices Integrated with Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suji; Lee, Hyunjae; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics and optoelectronics configured in soft, water resistant formats uniquely address seminal challenges in biomedicine. Over the past decade, there has been enormous progress in the materials, designs, and manufacturing processes for flexible/stretchable system subcomponents, including transistors, amplifiers, bio-sensors, actuators, light emitting diodes, photodetector arrays, photovoltaics, energy storage elements, and bare die integrated circuits. Nanomaterials prepared using top-down processing approaches and synthesis-based bottom-up methods have helped resolve the intrinsic mechanical mismatch between rigid/planar devices and soft/curvilinear biological structures, thereby enabling a broad range of non-invasive, minimally invasive, and implantable systems to address challenges in biomedicine. Integration of therapeutic functional nanomaterials with soft bioelectronics demonstrates therapeutics in combination with unconventional diagnostics capabilities. Recent advances in soft materials, devices, and integrated systems are reviewes, with representative examples that highlight the utility of soft bioelectronics for advanced medical diagnostics and therapies. PMID:26779680

  9. Advanced photonic, electronic, and web engineering systems: WILGA Symposium, January 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The cycle of WILGA Symposia [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of SPIE, IEEE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Multi-Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The January conference was attended by around 100 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical photonics, electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced photonic, electronic circuits and systems. The 32 nd WILGA Symposium took place on 27 May - 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. These two editions of WILGA Conferences - January and May have generated more than 250 articles, from which around 100 were chosen by the Symposium and Conference Committees to be published in this volume of Proc.SPIE. WILGA Symposium papers are traditionally submitted via the WILGA web page [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] to the SPIE Proceedings publishing system [spie.org]. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. All Wilga papers are published in journals Elektronika, IJET-PAN and in Proc.SPIE. Topical tracks of the symposium usually embrace, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium In its two editions a year is a summary of the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country and this geographical region in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also

  10. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Mitch

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  11. BOK-Underfill Optimization for FPGA Package/Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Commercial-off-the-shelf area array package technologies in high-reliability versions are being considered for NASA electronic systems. These packages are prone to early failure due to the severe mechanical shock and vibration of launch, as well as other less severe conditions, such as mechanical loading during descent, rough terrain mobility, handling, and ground tests. As the density of these packages increases and the size of ball interconnections decrease, susceptibility to mechanical loading and cycling fatigue grows. This report presents a summary of the body of knowledge developed for the evaluation of area array packages and is based on surveys of literature from industry and academia. For high-reliability applications, the limited data that exists will be presented. Most data from industry deals with mechanical fatigue caused by four-point bend tests, as well as from drop tests for hand-held electronics; the most recent data will be presented, along with a brief background of prior literature. Understanding the key design guidelines and failure mechanisms from past tests is critical to developing an approach that will minimize future failures. Additional specific testing enables low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages.

  12. ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) ECH (Electron Cyclotron Heating) waveguide component development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.; White, T.L.; Kimrey, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system presently under construction will consist of two 53.2-GHz, 200-kW continuous-wave (cw) gyrotrons with a mode-controlled waveguide system and polarized launcher optimized for maximum power in the ATF plasma. Several components, such as a waveguide mode-analyzing directional coupler, a TiO/sub 2/ mode absorber, miter bends, and a polarization-selectable beamed launcher, have been developed and tested. Laboratory results and initial high-power operation of the system are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Gold-copper nanostars as photo-thermal agents: synthesis and advanced electron microscopy characterization.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Díaz, Lourdes; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Velázquez-Salazar, J Jesús; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Romeu, David; Reyes-Gasga, José; Herrera-Becerra, Raúl; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Guisbiers, Grégory

    2015-12-28

    Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra. PMID:26602429

  14. Advanced Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopies of Iron-Sulfur Proteins: Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM)

    PubMed Central

    Cutsail, George E.; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    The advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, provide unique insights into the structure, coordination chemistry, and biochemical mechanism of Nature’s widely distributed iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) proteins. This review describes the ENDOR and ESEEM techniques and then provides a series of case studies on their application to a wide variety of FeS proteins including ferredoxins, nitrogenase, and radical SAM enzymes. PMID:25686535

  15. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology. PMID:26891564

  16. FY2013 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2014-02-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) technology area within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  17. Qualification and Reliability for MEMS and IC Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Advanced IC electronic packages are moving toward miniaturization from two key different approaches, front and back-end processes, each with their own challenges. Successful use of more of the back-end process front-end, e.g. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Wafer Level Package (WLP), enable reducing size and cost. Use of direct flip chip die is the most efficient approach if and when the issues of know good die and board/assembly are resolved. Wafer level package solve the issue of known good die by enabling package test, but it has its own limitation, e.g., the I/O limitation, additional cost, and reliability. From the back-end approach, system-in-a-package (SIAP/SIP) development is a response to an increasing demand for package and die integration of different functions into one unit to reduce size and cost and improve functionality. MEMS add another challenging dimension to electronic packaging since they include moving mechanical elements. Conventional qualification and reliability need to be modified and expanded in most cases in order to detect new unknown failures. This paper will review four standards that already released or being developed that specifically address the issues on qualification and reliability of assembled packages. Exposures to thermal cycles, monotonic bend test, mechanical shock and drop are covered in these specifications. Finally, mechanical and thermal cycle qualification data generated for MEMS accelerometer will be presented. The MEMS was an element of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) qualified for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity that successfully is currently roaring the Martian surface

  18. Advanced electric vehicle controls and power conversion electronics for transit buses and light rail

    SciTech Connect

    Peticolas, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The majority of development which has taken place in AC electric vehicle drive technology has focused on small vehicles (i.e. 3,000 lbs and less) with emphasis on high performance and rapid acceleration. Examples of this type of development are the GM Impact and the Ford Ecostar. These vehicles have been developed to demonstrate technology advances by Detroit, but the high performance capabilities of these vehicles have raised expectations that cannot be met with contemporary batteries, or perhaps, any batteries. Larger vehicles such as buses, trucks, and even light rail cars may in fact be better near term targets for electric conversion since many of these vehicles have lower performance demands, and operate on fixed routes with designated stops for several minutes, allowing ``opportunity`` charging for range extension. The basis of this paper is to propose a near term drive system for large vehicles that overcomes some of the problems of electric vehicles to date, while providing a platform which is adaptable to future improvements in technology. The advanced transit bus will not only require power electronics for the vehicle drive, but will require power electronics and electric actuators for a variety of nonpropulsion equipment such as air conditioning, wheel chair lifts, and power steering. 6 refs.

  19. Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the evaluation of the packages and makes recommendations for…

  20. Evaluation of Small Form Factor Fiber Optic Interconnects for the NASA Electronics Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie; Thomes, W. Joe; Blair, Diana; Chuska, Rick; Switzer, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The Diamond AVIM optical fiber connector has been used for over a decade in flight environments. AVIM which stands for Aviation Intermediate Maintenance is always referenced as a fiber optic connector type from the DIN (Deutsches Institut fur Normung) family of optical fiber connectors. The newly available Mini AVIM and DMI (Definition Multimedia Interface) connectors also by Diamond provide similar features as the high performance AVIM with the added benefits of being small form factor for board mount and internal box use where long connectors and strain relief can not be accommodated. Transceiver, fiber laser technology and receiver optic technology based on small sized constraints will benefit the most by the reduction in connector form factor. It is for this reason that the Mini AVIM is being evaluated for multimode and single mode optical fiber use in both fiber based and cable based packaging configurations. In a fiber based termination, there are no cable materials to bond to the connector. The only bonding that is conducted is the mounting of the fiber with epoxy to the connector ferrules (which are called DMI ferrules). In a cable configuration, the compatibility of the connector subcomponents along with the upjacketing materials of the cable around the fiber needs to be considered carefully for termination fabrication. Cabled terminations will show greater insertion loss and high probability of failures during thermal cycling testing. This is due to the stressing of the combination of materials that each have different Coefficients of Thermal Expansion (CTE's) and that are bonded together to the connector subcomponents. As the materials flex during thermal excursions, forces are applied to the termination and can make the system fail if the grouping of materials (per their CTE's) are not compatible and this includes cable materials, epoxies, ferrule and connector body components. For this evaluation, multimode 100 micron core step index fiber was used for

  1. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecchini, M. L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M.; Fuochi, P. G.

    1995-02-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 μg/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D 10 values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.12 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2°C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila.

  2. EDExpress Packaging Training, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This document is a comprehensive guide to electronic packaging with electronic data exchange (EDE) of Title IV student financial aid application data to and from the U.S. Department of Education. An overview chapter introduces the concepts of electronic packaging and implementation using EDExpress for Windows. Chapter 2 explains the query utility…

  3. Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

    2006-12-31

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

  4. Recent advances in the application of electron tomography to materials chemistry.

    PubMed

    Leary, Rowan; Midgley, Paul A; Thomas, John Meurig

    2012-10-16

    Nowadays, tomography plays a central role in pureand applied science, in medicine, and in many branches of engineering and technology. It entails reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an object from a tilt series of two-dimensional (2D) images. Its origin goes back to 1917, when Radon showed mathematically how a series of 2D projection images could be converted to the 3D structural one. Tomographic X-ray and positron scanning for 3D medical imaging, with a resolution of ∼1 mm, is now ubiquitous in major hospitals. Electron tomography, a relatively new chemical tool, with a resolution of ∼1 nm, has been recently adopted by materials chemists as an invaluable aid for the 3D study of the morphologies, spatially-discriminating chemical compositions, and defect properties of nanostructured materials. In this Account, we review the advances that have been made in facilitating the recording of the required series of 2D electron microscopic images and the subsequent process of 3D reconstruction of specimens that are vulnerable, to a greater or lesser degree, to electron beam damage. We describe how high-fidelity 3D tomograms may be obtained from relatively few 2D images by incorporating prior structural knowledge into the reconstruction process. In particular, we highlight the vital role of compressed sensing, a recently developed procedure well-known to information theorists that exploits ideas of image compression and "sparsity" (that the important image information can be captured in a reduced data set). We also touch upon another promising approach, "discrete" tomography, which builds into the reconstruction process a prior assumption that the object can be described in discrete terms, such as the number of constituent materials and their expected densities. Other advances made recently that we outline, such as the availability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes, electron wavelength monochromators, and sophisticated specimen goniometers

  5. Electron multiplication CCD detector technology advancement for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA (Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset) is a NASA space observatory. It will host two major astronomical instruments: a wide-field imager (WFI) to search for dark energy and carry out wide field near infrared (NIR) surveys, and a coronagraph instrument (CGI) to image and spectrally characterize extrasolar planets. In this paper, we discuss the work that has been carried out at JPL in advancing Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) technology to higher flight maturity, with the goal of reaching a NASA technology readiness level of 6 (TRL-6) by early-to-mid 2016. The EMCCD has been baselined for both the coronagraph's imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) based on its sub-electron noise performance at extremely low flux levels - the regime where the AFTA CGI will operate. We present results from a study that fully characterizes the beginning of life performance of the EMCCD. We also discuss, and present initial results from, a recent radiation test campaign that was designed and carried out to mimic the conditions of the WFIRST-AFTA space environment in an L2 orbit, where we sought to assess the sensor's end of life performance, particularly degradation of its charge transfer efficiency, in addition to other parameters such as dark current, electron multiplication gain, clock induced charge and read noise.

  6. Microstructure, thermo-physical and mechanical properties of spray-deposited Si-30Al alloy for electronic packaging application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Feng Xiong Baiqing; Zhang Yongan; Zhu Baohong; Liu Hongwei; Wei Yanguang

    2008-10-15

    In this study, Si-30Al alloy was synthesized by the spray atomization and deposition technique. The microstructure and properties of the alloy were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal conductivity (TC) measurements, and 3-point bending tests. It was found that the microstructure of the alloy after hot pressing is composed of a continuous network of globular primary Si and interpenetrating secondary Al-rich phase. The property measurements results indicate that the spray-deposited 70Si30Al alloy has advantageous physical and mechanical characteristics, including low coefficient of thermal expansion (6.8 x 10{sup -6}/K), high thermal conductivity (118 W/mK), low density (2.42 g cm{sup -3}), high ultimate flexural strength (180 MPa) and Brinell hardness (261)

  7. MEMS Packaging and Thermal Issues in Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lin, Liwei

    The potential of MEMS/NEMS technologies has been viewed as a comparable or even bigger revolution than that of microelectronics. These scientific and engineering advancements in MEMS/NEMS could bring applications to reality previously unthinkable, from space systems, environmental instruments, to daily life appliances. As presented in previous chapters, the development of core MEMS/NEMS processes has already demonstrated a lot of commercial applications as well as future potentials with elaborated functionalities. However, a low cost and reliable package for the protection of these MEMS/NEMS products is still a very difficult task. Without addressing the packaging and reliability issues, no commercial products can be sold on the market. Packaging design and modeling, packaging material selection, packaging process integration, and packaging cost are main issues to be considered when developing a new MEMS packaging process. In this chapter, we will present the fundamentals of MEMS/NEMS packaging technology, including packaging processes, hermetic and vacuum encapsulations, thermal issues, packaging reliability, and future packaging trends. The future development of MEMS packaging will rely on the success of the implementation of several unique techniques, such as packaging design kits for system and circuit designer, low cost and high yield wafer level, chip-scale packaging techniques, effective testing techniques at the wafer-level to reduce overall testing costs; and reliable fabrication of an interposer [37.1] with vertical through-interconnects for device integrations.

  8. Evidence-based use of electronic clinical tracking systems in advanced practice registered nurse education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, M Laurie; Smith, Lynette S; Brooks, Andrea F

    2014-07-01

    Over the past decade, the federal government has mandated healthcare providers to incorporate electronic health records into practice by 2015. This technological update in healthcare documentation has generated a need for advanced practice RN programs to incorporate information technology into education. The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties created core competencies to guide program standards for advanced practice RN education. One core competency is Technology and Information Literacy. Educational programs are moving toward the utilization of electronic clinical tracking systems to capture students' clinical encounter data. The purpose of this integrative review was to evaluate current research on advanced practice RN students' documentation of clinical encounters utilizing electronic clinical tracking systems to meet advanced practice RN curriculum outcome goals in information technology as defined by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties. The state of the science depicts student' and faculty attitudes, preferences, opinions, and data collections of students' clinical encounters. Although electronic clinical tracking systems were utilized to track students' clinical encounters, these systems have not been evaluated for meeting information technology core competency standards. Educational programs are utilizing electronic clinical tracking systems with limited evidence-based literature evaluating the ability of these systems to meet the core competencies in advanced practice RN programs. PMID:24814999

  9. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)Calculation in Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Package: EELS-FDTD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Large, Nicolas; Cao, Yang; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Nordlander, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a unique tool that is extensively used to investigate the plasmonic response of metallic nanostructures since the early works in the '50s. To be able to interpret and theoretically investigate EELS results, a myriad of different numerical techniques have been developed for EELS simulations (BEM, DDA, FEM, GDTD, Green dyadic functions). Although these techniques are able to predict and reproduce experimental results, they possess significant drawbacks and are often limited to highly symmetrical geometries, non-penetrating trajectories, small nanostructures, and free standing nanostructures. We present here a novel approach for EELS calculations using the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method: EELS-FDTD. We benchmark our approach by direct comparison with results from the well-established boundary element method (BEM) and published experimental results. In particular, we compute EELS spectra for spherical nanoparticles, nanoparticle dimers, nanodisks supported by various substrates, and gold bowtie antennas on a silicon nitride substrate. Our EELS-FDTD implementation can be easily extended to more complex geometries and configurations and can be directly implemented within other numerical methods. Work funded by the Welch Foundation (C-1222, L-C-004), and the NSF (CNS-0821727, OCI-0959097).

  10. Advances in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of dynamic self-assembling nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Christina J.; Moyer, Tyson J.; Lee, Sungsoo S.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the structural information of nanoscale materials in their solvent-exposed state is crucial, as a result, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has become an increasingly popular technique in the materials science, chemistry, and biology communities. Cryo-TEM provides a method to directly visualize the specimen structure in a solution-state through a thin film of vitrified solvent. This technique complements X-ray, neutron, and light scattering methods that probe the statistical average of all species present; furthermore, cryo-TEM can be used to observe changes in structure over time. In the area of self-assembly, this tool has been particularly powerful for the characterization of natural and synthetic small molecule assemblies, as well as hybrid organic–inorganic composites. In this review, we discuss recent advances in cryogenic TEM in the context of self-assembling systems with emphasis on characterization of transitions observed in response to external stimuli. PMID:23204913

  11. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  12. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  13. Description of the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) for the OSS-1 Shuttle mission and JSC plasma chamber test in conjunction with the fast pulse electron gun (FPEG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives, equipment, and techniques for the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) carried by the OSS-1 instrument payload of the STS-4 and scheduled for the Spacelab-2 mission are described. The goals of the first flight were to examine the Orbiter-magnetoplasma interactions by measuring the electric and magnetic field strengths, the ionized particle wakes, and the generated waves. The RMS was employed to lift the unit out of the bay in order to allow characterization of the fields, EM interference, and plasma contamination within 15 m of the Orbiter. The PDP will also be used to examine plasma depletion, chemical reaction rates, waves, and energized plasma produced by firing of the Orbiter thrusters. Operation of the PDP was carried out in the NASA Space Environment Simulation Laboratory test chamber, where the PDP was used to assay the fields, fluxes, wave amplitudes, and particle energy spectra. The PDP instrumentation is also capable of detecting thermal ions, thermal electrons suprathermal particles, VHF/UHF EMI levels, and the S-band field strength.

  14. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing.

    PubMed

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices. PMID:26233395

  15. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  16. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven Reitzenstein, Stephan; Strittmatter, André

    2015-07-15

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  17. Active and intelligent packaging systems for a modern society.

    PubMed

    Realini, Carolina E; Marcos, Begonya

    2014-11-01

    Active and intelligent packaging systems are continuously evolving in response to growing challenges from a modern society. This article reviews: (1) the different categories of active and intelligent packaging concepts and currently available commercial applications, (2) latest packaging research trends and innovations, and (3) the growth perspectives of the active and intelligent packaging market. Active packaging aiming at extending shelf life or improving safety while maintaining quality is progressing towards the incorporation of natural active agents into more sustainable packaging materials. Intelligent packaging systems which monitor the condition of the packed food or its environment are progressing towards more cost-effective, convenient and integrated systems to provide innovative packaging solutions. Market growth is expected for active packaging with leading shares for moisture absorbers, oxygen scavengers, microwave susceptors and antimicrobial packaging. The market for intelligent packaging is also promising with strong gains for time-temperature indicator labels and advancements in the integration of intelligent concepts into packaging materials. PMID:25034453

  18. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  19. Characterization of corrosion pit initiation in aluminum using advanced electron microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elswick, Danielle S.

    The resistance to pitting corrosion in aluminum is due to the presence of a compact thin, approximately 5 nm, oxide. Certain conditions locally attack this protective oxide layer leading to its breakdown and resulting in the formation of corrosion pits. Numerous studies have investigated the growth and propagation stages of pitting corrosion yet the initiation stage remains not clearly defined nor well understood. The presence of aggressive chemical species, such as chloride, plays a critical role in the pitting phenomenon and is explored in this investigation. This dissertation focuses on the localization of pitting corrosion in high purity aluminum in order to accurately predict where and when the pit initiation process will occur so that microstructural changes associated with pit initiation can be easily identified and characterized using electron microscopy. A comprehensive investigation into the corrosion initiation process was attempted utilizing advanced characterization techniques in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) coupled with high-resolution microanalysis. Localization of pitting was successful through use of different sample geometries that reduced the length scale for which pitting events occurred. Three geometries were investigated, each with unique features for pitting corrosion. Electropolished Al needles localized pitting to a sharp tip due to a geometric field enhancement effect, while other experiments employed an Al wire micro-electrode geometry. Both geometries minimized the area where corrosion pits initiated and were electrochemically tested using a solution that contained the chloride species. A third geometry included electron beam evaporated Al films implanted with chloride, which induced pitting corrosion in an otherwise chloride-free environment. Localization of pitting was successfully achieved using novel sample geometries that isolated the desired stages of pitting corrosion, i.e. metastable pitting, through controlled

  20. Advanced paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies of iron-sulfur proteins: Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM).

    PubMed

    Cutsail, George E; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M

    2015-06-01

    The advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, provide unique insights into the structure, coordination chemistry, and biochemical mechanism of nature's widely distributed iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) proteins. This review describes the ENDOR and ESEEM techniques and then provides a series of case studies on their application to a wide variety of FeS proteins including ferredoxins, nitrogenase, and radical SAM enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases. PMID:25686535

  1. Recent advances in PC-Linux systems for electronic structure computations by optimized compilers and numerical libraries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Shiang K; Yu, Chin-Hui

    2002-01-01

    One of the most frequently used packages for electronic structure research, GAUSSIAN 98, is compiled on Linux systems with various hardware configurations, including AMD Athlon (with the "Thunderbird" core), AthlonMP, and AthlonXP (with the "Palomino" core) systems as well as the Intel Pentium 4 (with the "Willamette" core) machines. The default PGI FORTRAN compiler (pgf77) and the Intel FORTRAN compiler (ifc) are respectively employed with different architectural optimization options to compile GAUSSIAN 98 and test the performance improvement. In addition to the BLAS library included in revision A.11 of this package, the Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software (ATLAS) library is linked against the binary executables to improve the performance. Various Hartree-Fock, density-functional theories, and the MP2 calculations are done for benchmarking purposes. It is found that the combination of ifc with ATLAS library gives the best performance for GAUSSIAN 98 on all of these PC-Linux computers, including AMD and Intel CPUs. Even on AMD systems, the Intel FORTRAN compiler invariably produces binaries with better performance than pgf77. The enhancement provided by the ATLAS library is more significant for post-Hartree-Fock calculations. The performance on one single CPU is potentially as good as that on an Alpha 21264A workstation or an SGI supercomputer. The floating-point marks by SpecFP2000 have similar trends to the results of GAUSSIAN 98 package. PMID:12086529

  2. Automated visual inspection stations for next-generation semiconductor package quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYong, Mark R.; Eskridge, Thomas C.; Grace, John W.; Newberry, Jeff E.; Jones, J. H.; Hart, B. E.

    1996-09-01

    In the last several years, the semiconductor industry has come to the realization that the package into which a die is placed is at least as critical to the performance of the complete electronic system as the die itself. This realization has led to an explosive effort across the entire industry to advance the state-of-the-art in semiconductor packaging. To date, this effort has already produced semiconductor packaging options on the scale of the die (i.e., chip scale packaging -- CSP). While CSPs and other advanced packaging techniques provide improved electronic system performance, they also increase the quality control burden (despite the highly automated processes used to manufacture the packages, quality control remains, for the most part, a manual operation). This paper addresses the necessary requirements of automated visual inspection (AVI) for quality control of current and future semiconductor packaging. The necessary requirements of the station are subdivided into two categories: those pertaining to the hardware platform, and those pertaining to the software reasoning engine. Hardware requirements are discussed in terms of finding the best match between commercial, off-the- shelf, hardware components and a given inspection application. Components reviewed include: imagers, optics, illumination systems, auto-focus/alignment systems, material handlers, parallel image preprocessors, and host computers. Applications reviewed include: pin grid array (PGA), ball grid array (BGA), and flip-chip package inspection. Also discussed in the hardware section are options that may be used when commercial components are not adequate. Software requirements are discussed in terms of the functionality required to provide accurate, real-time characterization of package quality, to gain operator acceptance, and to produce meaningful statistics for use in process control.

  3. A Packaged Self-Powered System with Universal Connectors Based on Hybridized Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bojing; Zheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Hong; Yao, Yan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-01

    A packaged self-powered system by hybridizing nanogenerators (PSNGS) is demonstrated. The performance of the PSNGS is tested in a biofluid and used for powering an electronic thermometer. Select waterproof universal connectors are designed and fabricated for energy and signal transmission. This PSNGS and the connectors can significantly advance the development of self-powered implanted medical devices and wearable/portable electronics. PMID:26634808

  4. Advanced electron microscopy of novel ferromagnetic materials and ferromagnet/oxide interfaces in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fengyuan

    We have studied novel ferromagnetic (FM) materials and FM electrode/tunnel barrier interfaces in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by advanced electron microscopy including scanning transmission electron microscopy (HRSTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). MTJs are one of the prototypical spintronic devices, with applications in magnetic random access memory, sensors and read heads. The performance of MTJs depends on several factors, including the FM electrodes and the FM/tunnel barrier interfaces. Therefore, to realize the high performance of MTJs, we first need high quality ferromagnetic electrodes with high spin polarization. High-quality Fe3O4 and Fe4N electrodes with theoretically predicted -100% spin polarization were fabricated by various methods and investigated by HRSTEM and STEM EELS. The Fe3O4 and Fe4N thin films have low defect density and good crystallinity, but when integrated as electrodes in a MTJ, problems emerged. In a Fe4N/AlOx/Fe MTJ, the magnetoresistance was negative, but relatively small, due to a defective Fe 3O4 reaction layer formed at the Fe4N/tunnel barrier interface revealed by HRSTEM and EELS. The interfacial reaction layer was thin and discontinuous which made direct imaging difficult. Therefore, STEM EELS was used to map out the reaction layer. A Fe3O4 reaction layer was also found in a nominally symmetric CoFe/AlOx/CoFe MTJs after annealing, which also exhibited inverse TMR and a non-symmetric bias dependence. We also investigated the MTJs with the Heusler alloy Co2MnSi as one or both electrode and crystalline MgO as the tunnel barrier, which exhibit quite high TMR due to coherent tunneling. We showed that the Co2MnSi/MgO interface in these junctions is dominated by a configuration of a pure Mn plane bonded across the interface to O. This was the first observation of that interface termination. HRSTEM images also show that the fraction of MnMn/O interface termination increases with increasing Mn concentration in the CMS

  5. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  6. Recent Advances from the DoD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Consortium on Innovative Vacuum Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, N. C.

    2003-12-01

    The MURI Innovative Vacuum Electronics Program is administered by Dr. Robert Barker of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and consists of a collaboration between six premier universities actively engaged in all aspects of multidisciplinary basic research and graduate instruction in innovative microwave vacuum electronics (MIT, Stanford, University of California, Davis, University of Maryland — College Park, University of Michigan, and University of Wisconsin). The dual goals are to address basic research issues of critical importance to the DoD as well as to train the next generation. A wide range of fast wave amplifier concepts is under investigation at frequencies ranging from 15 GHz to 1 THz. Two representative examples are a TE01 100 kW W-Band gyro-TWT under investigation at UC Davis and a 140 GHz confocal waveguide based gyro-TWT concept developed at MIT. Novel, lightweight 100 kW, W-Band klystrinos suitable for configuration in arrays are under investigation at Stanford using advanced microfabrication techniques. Extensive analytic and numerical analyses are underway at Wisconsin augmented by experimental measurements using a custom-modified well diagnosed test TWT are aimed at an understanding of the complicated physics of multi-toned ultra-wideband traveling wave tubes including details of the beam-wave interaction and the nonlinear time and space evolution of the carrier(s) and inter-modulation products. A significant emphasis of the Maryland activity is on theoretical and experimental studies of various frequency-multiplying gyroamplifier concepts which are both of fundamental interest as well as practical importance because of the relaxation on driver requirements. Finally, the Michigan team is devoting much of its attention to fundamental theoretical and experimental issues associated with crossed-field devices. The latest results from these as well as other activities will be presented.

  7. Reliability of CCGA 1152 and CCGA 1272 Interconnect Packages for Extreme Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages of high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performance, and compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logics and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, flight avionics, and payload electronics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short- and long-term space missions. Certain planetary satellites require operations of thermally uncontrolled hardware under extremely cold and hot temperatures with large diurnal temperature change from day to night. The planetary protection requires the hardware to be baked at +125 C for 72 hours to kill microbugs to avoid any biological contamination, especially for sample return missions. Therefore, the present CCGA package reliability research study has encompassed the temperature range of 185 to +125 C to cover various NASA deep space missions. Advanced 1152 and 1272 CCGA packaging interconnects technology test hardware objects have been subjected to ex treme temperature thermal cycles from 185 to +125 C. X-ray inspections of CCGA packages have been made before thermal cycling. No anomalous behavior and process problems were observed in the x-ray images. The change in resistance of the daisy-chained CCGA interconnects was measured as a function of increasing number of thermal cycles. Electrical continuity measurements of daisy chains have shown no anomalies, even until 596 thermal cycles. Optical inspections of hardware have shown a significant fatigue for CCGA 1152 packages over CCGA 1272 packages. No catastrophic failures have been observed yet in the results. Process qualification and assembly are required to optimize the CCGA assembly processes. Optical inspections of CCGA boards have been made after 258 and 596 thermal

  8. Decolorization of kraft bleaching effluent by advanced oxidation processes using copper (II) as electron acceptor.

    PubMed

    Yeber, María C; Oñate, Katherine P; Vidal, Gladys

    2007-04-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), TiO2/UV/O2 and TiO2/UV/Cu (II), were used to remove color from a Kraft bleaching effluent. The optimal decoloration rate was determined by multivariate analysis, obtaining a mathematical model to evaluate the effect among variables. TiO2 and Cu (II) concentrations and the reaction times were optimized. The experimental design resulted in a quadratic matrix of 30 experiments. Additionally, the pH influence on the color removal was determined by multivariate analysis. Results indicate that color removal was 94% at acidic pH (3.0) in the presence of Cu (11) as an electron acceptor. Under this condition, the biodegradation of the effluent increased from 0.3 to 0.6. Moreover, 70% of COD (chemical oxygen demand) was removed, and the ecotoxicity, measured by Daphnia magna, was reduced. Photocatalytic oxidation to remove the color contained in the Kraft mill bleaching effluent was effective under the following conditions: short reaction time, acidic pH values, and without the addition of oxygen due to the presence of Cu (II) in the effluent. Moreover, residual Cu (II) was a minimum (0.05.mg L(-1)) and was not toxic to the next biological stage. The experimental design methodology indicated that a quadratic polynomial model may be used to representthe efficiencyfor degradation of the Kraft bleach pulp effluent by a photocatalytic process. PMID:17438808

  9. Rapid development of a measurement and control system for the Advanced Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.L. Jr.; May, M.W.; Kozubal, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is being used to develop a measurement and control system for the Advanced Free-Electron laser (AFEL) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. EPICS is an integrated system of applications development tools and a distributed run time environment that supports an input-output database, a graphical operator interface, sequential control through state'' definition, data archiving, data analysis, and fault management. It is very advantageous in terms of both time and system integrity to be able to perform much of the control system development before the actual hardware for the AFEL is in place. Using the EPICS applications tools, we are developing prototype measurements and controls that can be directly transferred to the AFEL during installation and commissioning. This is possible due primarily to three aspects of EPICS. First we can easily model physical systems with the state notation language. Second, we can simulate input and output channels with soft'' database channels, which are created using the database configuration tool. Third, we can easily build and modify operator interface screens with the display editor. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Development of advanced-type multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Nunomiya, T; Abe, S; Aoyama, K; Nakamura, T

    2007-01-01

    An advanced-type small, light, multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter has been developed using silicon semiconductor radiation detectors for dose management of workers at nuclear power plants and accelerator facilities. This dosemeter is 62 x 82 x 27 mm(3) in size and approximately 130 g in weight, which is capable of measuring personal gamma ray and neutron dose equivalents, Hp(10), simultaneously. The neutron dose equivalent can be obtained using two types of silicon semiconductors: a slow-neutron sensor (<1 MeV) and a fast-neutron sensor (>1 MeV). The slow neutron sensor is a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon on which a natural boron layer is deposited around an aluminium electrode. The fast neutron sensor is also a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon crystal on which an amorphous silicon hydride is deposited. The neutron energy response corresponding to the fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficient given by ICRP Publication 74 has been evaluated using a monoenergetic neutron source from 250 keV to 15 MeV at the Fast Neutron Laboratory of Tohoku University. As the result, the Hp(10) response to neutrons in the energy range of 250 keV and 4.4 MeV within +/-50% difference has been obtained. PMID:17704353

  11. Degranulation patterns of eosinophils in advanced gastric carcinoma: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Caruso, R A; Ieni, A; Fedele, F; Zuccalà, V; Riccardo, M; Parisi, E; Parisi, A

    2005-01-01

    Recruitment and activation of eosinophils have been studied intensely in asthma and other allergic diseases. Less is known about the infiltration and degranulation patterns of eosinophils in the tumor stroma. Seven cases of advanced gastric carcinomas were found to be massively infiltrated by eosinophils and studied by light and electron microscopy. Gastric carcinomas, despite having similar numbers of tissue eosinophils, exhibited markedly different degranulation patterns. In 2 cases, resting nondegranulating eosinophils were found. Piecemeal degranulation was the predominant mode of secretion from eosinophils localized within the tumor stroma in 4 cases. Eosinophil exocytosis and cytolysis were rarely observed. In 1 case, crystals morphologically similar to Charcot-Leyden crystals were observed at the extracellular level as well as in phagosomes of tissue macrophages, confirming active sequestrations of eosinophil Charcot-Leyden protein by macrophages in vivo. In the same case, eosinophils showed characteristic features of early and late apoptotic changes, such as condensed chromatin, focal dilatation of nuclear envelope, and preserved plasma membrane. Morphological association between apoptotic eosinophils and deposition of granules in the tumor stroma was found. Extracellular deposition of intact granules from apoptotic eosinophils was distinct from eosinophilic (necrotic) cytolysis, and has reported previously in experimental studies in vitro. To the knowledge of the authors, this case represents the first report of late apoptotic eosinophils that release their granules within the tumor stroma in a human gastric carcinoma. PMID:15931778

  12. Initial high-power testing of the ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) ECH (electron cyclotron heating) system

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a moderate aspect ratio torsatron that will utilize 53.2 GHz 200 kW Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) to produce nearly current-free target plasmas suitable for subsequent heating by strong neutral beam injection. The initial configuration of the ECH system from the gyrotron to ATF consists of an optical arc detector, three bellows, a waveguide mode analyzer, two TiO/sub 2/ mode absorbers, two 90/sup 0/ miter bends, two waveguide pumpouts, an insulating break, a gate valve, and miscellaneous straight waveguide sections feeding a launcher radiating in the TE/sub 02/ mode. Later, a focusing Vlasov launcher will be added to beam the ECH power to the saddle point in ATF magnetic geometry for optimum power deposition. The ECH system has several unique features; namely, the entire ECH system is evacuated, the ECH system is broadband, forward power is monitored by a newly developed waveguide mode analyzer, phase correcting miter bends will be employed, and the ECH system will be capable of operating short pulse to cw. Initial high-power tests show that the overall system efficiency is 87%. The waveguide mode analyzer shows that the gyrotron mode output consists of 13% TE/sub 01/, 82.6% TE/sub 02/, 2.5% TE/sub 03/, and 1.9% TE/sub 04/. 4 refs.

  13. Lead-Free vs Tin-Lead Reliability of Advanced Electronic Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide the technical background and specific information published in literature related to reliability test, analyses, modeling, and associated issues for lead-free solder package assemblies in comparison to their tin-lead solder alloys. It also presents current understanding of lead-free thermal cycle test performance in support.

  14. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiński, Piotr; Górecki, Krzysztof; Bogdanowicz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the selected articles presented at the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference, held in Gdansk, Poland on September 20-23, 2015 (IMAPS Poland 2015). The conference has been held under the scientific patronage of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Poland Chapter and the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunication, Polish Academy of Science and jointly hosted by the Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics (GUT) and the Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (GMU). The IMAPS Poland conference series aims to advance interdisciplinary scientific information exchange and the discussion of the science and technology of advanced electronics. The IMAPS Poland 2015 conference took place in the heart of Gdansk, two minutes walking distance from the beach. The surroundings and location of the venue guaranteed excellent working and leisure conditions. The three-day conference highlighted invited talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of electronics and electronic material science. The eight sessions covered areas in the fields of electronics packaging, interconnects on PCB, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), MEMS devices, transducers, sensors and modelling of electronic devices. The conference was attended by 99 participants from 11 countries. The conference schedule included 18 invited presentations and 78 poster presentations.

  15. New development of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Zhao, H. Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Ma, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-02-15

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advance design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an 18-28 GHz fully superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source dedicated for highly charged heavy ion beam production. SECRAL, with an innovative superconducting magnet structure of solenoid-inside-sextupole and at lower frequency and lower rf power operation, may open a new way for developing compact and reliable high performance superconducting ECR ion source. One of the recent highlights achieved at SECRAL is that some new record beam currents for very high charge states were produced by 18 GHz or 18+14.5 GHz double frequency heating, such as 1 e {mu}A of {sup 129}Xe{sup 43+}, 22 e {mu}A of {sup 209}Bi{sup 41+}, and 1.5 e {mu}A of {sup 209}Bi{sup 50+}. To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, a 24 GHz/7 kW gyrotron microwave generator was installed and SECRAL was tested at 24 GHz. Some promising and exciting results at 24 GHz with new record highly charged ion beam intensities were produced, such as 455 e {mu}A of {sup 129}Xe{sup 27+} and 152 e {mu}A of {sup 129}Xe{sup 30+}, although the commissioning time was limited within 3-4 weeks and rf power only 3-4 kW. Bremsstrahlung measurements at 24 GHz show that x-ray is much stronger with higher rf frequency, higher rf power. and higher minimum mirror magnetic field (minimum B). Preliminary emittance measurements indicate that SECRAL emittance at 24 GHz is slightly higher that at 18 GHz. SECRAL has been put into routine operation at 18 GHz for heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. The total operation beam time from SECRAL for HIRFL accelerator has been more than 2000 h, and {sup 129}Xe{sup 27+}, {sup 78}Kr{sup 19+}, {sup 209}Bi{sup 31+}, and {sup 58}Ni{sup 19+} beams were delivered. All of these new developments, the latest results, and long-term operation for the accelerator have again demonstrated that SECRAL is one of the best in the performance of

  16. New development of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Zhao, H Y; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Ma, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Xie, D Z

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advance design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an 18-28 GHz fully superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source dedicated for highly charged heavy ion beam production. SECRAL, with an innovative superconducting magnet structure of solenoid-inside-sextupole and at lower frequency and lower rf power operation, may open a new way for developing compact and reliable high performance superconducting ECR ion source. One of the recent highlights achieved at SECRAL is that some new record beam currents for very high charge states were produced by 18 GHz or 18+14.5 GHz double frequency heating, such as 1 e microA of (129)Xe(43+), 22 e microA of (209)Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of (209)Bi(50+). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, a 24 GHz/7 kW gyrotron microwave generator was installed and SECRAL was tested at 24 GHz. Some promising and exciting results at 24 GHz with new record highly charged ion beam intensities were produced, such as 455 e microA of (129)Xe(27+) and 152 e microA of (129)Xe(30+), although the commissioning time was limited within 3-4 weeks and rf power only 3-4 kW. Bremsstrahlung measurements at 24 GHz show that x-ray is much stronger with higher rf frequency, higher rf power. and higher minimum mirror magnetic field (minimum B). Preliminary emittance measurements indicate that SECRAL emittance at 24 GHz is slightly higher that at 18 GHz. SECRAL has been put into routine operation at 18 GHz for heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. The total operation beam time from SECRAL for HIRFL accelerator has been more than 2000 h, and (129)Xe(27+), (78)Kr(19+), (209)Bi(31+), and (58)Ni(19+) beams were delivered. All of these new developments, the latest results, and long-term operation for the accelerator have again demonstrated that SECRAL is one of the best in the performance of ECR ion source for highly charged heavy ion beam production

  17. Instrumentation and beam dynamics study of advanced electron-photon facility in Indiana University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tianhuan

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips' geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been speci ed. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  18. Instrumentation and Beam Dynamics Study of Advanced Electron-Photon Facility in Indiana University

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Tianhuan

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been specified. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  19. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  20. Evidence for a resonant cyclotron interaction between runaway electrons and MHD modes in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Li Erzhong; Zhou Ruijie; Hu Liqun

    2011-09-15

    In the past, the resonant cyclotron interaction between runaway electrons and lower hybrid waves via anomalous Doppler broadening was experimentally investigated, and it was shown to be able to create a barrier to the energy that could be reached by the runaway electrons [E. Li et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 566 (2010)]. In this paper, to our knowledge for the first time, experimental evidence will be provided for a resonant cyclotron interaction between runaway electrons and magnetohydrodynamics modes in a stochastic magnetic field in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST), which has been theoretically proposed as a mechanism able to limit the maximum attainable energy by runaway electrons in tokamak plasmas [J. R. Martin-Solis and R. Sanchez, Phys. Plasmas 15, 112505 (2008)].

  1. Navy packaging standardization thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

  2. Laser-assisted ultrathin bare die packaging: a route to a new class of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Val R.; Swenson, Orven; Atanasov, Yuriy; Schneck, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Ultrathin flip-chip semiconductor die packaging on paper substrates is an enabling technology for a variety of extremely low-cost electronic devices with huge market potential such as RFID smart forms, smart labels, smart tickets, banknotes, security documents, etc. Highly flexible and imperceptible dice are possible only at a thickness of less than 50 μm, preferably down to 10-20 μm or less. Several cents per die cost is achievable only if the die size is <= 500 μm/side. Such ultrathin, ultra-small dice provide the flexibility and low cost required, but no conventional technology today can package such die onto a flexible substrate at low cost and high rate. The laser-enabled advanced packaging (LEAP) technology has been developed at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota, to accomplish this objective. Presented are results using LEAP to assemble dice with various thicknesses, including 350 μm/side dice as thin as 20 μm and less. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using a laser to package conventional silicon dice with such small size and thickness. LEAP-packaged RFID-enabled paper for financial and security applications is also demonstrated. The cost of packaging using LEAP is lower compared to the conventional pick-and-place methods while the rate of packaging is much higher and independent of the die size.

  3. Instrument Packages for Cold, Dark, High Radiation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Brigham, D.; Feng, S.

    2011-03-01

    We are developing a small cold temperature in-strument package concept that integrates cold tempera-ture power system and radhard ULT ULP electronics into a ‘cold temperature surface operational’ version of a planetary surface instrument package.

  4. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  5. An Arbitrary Precision Computation Package

    2003-06-14

    This package permits a scientist to perform computations using an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision (the equivalent of hundreds or even thousands of digits), by making only minor changes to conventional C++ or Fortran-90 soruce code. This software takes advantage of certain properties of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, together with advanced numeric algorithms, custom data types and operator overloading. Also included in this package is the "Experimental Mathematician's Toolkit", which incorporates many of these facilitiesmore » into an easy-to-use interactive program.« less

  6. Recent advances in electronic structure theory and their influence on the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F+H2 yields HF+H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.

  7. Recent advances in electronic structure theory and their influence on the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F + H2 yields HF + H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.

  8. Recent advances in electronic structure theory and their influence on the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F + H2 yields HF + H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.

  9. Recent advances in electronic structure theory and their influence on the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F+H2 yields HF+H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.

  10. Predicted reliability of aerospace electronics: Application of two advanced probabilistic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    Two advanced probabilistic design-for-reliability (PDfR) concepts are addressed and discussed in application to the prediction, quantification and assurance of the aerospace electronics reliability: 1) Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, which is an extension of the currently widely used Arrhenius model and, in combination with the exponential law of reliability, enables one to obtain a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful formula for the evaluation of the probability of failure (PoF) of a material or a device after the given time in operation at the given temperature and under the given stress (not necessarily mechanical), and 2) Extreme Value Distribution (EVD) technique that can be used to assess the number of repetitive loadings that result in the material/device degradation and eventually lead to its failure by closing, in a step-wise fashion, the gap between the bearing capacity (stress-free activation energy) of the material or the device and the demand (loading). It is shown that the material degradation (aging, damage accumulation, flaw propagation, etc.) can be viewed, when BAZ model is considered, as a Markovian process, and that the BAZ model can be obtained as the ultimate steady-state solution to the well-known Fokker-Planck equation in the theory of Markovian processes. It is shown also that the BAZ model addresses the worst, but a reasonably conservative, situation. It is suggested therefore that the transient period preceding the condition addressed by the steady-state BAZ model need not be accounted for in engineering evaluations. However, when there is an interest in understanding the transient degradation process, the obtained solution to the Fokker-Planck equation can be used for this purpose. As to the EVD concept, it attributes the degradation process to the accumulation of damages caused by a train of repetitive high-level loadings, while loadings of levels that are considerably lower than their extreme values do not contribute

  11. 75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... 111 Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Advance... Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb), no later than January of 2011; and expects to require the mandatory...Standards@usps.gov , with a subject line of ``Intelligent Mail Package Barcode comments.'' Faxed...

  12. Electron heating in superconducting cuprate heterostructures and its application for advanced sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Andrei; Wen, Bo; Yakobov, Roman; Vitkalov, Sergey; Karasik, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Low electron density in superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures containing quasi-two dimensional CuO layers leads to strong reduction of the interaction between electrons and thermal phonons and simultaneously to substantial enhancement of the electron-electron interaction. This hierarchy of kinetic processes provides very effective quasiparticle multiplication and slow quasiparticle relaxation and recombination. Strong heating of quasiparticles in the superconducting and resistive states makes these superconducting nanomaterials to be very attractive for various sensing applications based on electron heating. These nanostructures allow for the managing of quasiparticle relaxation rate from low values determined by the electron-phonon relaxation to high values in short devices with out-diffusion electron cooling. Therefore, LSCO heterostructures are very interesting for applications in sensitive resistive detectors, kinetic inductance detectors, and wideband mixers. We experimentally determined key material parameters, design corresponding sensors and evaluated their parameters. Work is supported by NSF.

  13. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information... and arriving at one port from another in the United States after transiting Canada or Mexico (§...

  14. Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Padua, G W

    2010-01-01

    The development of nanocomposites is a new strategy to improve physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. The most promising nanoscale size fillers are montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. Graphite nanoplates are currently under study. In food packaging, a major emphasis is on the development of high barrier properties against the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavor compounds, and water vapor. Decreasing water vapor permeability is a critical issue in the development of biopolymers as sustainable packaging materials. The nanoscale plate morphology of clays and other fillers promotes the development of gas barrier properties. Several examples are cited. Challenges remain in increasing the compatibility between clays and polymers and reaching complete dispersion of nanoplates. Nanocomposites may advance the utilization of biopolymers in food packaging. PMID:20492194

  15. Cooling system for electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  16. Cooling system for electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  17. A 1-kW power demonstration from the advanced free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.; Conner, C.A.; Fortgang, C.M.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective of this project was to engineer and procure an electron beamline compatible with the operation of a 1-kW free-electron laser (FEL). Another major task is the physics design of the electron beam line from the end of the wiggler to the electron beam dump. This task is especially difficult because electron beam is expected to have 20 kW of average power and to simultaneously have a 25% energy spread. The project goals were accomplished. The high-power electron design was completed. All of the hardware necessary for high-power operation was designed and procured.

  18. Advances in structural and functional analysis of membrane proteins by electron crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Reichow, Steve L.; Gonen, Tamir

    2011-01-01

    Summary Electron crystallography is a powerful technique for the study of membrane protein structure and function in the lipid environment. When well-ordered two-dimensional crystals are obtained the structure of both protein and lipid can be determined and lipid-protein interactions analyzed. Protons and ionic charges can be visualized by electron crystallography and the protein of interest can be captured for structural analysis in a variety of physiologically distinct states. This review highlights the strengths of electron crystallography and the momentum that is building up in automation and the development of high throughput tools and methods for structural and functional analysis of membrane proteins by electron crystallography. PMID:22000511

  19. The VOLSCAT package for electron and positron scattering of molecular targets: A new high throughput approach to cross-section and resonances computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, N.; Baccarelli, I.; Morelli, G.

    2009-12-01

    VOLSCAT is a computer program which implements the Single Center Expansion (SCE) method to solve the scattering equation for the elastic collision of electrons/positrons off molecular targets. The scattering potential needed is calculated by on-the-fly calls to the external SCELib library for molecular properties, recently ported to GPU computing environment and ClearSpeed platforms, and made available by means of an Application Program Interface (SCELib-API) which is also provided with the VOLSCAT package in a beta version. The result is a high throughput approach to the solution of the complex e/e-molecule scattering problem, with allows for intensive calculations both for the number of systems which can be studied and for their size. Accurate partial and total elastic cross sections are produced in output together with the associated eigenphase sums. Indirect scattering processes arising from the formation of temporary negative ions can also be analyzed through the computation of the resonances' parameters. Program summaryProgram title: VOLSCAT V1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEEW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 618 353 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 120 307 536 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 Computer: All SMP platforms based on AIX, Linux and SUNOS operating systems over SPARC, POWER, Intel Itanium2, X86, em64t and Opteron processors Operating system: SUNOS, IBM AIX, Linux RedHat (Enterprise), Linux SuSE (SLES) Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. The parallel version in the present release of the code is limited to the OpenMP calculation of the exchange potential V or V. The number of OpenMP threads can then be

  20. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  1. Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Emerson, John A.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Giunta, Rachel K.; Zamora, David Lee; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-04-15

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  2. Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Emerson, John A.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Giunta, Rachel K.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  3. Experimentally characterizing the electronic structures of f-electron systems using advanced high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Stephen, A

    2013-02-03

    We aim to (i) provide data that directly addresses the fundamental roles of actinide valence electrons in chemical bonding, and (ii) serve to provide prototypical data for the heavy element computational chemistry community. These goals will be achieved through the first pure rotational spectroscopic measurements on prototypical systems at ultra-high resolution. These systems encompass low oxidation state uranium and thorium compounds including, but not limited to, UX and ThX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, and UY and ThY, Y = O, S, and other simple U and Th-containing compounds. Our primary experimental tools involve time-domain rotational spectroscopy achieving line widths and resolutions of a few kHz.

  4. Packaging for logistical support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold

    Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.

  5. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Part 2: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Control Functions for Single-Phase Utility-Connected Inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Kramer, W.

    2008-11-01

    Integrating renewable energy and distributed generations into the Smart Grid architecture requires power electronic (PE) for energy conversion. The key to reaching successful Smart Grid implementation is to develop interoperable, intelligent, and advanced PE technology that improves and accelerates the use of distributed energy resource systems. This report describes the simulation, design, and testing of a single-phase DC-to-AC inverter developed to operate in both islanded and utility-connected mode. It provides results on both the simulations and the experiments conducted, demonstrating the ability of the inverter to provide advanced control functions such as power flow and VAR/voltage regulation. This report also analyzes two different techniques used for digital signal processor (DSP) code generation. Initially, the DSP code was written in C programming language using Texas Instrument's Code Composer Studio. In a later stage of the research, the Simulink DSP toolbox was used to self-generate code for the DSP. The successful tests using Simulink self-generated DSP codes show promise for fast prototyping of PE controls.

  6. Suppression of Weibel Instabilities by High Harmonic Electron Bernstein Modes in Advanced Fast Ignition Laser Fusion Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V.

    2006-10-01

    A novel mechanism for the suppression of Weibel instabilities in the core of advanced fast ignition pellets is addressed. The propagation of generated suprathermal electron beam toward the core may lead to the appearance of colossal (˜10MG), small scale (L˜c/φpe, c---velocity of light, φpe---local electron plasma frequency) magnetic fields. The suppression synergy of high harmonic electron Bernstein, (EB), modes and Weibel modes, (WB), in the cone-attached laser fusion pellets is based on nonlinear mode-mode coupling. EB modes are excited by ignition, a cone guided, or implosion laser beams. High harmonic EB modes easily propagate to the core of the pellet whereby they nonlinearly interact with, and suppress, the WB. The suppression synergy is maximized at the simultaneous action of ignition and implosion lasers. E. S. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2,83 (1959) in the core of advanced fast ignition pellets M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M.E. Glinsky, W.L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M.D. Perry, Phys. Plasmas 1 (5), 1626 (1994). V. Stefan, (a) Quasi-Stationary B-Fields due to Weibel Instability in FI Laser Fusion Pellets; (b) Pellet Core Heating Via High Harmonic EB Modes in FI Laser Fusion. 35th Annual A.A.C, 2005,

  7. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M.; Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Porkolab, M.; Turco, F.

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ∼2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  8. Progress and new advances in simulating electron microscopy datasets using MULTEM.

    PubMed

    Lobato, I; Van Aert, S; Verbeeck, J

    2016-09-01

    A new version of the open source program MULTEM is presented here. It includes a graphical user interface, tapering truncation of the atomic potential, CPU multithreading functionality, single/double precision calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) simulations using experimental detector sensitivities, imaging STEM (ISTEM) simulations, energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) simulations, STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) simulations along with other improvements in the algorithms. We also present a mixed channeling approach for the calculation of inelastic excitations, which allows one to considerably speed up time consuming EFTEM/STEM-EELS calculations. PMID:27323350

  9. Comparison of the degradation effects of heavy ion, electron, and cobalt-60 irradiation in an advanced bipolar process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Goben, Charles A.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of the degradation effects of high-energy particles (heavy Br ions and electrons) and Co-60 gamma-rays on the current gain of minimum-geometry bipolar transistors made from an advanced process. The data clearly illustrate the total-ionizing-dose vs particle-fluence behavior of this bipolar transistor produced by an advanced process. In particular, bulk damage from Co-60 gamma rays in bipolar transistors (base transport factor degradation) and surface damage in bipolar transistors from ionizing radiation (emitter-efficiency degradation) have been observed. The true equivalence between various types of radiation for this process technology has been determined on the basis of damage from the log K1 intercepts.

  10. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  11. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  12. Discovery Learning and Teaching with Electronic Corpora in an Advanced German Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the design and implementation of a usage-based and corpus-based advanced German grammar course. Teaching materials for the course included DWDS, or "Digitales Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache": a large, representative, free and publicly available corpus of contemporary German texts. The article outlines specific theoretically…

  13. Possibilities and limitations of advanced transmission electron microscopy for carbon-based nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Carla; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major revolution for electron microscopy in the past decade is the introduction of aberration correction, which enables one to increase both the spatial resolution and the energy resolution to the optical limit. Aberration correction has contributed significantly to the imaging at low operating voltages. This is crucial for carbon-based nanomaterials which are sensitive to electron irradiation. The research of carbon nanomaterials and nanohybrids, in particular the fundamental understanding of defects and interfaces, can now be carried out in unprecedented detail by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). This review discusses new possibilities and limits of AC-TEM at low voltage, including the structural imaging at atomic resolution, in three dimensions and spectroscopic investigation of chemistry and bonding. In situ TEM of carbon-based nanomaterials is discussed and illustrated through recent reports with particular emphasis on the underlying physics of interactions between electrons and carbon atoms. PMID:26425406

  14. TIO2 ADVANCED PHOTO-OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: EFFECT OF ELECTRON ACCEPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of electron acceptors (additives) such as hydrogen peroxide, ammonium persulphate, potassium bromate and potassium peroxymonosulphate (ozone) on the TiO2 photocatalytic degradation of various organic pollutants were examined at various conditions. he individual and th...

  15. Impact of a Care Directives Activity Tab in the Electronic Health Record on Documentation of Advance Care Planning

    PubMed Central

    Turley, Marianne; Wang, Susan; Meng, Di; Kanter, Michael; Garrido, Terhilda

    2016-01-01

    Context: To ensure patient-centered end-of-life care, advance care planning (ACP) must be documented in the medical record and readily retrieved across care settings. Objective: To describe use of the Care Directives Activity tab (CDA), a single-location feature in the electronic health record for collecting and viewing ACP documentation in inpatient and ambulatory care settings, and to assess its association with ACP documentation rates. Design: Retrospective pre- and postimplementation analysis in 2012 and 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California among 113,309 patients aged 65 years and older with ACP opportunities during outpatient or inpatient encounters. Main Outcome Measures: Providers’ CDA use rates and documentation rates of advance directives and physician orders for life-sustaining treatments stratified by CDA use. Results: Documentation rates of advance directives and physician orders for life-sustaining treatments among patients with outpatient and inpatient encounters were 3.5 to 9.6 percentage points higher for patients with CDA use vs those without it. The greatest differences were for orders for life-sustaining treatments among patients with inpatient encounters and for advance directives among patients with outpatient encounters; both were 9.6 percentage points higher among those with CDA use than those without it. All differences were significant after controlling for yearly variation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Statistically significant differences in documentation rates between patients with and without CDA use suggest the potential of a standardized location in the electronic health record to improve ACP documentation. Further research is required to understand effects of CDA use on retrieval of preferences and end-of-life care. PMID:27057820

  16. Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Dixon, David A.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Johnson, Mark A.; Jonah, Charles D.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Miller, John H.; Rescigno, Tom; Rossky, Peter J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Colson, Steve D.; Laufer, Allan H.; Ray, Douglas; Barbara, Paul F.; Bartels, David M.; Bowen, Kit H.; Becker, Kurt H.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Carmichael, Ian; Coe, James V.; Corrales, L. Rene; Cowin, James P.; Dupuis, Michel; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Franz, James A.; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Jordon, Kenneth D.; Kay, Bruce D.; La Verne, Jay A.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Madey, Theodore E.; Mccurdy, C. W.; Meisel, Dan; Mukamel, Shaul; Nilsson, Anders R.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Rustad, James R.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Singer, Sherwin J.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Wittig, Curt; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2005-01-12

    An understanding of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and the subsequent radical chemistry these processes induce is significant in such diverse fields as waste remediation and environmental cleanup, radiation processing, nuclear reactors, and medical diagnosis and therapy. We review the state of the art in the physical chemistry and chemical physics of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and raise critical research issues and fundamental questions that remain unanswered.

  17. Prospects of application of superconducting electrodynamic structures in electronic devices for their advancement to the terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuraev, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Rak, A. O.; Sinitsyn, A. K.; Hramov, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that the application of superconducting electrodynamic structures in microwave electronic devices not only improves their characteristics, but also creates premises for implementation of devices like the autophase traveling-wave tube (TWT) and peniotron operating in the millimeter range with their further advancement to the terahertz range, which is impossible for conventional electrodynamic structures with Ohmic losses. Superconducting corrugated waveguides make it possible to suspend limitations imposed on the output power of pulsed relativistic Cherenkov oscillators, which are associated with thermal degradation of the working surface of conventional waveguides with Ohmic losses.

  18. Recent Advances in Electron Tomography: TEM and HAADF-STEM Tomography for Materials Science and IC Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kubel, C; Voigt, A; Schoenmakers, R; Otten, M; Su, D; Lee, T; Carlsson, A; Engelmann, H; Bradley, J

    2005-11-09

    Electron tomograph tomography is a well y well-established technique for three-dimensional structure determination of (almost) amorphous specimens in life science applications. With the recent advances in nanotechnology and the semiconductor industry, there is also an increasing need for high-resolution 3D structural information in physical sciences. In this paper, we evaluate the capabilities and limitations of TEM and HAADF-STEM tomography for the 3D structural characterization of partially crystalline to highly crystalline materials. Our analysis of catalysts, a hydrogen storage material, and different semiconductor devices shows that features with a diameter as small as 1-2 nm can be resolved in 3D by electron tomography. For partially crystalline materials with small single crystalline domains, TEM tomography provides reliable 3D structural information. HAADF-STEM tomography is more versatile and can also be used for high-resolution 3D imaging of highly crystalline materials such as semiconductor devices.

  19. Helium ion microscopy and energy selective scanning electron microscopy - two advanced microscopy techniques with complementary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenburg, C.; Jepson, M. A. E.; Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.

    2014-06-01

    Both scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and helium ion microscopes (HeIM) are based on the same principle of a charged particle beam scanning across the surface and generating secondary electrons (SEs) to form images. However, there is a pronounced difference in the energy spectra of the emitted secondary electrons emitted as result of electron or helium ion impact. We have previously presented evidence that this also translates to differences in the information depth through the analysis of dopant contrast in doped silicon structures in both SEM and HeIM. Here, it is now shown how secondary electron emission spectra (SES) and their relation to depth of origin of SE can be experimentally exploited through the use of energy filtering (EF) in low voltage SEM (LV-SEM) to access bulk information from surfaces covered by damage or contamination layers. From the current understanding of the SES in HeIM it is not expected that EF will be as effective in HeIM but an alternative that can be used for some materials to access bulk information is presented.

  20. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  1. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  2. Strain mapping at nanometer resolution using advanced nano-beam electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdol, V. B.; Ercius, P.; Ophus, C.; Ciston, J.; Gammer, C. E-mail: aminor@lbl.gov; Jin, X. G.; Minor, A. M. E-mail: aminor@lbl.gov

    2015-06-22

    We report on the development of a nanometer scale strain mapping technique by means of scanning nano-beam electron diffraction. Only recently possible due to fast acquisition with a direct electron detector, this technique allows for strain mapping with a high precision of 0.1% at a lateral resolution of 1 nm for a large field of view reaching up to 1 μm. We demonstrate its application to a technologically relevant strain-engineered GaAs/GaAsP hetero-structure and show that the method can even be applied to highly defected regions with substantial changes in local crystal orientation. Strain maps derived from atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy images were used to validate the accuracy, precision and resolution of this versatile technique.

  3. Advances in Ultrafast Control and Probing of Correlated-Electron Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Simon; Rini, Matteo; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Cavalleri, Andrea

    2011-02-24

    Here in this paper, we present recent results on ultrafast control and probing of strongly correlated-electron materials. We focus on magnetoresistive manganites, applying excitation and probing wavelengths that cover the mid-IR to the soft X-rays. In analogy with near-equilibrium filling and bandwidth control of phase transitions, our approach uses both visible and mid-IR pulses to stimulate the dynamics by exciting either charges across electronic bandgaps or specific vibrational resonances. Lastly, x-rays are used to unambiguously measure the microscopic electronic, orbital, and structural dynamics. Our experiments dissect and separate the nonequilibrium physics of these compounds, revealing the complex interplay and evolution of spin, lattice, charge, and orbital degrees of freedoms in the time domain.

  4. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  5. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies for the Detection of Volatile Biomarker Metabolites in the Human Breath

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose) devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to point-of-care clinical disease diagnoses. This exciting new area of electronic disease detection and diagnosis promises to yield much faster and earlier detection of human diseases and disorders, allowing earlier, more effective treatments, resulting in more rapid patient recovery from various afflictions. E-nose devices are particularly suited for the field of disease diagnostics, because they are sensitive to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and can effectively distinguish between different complex gaseous mixtures via analysis of electronic aroma sensor-array output profiles of volatile metabolites present in the human breath. This review provides a summary of some recent developments of electronic-nose technologies, particularly involving breath analysis, with the potential for providing many new diagnostic applications for the detection of specific human diseases associated with different organs in the body, detectable from e-nose analyses of aberrant disease-associated VOCs present in air expired from the lungs. PMID:25738426

  6. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology.

    PubMed

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J

    2016-06-28

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology-based society. PMID:27317740

  7. Electronic Literacies in the Workplace: Technologies of Writing. Advances in Computers and Composition Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patricia, Ed.; Dautermann, Jennie, Ed.

    Contending that technology, especially when it networks writers to other writers, is more than a mere scribal tool, this book presents 14 essays designed to ignite interest in technology as one of the material conditions of workplace writing contexts. After an introduction ("Issues of Written Literacy and Electronic Literacy in Workplace Settings"…

  8. Advanced Electronics Technologies: Challenges for Radiation Effects Testing, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging Electronics Technologies include: 1) Changes in the commercial semiconductor world; 2) Radiation Effects Sources (A sample test constraint); and 3) Challenges to Radiation Testing and Modeling: a) IC Attributes-Radiation Effects Implication b) Fault Isolation c) Scaled Geometry d) Speed e) Modeling Shortfall f) Knowledge Status

  9. A Modular and Configurable Instrument Electronics Architecture for "MiniSAR"- An Advanced Smallsat SAR Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jaime; Pastena, Max; Bierens, Laurens

    2013-08-01

    MiniSAR is a Dutch program focused on the development of a commercial smallsat featuring a SAR instrument, led by SSBV as prime contractor. In this paper an Instrument Electronics (IEL) system concept to meet the MiniSAR demands is presented. This system has several specificities wrt similar initiatives in the European space industry, driven by our main requirement: keep it small.

  10. Diamond and diamond-like carbon films for advanced electronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Siegal, M.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    Aim of this laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project was to develop diamond and/or diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for electronic applications. Quality of diamond and DLC films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is not adequate for electronic applications. Nucleation of diamond grains during growth typically results in coarse films that must be very thick in order to be physically continuous. DLC films grown by CVD are heavily hydrogenated and are stable to temperatures {le} 400{degrees}C. However, diamond and DLC`s exceptional electronic properties make them candidates for integration into a variety of microelectronic structures. This work studied new techniques for the growth of both materials. Template layers have been developed for the growth of CVD diamond films resulting in a significantly higher nucleation density on unscratched or unprepared Si surfaces. Hydrogen-free DLC with temperature stability {le} 800{degrees}C has been developed using energetic growth methods such as high-energy pulsed-laser deposition. Applications with the largest system impact include electron-emitting materials for flat-panel displays, dielectrics for interconnects, diffusion barriers, encapsulants, and nonvolatile memories, and tribological coatings that reduce wear and friction in integrated micro-electro-mechanical devices.

  11. Integrating Advance Organizers and Multidimensional Information Display in Electronic Performance Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Wei-Chen; Chao, Chia-An

    2007-01-01

    This study has reviewed major design approaches for electronic performance support systems and identified two common problems: users' inability to comprehend screen-based material and poorly designed instructional scaffolds. This paper presents a design approach, called the "Matrix-Aided Performance System" ("MAPS"), which enables these problems…

  12. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  14. ATLAS software packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  15. Modular avionics packaging standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M.; McNichols, J. K.

    The Modular Avionics Packaging (MAP) Program for packaging future military avionics systems with the objective of improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, and reducing equipment life cycle costs is addressed. The basic MAP packaging concepts called the Standard Avionics Module, the Standard Enclosure, and the Integrated Rack are summarized, and the benefits of modular avionics packaging, including low risk design, technology independence with common functions, improved maintainability and life cycle costs are discussed. Progress made in MAP is briefly reviewed.

  16. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  17. Comparison of different LED Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Püttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

  18. Advanced electron microscopic techniques provide a deeper insight into the peculiar features of podocytes.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Tillmann; Hochapfel, Florian; Salecker, Benjamin; Meese, Christine; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Rachel, Reinhard; Wanner, Gerhard; Krahn, Michael P; Witzgall, Ralph

    2015-12-15

    Podocytes constitute the outer layer of the glomerular filtration barrier, where they form an intricate network of interdigitating foot processes which are connected by slit diaphragms. A hitherto unanswered puzzle concerns the question of whether slit diaphragms are established between foot processes of the same podocyte or between foot processes of different podocytes. By employing focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), we provide unequivocal evidence that slit diaphragms are formed between foot processes of different podocytes. We extended our investigations of the filtration slit by using dual-axis electron tomography of human and mouse podocytes as well as of Drosophila melanogaster nephrocytes. Using this technique, we not only find a single slit diaphragm which spans the filtration slit around the whole periphery of the foot processes but additional punctate filamentous contacts between adjacent foot processes. Future work will be necessary to determine the proteins constituting the two types of cell-cell contacts. PMID:26400546

  19. Advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for electron-beam characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    Several unique time-resolved imaging techniques have been developed to address radio frequency (RF)-linac generated electron beams and the free-electron lasers (FEL) driven by such systems. The time structures of these beams involve a series of micropulses with 10 to 15-ps duration, separated by tens of nanoseconds. Mechanisms to convert the e-beam information to optical radiation include optical transition radiation (OTR), Cherenkov radiation, spontaneous emission radiation (SER), and the FEL mechanism itself. The use of gated, intensified television cameras and synchroscan and dual-sweep streak cameras to time-resolve these signals has greatly enhanced the power of these techniques. A brief review of the less familiar conversion mechanisms and electro-optic techniques is followed by a series of specific experimental examples from the RF linac FEL facilities at Los Alamos and Boeing (Seattle, WA). 23 refs., 35 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L.; Cornell, M.; Kaplan, L.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the risk associated with accidents involving aircraft with carbon fiber composite structural components is examined. The individual fiber segments cause electrical and electronic equipment to fail under certain operating conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model was used to computer the risk. Aircraft accidents with fire, release of carbon fiber material, entrainment of carbon fibers in a smoke plume transport of fibers downwind, transfer of some fibers/into the the interior of buildings, failures of electrical and electronic equipment, and economic impact of failures are discussed. Risk profiles were prepared for individual airports and the Nation. The vulnerability of electrical transmission equipment to carbon fiber incursion and aircraft accident total costs is investigated.

  1. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  2. Theoretical analysis of advanced schemes for free electron laser with a large {mu}{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhulin, V.I.; Zanadvorov, N.P.

    1995-12-31

    The possibility to operate with a short pulse FEL (electron pulse length a {sigma} {approx_equal} 1mm) in far infrared region (with the radiation wavelength 10{mu}m {le}{lambda}{le}300{mu}m) gives rise to many new applications. The parameter {mu}{sub c} = N{lambda}/{sigma}, which characterises the interaction time between the electron and radiation pulses in the undulator with N periods, becomes rather large ({mu}{sub c}{approximately}10) even for {lambda}{approximately}100{mu}m. An increase in {lambda} leads to the reduction in output power owing to an increase in both the diffraction losses and {mu}{sub c}. We consider two options capable to improve the situation in the FEL with planar undulator geometry: I. Reduction of the diffraction losses by use of circular or rectangular hollow waveguides in the cavity. II. Effective reduction of {mu}{sub c} factor by increasing the FEL-interaction time by means of the optical klystron undulator scheme. We demonstrate that; I. Introduction of a waveguide into the cavity causes additional difficulties. In both circular and rectangular cases the waveguide dispersion leads to the undesirable variation of radiation pulse shape. For the circular case the effect of depolarization becomes important and leads to the additional losses (up to 30%) due to the violation of the axial symmetry and linear polarization. II. The optical klystron scheme consisting of several separated undulators, can indeed increase the FEL-interaction time. The right choice of electron bunch delay between these undulators gives the possibility to couple several successive electron pulses with one radiation pulse during one passage through the cavity. This results in considerable increase in FEL-interaction time and corresponding increase in gain.

  3. Recent Theoretical and Experimental Advances in the Electronic Circular Dichroisms of Planar Chiral Cyclophanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tadashi; Inoue, Yoshihisa

    The chiroptical properties, such as electronic and vibrational circular dichroism and optical rotation, of planar chiral cyclophanes have attracted much attention in recent years. Although the chemistry of cyclophanes has been extensively explored for more than 60 years, the studies on chiral cyclophanes are rather limited. Experimentally, the use of chiral stationary phases in HPLC becomes more popular and facilitates the enantiomer separation of chiral cyclophanes of interest. Almost all chiral cyclophanes can be readily separated, in analytical and preparative scales, most typically on a Daicel OD type column, which is based on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). The CD spectra of chiral cyclophanes are unique in their fairly large, significantly coupled Cotton effects observed in all the 1 B b, 1 L a, and 1 L b band regions. Theoretically, the time-dependent density functional theory, or TD-DFT, method becomes a cost-efficient, yet accurate, theoretical method to reproduce the electronic circular dichroisms and the absorption spectra of a variety of cyclophanes. The direct comparison of the experimental CD spectra with the theoretical ones readily leads to the unambiguous assignment of the absolute configuration of cyclophanes. In addition, the analysis of configuration interaction and molecular orbitals allows detailed interpretation of the electronic transitions and Cotton effects in the UV and CD spectra. Through the study of the CD spectra of chiral cyclophanes as model systems, the effects of intra- and intermolecular interactions on the chiroptical properties of molecules can be explored, and the results thus obtained are valuable in comprehensively elucidating the structure-chiroptical property relationship. In this review the recent progress in experimental and theoretical investigations of the electronic CD spectra of chiral cyclophanes is discussed.

  4. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research

    PubMed Central

    PELLOWSKI, JENNIFER; MATHEWS, CATHERINE; KALICHMAN, MOIRA O.; DEWING, SARAH; LURIE, MARK N.; KALICHMAN, SETH C.

    2016-01-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services. PMID:27144318

  5. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research.

    PubMed

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Dewing, Sarah; Lurie, Mark N; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-06-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services. PMID:27144318

  6. Advances in electric field and atomic surface derived properties from experimental electron densities.

    PubMed

    Bouhmaida, Nouzha; Ghermani, Nour Eddine

    2008-07-14

    The present study is devoted to a general use of the Gauss law. This is applied to the atomic surfaces derived from the topological analysis of the electron density. The method proposed here is entirely numerical, robust and does not necessitate any specific parametrization of the atomic surfaces. We focus on two fundamental properties: the atomic charges and the electrostatic forces acting on atoms in molecules. Application is made on experimental electron densities modelized by the Hansen-Coppens model from which the electric field is derived for a heterogenic set of compounds: water molecule, NO(3) anion, bis-triazine molecule and MgO cluster. Charges and electrostatic forces are estimated by the atomic surface flux of the electric field and the Maxwell stress tensor, respectively. The charges obtained from the present method are in good agreement with those issued from the conventional volume integration. Both Feynman and Ehrenfest forces as well as the electrostatic potential at the nuclei (EPN) are here estimated from the experimental electron densities. The values found for the molecular compounds are presented and discussed in the scope of the mechanics of atomic interactions. PMID:18688393

  7. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  8. Structural and thermodynamic principles of viral packaging.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton S; Harvey, Stephen C

    2007-01-01

    Packaging of genetic material inside a capsid is one of the major processes in the lifecycle of bacteriophages. To establish the basic principles of packing double-stranded DNA into a phage, we present a low-resolution model of bacteriophage varphi29 and report simulations of DNA packaging. The simulations show excellent agreement with available experimental data, including the forces of packaging and the average structures seen in cryo-electron microscopy. The conformation of DNA inside the bacteriophage is primarily determined by the shape of the capsid and the elastic properties of DNA, but the energetics of packaging are dominated by electrostatic repulsions and the large entropic penalty associated with DNA confinement. In this slightly elongated capsid, the DNA assumes a folded toroidal conformation, rather than a coaxial spool. The model can be used to study packaging of other bacteriophages with different shapes under a range of environmental conditions. PMID:17223529

  9. New and unconventional approaches for advancing resolution in biological transmission electron microscopy by improving macromolecular specimen preparation and preservation.

    SciTech Connect

    Massover, W.; Materials Science Division

    2011-02-01

    Resolution in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) now is limited by the properties of specimens, rather than by those of instrumentation. The long-standing difficulties in obtaining truly high-resolution structure from biological macromolecules with TEM demand the development, testing, and application of new ideas and unconventional approaches. This review concisely describes some new concepts and innovative methodologies for TEM that deal with unsolved problems in the preparation and preservation of macromolecular specimens. The selected topics include use of better support films, a more protective multi-component matrix surrounding specimens for cryo-TEM and negative staining, and, several quite different changes in microscopy and micrography that should decrease the effects of electron radiation damage; all these practical approaches are non-traditional, but have promise to advance resolution for specimens of biological macromolecules beyond its present level of 3-10 {angstrom} (0.3-1.0 nm). The result of achieving truly high resolution will be a fulfillment of the still unrealized potential of transmission electron microscopy for directly revealing the structure of biological macromolecules down to the atomic level.

  10. Recent advances at NASA in calculating the electronic spectra of diatomic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Ellis E.; Paterson, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced entry vehicles, such as the proposed Aero-assisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle, provide new and challenging problems for spectroscopy. Large portions of the flow field about such vehicles will be characterized by chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Only by considering the actual overlap of the atomic and rotational lines emitted by the species present can the impact of radiative transport within the flow field be assessed correctly. To help make such an assessment, a new computer program is described that can generate high-resolution, line-by-line spectra for any spin-allowed transitions in diatomic molecules. The program includes the matrix elements for the rotational energy and distortion to the fourth order; the spin-orbit, spin-spin, and spin-rotation interactions to first order; and the lambda splitting by a perturbation calculation. An overview of the Computational Chemistry Branch at Ames Research Center is also presented.

  11. Packaging and Reliability Issues in Micro/Nano Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongbaeg; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Chiao, Mu; Lin, Liwei

    The potential of MEMS/NEMS technologies has been viewed as a revolution comparable or even bigger than that of microelectronics. These scientific and engineering advancements in micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS)/(NEMS) could bring previously unthinkable applications to reality, from space systems, environmental instruments, to daily-life appliances. As presented in previous chapters, the development of core MEMS/NEMS processes has already demonstrated a lot of commercial applications as well as future potentials with elaborate functionalities. However, creating a low-cost reliable package for the protection of these MEMS/NEMS products is still a very difficult task. Without addressing these packaging and reliability issues, no commercial products can be sold on the market. Packaging design and modeling, packaging material selection, packaging process integration, and packaging cost are the main issues to be considered. In this chapter, we will present the fundamentals of MEMS/NEMS packaging technology, including packaging processes, hermetic and vacuum encapsulations, thermal issues, packaging reliability, and future packaging trends. The future development of MEMS packaging will rely on the success of the implementation of several unique techniques, such as packaging design kits for system and circuit designer, low-cost wafer-level and chip-scale packaging techniques, effective testing techniques, and reliable fabrication of an interposer [56.1] with vertical through-interconnects for device integrations.

  12. TiO2 advanced photo-oxidation technology: Effect of electron acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ekabi, H.; Butters, B.; Delany, D.; Powell, T.; Ireland, J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of electron acceptors (additives) such as hydrogen peroxide, ammonium persulphate, potassium bromate and potassium peroxymonosulphate (oxone) on the TiO2 photocatalytic degradation of various organic pollutants were examined at various conditions. The individual and the collective effects of these additives on the degradation rates of two different concentrations (40 and 200 ppm) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were investigated in single-pass and multi-pass operational modes at 3 L/min flow. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  13. Advanced modeling of electron avalanche process in polymeric dielectric voids: Simulations and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, L.; Serra, S.; Montanari, G. C.

    2010-08-01

    This paper deals with aging phenomena in polymers under electric stress. In particular, we focus our efforts on the development of a novel theoretical method accounting for the discharge process (partial discharge) in well known defects present in polymers, which are essentially tiny air gaps embedded in a polymeric matrix. Such defects are believed to act as trigger points for the partial discharges and their induced aging process. The model accounts for the amplitude as well as the energy distribution of the electrons during their motion, particularly at the time in which they impact on the polymer surface. The knowledge of the number of generated electrons and of their energy distributions is fundamental to evaluate the amount of damage caused by an avalanche on the polymer-void interface and get novel insights of the basic phenomena underlying the relevant aging processes. The calculation of such quantities would require generally the combined solution of the Boltzmann equation in the energy and space/time domains. The proposed method simplifies the problem, taking into account only the main phenomena involved in the process and provides a partial discharge (PD) model virtually free of adjustable parameters. This model is validated by an accurate experimental procedure aimed at reproducing the same conditions of the simulations and regarding air gaps embedded in polymeric dielectrics. The experimental results confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed approach.

  14. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  15. Advances in nanoimprint lithography and applications in plasmonic-enhanced electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yixing

    The research work in this thesis comprises of two parts. The first part focuses on nanofabrication techniques for better control of nanostructures, such as line edge roughness control and critical structure dimensions, for improvement in large area lift-off of ultra-thin (sub-40 nm) and ultra-small (sub-20 nm) nanostructures, and for improvement in mold-substrate separation. The second part of this thesis studies one important application of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in the field of plasmonic-enhanced electron source. In the first part, a post-fabrication method, termed Self-limited Self Perfection by Liquefaction (SP-SPEL), is studied. SP-SPEL has experimentally demonstrated to reduce the trench width with precise control down to 20 nm from original 90 nm width, - 450% reduction. In addition, SP-SPEL increases the trench width uniformity and reduces the low-frequency line edge roughness. Second, a tri-layer method is studied to offer large area, efficient lift-off of ultra-thin (sub-40 nm) and ultra-fine (sub-20 nm) nanostructures. Using this method, a nanoimprint mold is fabricated. Third, tribo-electronics in NIL has been studied. It has been shown that tribo-charge can not only skew the AFM measurement by over 400%, but also largely increase the mold-substrate separation force. To solve this problem, a new mold structure is firstly proposed by Professor Stephen Y Chou and has demonstrated to reduce the separation force by over 8 fold. In the second part, a plasmonic-enhanced nanostructured electron source is studied, for both semiconducting and metallic photoemissive materials. For the semiconducting photocathode, a vertical cavity structure, comprising a top sub-wavelength mesh, ultra-thin (~ 40 nm) semiconducting materials in the middle and metallic back-plane, has demonstrated a 30 fold enhancement in photoelectron emission over a planar thin film. In addition, for the metallic photocathode, a 3D nanocavity, termed "Disk coupled Dots-on-Pillar Antenna

  16. Design and characterization of a 32-channel heterodyne radiometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Han, X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Gao, X.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-07-15

    A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer has been developed for the measurement of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). This system collects X-mode ECE radiation spanning a frequency range of 104–168 GHz, where the frequency coverage corresponds to a full radial coverage for the case with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.3 T. The frequency range is equally spaced every 2 GHz from 105.1 to 167.1 GHz with an RF bandwidth of ∼500 MHz and the video bandwidth can be switched among 50, 100, 200, and 400 kHz. Design objectives and characterization of the system are presented in this paper. Preliminary results for plasma operation are also presented.

  17. Design and characterization of a 32-channel heterodyne radiometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Han, X; Liu, X; Liu, Y; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Li, E Z; Hu, L Q; Gao, X

    2014-07-01

    A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer has been developed for the measurement of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). This system collects X-mode ECE radiation spanning a frequency range of 104-168 GHz, where the frequency coverage corresponds to a full radial coverage for the case with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.3 T. The frequency range is equally spaced every 2 GHz from 105.1 to 167.1 GHz with an RF bandwidth of ~500 MHz and the video bandwidth can be switched among 50, 100, 200, and 400 kHz. Design objectives and characterization of the system are presented in this paper. Preliminary results for plasma operation are also presented. PMID:25085139

  18. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  19. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  20. Advances in physiologic lung assessment via electron beam computed tomography (EBCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Eric A.

    1999-09-01

    Lung function has been evaluated in both health and disease states by techniques, such as pulmonary function tests, which generally study aggregate function. These decades old modalities have yielded a valuable understanding of global physiologic and pathophysiologic structure-to-function relationships. However, such approaches have reached their limits. They cannot meet the current and anticipated needs of new surgical and pharmaceutical treatments. 4-D CT can provide insights into regional lung function (ventilation and blood flow) and thus can provide information at an early stage of disease when intervention will have the greatest impact. Lung CT over the last decade has helped with further defining anatomic features in disease, but has lagged behind advances on the cellular and molecular front largely because of the failure to account for functional correlates to structural pathology. Commercially available CT scanners are now capable of volumetric data acquisition in a breath-hold and capable of multi-level slice acquisitions of the heart and lungs with a per slice scan aperture of 50 - 300 msec, allowing for regional blood flow measurements. Static, volumetric imaging of the lung is inadequate in that much of lung pathology is a dynamic phenomenon and, thus, is only detectable if the lung is imaged as air and blood are flowing. This paper review the methodologies and early physiologic findings associated with our measures of lung tissue properties coupled with regional ventilation and perfusion.

  1. Electron-Beam Dynamics for an Advanced Flash-Radiography Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-11-17

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for multipulse flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Furthermore, beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in-cell codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup, image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. The beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  2. Electron-Beam Dynamics for an Advanced Flash-Radiography Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for multipulse flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Furthermore, beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in-cell codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup, image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. The beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  3. Electron-beam dynamics for an advanced flash-radiography accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr.

    2015-06-22

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in cell (PIC) codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup (BBU), image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. Beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  4. Missed Policy Opportunities to Advance Health Equity by Recording Demographic Data in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Daniel E.; Holden, Kisha B.; Mack, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    The science of eliminating health disparities is complex and dependent on demographic data. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) encourages the adoption of electronic health records and requires basic demographic data collection; however, current data generated are insufficient to address known health disparities in vulnerable populations, including individuals from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, with disabilities, and with diverse sexual identities. We conducted an administrative history of HITECH and identified gaps between the policy objective and required measure. We identified 20 opportunities for change and 5 changes, 2 of which required the collection of less data. Until health care demographic data collection requirements are consistent with public health requirements, the national goal of eliminating health disparities cannot be realized. PMID:25905840

  5. Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

  6. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  7. Electronic Router

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  8. Self-amplified spontaneous emission saturation at the Advanced Photon Source free-electron laser (abstract) (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moog, E. R.; Milton, S. V.; Arnold, N. D.; Benson, C.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Dejus, R. J.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Gluskin, E.; Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O.; Nassiri, A.; Sajaev, V.; Soliday, R.; Tieman, B. J.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Wiemerslage, G.; Yang, B. X.

    2002-03-01

    Today, many bright photon beams in the ultraviolet and x-ray wavelength range are produced by insertion devices installed in specially designed third-generation storage rings. There is the possibility of producing photon beams that are orders of magnitude brighter than presently achieved at synchrotron sources, by using self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) free-electron laser (FEL) project was built to explore the SASE process in the visible through vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range. While the understanding gained in these experiments will guide future work to extend SASE FELs to shorter wavelengths, the APS FEL itself will become a continuously tunable, bright light source. Measurements of the SASE process to saturation have been made at 530 and 385 nm. A number of quantities were measured to confirm our understanding of the SASE process and to verify that saturation was reached. The intensity of the FEL light was measured versus distance along the FEL, and was found to flatten out at saturation. The statistical variation of the light intensity was found to be wide in the exponential gain region where the intensity is expected to be noisy, and narrower once saturation was reached. Absolute power measurements compare well with GINGER simulations. The FEL light spectrum at different distances along the undulator line was measured with a high-resolution spectrometer, and the many sharp spectral spikes at the beginning of the SASE process coalesce into a single peak at saturation. The energy spread in the electron beam widens markedly after saturation due to the number of electrons that transfer a significant amount of energy to the photon beam. Coherent transition radiation measurements of the electron beam as it strikes a foil provide additional confirmation of the microbunching of the electron beam. The quantities measured confirm that saturation was indeed reached. Details are

  9. Advances in Computational Radiation Biophysics for Cancer Therapy: Simulating Nano-Scale Damage by Low-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncic, Zdenka

    Computational radiation biophysics is a rapidly growing area that is contributing, alongside new hardware technologies, to ongoing developments in cancer imaging and therapy. Recent advances in theoretical and computational modeling have enabled the simulation of discrete, event-by-event interactions of very low energy (≪ 100 eV) electrons with water in its liquid thermodynamic phase. This represents a significant advance in our ability to investigate the initial stages of radiation induced biological damage at the molecular level. Such studies are important for the development of novel cancer treatment strategies, an example of which is given by microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Here, new results are shown demonstrating that when excitations and ionizations are resolved down to nano-scales, their distribution extends well outside the primary microbeam path, into regions that are not directly irradiated. This suggests that radiation dose alone is insufficient to fully quantify biological damage. These results also suggest that the radiation cross-fire may be an important clue to understanding the different observed responses of healthy cells and tumor cells to MRT.

  10. Advances in Computational Radiation Biophysics for Cancer Therapy: Simulating Nano-Scale Damage by Low-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncic, Zdenka

    2015-10-01

    Computational radiation biophysics is a rapidly growing area that is contributing, alongside new hardware technologies, to ongoing developments in cancer imaging and therapy. Recent advances in theoretical and computational modeling have enabled the simulation of discrete, event-by-event interactions of very low energy (≪ 100 eV) electrons with water in its liquid thermodynamic phase. This represents a significant advance in our ability to investigate the initial stages of radiation induced biological damage at the molecular level. Such studies are important for the development of novel cancer treatment strategies, an example of which is given by microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Here, new results are shown demonstrating that when excitations and ionizations are resolved down to nano-scales, their distribution extends well outside the primary microbeam path, into regions that are not directly irradiated. This suggests that radiation dose alone is insufficient to fully quantify biological damage. These results also suggest that the radiation cross-fire may be an important clue to understanding the different observed responses of healthy cells and tumor cells to MRT.

  11. MORPH-II, a software package for the analysis of scanning-electron-micrograph images for the assessment of the fractal dimension of exposed stone surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf

    2000-01-01

    Turcotte, 1997, and Barton and La Pointe, 1995, have identified many potential uses for the fractal dimension in physicochemical models of surface properties. The image-analysis program described in this report is an extension of the program set MORPH-I (Mossotti and others, 1998), which provided the fractal analysis of electron-microscope images of pore profiles (Mossotti and Eldeeb, 1992). MORPH-II, an integration of the modified kernel of the program MORPH-I with image calibration and editing facilities, was designed to measure the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces of stone specimens as imaged in cross section in an electron microscope.

  12. Single-Event Effect (SEE) Survey of Advanced Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays: NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The NEPP Reconfigurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) task has been charged to evaluate reconfigurable FPGA technologies for use in space. Under this task, the Xilinx single-event-immune, reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) XQR5VFX130 device was evaluated for SEE. Additionally, the Altera Stratix-IV and SiliconBlue iCE65 were screened for single-event latchup (SEL).

  13. Advanced Characterization of Slags and Refractory Bricks Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    John Kay; Kurt Eylands

    2007-09-30

    Numerous studies have been conducted to determine changes that occur in slag that cause a rapid change in viscosity, but these studies have been limited by the inability to characterize/identify the phases present in the slag. Rapid freezing of slag in entrained gasifiers and slagging combustion systems can cause a shutdown of the system. The reactions occurring in slag that result in rapid freezing of slags are not well understood. It is believed that electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) can be used to analyze slags and aid in their characterization although its use has not been found in literature. The EBSD technique allows particle-by-particle mineralogy based on diffraction patterns generated by the electron beam when the sample is tilted to a high angle. The diffraction pattern (Kikuchi bands) can only come from crystalline phases, which makes this technique ideally suited to study crystal formation in slags where oftentimes the crystals are very small and a reasonable chemical analysis cannot be made by conventional energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) methods in the scanning electron microscope. The ability to have mineralogical data based on the crystalline structure of a phase rather than a chemical analysis by EDS allows much better interpretation of the temperature regimes in which specific phases tend to form. Knowing the type and relative amounts of a phase crystallizing in a slag is critical in predicting the viscosity of a slag at a given temperature. Six slag samples were selected based on the parent coal. Unfortunately, none of the slags appeared to have any crystalline material associated with them. The funding for this project was not adequate for generating more slags from the various coal types. For this reason, sample archives were searched for those containing slags that were not rapidly quenched. A slag from a bituminous coal was found to contain several dendritic crystals (10 {mu}m to 50 {mu}m in size) that formed near the edges of the

  14. Recent Advances in Polymeric Materials Used as Electron Mediators and Immobilizing Matrices in Developing Enzyme Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O.; Agyei, Nana M.

    2012-01-01

    Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. However, there are a number of challenges to be addressed in order to fulfill the applications of polymeric based polymers such as cost and shortening the long laboratory synthetic pathways involved in sensor preparation. Furthermore, the toxicological effects on flora and fauna of some of these polymeric materials have not been well studied. Given these disadvantages, efforts are now geared towards introducing low cost biomaterials that can serve as alternatives for the development of novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review highlights recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on different polymeric material. The synergistic action of some of these polymeric materials and nanocomposites imposed when combined on electrode during sensing is discussed. PMID:22368503

  15. Advanced microstructural analysis of ferrite materials by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Mücklich, F.

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of the achieved texture is of great importance for the performance of ferrite materials, either bulk or thin films. The recently developed electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique enables a spatially resolved study of the crystallographic orientations by means of recording of Kikuchi patterns. To our knowledge, such a thorough EBSD analysis was not yet performed in any oxidic magnetic material, and only very recently on magnetite thin films by us. A good surface polishing/cleaning is essential for this analysis, as the method requires an undisturbed surface area for a high image quality (IQ). This information is recorded to each measured Kikuchi pattern, together with a parameter describing the quality of indexation. Here, the spatially highly resolved EBSD mappings provide additional information as compared to the standard analysis techniques, which can contribute to an optimization of the growth process. Furthermore, an analysis of the grain aspect ratio is possible which provides further insight to the microstructural dependence of the magnetic properties of ferrites.

  16. Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy for recurrent locally advanced rectal or rectosigmoid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, C.G.; Shellito, P.C.; Tepper, J.E.; Eliseo, R.; Convery, K.; Wood, W.C. )

    1991-03-15

    A multimodality approach of moderate-dose to high-dose preoperative radiation therapy, surgical resection, and intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IORT) has been used for patients with locally recurrent rectal or rectosigmoid carcinoma. The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival for 30 patients undergoing this treatment program were 26% and 19%, respectively. The most important factor predicting a favorable outcome was complete resection with negative pathologic resection margins. The determinant local control and disease-free survival for 13 patients undergoing complete resection were 62% and 54%, respectively, whereas for 17 patients undergoing partial resection these figures were 18% and 6%, respectively. There did not appear to be a difference in local control or survival based on the original surgical resection (abdominoperineal resection versus low anterior resection). However, the likelihood of obtaining a complete resection after preoperative radiation therapy was higher in patients who had previously undergone a low anterior resection than patients undergoing prior abdominoperineal resection. For the 30 patients undergoing external beam irradiation, resection, and IORT, the most significant toxicities were soft tissue or sacral injury and pelvic neuropathy. Efforts to further improve local control are directed toward the concurrent use of chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil with and without leucovorin) as radiation dose modifiers during external beam irradiation and the use of additional postoperative radiation therapy.

  17. Electron-Beam Dynamics for an Advanced Flash-Radiography Accelerator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for multipulse flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Furthermore, beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in-cell codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup, image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and themore » resistive wall instability. The beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.« less

  18. ADVANCED X-BAND TEST ACCELERATOR FOR HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON AND GAMMA RAY BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P; Chu, T S; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Adolphsen, C; Jongewaard, E N; Raubenheimer, T; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, J W

    2010-05-12

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  19. Advanced X-Band Test Accelerator for High Brightness Electron and Gamma Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Roark; Anderson, Scott; Barty, Christopher; Chu, Tak Sum; Ebbers, Chris; Gibson, David; Hartemann, Fred; Adolphsen, Chris; Jongewaard, Erik; Raubenheimer, Tor; Tantawi, Sami; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; /SLAC

    2012-07-03

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  20. Advances in Neutron Spectroscopy and High Magnetic Field Instrumentation for studies of Correlated Electron Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Granroth, Garrett E

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Spectroscopy has provided critical information on the magnetism in correlated electron systems. Specifically quantum magnets, superconductors, and multi-ferroics are areas of productive research. A discussion of recent measurements on the SEQUOIA spectrometer will provide examples of how novel instrumentation concepts are used on the latest generation of spectrometers to extend our knowledge in such systems. The now ubiquitous function of sample rotation allows for full mapping of volumes of $Q$ and $\\omega$ space. An instrument focused on low angles could extend these maps to cover more of the first Brillioun zone. Innovative chopper cascades allow two unique modes of operation. Multiplexed measurements allow the simultaneous measurement of high and low energy features in an excitation spectrum. Alternatively by limiting the neutron bandwidth incident on the Fermi Chopper, background from subsequent time frames is removed, enabling the observation of weak, large energy transfer features. Finally the implementation of event-based detection for neutron experiments is time correlated experiments. Diffraction studies of the high field spin states in MnWO$_4$ using magnetic fields up to 30 T, provided by a pulsed magnet, illustrate this method. Expanding the high field studies to spectroscopy will require a novel instrument, focused around a world class DC magnet, like Zeemans proposed for the SNS.

  1. Advanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry interface based on electron ionization.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, A; Famiglini, G; Pierini, E; Palma, P; Trufelli, H

    2007-07-15

    Major progress in interfacing liquid chromatography and electron ionization mass spectrometry is presented. The minimalism of the first prototype, called the Direct-EI interface, has been widely refined, improved, and applied to modern instrumentation. The simple interfacing principle is based on the straight connection between a nanoHPLC system and a mass spectrometer equipped with an EI source forming a solid and reliable unicum resembling the immediacy and straightforwardness of GC/MS. The interface shows a superior performance in the analysis of small-medium molecular weight compounds, especially when compared to its predecessors, and a unique trait that excels particularly in the following aspects: (1) It delivers high-quality, fully library matchable mass spectra of most sub-1 kDa molecules amenable by HPLC. (2) It is a chemical ionization free interface (unless operated intentionally) with accurate reproduction of the expected isotope ion abundances. (3) Response is never influenced by matrix components in the sample or in the mobile phase (nonvolatile salts are also well accepted). A deep evaluation of these aspects is presented and discussed in detail. Other characteristics of the interface performance such as limits of detections, range of linear response, and intra- and interday signal stability were also considered. The usefulness of the interface has been tested in a few real-world applications where matrix components played a detrimental role with other LC/MS techniques. PMID:17569502

  2. Performance of the high brightness linac for the Advanced Free Electron Laser Initiative at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, R. L.; Austin, R. H.; Chan, K. D. C.; Gierman, S. M.; Kinross-Wright, J. M.; Kong, S. H.; Nguyen, D. C.; Russell, S. J.; Timmer, C. A.

    1993-08-01

    The AFEL accelerator has produced beams of greater than 2 x 10(exp 12) A/m(exp 2) at 1 nC (brightness = 2*I/(var epsilon)(exp 2), with I greater than 100 A and (var epsilon) of than 2(pi) mm-mrad normalized ms emittance). The 1300 MHz standing-wave accelerator uses on-axis coupling cells. The electron source is a photoinjector with a CsK2Sb photocathode. The photoinjector is an integral part of a single 11-cell accelerator structure. The accelerator operates between 12 and 18 MeV. The beam emittance growth in the accelerator is minimized by using a photoinjector, a focusing solenoid to correct the emittance growth due to space charge, and a special design of the coupling slots between accelerator cavities to minimize quadrupole effects. This paper describes the experimental results and compares those results with PARMELA simulation. The simulation code PARMELA was modified for this effort. This modified version uses SUPERFISH files for the accelerator cavity fields, MAFIA files for the fields due to the coupling slots in the accelerator cells, and POISSON files for the solenoid field in the gun region.

  3. Development of Advanced Beam Halo Diagnostics at the Jefferson Lab Free-Electron-Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shukui Zhang, Stephen Benson, Dave Douglas, Frederick Wilson, Hao Zhang, Anatoly Shkvarunets, Ralph Fiorito

    2011-03-01

    High average current and high brightness electron beams are needed for many applications. At the Jefferson Lab FEL facility, the search for dark matter with the FEL laser beam has produced some interesting results, and a second very promising experiment called DarkLight, using the JLab Energy-recovery-linac (ERL) machine has been put forward. Although the required beam current has been achieved on this machine, one key challenge is the management of beam halo. At the University of Md. (UMD) we have demonstrated a high dynamic range halo measurement method using a digital micro-mirror array device (DMD). A similar system has been established at the JLab FEL facility as a joint effort by UMD and JLab to measure the beam halo on the high current ERL machine. Preliminary experiments to characterize the halo were performed on the new UV FEL. In this paper, the limitations of the present system will be analyzed and a discussion of other approaches (such as an optimized coronagraph) for further extending the dynamic range will be presented. We will also discuss the possibility of performing both longitudinal and transverse (3D) halo measurements together on a single system.

  4. Magnetic and Structural characterization of Co nanowires using advanced electron microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Sanchez, John Eder; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Ponnce, Arturo; UTSA Team

    2015-03-01

    We report the magnetic imaging and crystalline structure of high aspect ratio cobalt nanowires. Experimental results of magnetization reversal in cobalt nanowires are presented to illustrate the functionality of the in situ magnetization process through the manipulation of the objective lens. By making use of this applicability, we measure the magnetization and show experimental evidence of the magnetic flux distribution in polycrystalline cobalt nanowires using off-axis electron holography. The retrieved phase map can distinguishes the magnetic contribution from the crystalline contribution with high accuracy. To determine the size and orientation of the grains within the Co nanowires, PED-assisted orientation mapping was performed. Finally, the magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the crystalline orientation map, obtained by PED-assisted crystal phase orientation mapping. The large shape anisotropy determines the mayor magnetization direction rather than the magneto-crystalline anisotropy in the studied nanowires. The combination of the two techniques allowed us to directly visualize the effects of the crystallographic texture on the magnetization of the nanowire. The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. B.J.H. Stadler for providing the samples and financial support from NSF PREM #DMR 0934218, CONACYT, #215762 and Department of Defense #64756-RT-REP.

  5. Working with Consortia - Advanced Packaging Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanche, Jim; Strickland, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Description: Support the responsible NASA official for lead-free solder evaluation. Serve as the NASA technical liaison to the NASA/DoD Pb-free Project. Assure NASA areas of interest are included in JG-PP follow-on work. Support NASA/DoD telcons and face-to-face meetings. Update MSFC lead-free solder lessons learned report. FY10 plans: - Reliability data on lead-free solder applications for various part lead finishes and board finishes. - Update lead-free solder risks and risk mitigation strategies for NASA. - Evaluate lead-free alloy/lead-free finish reliability in design application. - Status CAVE project on Pb-free solder aging effects. - Compile the LTESE flight and bench data.

  6. A microelectronics approach for the ROSETTA surface science package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandau, Rainer (Editor); Alkalaj, Leon

    1996-01-01

    In relation to the Rosetta surface science package, the benefits of the application of advanced microelectronics packaging technologies and other output from the Mars environmental survey (MESUR) integrated microelectronics study are reported on. The surface science package will be designed to operate for tens of hours. Its limited mass and power consumption make necessary a highly integrated design with all the instruments and subunits operated from a centralized control and information management subsystem.

  7. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  8. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  9. Advance Directives and Do Not Resuscitate Orders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a form. Call a lawyer. Use a computer software package for legal documents. Advance directives and living ... you write by yourself or with a computer software package should follow your state laws. You may ...

  10. Design of electronic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Taya, M.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the requirements of selected electronic composites with application to electronic packaging, then focuses on the modeling for the microstructure-macrobehavior relation of electronic composites. The modeling depends on the microstructure, percolative and non-percolative.

  11. Stratimikos Wrapper Package

    2006-08-22

    Stratimikos is a small package of C++ wrappers for linear solver and preconditioning functionality exposed through Thyra interfaces. This package makes is possible to aggregate all of the general linear solver capability from the packages Amesos, AztecOO, Belos, lfpack, ML and others into a simple to use, parameter-list driven, interface to linear solvers. This initial version of Stratimikos contains just one utility class for building linear solvrs and preconditioners out of Epetra-based linear operators.

  12. The consequences of physical post-treatments (microwave and electron-beam) on food/packaging interactions: A physicochemical and toxicological approach.

    PubMed

    Riquet, A M; Breysse, C; Dahbi, L; Loriot, C; Severin, I; Chagnon, M C

    2016-05-15

    The safety of microwave and electron-beam treatments has been demonstrated, in regards to the formation of reaction products that could endanger human health. An integrated approach was used combining the potential toxicity of all the substances likely to migrate to their chemical characterizations. This approach was applied to polypropylene (PP) films prepared with a selection of additives. Components were identified by liquid and gas chromatography using a mass selective detector system. Their potential toxicity was assessed using three in vitro short-term bioassays and their migrations were carried out using a standards-based approach. After the electron-beam treatment some additives decomposed and there was a significant increase in the polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons concentration. PP prepared with Irgafos 168 led to a significantly strong cytotoxic effect and PP prepared with Irganox 1076 induced a dose-dependant estrogenic effect in vitro. Migration values were low and below the detection limit of the analytical method applied. PMID:26775944

  13. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  14. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  15. 78 FR 76548 - New Standards To Enhance Package Visibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Mail Manual (DMM ) to require the use of Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb) on all commercial... its operational capability to scan Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb) and other extra services... Register, advanced notice of proposed rulemaking (78 FR 13006-13007) in which it announced its intention...

  16. A Mathematica package for calculation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled in a diamond-structure single crystal (quantum approach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadegan, B.

    2013-03-01

    The presented Mathematica code is an efficient tool for simulation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure single crystal. The program is based on the quantum theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling at electron energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Continuum potentials for different planes of diamond, silicon and germanium single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The code is designed to calculate the electron wave functions, transverse electron states in the planar continuum potential, transition energies, line widths of channeling radiation and depth dependencies of the population of quantum states. Finally the spectral distribution of spontaneously emitted channeling radiation is obtained. The simulation of radiation spectra considerably facilitates the interpretation of experimental data. Catalog identifier: AEOH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 446 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 209805 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Platforms on which Mathematica is available. Operating system: Operating systems on which Mathematica is available. RAM: 1 MB Classification: 7.10. Nature of problem: Planar channeling radiation is emitted by relativistic charged particles during traversing a single crystal in direction parallel to a crystallographic plane. Channeling is modeled as the motion

  17. Particle Environment Package (PEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, S.; Wurz, P.; Brandt, P.; Wieser, M.; Holmström, M.; Futaana, Y.; Stenberg, G.; Nilsson, H.; Eriksson, A.; Tulej, M.; Vorburger, A.; Thomas, N.; Paranicas, C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Ho, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Haggerty, D.; Westlake, J. H.; Fränz, M.; Krupp, N.; Roussos, E.; Kallio, E.; Schmidt, W.; Szego, K.; Szalai, S.; Khurana, Krishan; Jia, Xianzhe; Paty, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Heber, B.; Kazushi, Asamura; Grande, M.; Lammer, H.; Zhang, T.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Krimigis, S. M.; Sarris, Th.; Grodent, D.

    2013-09-01

    Particle Environment Package (PEP) is a suite of particle sensors proposed for the ESA JUICE mission. PEP includes sensors for the comprehensive measurements of electrons, ions, energetic neutrals, and neutral gas. PEP covers over nine decades of energy <0.001 eV to >1 MeV with full angular coverage. Combining remote global imaging via energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) with in-situ measurements, PEP addresses all scientific objectives of the JUICE mission relevant to particle measurements. PEP will seek answers for four overarching science questions: How does the corotating magnetosphere of Jupiter interact with complex and diverse environment of Ganymede? How does the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Jupiter interact with seemingly inert Callisto? What are the governing mechanisms and their global impact of release of material into the Jupiter magnetosphere from Europa and Io? How do internal and solar wind drivers cause such energetic, time variable and multi-scale phenomena in the steadily rotating giant magnetosphere of Jupiter? We discuss the suite's sensor basic design, performance, radiation mitigation principles and demonstrate how the suite fully addresses its scientific objectives.

  18. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  19. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  20. NRF TRIGA packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA{reg_sign}) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask`s small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads.

  1. The West: Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.

    This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…

  2. Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.

    1998-02-01

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.

  3. Advances in Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma potential and electron-energy distribution function in magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Tsv K.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Kovačič, J.; Gyergyek, T.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Pedrosa, M. A.; López-Bruna, D.; Hidalgo, C.

    2016-06-01

    Advanced Langmuir probe techniques for evaluating the plasma potential and electron-energy distribution function (EEDF) in magnetized plasma are reviewed. It is shown that when the magnetic field applied is very weak and the electrons reach the probe without collisions in the probe sheath the second-derivative Druyvesteyn formula can be used for EEDF evaluation. At low values of the magnetic field, an extended second-derivative Druyvesteyn formula yields reliable results, while at higher values of the magnetic field, the first-derivative probe technique is applicable for precise evaluation of the plasma potential and the EEDF. There is an interval of intermediate values of the magnetic field when both techniques—the extended second-derivative and the first-derivative one—can be used. Experimental results from probe measurements in different ranges of magnetic field are reviewed and discussed: low-pressure argon gas discharges in the presence of a magnetic field in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 T, probe measurements in circular hydrogen plasmas for high-temperature fusion (magnetic fields from 0.45 T to 1.3 T) in small ISTTOK and CASTOR tokamaks, D-shape COMPASS tokamak plasmas, as well as in the TJ-II stellarator. In the vicinity of the last closed flux surface (LCFS) in tokamaks and in the TJ-II stellarator, the EEDF obtained is found to be bi-Maxwellian, while close to the tokamak chamber wall it is Maxwellian. The mechanism of the appearance of a bi-Maxwellian EEDF in the vicinity of the LCFS is discussed. Comparison of the results from probe measurements with those obtained from calculations using the ASTRA and EIRENE codes shows that the main reason for the appearance of a bi-Maxwellian EEDF in the vicinity of the LCFS is the ionization of the neutral atoms.

  4. Self-consistent Green's function embedding for advanced electronic structure methods based on a dynamical mean-field concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibani, Wael; Ren, Xinguo; Scheffler, Matthias; Rinke, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    We present an embedding scheme for periodic systems that facilitates the treatment of the physically important part (here a unit cell or a supercell) with advanced electronic structure methods, that are computationally too expensive for periodic systems. The rest of the periodic system is treated with computationally less demanding approaches, e.g., Kohn-Sham density-functional theory, in a self-consistent manner. Our scheme is based on the concept of dynamical mean-field theory formulated in terms of Green's functions. Our real-space dynamical mean-field embedding scheme features two nested Dyson equations, one for the embedded cluster and another for the periodic surrounding. The total energy is computed from the resulting Green's functions. The performance of our scheme is demonstrated by treating the embedded region with hybrid functionals and many-body perturbation theory in the GW approach for simple bulk systems. The total energy and the density of states converge rapidly with respect to the computational parameters and approach their bulk limit with increasing cluster (i.e., computational supercell) size.

  5. Channel Strain in Advanced Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors Measured Using Nano-Beam Electron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Akio; Nakamura, Hidetatsu; Fukai, Toshinori; Ikarashi, Nobuyuki

    2008-04-01

    Using high-precision nano-beam electron diffraction (NBD), we clarified the influences of stress liner and the stress of shallow trench isolation on channel strain in advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). For systematic strain measurements, we improved the precision of NBD by observing large reciprocal lattice vectors under appropriate diffraction conditions. The absolute value of the channel strain increases by stress liner as gate length decreases, although the drive current increase due to stress liner saturates at a shorter channel length. The normal strain in the gate length direction is inversely proportional to the distance from the gate electrode to the shallow trench isolation (STI). Furthermore, the relationship between measured channel strain induced by STI and drive current change was shown. The drive current of n- and p-MOSFET changes about 5% with 2×10-3 channel strain variation. This result suggests that reducing the shallow trench isolation stress is effective for controlling the drive current change, depending on the active region layout. We conclude that the experimental measurement of channel strain is necessary for device and circuit design.

  6. Package security recorder of vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-na; Hu, Jin-liang; Song, Shi-de

    2013-08-01

    This paper introduces a new kind of electronic product — Package Security Recorder of Vibration. It utilizes STC89C54RD+ LQFP-44 MCU as its main controller. At the same time, it also utilizes Freescale MMA845A 3-Axis 8-bit/12-bit Digital Accelerometer and Maxim DS1302 Trickle Charge Timekeeping Chip. It utilizes the MCU to read the value of the accelerometer and the value of the timekeeping chip, and records the data into the inner E2PROM of MCU. The whole device achieves measuring, reading and recording the time of the vibration and the intensity of the vibration. When we need the data, we can read them out. The data can be used in analyzing the condition of the cargo when it transported. The device can be applied to monitor the security of package. It solves the problem of responsibility affirming, when the valuable cargo are damaged while it transported. It offers powerful safeguard for the package. It's very value for application.

  7. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  8. TSF Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soerator objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.

  9. Seawater Chemistry Package

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  10. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  11. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    PubMed Central

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future. PMID:23833515

  12. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  13. EDExpress Packaging Training, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This training manual is intended for use by higher education institutions that use the electronic student financial aid packaging process in a Windows environment. Each unit in the manual is organized into several lessons; each lesson presents the material and then provides practical application materials. The first unit is an overview of the…

  14. Waste Package Program

    SciTech Connect

    Culbreth, W.; Ladkany, S.

    1991-07-21

    This was a progress report on the research program of waste packages at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The report has the overviews of what the program has done from January 1991 to June 1991, such as task assignments for personnel, equipment acquisitions, and staff meetings and travels on behalf of the project. Also, included was an abstract on the structural analysis of the waste package container design. (MB)

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  16. The ENSDF Java Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-05-24

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-04-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  18. Metallization and packaging of compound semiconductor devices at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Seigal, P.K.; Armendariz, M.G.; Rieger, D.J.; Lear, K.L.; Sullivan, C.T.

    1996-11-01

    Recent advances in compound semiconductor technology utilize a variety of metal thin films fabricated by thermal and electron-beam evaporation, and electroplating. An overview of metal processes used by Sandia`s Compound Semiconductor Research Laboratory is presented. Descriptions of electrical n-type and p-type ohmic contact alloys, interconnect metal, and metal layers specifically included for packaging requirements are addressed. Several illustrations of devices incorporating gold plated air bridges are included. ``Back-end`` processes such as flip-chip under bump metallurgy with fluxless solder reflow and plated solder processes are mentioned as current research areas.

  19. High-Throughput Computational Design of Advanced Functional Materials: Topological Insulators and Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kesong

    As a rapidly growing area of materials science, high-throughput (HT) computational materials design is playing a crucial role in accelerating the discovery and development of novel functional materials. In this presentation, I will first introduce the strategy of HT computational materials design, and take the HT discovery of topological insulators (TIs) as a practical example to show the usage of such an approach. Topological insulators are one of the most studied classes of novel materials because of their great potential for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computers. Here I will show that, by defining a reliable and accessible descriptor, which represents the topological robustness or feasibility of the candidate, and by searching the quantum materials repository aflowlib.org, we have automatically discovered 28 TIs (some of them already known) in five different symmetry families. Next, I will talk about our recent research work on the HT computational design of the perovskite-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems. The 2DEG formed on the perovskite oxide heterostructure (HS) has potential applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. In order to achieve practical implementation of the 2DEG in the device design, desired physical properties such as high charge carrier density and mobility are necessary. Here I show that, using the same strategy with the HT discovery of TIs, by introducing a series of combinatorial descriptors, we have successfully identified a series of candidate 2DEG systems based on the perovskite oxides. This work provides another exemplar of applying HT computational design approach for the discovery of advanced functional materials.

  20. A revolutionary rotatable electron energy analyzer for advanced high-resolution spin-polarized photoemission studies. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Waddill, G. D.; Willis, R. F.

    1999-10-01

    This report details the construction and testing of a unique analyzer for spin-polarized photoemission studies of magnetic materials. This report details the progress of this project for the period from 9/1/96 through 8/31/99. Progress can be divided into two distinct areas. These are the fabrication, construction, and initial testing of the instrumentation, and the concurrent program of preliminary investigations into materials and experiments appropriate for future studies using the instrumentation developed. The analyzer complete with special input electron optics and Mott detector has been assembled in a special design UHV chamber equipped with all the capabilities needed to perform the described programs of research. These include a sophisticated five motorized axis sample manipulator with low and high temperature capability and rapid temperature cycling (acquired in collaboration with Dr. J.G. Tobin of LLNL), vacuum leak detection and gauging, in situ thin film growth instrumentation, and sample cleaning and magnetizing capabilities, The initial testing of the analyzer has been completed with successful data acquisition using both the multichannel detector mode, and spin-dependent using the Mott detector channeltrons. The data collected using the Mott detector were not truly spin dependent (see below), but demonstrate the operation of the lens and detector design. Acquisition of truly spin-dependent data await use of the EPU. Preliminary indications suggest that the analyzer performs at or above the original design parameters. In the second area of progress, we have conducted a number of preliminary studies toward the ends of identifying appropriate initial systems for investigation, and to further explore new experiments that the new instrumentation will help to pioneer. More detailed descriptions of all of these advances are given.