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Sample records for advanced electronic packaging

  1. ADVANCED ELECTRONIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MICROMINIATURIZATION (ELECTRONICS), *PACKAGED CIRCUITS, CIRCUITS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, MANUFACTURING, NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, RESISTANCE (ELECTRICAL), SEMICONDUCTORS, TESTS, THIN FILMS (STORAGE DEVICES), WELDING.

  2. New Millennium DS2 electronic packaging an advanced electronic packaging "sandbox".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, G.; D'Agostino, S.

    New Millennium Deep Space 2 (DS2), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), consists of a pair of probes that will be carried to Mars by the Mars Polar Lander. After release from the Lander, both probes enter the atmosphere, impact and penetrate the Martian surface. After impact, a soil sample is taken and analyzed for the presence of water. Other scientific data is collected during descent and after impact. The proposed size and mass of the probes imposed enormous constraints on the packaging of the electronics. To fit the electronics within the probe envelope, the DS2 became a virtual advanced packaging experiment: Chip-on-Board (COB) technology, High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology, and novel flexible interconnects were used in a highly integrated package to meet the requirements. This paper describes the development and testing of the DS2 electronics package and possible follow-on developments at JPL.

  3. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  4. The Assurance Challenges of Advanced Packaging Technologies for Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microelectronic parts performance are driving towards finer feature sizes, three-dimensional geometries and ever-increasing number of transistor equivalents that are resulting in increased die sizes and interconnection (I/O) counts. The resultant packaging necessary to provide assemble-ability, environmental protection, testability and interconnection to the circuit board for the active die creates major challenges, particularly for space applications, Traditionally, NASA has used hermetically packaged microcircuits whenever available but the new demands make hermetic packaging less and less practical at the same time as more and more expensive, Some part types of great interest to NASA designers are currently only available in non-hermetic packaging. It is a far more complex quality and reliability assurance challenge to gain confidence in the long-term survivability and effectiveness of nonhermetic packages than for hermetic ones. Although they may provide more rugged environmental protection than the familiar Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs), the non-hermetic Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) packages that are the focus of this presentation present a unique combination of challenges to assessing their suitability for spaceflight use. The presentation will discuss the bases for these challenges, some examples of the techniques proposed to mitigate them and a proposed approach to a US MIL specification Class for non-hermetic microcircuits suitable for space application, Class Y, to be incorporated into M. IL-PRF-38535. It has recently emerged that some major packaging suppliers are offering hermetic area array packages that may offer alternatives to the nonhermetic CCGA styles but have also got their own inspectability and testability issues which will be briefly discussed in the presentation,

  5. Measurement of die stress in advanced electronic packaging for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhling, J. C.; Lin, S. T.; Moral, R. J.; Johnson, R. W.; Jaeger, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical stresses in advanced electronic packages for space and terrestrial applications can cause premature failures due to such causes as fracture of the die, severing of connections, die bond failure, solder fatigue, and encapsulant cracking. These stresses are often thermally-induced, and result from uneven expansions and contractions of the various assembly materials due to mismatches in the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE's). In this work, special (111) silicon test chips containing an array of piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been applied within several plastic encapsulated electronic packaging configurations. The test chips contain optimized eight element dual polarity rosettes which are capable of evaluating the complete stress state (6 stress components) at points on the surface of the die. Calibrated and characterized test chips were packaged in chip-on-board configurations using ``glob-top'' liquid encapsulants. The post packaging room temperature resistances of the sensors were then recorded. Using the measured resistance changes and appropriate theoretical equations, the stresses in the die have been calculated. Also, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the chip-on-board packages were performed. The experimental results were in good agreement with the finite element predictions.

  6. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  7. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  8. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  9. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  10. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  11. Reliability Assessment of Advanced Flip-clip Interconnect Electronic Package Assemblies under Extreme Cold Temperatures (-190 and -120 C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Shapiro, Andrew; Napala, Phil A.; Martin, Patrick A.

    2005-01-01

    Flip-chip interconnect electronic package boards have been assembled, underfilled, non-destructively evaluated and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess the reliability of this advanced packaging interconnect technology for future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature missions. In this very preliminary study, the employed temperature range covers military specifications (-55 C to 100 C), extreme cold Martian (-120 C to 115 C) and asteroid Nereus (-180 C to 25 C) environments. The resistance of daisy-chained, flip-chip interconnects were measured at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements are reported and the tests to date have not shown significant change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work has been carried out to understand the reliability of flip-chip interconnect packages under extreme temperature applications (-190 C to 85 C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance. Adaptation of suitable diagnostic techniques to identify the failure mechanisms is in progress. This presentation will describe the experimental test results of flip-chip testing under extreme temperatures.

  12. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  13. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  14. Microelectronics/electronic packaging potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandeau, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The trend toward smaller and lighter electronic packages was examined. It is suggested that electronic packaging engineers and microelectronic designers closely associate and give full attention to optimization of both disciplines on all product lines. Extensive research and development work underway to explore innovative ideas and make new inroads into the technology base, is expected to satisfy the demands of the 1980's.

  15. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  16. Proceedings of the International Electronic Circuit Packaging Symposium (3rd) on Advances in Electronic Circuit Packaging Held at Boulder, Colorado on 15-17 August 1962. Volume 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-01-01

    end, and finish it off with wood , we can give this console that distinctive custom look that we are striving for. Perhaps, this time, instead of formica...does the use of ply- wood with formica covering lend itself to RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) shielding capa- bility? A. I am not packaging in that... insulating board’(black XP phenolic))is used as in printed or etched wiring. Boards are sheared or aBnf-i4e, pifhched or drilled, and designations are

  17. Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyke, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

  18. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  19. (abstract) Electronic Packaging for Microspacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasler, David

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this presentation is to give a brief look into the future of electronic packaging for microspacecraft applications. Advancements in electronic packaging technology areas have developed to the point where a system engineer's visions, concepts, and requirements for a microspacecraft can now be a reality. These new developments are ideal candidates for microspacecraft applications. These technologies are capable of bringing about major changes in how we design future spacecraft while taking advantage of the benefits due to size, weight, power, performance, reliability , and cost. This presentation will also cover some advantages and limitations of surface mount technology (SMT), multichip modules (MCM), and wafer scale integration (WSI), and what is needed to implement these technologies into microspacecraft.

  20. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ryter, John Wesley; Romero, Christopher J.; Ramaiyan, Kannan; Brosha, Eric L.

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  1. Materials in electronic packaging at APL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Harry K., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The use of modern electronic packaging materials is examined with reference to general classes of materials, such as epoxies, silicones, metals, alloys, and ceramics. Specific examples are presented to illustrate how the proper choice of materials has enhanced circuit performance and long-term reliability. Applications discussed include single-chip and multichip packaging, board and substrate structures, die (substrate) attachment and electrical interconnection, circuit and board passivation, and encapsulation or package sealing.

  2. ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

    The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of…

  3. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  4. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  5. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  6. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  7. Metastable Packaging For Transient Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    dated 16 Jan 09. Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Metastable polymeric materials were synthesized, formulated with additives and microcapsules ...photoacid generation, thermal activation, and mechanical rupture of acid-filled microcapsules -- were investigated. 15. SUBJECT TERMS transient...carbonate sulfone) (PVBCS)... 11  3.3  Thermal and Mechanical Triggered Transience of Electronic Devices via Embedded Microcapsules

  8. Advanced Electronic Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-15

    It AD AObS 062 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB F/S 9/S ADVANCED ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY .(U) NOV 78 A J MCLAUGHLIN. A L MCWHORTER...T I T U T E OF T E C H N O L O G Y L I N C O L N L A B O R A T O R Y ADVANCED ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY TECKNICAL SUMMAR Y REPORT TO THE AIR...Division 8 (Solid State) on the Advanced Electronic Technology Program. Hi

  9. Laser applications in advanced chip packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dirk; Held, Andrew; Pätzel, Rainer; Clark, Dave; van Nunen, Joris

    2016-03-01

    While applications such as drilling μ-vias and laser direct imaging have been well established in the electronics industry, the mobile device industry's push for miniaturization is generating new demands for packaging technologies that allow for further reduction in feature size while reducing manufacturing cost. CO lasers have recently become available and their shorter wavelength allows for a smaller focus and drilling hole diameters down to 25μm whilst keeping the cost similar to CO2 lasers. Similarly, nanosecond UV lasers have gained significantly in power, become more reliable and lower in cost. On a separate front, the cost of ownership reduction for Excimer lasers has made this class of lasers attractive for structuring redistribution layers of IC substrates with feature sizes down to 2μm. Improvements in reliability and lower up-front cost for picosecond lasers is enabling applications that previously were only cost effective with mechanical means or long-pulsed lasers. We can now span the gamut from 100μm to 2μm for via drilling and can cost effectively structure redistribution layers with lasers instead of UV lamps or singulate packages with picosecond lasers.

  10. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission needs. The NEPP Program focuses on the reliability aspects of electronic devices. Three principal aspects to this reliability: (1) lifetime, (2) effects of space radiation and the space environment, and (3) creation and maintenance of the assurance support infrastructure required for success.

  11. Application of silicon piezoresistive stress test chips in electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yida

    In this work, both special (100) and (111) silicon test chips containing an array of optimized piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been successfully applied within several electronic packaging configurations. Unlike (100) silicon test chips, (111) silicon test chips are able to measure the complete stress state on the die surface. After calibration and characterization of the test chips, they were packaged into various assemblies. The post packaging resistances of the sensors were then recorded at room temperature, as a function of temperature excursion, and during long term packaging reliability qualification tests (thermal cycling and thermal aging). The stresses on the die surface were calculated using the measured resistance changes and the appropriate theoretical equations. For comparison purposes, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the packaging processes were also performed, and the stress predictions were correlated with the experimental test chip data. AAA2 (100) silicon test chips containing optimized four element dual polarity rosettes have been applied within 44 pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) packages and 240 pin Quad Flat Packs (QFP's). In these plastic package experiments, comparison of the stress levels induced by various molding compounds was emphasized. Advanced (111) silicon test chips (BMW-1 or BMW-2) comprising an array of optimized eight-element dual polarity piezoresistive sensor rosettes were encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's, 160 pin QFP's, Chip on Board (COB) packages, and 281 pin ceramic Pin Grid Array (PGA) packages. In addition to molding compound evaluations, BMW-1 test chips encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's were used to detect the presence of delaminations between the die surface and the encapsulant. In the wire bonded COB package studies, die surface stress evaluations were conducted after die attachment, and throughout the cure cycle of the liquid encapsulant. The stresses were also studied as a

  12. HALT to qualify electronic packages: a proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2014-03-01

    A proof of concept of the Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) technique was explored to assess and optimize electronic packaging designs for long duration deep space missions in a wide temperature range (-150°C to +125°C). HALT is a custom hybrid package suite of testing techniques using environments such as extreme temperatures and dynamic shock step processing from 0g up to 50g of acceleration. HALT testing used in this study implemented repetitive shock on the test vehicle components at various temperatures to precipitate workmanship and/or manufacturing defects to show the weak links of the designs. The purpose is to reduce the product development cycle time for improvements to the packaging design qualification. A test article was built using advanced electronic package designs and surface mount technology processes, which are considered useful for a variety of JPL and NASA projects, i.e. (surface mount packages such as ball grid arrays (BGA), plastic ball grid arrays (PBGA), very thin chip array ball grid array (CVBGA), quad flat-pack (QFP), micro-lead-frame (MLF) packages, several passive components, etc.). These packages were daisy-chained and independently monitored during the HALT test. The HALT technique was then implemented to predict reliability and assess survivability of these advanced packaging techniques for long duration deep space missions in much shorter test durations. Test articles were built using advanced electronic package designs that are considered useful in various NASA projects. All the advanced electronic packages were daisychained independently to monitor the continuity of the individual electronic packages. Continuity of the daisy chain packages was monitored during the HALT testing using a data logging system. We were able to test the boards up to 40g to 50g shock levels at temperatures ranging from +125°C to -150°C. The HALT system can deliver 50g shock levels at room temperature. Several tests were performed by subjecting

  13. Drug packaging in 2009: a few advances.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Once again, in 2009, most of the packaging that Prescrire analysed did not meet our quality criteria. Labelling information was too often ambiguous or clumsily expressed. The quality of dosing devices and the safety of multidose bottles were not guaranteed. Patient information leaflets were more legible on the whole, but once again rather uninformative. All of these shortcomings put patients at risk. European measures concerning drug labelling have finally been transposed into French law, and have led to some improvements: the international nonproprietary name (INN) is more frequently displayed on primary packaging. The use of Braille on boxes and access to Braille package leaflets are increasing. The improved legibility of the labelling of ampoules containing certain dangerous injectable drugs, as recommended by the French drug regulatory agency (Afssaps), has become more widespread. In practice, healthcare professionals need to take action on packaging issues: by choosing the best packaging, reporting potential sources of confusion and error and informing patients.

  14. A Review of Failure Analysis Methods for Advanced 3D Microelectronic Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Srinath, Purushotham Kaushik Muthur; Goyal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Advanced three dimensional (3D) packaging is a key enabler in driving form factor reduction, performance benefits, and package cost reduction, especially in the fast paced mobility and ultraportable consumer electronics segments. The high level of functional integration and the complex package architecture pose a significant challenge for conventional fault isolation (FI) and failure analysis (FA) methods. Innovative FI/FA tools and techniques are required to tackle the technical and throughput challenges. In this paper, the applications of FI and FA techniques such as Electro Optic Terahertz Pulse Reflectometry, 3D x-ray computed tomography, lock-in thermography, and novel physical sample preparation methods to 3D packages with package on package and stacked die with through silicon via configurations are reviewed, along with the key FI and FA challenges.

  15. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  16. Reliability of high I/O high density CCGA interconnect electronic packages under extreme thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-03-01

    Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surfacemount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions.

  17. Fluxless laser soldering for electronic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Conventional soldering typically requires the use of reactive fluxes to promote wetting. The resulting flux residues are removed primarily with halogenated or chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. With the mandated phaseout of CFCs by the year 2000, there has been a concentrated effort to develop alternative, environmentally compatible manufacturing and cleaning technologies that will satisfy the restrictions placed on CFCs, but still yield high quality product. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating a variety of alternative fluxless soldering technologies which can be applied to electronic packaging. Laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere has shown great potential as an environmentally compatible process. The effects of laser heating with a 100 watt CW Nd:YAG laser, joint design, and base/filler metal reactions on achieving fluxless wetting with good metallurgical bonds were examined. Satisfactory Ni-Au plated Kovar{reg_sign} solder joints were made with 80In-15Pb-5Ag and 63Sn-37Pb (wt. %) solder alloys in a slightly reducing cover gas. Wetting generally increased with increasing laser power, decreasing laser beam spot size, and decreasing part travel speed. The materials and processing interaction effects are identified and discussed.

  18. Advanced packaging technology for high frequency photonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    An advanced packaging concept has been developed for optical devices. This concept allows multiple fibers to be coupled to photonic integrated circuits, with no fiber penetration of the package walls. The principles used to accomplish this concept involves a second-order grating to couple light in or out of the photonic circuit, and a binary optic lens which receives this light and focuses it into a single-mode optical fiber. Design, fabrication and electrical/optical measurements of this packaging concept are described.

  19. Advances in the REDCAT software package

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual Dipolar Couplings (RDCs) have emerged in the past two decades as an informative source of experimental restraints for the study of structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules and complexes. The REDCAT software package was previously introduced for the analysis of molecular structures using RDC data. Here we report additional features that have been included in this software package in order to expand the scope of its analyses. We first discuss the features that enhance REDCATs user-friendly nature, such as the integration of a number of analyses into one single operation and enabling convenient examination of a structural ensemble in order to identify the most suitable structure. We then describe the new features which expand the scope of RDC analyses, performing exercises that utilize both synthetic and experimental data to illustrate and evaluate different features with regard to structure refinement and structure validation. Results We establish the seamless interaction that takes place between REDCAT, VMD, and Xplor-NIH in demonstrations that utilize our newly developed REDCAT-VMD and XplorGUI interfaces. These modules enable visualization of RDC analysis results on the molecular structure displayed in VMD and refinement of structures with Xplor-NIH, respectively. We also highlight REDCAT’s Error-Analysis feature in reporting the localized fitness of a structure to RDC data, which provides a more effective means of recognizing local structural anomalies. This allows for structurally sound regions of a molecule to be identified, and for any refinement efforts to be focused solely on locally distorted regions. Conclusions The newly engineered REDCAT software package, which is available for download via the WWW from http://ifestos.cse.sc.edu, has been developed in the Object Oriented C++ environment. Our most recent enhancements to REDCAT serve to provide a more complete RDC analysis suite, while also accommodating a more user

  20. Designing an Electronics Data Package for Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    package to help avoid errors and rework . II. PCB DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS LIST The technical data package is comprised of documentation including an...Memory Card International Association)  IPC-6015 MCM-L (Multi-Chip Module – Laminated )  IPC-6016 HDI (High Density Interconnect)  IPC-6018...Interconnect ICT In Circuit Tester IPC Association Connecting Electronics Industries MCM-L Multi-Chip Module – Laminated MIL Military NEMA National

  1. The GEANT low energy Compton scattering (GLECS) package for use in simulating advanced Compton telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippen, R. Marc

    2004-02-01

    Compton γ-ray imaging is inherently based on the assumption of γ-rays scattering with free electrons. In reality, the non-zero momentum of target electrons bound in atoms blurs this ideal scattering response in a process known as Doppler broadening. The design and understanding of advanced Compton telescopes, thus, depends critically on the ability to accurately account for Doppler broadening effects. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo package that simulates detailed Doppler broadening has been developed for use with the powerful, general-purpose GEANT3 and GEANT4 radiation transport codes. This paper describes the design of this package, and illustrates results of comparison with selected experimental data.

  2. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  3. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  4. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  5. Affordable, Lightweight, Highly Conductive Polymer Composite Electronic Packaging Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    matrix composite materials and how various material designs can be utilized in various structural/thermal configurations to produce electronic housings and...conductive polymer composite electronic packaging (i.e., electronic housings and heat sinks). The research will center on predominately polymer

  6. Hermetic electronics package with dual-sided electrical feedthrough configuration

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2016-11-22

    A hermetic electronics package includes a metal case with opposing first and second open ends, with each end connected to a first feedthrough construction and a second feedthrough construction. Each feedthrough contruction has an electrically insulating substrate and an array of electrically conductive feedthroughs extending therethrough, with the electrically insulating substrates connected to the opposing first and second open ends, respectively, of the metal case so as to form a hermetically sealed enclosure. A set of electronic components are located within the hermetically sealed enclosure and are operably connected to the feedthroughs of the first and second feedthrough constructions so as to electrically communicate outside the package from opposite sides of the package.

  7. Alumina Based 500 C Electronic Packaging Systems and Future Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2012-01-01

    NASA space and aeronautical missions for probing the inner solar planets as well as for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines require high-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics. A 96% aluminum oxide and Au thick-film metallization based packaging system including chip-level packages, printed circuit board, and edge-connector is in development for high temperature SiC electronics. An electronic packaging system based on this material system was successfully tested and demonstrated with SiC electronics at 500 C for over 10,000 hours in laboratory conditions previously. In addition to the tests in laboratory environments, this packaging system has more recently been tested with a SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) on low earth orbit through the NASA Materials on the International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE7). A SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE7 suite to International Space Station via a Shuttle mission and tested on the orbit for eighteen months. A summary of results of tests in both laboratory and space environments will be presented. The future development of alumina based high temperature packaging using co-fired material systems for improved performance at high temperature and more feasible mass production will also be discussed.

  8. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500 C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550 C. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500 C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500 C are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  9. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  10. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-08

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  11. JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (Editor); Gamota, George

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

  12. Language games: Advanced R & R packages: Book Review

    DOE PAGES

    Hraber, Peter Thomas

    2016-03-23

    Readers who wrangle answers from data by extended refinement of available computational tools have many options and resources available. Inevitably, they will develop their own methods tailored to the problem at hand.Two new books have recently been published, each of which is useful addition to the library for a scientist who programs with data. The two books reviewed are both written by H. Wickham. The titles are ''Advanced R'' and ''R Packages'', both published in 2015.

  13. Advances in LED packaging and thermal management materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses and cost are key light-emitting diode (LED) packaging issues. Heat dissipation limits power levels. Thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. An OIDA LED workshop cited a need for better thermal materials. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. Some of these materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required LEDs. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  14. Review of recent technological advances in high power LED packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, Allen S.

    2012-06-01

    High Power LED is poised to replace traditional lighting sources such as Fluorescent, HID, Halogen and conventional incandescent bulbs in many applications. Due to the solid state compact nature of the light source it is inherently rugged and reliable and has been the favored lighting source for most indoor and outdoor applications including many hazardous locations that impact, and safety environments including mining, bridge, Aerospace, Automotive . In order to accelerate this transition many enhancements and advances are taking place to improve on the reliability, and thermal performance of these devices. This paper explores the various improvements and advances made in the packaging of LEDs to enhance their performance

  15. Electronics packaging considerations for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zulueta, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    The functionality of spacecraft electronics must be maintained in the harsh environments found in space. The radiation environments can consist of either low-energy x-rays at the surface of the spacecraft or high-energy electrons, high-energy protons and high-energy photons withn the spacecraft.

  16. The 1984 IR and D (Independent Research and Development) advanced packaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clatterbaugh, G. V.; Charles, H. C., Jr.

    1986-06-01

    An advanced multiyear electronic packaging project has been started. The project is a comprehensive interactive one involving theory, modeling, structure fabrication, and reliability testing. Highlights of the first year's activities are presented in this report. Important results include: the creation of integrated thermal and thermomechanical models, the prediction of lifetimes under environmental and operational stress conditions, model verification and validation by carefully controlled experimentation, development of assembly techniques, and the invention of a new method for preparing controlled solder joint height and geometry.

  17. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  18. Photopatternable silicone compositions for electronic packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Brian R.; Gardner, Geoff B.; Alger, James S.; Cummings, Michelle R.; Princing, Jennifer; Lee, Yeong; Meynen, Herman; Gonzales, Mario; Vandevelde, Bart; Vanden Bulcke, Mathieu; Winters, Christophe; Beyne, Eric

    2004-05-01

    A growing need for low stress high temperature thick film materials has prompted the development of new spin-coatable photopatternable silicones (Dow Corning WL-5000 series) to assist manufactures in building the next generation of electronic devices. These new negative-tone materials can be easily coated onto electronic substrates and patterned using standard i-line and broadband lithographic processes. Films ranging from 6 to 50 μm have been demonstrated with patterned features resolved to an aspect ratio of less than 1.3. The etched regions provide a sloped sidewall and curved surfaces to facilitate metallization processes. The films are cured at low temperatures (150 to 250°C) to provide low modulus values in the range of 150 to 500 MPa, are inherently hydrophobic, and are based on cure chemistry that is acid free and delivers thermally stable cross-links. As a result, the films show very little shrinkage during thermal cure (~2%), do not require extended high temperature processing, and provide a very low residual stress (<8 MPa). They also show excellent thermal stability and mechanical integrity when exposed to high temperatures. A simple wet process has been developed to facilitate film rework and allow for sacrificial layer applications.

  19. Materials for High-Density Electronic Packaging and Interconnection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-10

    34 wire "-based systems. An additional study of optical interconnection is strongly recommended’. The literature on electronic packaging has recently...along with the physical design of the electronic systems, and today’s structures represent engineering optimization of many factors. It is of little...34 options exist, including the use of face-down, " beam -lead" or TAB lead frame arrangements, and also face-up wire - bonded configurations. Following

  20. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  1. Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-03-01

    Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A

  2. Advances in methods and algorithms in a modern quantum chemistry program package.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yihan; Molnar, Laszlo Fusti; Jung, Yousung; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Brown, Shawn T; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Levchenko, Sergey V; O'Neill, Darragh P; DiStasio, Robert A; Lochan, Rohini C; Wang, Tao; Beran, Gregory J O; Besley, Nicholas A; Herbert, John M; Lin, Ching Yeh; Van Voorhis, Troy; Chien, Siu Hung; Sodt, Alex; Steele, Ryan P; Rassolov, Vitaly A; Maslen, Paul E; Korambath, Prakashan P; Adamson, Ross D; Austin, Brian; Baker, Jon; Byrd, Edward F C; Dachsel, Holger; Doerksen, Robert J; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D; Dutoi, Anthony D; Furlani, Thomas R; Gwaltney, Steven R; Heyden, Andreas; Hirata, So; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Kedziora, Gary; Khalliulin, Rustam Z; Klunzinger, Phil; Lee, Aaron M; Lee, Michael S; Liang, Wanzhen; Lotan, Itay; Nair, Nikhil; Peters, Baron; Proynov, Emil I; Pieniazek, Piotr A; Rhee, Young Min; Ritchie, Jim; Rosta, Edina; Sherrill, C David; Simmonett, Andrew C; Subotnik, Joseph E; Woodcock, H Lee; Zhang, Weimin; Bell, Alexis T; Chakraborty, Arup K; Chipman, Daniel M; Keil, Frerich J; Warshel, Arieh; Hehre, Warren J; Schaefer, Henry F; Kong, Jing; Krylov, Anna I; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2006-07-21

    Advances in theory and algorithms for electronic structure calculations must be incorporated into program packages to enable them to become routinely used by the broader chemical community. This work reviews advances made over the past five years or so that constitute the major improvements contained in a new release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry package, together with illustrative timings and applications. Specific developments discussed include fast methods for density functional theory calculations, linear scaling evaluation of energies, NMR chemical shifts and electric properties, fast auxiliary basis function methods for correlated energies and gradients, equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for ground and excited states, geminal wavefunctions, embedding methods and techniques for exploring potential energy surfaces.

  3. Advanced Packaging and Integration Technologies for Microsensors. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-12

    CV VU CW %so - U Advanced Packaging & Integration Technologies for " icrosensors Final Report A.AUTN0I) i A. A. Ned and A. D. Kurtz 7. P.i-• N - 0-1O... N •AnMN NAME(SI AND .----- •S$() 6L P•,•E•_-_G •---•wWaOu Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. NPOW u•NeUMBE One Willow Tree Rd. Leonia, NJ 07605 I1...T I YaAU W 16UJNU S 17. S ý " cu. . t lmV IC .M N . I& . SO ,-,- C L, •.A T 1% ý, . . C L . ... ... L O • .A .. _ w un Unclassified Unclassified

  4. Decontamination of Ametryne HDPE packaging using electron beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Andrade, D. C.; Melo, R. P.; Nagatomi, H. R.; Mori, M. N.

    2009-07-01

    This paper is part of a project to evaluate pesticide degradation on commercial polymeric (high-density polyethylene, HDPE) packaging material. The herbicide studied was Ametryne whose residues may be detectable in water, soil and on the surfaces for months or years, depending on the pesticide formulation and type of application. In order to evaluate the efficiency of radiation processing on removal of the pesticides contamination; the packaging material were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch system. The samples were irradiated with water, in various absorbed doses. Ametryne was analyzed by gas chromatography after extraction with hexane/dichloromethane (1:1 v/v) solution. The radiation processing yield was evaluated by the destruction G-value (Gd), and the electron beam irradiation processing, showed higher efficiency in destroying Ametryne in the HDPE packaging when the samples were irradiated in the presence of small quantities of water.

  5. Functional Requirements for an Electronic Work Package System

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna H.

    2016-12-01

    This document provides a set of high level functional requirements for a generic electronic work package (eWP) system. The requirements have been identified by the U.S. nuclear industry as a part of the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages - Enterprise Requirements (NEWPER) initiative. The functional requirements are mainly applied to eWP system supporting Basic and Moderate types of smart documents, i.e., documents that have fields for recording input such as text, dates, numbers, and equipment status, and documents which incorporate additional functionalities such as form field data “type“ validation (e.g. date, text, number, and signature) of data entered and/or self-populate basic document information (usually from existing host application meta data) on the form when the user first opens it. All the requirements are categorized by the roles; Planner, Supervisor, Craft, Work Package Approval Reviewer, Operations, Scheduling/Work Control, and Supporting Functions. The categories Statistics, Records, Information Technology are also included used to group the requirements. All requirements are presented in Section 2 through Section 11. Examples of more detailed requirements are provided for the majority of high level requirements. These examples are meant as an inspiration to be used as each utility goes through the process of identifying their specific requirements. The report’s table of contents provides a summary of the high level requirements.

  6. Diamond-based heat spreaders for power electronic packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemet, Thomas

    As any semiconductor-based devices, power electronic packages are driven by the constant increase of operating speed (higher frequency), integration level (higher power), and decrease in feature size (higher packing density). Although research and innovation efforts have kept these trends continuous for now more than fifty years, the electronic packaging technology is currently facing a challenge that must be addressed in order to move toward any further improvements in terms of performances or miniaturization: thermal management. Thermal issues in high-power packages strongly affect their reliability and lifetime and have now become one of the major limiting factors of power modules development. Thus, there is a strong need for materials that can sustain higher heat flux levels while safely integrating into the electronic package architecture. In such context, diamond is an attractive candidate because of its outstanding thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and high electrical resistivity. Its low heat capacity relative to metals such as aluminum or copper makes it however preferable for heat spreading applications (as a heat-spreader) rather than for dissipating the heat flux itself (as a heat sink). In this study, a dual diamond-based heat-spreading solution is proposed. Polycrystalline diamond films were grown through laser-assisted combustion synthesis on electronic substrates (in the U.S) while, in parallel, diamond-reinforced copper-matrix composite films were fabricated through tape casting and hot pressing (in France). These two types of diamond-based heat-spreading films were characterized and their microstructure and chemical composition were related to their thermal performances. Particular emphasize was put on the influence of interfaces on the thermal properties of the materials, either inside a single material (grain boundaries) or between dissimilar materials (film/substrate interface, matrix/reinforcement interface). Finally, the packaging

  7. penORNL: a parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport package using PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    The parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code package penORNL was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to enable advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) simulations on high-performance computing systems. This paper discusses the implementations, capabilities and parallel performance of the new code package. penORNL uses PENELOPE for its physics calculations and provides all available PENELOPE features to the users, as well as some new features including source definitions specifically developed for SEM simulations, a pulse-height tally capability for detailed simulations of gamma and x-ray detectors, and a modified interaction forcing mechanism to enable accurate energy deposition calculations. The parallel performance of penORNL was extensively tested with several model problems, and very good linear parallel scaling was observed with up to 512 processors. penORNL, along with its new features, will be available for SEM simulations upon completion of the new pulse-height tally implementation.

  8. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Insertion of New Electronics Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program's new electronics technology trends. The topics include: 1) The Changing World of Radiation Testing of Memories; 2) Even Application-Specific Tests are Costly!; 3) Hypothetical New Technology Part Qualification Cost; 4) Where we are; 5) Approaching FPGAs as a More Than a "Part" for Reliability; 6) FPGAs Beget Novel Radiation Test Setups; 7) Understanding the Complex Radiation Data; 8) Tracking Packaging Complexity and Reliability for FPGAs; 9) Devices Supporting the FPGA Need to be Considered; 10) Summary of the New Electronic Technologies and Insertion into Flight Programs Workshop; and 11) Highlights of Panel Notes and Comments

  9. Advanced uncooled infrared system electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Henry W.

    1998-07-01

    Over the past two decades, Raytheon Systems Company (RSC), formerly Texas Instruments Defense Systems & Electronics Group, developed a robust family of products based on a low- cost, hybrid ferroelectric (FE) uncooled focal-plane array (FPA) aimed at meeting the needs for thermal imaging products across both military and commercial markets. Over the years, RSC supplied uncooled infrared (IR) sensors for applications such as in combat vehicles, man-portable weaponry, personnel helmets, and installation security. Also, various commercial IR systems for use in automobiles, boats, law enforcement, hand-held applications, building/site security, and fire fighting have been developed. These products resulted in a high degree of success where cooled IR platforms are too bulky and costly, and other uncooled implementations are less reliable or lack significant cost advantage. Proof of this great success is found in the large price reductions, the unprecedented monthly production rates, and the wide diversity of products and customers realized in recent years. The ever- changing needs of these existing and potential customers continue to fuel the advancement of both the primary technologies and the production capabilities of uncooled IR systems at RSC. This paper will describe a development project intended to further advance the system electronics capabilities of future uncooled IR products.

  10. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  11. Demonstration of a prototype hydrogen sensor and electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Amanda S.; Brosha, Eric

    2016-08-03

    This is a progress report for the demonstration of a prototype hydrogen sensor and electronics package. There are five tasks associated with this, and four have been completed as of August 2016: Station Demonstration and Site Recommendation, Order Sensor Equipment, Build Sensors, and Install Sensors. The final task to be completed is Sensor Demonstration and Data Analysis, and expected completion date is January 26, 2017. This progress report details each of the tasks and goes into detail about what is currently being worked on, along with the budget and planned work for July 27, 2016 to January 26, 2017.

  12. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruo-Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; Zhang, Tong; Oakes, Ken D; Peng, Rui; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Feng, Zhili

    2015-04-28

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ∼ 70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering. A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. These results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications.

  13. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ruo -Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; Oakes, Ken D.; Peng, Rui; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Tong

    2015-03-24

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ~70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering. A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. Furthermore, these results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications.

  14. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ruo -Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; ...

    2015-03-24

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ~70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering.more » A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. Furthermore, these results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications.« less

  15. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  16. Advances in nonlethal electronic weaponry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, James F.

    1998-12-01

    Non-lethal electronic weapons in the form of tasers (a stand-off incapacitation device with a range of about 15 feet) and stun guns (which are not a gun, but a close contact stun device) have been used by law enforcement for over 18 years. The taser has dominated this market, since it does not require the close physical contact (with the resultant injuries) that the stun gun requires. Tasers are effective against even determined assailants where OC or pepper sprays consistently fail. The taser also does not have the close range lethality of low impact munitions. These electronic non-lethal weapons have saved the lives of thousands of suspects and have prevented the injury of thousands of law enforcement officers. Recent advances in laser sight technology have permitted the development of a patented dual laser sight that not only increased accuracy, but have made these weapons even more intimidating, increasing surrender rates. Now increased ranges are feasible and r & d on non-lethal military weapons to replace the anti-personnel landmine has resulted in new, unmanned, non-lethal taser weapons for law enforcement corrections and border patrol perimeter control use.

  17. Advances in food packaging films from milk proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercial petroleum-based food packaging films are poor oxygen barriers, do not biodegrade, and some are suspected to even leach compounds into the food product. For instance, three-perfluorinated coatings were banned from convenience food packaging earlier this year. These shortcomings are a ...

  18. Robust, Rework-able Thermal Electronic Packaging: Applications in High Power TR Modules for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Hunter, Don; Miller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires improvements in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and are now being implemented side-by-side with more standard technology typically used in flight hardware.

  19. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the goals and mission of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. The program has been supporting NASA for over 20 years. The focus is on the reliability aspects of electronic devices. In this work the program also supports the electronics industry. There are several areas that the program is involved in: Memories, systems on a chip (SOCs), data conversion devices, power MOSFETS, power converters, scaled CMOS, capacitors, linear devices, fiber optics, and other electronics such as sensors, cryogenic and SiGe that are used in space systems. Each of these area are reviewed with the work that is being done in reliability and effects of radiation on these technologies.

  20. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Overview and Update FY15 and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program, and its subset the NASA Electronic Parts Assurance Group (NEPAG), are NASA's point-of-contacts for reliability and radiation tolerance of electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts and their packages. This presentation includes a Fiscal Year 2015 program overview.

  1. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    DOEpatents

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  2. Stress-induced Effects Caused by 3D IC TSV Packaging in Advanced Semiconductor Device Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, V.; Kteyan, A.; Choy, J.-H.; Hovsepyan, H.; Markosian, A.; Zschech, E.; Huebner, R.

    2011-11-01

    Potential challenges with managing mechanical stress and the consequent effects on device performance for advanced 3D through-silicon-via (TSV) based technologies are outlined. The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze a design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-die out-of-spec variations in device electrical characteristics caused by the layout and through-silicon-via (TSV)/package-induced mechanical stress. The limited characterization/measurement capabilities for 3D IC stacks and a strict "good die" requirement make this type of analysis critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation to assess the mechanical stress across the device layers in silicon chips stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology is proposed. A calibration technique based on fitting to measured stress components and electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices is presented. A strategy for generation of a simulation feeding data and respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to generate a database for multi-scale material parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. For model validation, high-resolution strain measurements in Si channels of the test-chip devices are needed. At the nanoscale, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the only technique available for sub-10 nm strain measurements so far.

  3. Packaging Technologies for 500C SiC Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Various SiC electronics and sensors are currently under development for applications in 500C high temperature environments such as hot sections of aerospace engines and the surface of Venus. In order to conduct long-term test and eventually commercialize these SiC devices, compatible packaging technologies for the SiC electronics and sensors are required. This presentation reviews packaging technologies developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors to address both component and subsystem level packaging needs for high temperature environments. The packaging system for high temperature SiC electronics includes ceramic chip-level packages, ceramic printed circuit boards (PCBs), and edge-connectors. High temperature durable die-attach and precious metal wire-bonding are used in the chip-level packaging process. A high temperature sensor package is specifically designed to address high temperature micro-fabricated capacitive pressure sensors for high differential pressure environments. This presentation describes development of these electronics and sensor packaging technologies, including some testing results of SiC electronics and capacitive pressure sensors using these packaging technologies.

  4. Risk Management of Microelectronics: The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph information provides information on how the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program evaluates the reliability of technologies for Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts, and their suitability for spacecraft applications.

  5. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  6. More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

  7. A comparison and benchmark of two electron cloud packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Amundson, James F; Spentzouris, Panagiotis G; Veitzer, Seth A

    2012-01-01

    We present results from precision simulations of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using two distinct codes. These two codes are (i)POSINST, a F90 2D+ code, and (ii)VORPAL, a 2D/3D electrostatic and electromagnetic code used for self-consistent simulations of plasma and particle beam problems. A specific benchmark has been designed to demonstrate the strengths of both codes that are relevant to the EC problem in the Main Injector. As differences between results obtained from these two codes were bigger than the anticipated model uncertainties, a set of changes to the POSINST code were implemented. These changes are documented in this note. This new version of POSINST now gives EC densities that agree with those predicted by VORPAL, within {approx}20%, in the beam region. The root cause of remaining differences are most likely due to differences in the electrostatic Poisson solvers. From a software engineering perspective, these two codes are very different. We comment on the pros and cons of both approaches. The design(s) for a new EC package are briefly discussed.

  8. [The development and operation of a package inserts service system for electronic medical records].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Sachiho; Shimamori, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Seiji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2003-03-01

    To promote the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals and to prevent side effects, physicians need package inserts on medicinal drugs as soon as possible. A medicinal drug information service system was established for electronic medical records to speed up and increase the efficiency of package insert communications within a medical institution. Development of this system facilitates access to package inserts by, for example, physicians. The time required to maintain files of package inserts was shortened, and the efficiency of the drug information service increased. As a source of package inserts for this system, package inserts using a standard generalized markup language (SGML) form were used, which are accessible to the public on the homepage of the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research (OPSR). This study found that a delay occurred in communicating revised package inserts from pharmaceutical companies to the OPSR. Therefore a pharmaceutical department page was set up as part of the homepage of the medical institution for electronic medical records to shorten the delay in the revision of package inserts posted on the medicinal drug information service homepage of the OPSR. The usefulness of this package insert service system for electronic medical records is clear. For more effective use of this system based on the OPSR homepage pharmaceutical companies have been requested to provide quicker updating of package inserts.

  9. Properties of polystrene bead foam as an encapsulant for electronic packages. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fossey, D.J.

    1981-04-01

    Polystyrene bead foam (PSBF) was evaluated as an encapsulant for electronic packages. Various properties of PSBF pertinent to the expected environmental conditioning of a prototype electronic package were determined and evaluated for their effects on individual electronic components, within the package. It was determined that PSBF densities of 0.2 to 0.4 g/cm/sup 3/ provided adequate protection without damaging fragile electronic components. PSBF densities above 0.4 g/cm/sup 3/ provide adequate protection from the shock and vibration spectra evaluated, but could damage fragile electronic components during the encapsulation process and thermal cycling. Buildup of electrostatic voltage during encapsulation can be reduced to safe levels by grounding the case of the electronic package. Only the 0.6 g/cm/sup 3/ PSBF could be made impervious to moisture penetration.

  10. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2012-10-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), evaluated a number of control strategies for packaged cooling equipment that can be implemented in an advanced controller, which can be retrofit into existing packaged heat pump units to improve their operational efficiency. This report documents the results of that analysis.

  11. Advanced Electronics. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1778.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppler, Thomas

    This document is a curriculum guide for a 180-hour course in advanced electronics for 11th and 12th grades that has four instructional units. The instructional units are orientation, discrete components, integrated circuits, and electronic systems. The document includes a course flow chart; a two-page section that describes the course, lists…

  12. Water-jet guided laser: possibilities and potential for singulation of electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Frank R.; Spiegel, Akos; Vago, Nandor; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2002-06-01

    Singulation of packages is an important step in the manufacturing of IC devices. Presently, the most widely used technique is abrasive sawing. Due to the combination of different materials used in packages such as copper and mold compound, the saw rapidly blunts and also conventional laser cutting by a water-jet with the high precision and speed of a laser cut and is now applied into electronic package singulation.

  13. Next generation power electronics for space and aircraft. II - Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iversen, Arthur

    A class of semiconductor packaging incorporating a novel type of heat exchange process is described. The packaging technology is characterized by high power density, 0.005 kg/kW with beryllium construction, low junction to fluid specific thermal resistance 0.1-0.3 C/W(sq cm) for lower junction temperatures, and consequent improved reliability and increased efficiency, and rugged, hermetic, and low-cost construction. A curved surface cooling technology is incorporated into several package designs. Initial experiments with curved surface cooling have demonstrated a dissipation of 472 W/sq cm at rated junction temperature (150 C) for power MOSFETs. More important for high-reliability and high-efficiency applications is the demonstrated 60 C junction temperature at 200 W/sq cm dissipation. The packaging technology is substantially device transparent.

  14. Ultra high speed image processing techniques. [electronic packaging techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T.; Hoeschele, D. F.; Connery, R.; Ehland, J.; Billings, J.

    1981-01-01

    Packaging techniques for ultra high speed image processing were developed. These techniques involve the development of a signal feedthrough technique through LSI/VLSI sapphire substrates. This allows the stacking of LSI/VLSI circuit substrates in a 3 dimensional package with greatly reduced length of interconnecting lines between the LSI/VLSI circuits. The reduced parasitic capacitances results in higher LSI/VLSI computational speeds at significantly reduced power consumption levels.

  15. AIN-Based Packaging for SiC High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savrun, Ender

    2004-01-01

    Packaging made primarily of aluminum nitride has been developed to enclose silicon carbide-based integrated circuits (ICs), including circuits containing SiC-based power diodes, that are capable of operation under conditions more severe than can be withstood by silicon-based integrated circuits. A major objective of this development was to enable packaged SiC electronic circuits to operate continuously at temperatures up to 500 C. AlN-packaged SiC electronic circuits have commercial potential for incorporation into high-power electronic equipment and into sensors that must withstand high temperatures and/or high pressures in diverse applications that include exploration in outer space, well logging, and monitoring of nuclear power systems. This packaging embodies concepts drawn from flip-chip packaging of silicon-based integrated circuits. One or more SiC-based circuit chips are mounted on an aluminum nitride package substrate or sandwiched between two such substrates. Intimate electrical connections between metal conductors on the chip(s) and the metal conductors on external circuits are made by direct bonding to interconnections on the package substrate(s) and/or by use of holes through the package substrate(s). This approach eliminates the need for wire bonds, which have been the most vulnerable links in conventional electronic circuitry in hostile environments. Moreover, the elimination of wire bonds makes it possible to pack chips more densely than was previously possible.

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Advanced Framing Systems and Packages

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing advanced 2x6, 24-inch on-center framing, single top plates, open headers, and 2-stud corners reduced board feet of lumber by more than 1,000 feet, cut energy use by 13%, and cut material and labor costs by more than $1,000 on a typical home.

  17. Advanced parametrical modelling of 24 GHz radar sensor IC packaging components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, R.; John, W.; Wellmann, J.; Bala, U. B.; Thiede, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with the development of an advanced parametrical modelling concept for packaging components of a 24 GHz radar sensor IC used in automotive driver assistance systems. For fast and efficient design of packages for system-in-package modules (SiP), a simplified model for the description of parasitic electromagnetic effects within the package is desirable, as 3-D field computation becomes inefficient due to the high density of conductive elements of the various signal paths in the package. By using lumped element models for the characterization of the conductive components, a fast indication of the design's signal-quality can be gained, but so far does not offer enough flexibility to cover the whole range of geometric arrangements of signal paths in a contemporary package. This work pursues to meet the challenge of developing a flexible and fast package modelling concept by defining parametric lumped-element models for all basic signal path components, e.g. bond wires, vias, strip lines, bumps and balls.

  18. rEHR: An R package for manipulating and analysing Electronic Health Record data

    PubMed Central

    Springate, David A.; Parisi, Rosa; Olier, Ivan; Reeves, David

    2017-01-01

    Research with structured Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is expanding as data becomes more accessible; analytic methods advance; and the scientific validity of such studies is increasingly accepted. However, data science methodology to enable the rapid searching/extraction, cleaning and analysis of these large, often complex, datasets is less well developed. In addition, commonly used software is inadequate, resulting in bottlenecks in research workflows and in obstacles to increased transparency and reproducibility of the research. Preparing a research-ready dataset from EHRs is a complex and time consuming task requiring substantial data science skills, even for simple designs. In addition, certain aspects of the workflow are computationally intensive, for example extraction of longitudinal data and matching controls to a large cohort, which may take days or even weeks to run using standard software. The rEHR package simplifies and accelerates the process of extracting ready-for-analysis datasets from EHR databases. It has a simple import function to a database backend that greatly accelerates data access times. A set of generic query functions allow users to extract data efficiently without needing detailed knowledge of SQL queries. Longitudinal data extractions can also be made in a single command, making use of parallel processing. The package also contains functions for cutting data by time-varying covariates, matching controls to cases, unit conversion and construction of clinical code lists. There are also functions to synthesise dummy EHR. The package has been tested with one for the largest primary care EHRs, the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), but allows for a common interface to other EHRs. This simplified and accelerated work flow for EHR data extraction results in simpler, cleaner scripts that are more easily debugged, shared and reproduced. PMID:28231289

  19. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  20. Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2012-06-01

    This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

  1. Advanced Electronics Systems 1, Industrial Electronics 3: 9327.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The 135 clock-hour course for the 12th year consists of outlines for blocks of instruction on transistor applications to basic circuits, principles of single sideband communications, maintenance practices, preparation for FCC licenses, application of circuits to advanced electronic systems, nonsinusoidal wave shapes, multivibrators, and blocking…

  2. Overview of advanced law enforcement electronic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, W. R.

    1995-05-01

    Law enforcement and security management are using advanced electronic equipment to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the budget restricted police officer force. Currently there is also significant national attention concerning the possible utilization of 'military' electronic hardware to implement the much sought after 'force multiplier' which can help to alleviate each jurisdictions economic restrictions. However, as we are now finding, the transfer of 'military' hardware for utilization by law enforcement personnel is not as economically viable as hoped. This paper will address some of the recent advances in electronic technology that are being derived from the military technology base. Additionally, comments are given concerning the economic impact as the technology is transferred to the law enforcement community.

  3. Design and Development of a CPCI-Based Electronics Package for Space Station Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolacz, John S.; Clapper, Randy S.; Wade, Raymond P.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing a Compact-PCI (CPCI) based electronics package for controlling space experiment hardware on the International Space Station. Goals of this effort include an easily modified, modular design that allows for changes in experiment requirements. Unique aspects of the experiment package include a flexible circuit used for internal interconnections and a separate enclosure (box in a box) for controlling 1 kW of power for experiment fuel heating requirements. This electronics package was developed as part of the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) mini-facility which is part of the Fluids and Combustion Facility s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments and will reside on the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FEANICS mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA s future space missions. A description of the electronics package and the results of functional testing are the subjects of this report. The report concludes that the use of innovative packaging methods combined with readily available COTS hardware can provide a modular electronics package which is easily modified for changing experiment requirements.

  4. Advanced Electron Microscopy in Materials Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jarausch, K.

    2009-06-01

    Aberration correction has opened a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes and extending information limits. The imaging and analytical performance of these corrector-equipped microscopes affords an unprecedented opportunity to study structure-property relationships of matter at the atomic scale. This new generation of microscopes is able to retrieve high-quality structural information comparable to neutron and synchrotron x-ray experiments, but with local atomic resolution. These advances in instrumentation are accelerating the research and development of various functional materials ranging from those for energy generation, conversion, transportation and storage to those for catalysis and nano-device applications. The dramatic improvements in electron-beam illumination and detection also present a host of new challenges for the interpretation and optimization of experiments. During 7-9 November 2007, a workshop, entitled 'Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy in Material Physics', was convened at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) to address these opportunities and challenges. The workshop was co-sponsored by Hitachi High Technologies, a leader in electron microscopy instrumentation, and BNL's Institute of Advanced Electron Microscopy, a leader in materials physics research using electron microscopy. The workshop featured presentations by internationally prominent scientists working at the frontiers of electron microscopy, both on developing instrumentation and applying it in materials physics. The meeting, structured to stimulate scientific exchanges and explore new capabilities, brought together {approx}100 people from over 10 countries. This special issue complies many of the advances in instrument performance and materials physics reported by the invited speakers and attendees at the workshop.

  5. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  6. New 1-k PROM for the coincidence-counter electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A new programmable read-only memory (PROM) for the Los Alamos-designed neutron coincidence electronics package is described. The new 1-k PROM allows remote control of the electronics by a computer or a remote terminal through an RS-232 serial data port. No modifications of the existing unit are required.

  7. Introduction and NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation includes an introduction to the space radiation environment, the effects on electronics, the environment in action, flight projects, mission needs, and radiation hardness assurance (RHA).

  8. Decontamination of food packaging using electron beam—status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittendorfer, J.; Bierbaumer, H. P.; Gratzl, F.; Kellauer, E.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper the status of food packaging disinfection decontamination using electron beam at Mediscan GmbH is presented. The first section of the paper describes the activities at the service center, where food packaging materials, e.g. yoghurt cups are decontaminated in their final shipment containers. As important step in the hazard analysis and critical control point of food processing, microbiological uncontaminated food packaging material is of public interest and attracts a lot of attention from packaging material producers and food processors. The dose ranges for different sterility assurance levels are discussed and results from microbiological test are presented. Studies at Mediscan have demonstrated, that an electron beam treatment at a dose of 5-7 kGy is most effective against yeast and mold, which are mainly responsible for spoilage and short shelf-life of a variety of products. The second section is devoted to the field of inline decontamination of food packaging and sterilization of pharmaceutical packaging material and the research currently conducted at Mediscan. The requirements for industrial inline electron beam systems are summarized and design concepts discussed in terms of beam energy, beam current, irradiation topology, product handling and shielding.

  9. Adapting electronic adherence monitors to standard packages of topical medications.

    PubMed

    Tusa, Mark G; Ladd, Mitchell; Kaur, Mandeep; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R

    2006-11-01

    Adherence to topical medications is poorly characterized. Electronic monitors can provide objective adherence data, but these monitors are not designed to work with tubes of medications. We sought to adapt standard electronic monitors to commonly used medication tubes. An adapter was created to fit over standard medication tubes. Screw threads on the adapter were designed to fit standard electronic monitors. Adapters and monitors were tested with tubes of gel, ointment, and cream over an 8-week test period during which the adapters were opened and closed twice daily. The adapters were easily mated to both plastic and aluminum topical medication tubes. The bond between the adapter and the tube was maintained throughout the study. Electronic monitors were 100% accurate at identifying medication events over the study period. We conclude that adapting existing electronic monitors to medication tubes should facilitate a much better understanding of adherence to topical treatment.

  10. Low Temperature Reliability of Electronic Packages/Assemblies for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Newell, Michael; Bachman, James

    2002-01-01

    A NASA-wide team, funded under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), was formed to collaborate and to establish reliability of various electronic parts/packaging and assemblies for operation under extreme cold temperatures. One of the primary objectives of the NEPP is to expedite the infusion of cutting edge technologies into the present and future NASA missions. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) emerging electronic parts/packages due to their lower weight, increased functionality, and lower cost are excellent candidates for space missions if they are characterized to show that they will meet the stringent reliability and quality requirements. Characterizations, especially for the extreme cold temperatures, are required since very limited data are available by manufacturers or users. For severe military environments, the temperature conditions to -65 C are the lowest temperature for which these parts/packages and assemblies are qualified. New data beyond this relatively benign cold temperature are required for numerous NASA missions. Several parts/packages, based on the project recommendation for their immediate and future needs, were selected for detailed characterization to cold temperature regimes down to liquid nitrogen (-196 C), covering both Mars cold temperature (-125 C) and asteroid (- 180 C) lander environmental requirements. Numerous parts/packages and assemblies were characterized during extreme temperature environmental tests. Several electrical parameters were characterized at discrete temperatures to -185 C to determine if they remain within their specification ranges. Both packages and circuit boards were subjected to nondestructive testing including optical, X-ray, and acoustic microscopy to document their integrity prior to environment exposure. Package/board assemblies were also subjected to X-ray to characterize solder joint integrity including void levels. Both parts and assemblies were subjected to thermal cycling with a large

  11. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  12. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  13. Advances in positron and electron scattering*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo; Krishnakumar, E.; Petrović, Zoran; Sullivan, James; Tanuma, Hajime

    2016-10-01

    The topical issue on Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering" combines contributions from POSMOL 2015 together with others devoted to celebrate the unprecedented scientific careers of our loyal colleagues and trusted friends Steve Buckman (Australian National University, Australia) and Michael Allan (University of Fribourg, Switzerland) on the occasion of their retirements. POSMOL 2015, the XVIII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XIX International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, from 17-20 July 2015. The international workshop and symposium allowed to achieve a very privileged forum of sharing and developing our scientific expertise on current aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and related topics, as well as electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent developments in the study of swarms are also fully addressed.

  14. Thermal Testing and Quality Assurance of BGA LCC & QFN Electronic Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Kuper, Cameron Mathias

    2015-12-10

    The purpose of this project is to experimentally validate the thermal fatigue life of solder interconnects for a variety of surface mount electronic packages. Over the years, there has been a significant amount of research and analysis in the fracture of solder joints on printed circuit boards. Solder is important in the mechanical and electronic functionality of the component. It is important throughout the life of the product that the solder remains crack and fracture free. The specific type of solder used in this experiment is a 63Sn37Pb eutectic alloy. Each package was surrounded conformal coating or underfill material.

  15. Actuator and electronics packaging for extrinsic humanoid hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The lower arm assembly for a humanoid robot includes an arm support having a first side and a second side, a plurality of wrist actuators mounted to the first side of the arm support, a plurality of finger actuators mounted to the second side of the arm support and a plurality of electronics also located on the first side of the arm support.

  16. Advanced electronics for the CTF MEG system.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, J; Vrba, J; Spear, P; McKenzie, D; Willis, R; Loewen, R; Robinson, S E; Fife, A A

    2004-11-30

    Development of the CTF MEG system has been advanced with the introduction of a computer processing cluster between the data acquisition electronics and the host computer. The advent of fast processors, memory, and network interfaces has made this innovation feasible for large data streams at high sampling rates. We have implemented tasks including anti-alias filter, sample rate decimation, higher gradient balancing, crosstalk correction, and optional filters with a cluster consisting of 4 dual Intel Xeon processors operating on up to 275 channel MEG systems at 12 kHz sample rate. The architecture is expandable with additional processors to implement advanced processing tasks which may include e.g., continuous head localization/motion correction, optional display filters, coherence calculations, or real time synthetic channels (via beamformer). We also describe an electronics configuration upgrade to provide operator console access to the peripheral interface features such as analog signal and trigger I/O. This allows remote location of the acoustically noisy electronics cabinet and fitting of the cabinet with doors for improved EMI shielding. Finally, we present the latest performance results available for the CTF 275 channel MEG system including an unshielded SEF (median nerve electrical stimulation) measurement enhanced by application of an adaptive beamformer technique (SAM) which allows recognition of the nominal 20-ms response in the unaveraged signal.

  17. Dissemination Package for Transition into Electronics (TIE) Project, October 1979-June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen Valley Coll., San Jose, CA.

    This dissemination package consists of a variety of advertising materials, forms, questionnaires, tests, and handouts developed as a part of the Transition into Electronics (TIE) Project. (The TIE Project was a project that developed, implemented, and evaluated a model designed to encourage persons to pursue education and training leading to…

  18. Development and testing of the Junkeeper Control Corporation integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Additional developmental work on the existing programmable electronic controller and hydronic package for use with solar heating and cooling systems is summarized. The controller/hydronics subsystems passed all acceptance tests and performance criteria. The subsystems were shown marketable for public use.

  19. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  20. Demonstration of a Prototype Hydrogen Sensor and Electronics Package - Progress Report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Amanda S.; Brosha, Eric

    2016-06-14

    This is the second progress report on the demonstration of a prototype hydrogen sensor and electronics package. It goes into detail about the five tasks, four of which are already completed as of August 2016, with the final to be completed by January 26, 2017. Then the budget is detailed along with the planned work for May 27, 2016 to July 27, 2016.

  1. ARPS: an Advanced Radio Isotope Power Subsystem for ExoMars Geophysical Package (GEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, D.; Biele, J.; Lenoir, B.; Dauscher, A.; Müller, E.

    2005-12-01

    Within the framework of the ESA Aurora initiative , IPGP, DLR and an international consortium of laboratories launched an initiative aiming at adding on board the ExoMars mission a long life geophysical observatory, called "GEP" (Geophysical package) or "Mars Long Lived Surface Package". The feasibility study of this "geophysical package", carried out with the CNES support, showed the need for studying an alternative source of power to solar panels. Developments related to RTG technologies have been restricted for a long time to the United States and Russian industries. However, the exploration of the remote solar system (in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision) as well as long duration planetary missions (such as ExoMars Geophysical Package GEP ) exclude de facto the use of solar panels. A possible solution would be to associate to a radioisotope heat source of Russian origin (of Angel type) a thermo-electrical conversion system of European design. A European consortium of laboratories, including LPM, IPG and DLR (WF and RS) was thus constituted, in order to validate by a study the assumptions on the electric subsystem for the preliminary sizing of the geophysical package. The power of this Advanced radio-isotopic power system (ARPS) should be between 3 and 4 W, and the proposed mass limited to about 3 to 4 kg. This study will be undertaken in collaboration between the LPM, IPGP, DLR-WF and DLR-RS. A preliminary iteration of the GEP power subsystem will be presented, and main trade-off will be considered.

  2. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Report -- 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.; DeVoto, D.; Moreno, G.; Rugh, J.; Waye, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the research into advanced liquid cooling, integrated power module cooling, high temperature air cooled power electronics, two-phase cooling for power electronics, and electric motor thermal management by NREL's Power Electronics group in FY13.

  3. Inclusion of the electron-phonon interaction in the BerkeleyGW computational package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Lany, Stephan

    The BerkeleyGW package is a highly optimized and efficient code for calculating, among others, the dielectric response, bandstructures, lifetimes, and optical absorption of materials from nanostructures and two-dimensional sheets to bulk materials. In the past the only interactions included in BerkeleyGW were electron-electron interactions, with other packages being used to include the effect of, say, electron-phonon interactions. One common approach is to use Wannier functions to interpolate all needed quantities to a very fine grids in energy and momentum, which leads to very accurate electron-phonon couplings and lifetimes. However, in materials with complex, even unknown, chemical environments the generation of Wannier functions can be quite time consuming and constitutes another step in an already difficult calculation. The BerkeleyGW package has a wavefunction-based interpolation scheme that is used in solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation and which is much more easily automated than Wannier interpolation. In this talk, we discuss results for the carrier lifetimes due to the electron-phonon interaction using this interpolation scheme. In particular, we discuss the computational efficiency and scalability, and the prospects for applying this method to a wide range of materials to get first principles lifetimes, and related quantities, such as mobilities and diffusion lengths. Derek Vigil-Fowler's work is supported by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Director's Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  4. Advanced Electronic Systems. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Dale R.

    This curriculum for a 1-semester or 1-year course in electronics is designed to take students from basic through advanced electronic systems. It covers several electronic areas, such as digital electronics, communication electronics, industrial process control, instrumentation, programmable controllers, and robotics. The guide contains…

  5. Advanced electron microscopy characterization of multimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Subarna Raj

    Research in noble metal nanoparticles has led to exciting progress in a versatile array of applications. For the purpose of better tailoring of nanoparticles activities and understanding the correlation between their structures and properties, control over the composition, shape, size and architecture of bimetallic and multimetallic nanomaterials plays an important role on revealing their new or enhanced functions for potentials application. Advance electron microscopy techniques were used to provide atomic scale insights into the structure-properties of different materials: PtPd, Au-Au3Cu, Cu-Pt, AgPd/Pt and AuCu/Pt nanoparticles. The objective of this work is to understand the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials and describe synthesis, characterization, surface properties and growth mechanism of various bimetallic and multimetallic nanoparticles. The findings have provided us with novel and significant insights into the physical and chemical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. Different synthesis routes allowed us to synthesize bimetallic: Pt-Pd, Au-Au3Cu, Cu-Pt and trimetallic: AgPd/Pt, AuCu/Pt, core-shell and alloyed nanoparticles with monodispersed sizes, controlled shapes and tunable surface properties. For example, we have synthesized the polyhedral PtPd core-shell nanoparticles with octahedral, decahedral, and triangular plates. Decahedral PtPd core-shell structures are novel morphologies for this system. For the first time we fabricated that the Au core and Au3Cu alloyed shell nanoparticles passivated with CuS2 surface layers and characterized by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the high-resolution micrographs reveals that these nanoparticles have decahedral structure with shell periodicity, and that each of the particles is composed by Au core and Au3Cu ordered superlattice alloyed shell surrounded by CuS 2 surface layer. Additionally, we have described both experimental and theoretical methods of

  6. Heterogeneous Integration, An Approach to High Density and High Flexibility Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAgostino, S. A.; Schatzel, D. V.

    2001-01-01

    Key to the design of spacecraft for exploration of the outer planets will be the development of highly integrated and mass/volume efficient electronic systems. Exploration of the outer planets will require optimized propulsion approaches which mandates mass minimization. If one looks at a mission such as the Europa Lander, a high mass/volume efficiency feeds back directly into lower mass for radiation shielding. Concurrently the long mission lengths will drive the need for fault isolation and fault tolerance. The ability to build distributed electronic systems is an inherent requirement and one which is enabled by heterogeneous integration. The electronic packaging approach must be capable of interconnecting various components at a scale comparable with that on the components themselves (chip scale) and it must facilitate efficient integration of the electronics with elements of the spacecraft such as structure or antennae. The concept of 'Heterogeneous Integration' is being explored in the System On A Chip (SOAC) Project at JPL. The goal, of this approach to electronic packaging, is to enable the fabrication and assembly of complete electronic subsystems from components fabricated by a range of processes. Included in such a system could be MEMS sensors, SOI mixed signal ASICs, micro scale passive components and micro power. Secondarily the compact size will enable distributed architectures and integrated assemblies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  8. Acceleration of the GAMESS-UK electronic structure package on graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Karl A; Sherwood, Paul; Guest, Martyn F; Naidoo, Kevin J

    2011-07-30

    The approach used to calculate the two-electron integral by many electronic structure packages including generalized atomic and molecular electronic structure system-UK has been designed for CPU-based compute units. We redesigned the two-electron compute algorithm for acceleration on a graphical processing unit (GPU). We report the acceleration strategy and illustrate it on the (ss|ss) type integrals. This strategy is general for Fortran-based codes and uses the Accelerator compiler from Portland Group International and GPU-based accelerators from Nvidia. The evaluation of (ss|ss) type integrals within calculations using Hartree Fock ab initio methods and density functional theory are accelerated by single and quad GPU hardware systems by factors of 43 and 153, respectively. The overall speedup for a single self consistent field cycle is at least a factor of eight times faster on a single GPU compared with that of a single CPU.

  9. Testing Method for Measuring Impact Strength of Bga Solder Joints on Electronic Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Tadaharu; Goto, Hirotaka; Araki, Wakako; Omori, Takahiro; Kawamura, Noriyasu; Mukai, Minoru; Kawakami, Takashi

    A pendulum-impact testing machine was developed to measure the impact strength of ball-grid-array (BGA) solder joints between an electronic package and a circuit board. Ball solders were connected to daisy-chain between a dummy electronic package and a circuit board. The upper side of the package was directly bonded to a load cell. The rear side of the circuit board was also bonded to an aluminum alloy block fixed on a base. A pendulum made of aluminum alloy was collided into the load cell to apply tensile impact to the solder joints through the load cell. The history of the impact load could be controlled by raising the angle of the pendulum. The fracture of a BGA solder joint was detected by measuring the resistance of the daisy-chain circuit on the board. Therefore, the impact strengths of the solder joints at electrical disconnection and mechanical breaking of all joints could be determined. The experimental results showed that this method is useful for measuring the impact strength of BGA solder joints.

  10. Commercial applications of electron beam advanced oxidation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Randy D.; Bosma, John T.

    1995-03-01

    Emerging commercial applications of electron-beam advanced oxidation technology offer a significant advancement in the treatment of waste steams. Both electron beam and X-ray (Brehmsstrahlung) advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be effective in the destruction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Emerging commercial applications, however, far exceed in scope current applications of oxidation technologies for the destruction of simple semivolatile and volatile organic compounds in water. Emerging applications include direct treatment of contaminated soil, removal of metal ions from water and sterilization of water, sludges, and food. Application of electron beam advanced oxidation technologies are reviewed, along with electron- beam-generated X-ray (Brehmsstrahlung) advanced oxidation processes. Advantages of each technology are discussed along with advanced accelerator technologies which are applicable for commercial processing of waste streams. An overview of the U.S. companies and laboratories participating in this research area are included in this discussion.

  11. Update on Electron-Cloud Simulations Using the Package WARP-POSINST

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Celata, Christine M.; Furman, Miguel; Venturini, Marco; Sonnad, Kiran G.; Penn, G.; Grote, D.P.

    2009-04-01

    At PAC05[1] and PAC07[2], we presented the package WARP-POSINST for the modeling of the effect of electron clouds on high-energy beams. We present here the latest developments in the package. Three new modes of operations were implemented: (1) a build-up mode where, similarly to POSINST (LBNL) or ECLOUD (CERN), the build-up of electron clouds driven by a legislated bunch train is modeled in one region of an accelerator; (2) a quasistatic mode where, similarly to HEADTAIL (CERN) or QuickPIC (USC/UCLA), the frozen beam approximation is used to split the modeling of the beam and the electrons into two components evolving on their respective time scales; and (3) a Lorentz boosted mode where the simulation is performed in a moving frame where the space and time scales related to the beam and electron dynamics fall in the same range. The implementation of modes (1) and (2) was primary motivated by the need for benchmarking with other codes, while the implementation of mode (3) fulfills the drive toward fully self-consistent simulations of e-cloud effects on the beam including the build-up phase.

  12. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  13. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    DOEpatents

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  14. Surface chemical deposition of advanced electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkevig, Cameron

    The focus of this work was to examine the direct plating of Cu on Ru diffusion barriers for use in interconnect technology and the substrate mediated growth of graphene on boron nitride for use in advanced electronic applications. The electrodeposition of Cu on Ru(0001) and polycrystalline substrates (with and without pretreatment in an iodine containing solution) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current--time transient measurements (CTT), in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EC-AFM data show that at potentials near the OPD/UPD threshold, Cu crystallites exhibit pronounced growth anisotropy, with lateral dimensions greatly exceeding vertical dimensions. XPS measurements confirmed the presence and stability of adsorbed I on the Ru surface following pre-treatment in a KI/H2SO4 solution and following polarization to at least -200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. CV data of samples pre-reduced in I-containing electrolyte exhibited a narrow Cu deposition peak in the overpotential region and a UPD peak. The kinetics of the electrodeposited Cu films was investigated by CTT measurements and applied to theoretical models of nucleation. The data indicated that a protective I adlayer may be deposited on an airexposed Ru electrode as the oxide surface is electrochemically reduced, and that this layer will inhibit reformation of an oxide during the Cu electroplating process. A novel method for epitaxial graphene growth directly on a dielectric substrate of systematically variable thickness was studied. Mono/multilayers of BN(111) were grown on Ru(0001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), exhibiting a flat (non-nanomesh) R30(✓3x✓3) structure. BN(111) was used as a template for growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C2H4 at 1000 K. Characterization by LEED, Auger, STM/STS and Raman indicate the graphene is in registry with the BN substrate, and exhibits a HOPG-like 0 eV bandgap density

  15. Preparation and Properties of New Polyphenylene Sulfide/AlN Composites for Electronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, R. K.; Jadhav, P.; Tiwari, A. N.

    2011-06-01

    The thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of new high-performance polyphenylene sulfide/aluminum nitride (AlN) composites prepared by hot pressing were investigated for use in electronic packaging. The coefficient of thermal expansion was decreased by 41%. The glass-transition temperature and Vickers microhardness were increased by 13°C and 46%, respectively, for the 15.1 vol.% AlN composite. A modified rule of mixtures with β of 0.065 fits the data. The dielectric constant and loss factor of the composites are within the range of requirements for commercial use.

  16. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Results and Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program's mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronic technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. This viewgraph presentation reviews the NEPP program's goals and objectives, and reviews many of the missions that the NEPP program has impacted, both in and out of NASA. Also included are examples of the evaluation that the program performed.

  17. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: NEPP Overview - Automotive Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using U.S. Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Council's AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASA's procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  18. Advanced Concepts for Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Derbenev

    2002-08-01

    A superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) of 5 to 10 GeV was proposed earlier as an alternative to electron storage rings to deliver polarized electron beam for electron-ion collider (EIC). To enhance the utilization efficiency of electron beam from a polarized source, it is proposed to complement the ERL by circulator ring (CR) wherein the injected electrons undergo up to 100 revolutions colliding with the ion beam. In this way, electron injector and linac operate in pulsed current (beam energy recovery) regime of a relatively low average current, while the polarization is still easily delivered and preserved. To make it also easier delivering and manipulating the proton and light ion polarization, twisted (figure 8) synchrotrons are proposed for heavy particle booster and collider ring. Same type of beam orbit can be used then for electron circulator. Electron cooling (EC) of the ion beam is considered an inevitable component of high luminosity EIC (1033/s. cm2 or above). It is recognized that EC also gives a possibility to obtain very short ion bunches, that allows much stronger final focusing. At the same time, short bunches make feasible the crab crossing (and traveling focus for ion beam) at collision points, hence, allow maximizing the collision rate. As a result, one can anticipate the luminosity increase by one or two orders of magnitude.

  19. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1989-08-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the strength of the structure and stinger attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use high force shaker-tables to provide a driven-base input. Some of the issues of concern are: properly simulating the fixed boundary conditions, applying modal estimation algorithms to motion-to-motion frequency response functions vs. motion-to-force frequency response functions, non-linearity effects and testing at very low input levels vs. levels equal to those of the field environment, complications involved with shaker resonances, exciting the ''response-critical'' modes of the structure, and consistency of the modal parameters using driven-base tests vs. fixed-base modal tests. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the size of the shakers and the strength of the attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use stationary vibration shaker tables to provide a driven-base input. The modes can be obtained at much higher excitation levels than fixed-base excitation modes using portable shakers and flexible attachments. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical (finite element) predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. PSI3: an open-source Ab Initio electronic structure package.

    PubMed

    Crawford, T Daniel; Sherrill, C David; Valeev, Edward F; Fermann, Justin T; King, Rollin A; Leininger, Matthew L; Brown, Shawn T; Janssen, Curtis L; Seidl, Edward T; Kenny, Joseph P; Allen, Wesley D

    2007-07-15

    PSI3 is a program system and development platform for ab initio molecular electronic structure computations. The package includes mature programming interfaces for parsing user input, accessing commonly used data such as basis-set information or molecular orbital coefficients, and retrieving and storing binary data (with no software limitations on file sizes or file-system-sizes), especially multi-index quantities such as electron repulsion integrals. This platform is useful for the rapid implementation of both standard quantum chemical methods, as well as the development of new models. Features that have already been implemented include Hartree-Fock, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, coupled cluster, and configuration interaction wave functions. Distinctive capabilities include the ability to employ Gaussian basis functions with arbitrary angular momentum levels; linear R12 second-order perturbation theory; coupled cluster frequency-dependent response properties, including dipole polarizabilities and optical rotation; and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections with correlated wave functions. This article describes the programming infrastructure and main features of the package. PSI3 is available free of charge through the open-source, GNU General Public License.

  2. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  3. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  4. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Roadmap for FY15 and Beyond and Recent Radiation Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Roadmap for FY15 and Beyond. This roadmap provides a snapshot for current plans and collaborations on testing and evaluation of electronics as well as a discussion of the technology selection approach.

  5. Information Business: Applying Infometry (Informational Geometry) in Cognitive Coordination and Genetic Programming for Electronic Information Packaging and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Bor-sheng

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of infometry, or informational geometry, to meet the challenges of information service businesses. Highlights include theoretical models for cognitive coordination and genetic programming; electronic information packaging; marketing electronic information products, including cost-benefit analyses; and recapitalization, including…

  6. Packaging Concerns and Techniques for Large Devices: Challenges for Complex Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is going to have to accept the use of non-hermetic packages for complex devices. There are a large number of packaging options available. Space application subjects the packages to stresses that they were probably not designed for (vacuum for instance). NASA has to find a way of having assurance in the integrity of the packages. There are manufacturers interested in qualifying non-hermetic packages to MIL-PRF-38535 Class V. Government space users are agreed that Class V should be for hermetic packages only. NASA is working on a new Class for non-hermetic packages for M38535 Appendix B, "Class Y". Testing for package integrity will be required but can be package specific as described by a Package Integrity Test Plan. The plan is developed by the manufacturer and approved by DSCC and government space.

  7. Advances in High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normann, R. A.; Henfling, J. A.

    2001-05-01

    It has long been known that SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) electronics are more resistant to elevated temperatures and radiation than common bulk silicon devices. Bulk silicon devices are used in consumer grade electronics. A new line of SOI devices have a proven life of 5 years at 225\\deg C where commercial electronics have an 80% failure rate at 180\\deg C and above. This improvement is the result of building each transistor on a non-conductive 'glass' substrate. The transistor isolation reduces the effects of heat, radiation and in general provides for better performing devices with greatly increased life expectancies. This paper shows how SOI electronics can greatly increase the instrumentation life of permanently installed electronics within the wellbore at any temperature. Information is provided from an SOI designed logging tool operating without any heat-shielding up to 300\\deg C. Additional information is provided on the future of micro-machines built out of silicon, silicon-carbide, and diamond. Silicon micro-machines are already being used to measure pressure, inclination, rotation and vibration. In the future, these micro-machines will offer a significant jump in technology for wellbore instrumentation.

  8. Los Alamos Advanced Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.C.D.; Kraus, R.H.; Ledford, J.; Meier, K.L.; Meyer, R.E.; Nguyen, D.; Sheffield, R.L.; Sigler, F.L.; Young, L.M.; Wang, T.S.; Wilson, W.L.; Wood, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    At Los Alamos, we are building a free-electron laser (FEL) for industrial, medical, and research applications. This FEL, which will incorporate many of the new technologies developed over the last decade, will be compact in size, robust, and user-friendly. Electrons produced by a photocathode will be accelerated to 20 MeV by a high-brightness accelerator and transported using permanent-magnet quadrupoles and dipoles. They will form an electron beam with an excellent instantaneous beam quality of 10 {pi} mm mrad in transverse emittance and 0.3% in energy spread at a peak current up to 300 A. Including operation at higher harmonics, the laser wavelength extends form 3.7 {mu}m to 0.4 {mu}m. In this paper, we will describe the project and the programs to date. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  10. The effect of electronic package on satisfaction in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Khosrawi, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional teaching methods used in medical education cannot wholly respond to the rapid changes and growth of information as well as continuous changes in the educational needs of society, especially patients with chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of examining the effect of electronic package on satisfaction in MS patients. Materials and Methods: The research was a quasi-experimental study. It was carried out at the MS Kashani Center affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. One hundred twenty-eight patients with MS were allocated randomly into two equal groups of 64 each for education by booklet (control) and education by multimedia software (experimental) for 2 weeks. Data were collected by processing questionnaires, which consisted of questions about satisfaction (17 items) and questions about demographic and disease characteristics (9 items), answered by both groups before and 2 weeks after education. SPSS version 14 (DARYA software, Iran) was used to conduct statistical tests such as the independent t-test and the paired t-test for analyzing the data. The statistical significance level was less than 0.05. Results: The results show that there was not any significant difference between the satisfaction scores of the electronic package and control groups before intervention, but that there was a significant difference after 2 weeks’ intervention (P = 0.010). Conclusion: The electronic programs comprised an attractive education method. So this technology can increase motivation in MS patients to study more about the disease process. PMID:27308261

  11. Advances in superconducting quantum electronic microcircuit fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschman, R. K.; Notarys, H. A.; Mercereau, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Standard microelectronic fabrication techniques have been utilized to produce batch quantities of superconducting quantum electronic devices and circuits. The overall goal is a fabrication technology yielding circuits that are rugged and stable and capable of being fabricated controllably and reproducibly in sizeable quantities. Our progress toward this goal is presented, with primary emphasis on the most recent work, which includes the use of electron-beam lithography and techniques of hybrid microelectronics. Several prototype microcircuits have been successfully fabricated. These microcircuits are formed in a thin-film parent material consisting of layers of superconducting and normal metals, and use proximity-effect structures as the active circuit elements.

  12. 75 FR 21367 - Advanced Electronics, Inc.; Boston, MA; Notice of Negative Determination on Remand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Advanced Electronics, Inc.; Boston, MA; Notice of Negative... Department of Labor (Department) for further investigation Former Employees of Advanced Electronics, Inc. v... Adjustment Assistance (ATAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Advanced Electronics, Inc.,...

  13. Center for Space Power and Advanced Electronics, Auburn University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, Dan W.; Hopkins, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    The union of Auburn University's Center for Space Power and Advanced Electronics and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center to form a Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) is discussed. An area of focus for the CCDS will be the development of silicon carbide electronics technology, in terms of semiconductors and crystal growth. The discussion is presented in viewgraph form.

  14. Hermetic Packages For Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Martin I.; Lee, Karen A.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Carpenter, Alain; Wamhof, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Advanced hermetic packages developed to house electronic circuits operating at frequencies from 1 to 100 gigahertz and beyond. Signals coupled into and out of packages electromagnetically. Provides circuit packages small, lightweight, rugged, and inexpensive in mass production. Packages embedded in planar microstrip and coplanar waveguide circuits, in waveguide-to-planar and planar-to-waveguide circuitry, in waveguide-to-waveguide circuitry, between radiating (antenna) elements, and between planar transmission lines and radiating elements. Other applications in automotive, communication, radar, remote sensing, and biomedical electronic systems foreseen.

  15. Quantum functional devices for advanced electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, N.; Muto, S.; Imamura, K.; Takatsu, M.; Mori, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sakuma, Y.; Nakao, H.; Adachihara, T.

    Recent research in semiconductor device technology seems to be focused on reducing the cost and power dissipation of traditional Si CMOS integrated circuits, rather than developing new and advanced semiconductor devices. We believe however, that devices enter the nanometer-scale regime in the next century, where quantum mechanical effects play an important role in the device's function; therefore, it is important to continue basic research into the physics and technology of nanometer scale structures and device applications in order to cultivate "nanoelectronics". This paper reviews our research activities on quantum functional devices and discusses our future research direction.

  16. Recent Advancements in Functionalized Paper-Based Electronics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-08-17

    Building electronic devices on ubiquitous paper substrates has recently drawn extensive attention due to its light weight, low cost, environmental friendliness, and ease of fabrication. Recently, a myriad of advancements have been made to improve the performance of paper electronics for various applications, such as basic electronic components, energy storage devices, generators, antennas, and electronic circuits. This review aims to summarize this progress and discuss different perspectives of paper electronics as well as the remaining challenges yet to be overcome in this field. Other aspects included in this review are the fundamental characteristics of paper, modification of paper with functional materials, and various methods for device fabrication.

  17. MsSpec-1.0: A multiple scattering package for electron spectroscopies in material science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sébilleau, Didier; Natoli, Calogero; Gavaza, George M.; Zhao, Haifeng; Da Pieve, Fabiana; Hatada, Keisuke

    2011-12-01

    We present a multiple scattering package to calculate the cross-section of various spectroscopies namely photoelectron diffraction (PED), Auger electron diffraction (AED), X-ray absorption (XAS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS). This package is composed of three main codes, computing respectively the cluster, the potential and the cross-section. In the latter case, in order to cover a range of energies as wide as possible, three different algorithms are provided to perform the multiple scattering calculation: full matrix inversion, series expansion or correlation expansion of the multiple scattering matrix. Numerous other small Fortran codes or bash/csh shell scripts are also provided to perform specific tasks. The cross-section code is built by the user from a library of subroutines using a makefile. Program summaryProgram title: MsSpec-1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEJT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 504 438 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 448 180 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Any Operating system: Linux, MacOs RAM: Bytes Classification: 7.2 External routines: Lapack ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/) Nature of problem: Calculation of the cross-section of various spectroscopies. Solution method: Multiple scattering. Running time: The test runs provided only take a few seconds to run.

  18. Advanced power electronics and electric machinery program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler) announced in January 2002 a new cooperative research effort. Known as "FreedomCAR" (derived from "Freedom" and "Cooperative Automotive Research"), it represents DOE's commitment to developing public/private partnerships to fund high-risk, high-payoff research into advanced automotive technologies. Efficient fuel cell technology, which uses hydrogen to power automobiles without air pollution, is a very promising pathway to achieving the ultimate vision. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001.

  19. I-SPINE: a software package for advances in image-guided and minimally invasive spine procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Jeong; Cleary, Kevin R.; Zeng, Jianchao; Gary, Kevin A.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Watson, Vance; Lindisch, David; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-05-01

    While image guidance is now routinely used in the brain in the form of frameless stereotaxy, it is beginning to be more widely used in other clinical areas such as the spine. At Georgetown University Medical Center, we are developing a program to provide advanced visualization and image guidance for minimally invasive spine procedures. This is a collaboration between an engineering-based research group and physicians from the radiology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedics departments. A major component of this work is the ISIS Center Spine Procedures Imaging and Navigation Engine, which is a software package under development as the base platform for technical advances.

  20. Advanced thermal management techniques for space power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Angel Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Modern electronic systems used in space must be reliable and efficient with thermal management unaffected by outer space constraints. Current thermal management techniques are not sufficient for the increasing waste heat dissipation of novel electronic technologies. Many advanced thermal management techniques have been developed in recent years that have application in high power electronic systems. The benefits and limitations of emerging cooling technologies are discussed. These technologies include: liquid pumped devices, mechanically pumped two-phase cooling, capillary pumped evaporative cooling, and thermoelectric devices. Currently, liquid pumped devices offer the most promising alternative for electronics thermal control.

  1. A Review of Chip Scale Package Assembled Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1997-01-01

    NASA Headquarters, code Q, has established the Advanced Interconnect Program (AIP) to address the NASA's Common needs in electronic packaging for microspacecraft applications. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory was funded to address the quality and reliability of several high denstiy electronic packaging technologies.

  2. Initial performance of Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Baca, D.M.; Chan, K.C.D.; Cheairs, R.B.; Fortgang, C.M.; Gierman, S.M.; Johnson, W.J.D.; Holcomb, D.E.; Kinross-Wright, J.; McCann, S.W.; Meier, K.L.; Plato, J.G.; Sheffield, R.L.; Sherwood, B.A.; Sigler, F.E.; Timmer, C.A.; Warren, R.W.; Weber, M.E.; Wilson, W.L.

    1992-09-01

    We report recent results on the high-brightness electron linac and initial performance of the Advanced FEL at Los Alamos. The design and construction of the Advanced FEL beamline are based upon integration of advanced technologies such as high-brightness photoinjector, high-gradient compact linac, and permanent-magnet beamline components. With the use of microwiggler, both permanent magnet and pulsed electromagnet, and compact optical resonator, the Advanced FEL will be the first of its kind small enough to be mounted on an optical table and yet capable of providing highpower optical output spanning the near-ir and visible regions. A schematic of the Advanced FEL is shown in. The source of high-current electron pulses is a laser-gated photoelectron injector which forms-an integral part of a high-gradient 1.2-m long rf linear accelerator. The latter is capable of accelerating electrons up to 20 MeV with room temperature operation and 25 MeV at 77K. The electrons are produced in 10-ps pulses with peak currents as high as 300 A. These electron pulses are transported in a brightness-preserving beamline consisting of permanent magnet dipoles and quadrupoles. The beamline has three 30{degrees} bends. The first bend allows for the photocathode drive laser input; the second allows for the FEL output and the third turns the electron beam into the floor for safety reasons. Additional information on the design physics of the Advanced FEL can be found elsewhere.

  3. Initial performance of Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Baca, D.M.; Chan, K.C.D.; Cheairs, R.B.; Fortgang, C.M.; Gierman, S.M.; Johnson, W.J.D.; Holcomb, D.E.; Kinross-Wright, J.; McCann, S.W.; Meier, K.L.; Plato, J.G.; Sheffield, R.L.; Sherwood, B.A.; Sigler, F.E.; Timmer, C.A.; Warren, R.W.; Weber, M.E.; Wilson, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    We report recent results on the high-brightness electron linac and initial performance of the Advanced FEL at Los Alamos. The design and construction of the Advanced FEL beamline are based upon integration of advanced technologies such as high-brightness photoinjector, high-gradient compact linac, and permanent-magnet beamline components. With the use of microwiggler, both permanent magnet and pulsed electromagnet, and compact optical resonator, the Advanced FEL will be the first of its kind small enough to be mounted on an optical table and yet capable of providing highpower optical output spanning the near-ir and visible regions. A schematic of the Advanced FEL is shown in. The source of high-current electron pulses is a laser-gated photoelectron injector which forms-an integral part of a high-gradient 1.2-m long rf linear accelerator. The latter is capable of accelerating electrons up to 20 MeV with room temperature operation and 25 MeV at 77K. The electrons are produced in 10-ps pulses with peak currents as high as 300 A. These electron pulses are transported in a brightness-preserving beamline consisting of permanent magnet dipoles and quadrupoles. The beamline has three 30{degrees} bends. The first bend allows for the photocathode drive laser input; the second allows for the FEL output and the third turns the electron beam into the floor for safety reasons. Additional information on the design physics of the Advanced FEL can be found elsewhere.

  4. All-in-One Shape-Adaptive Self-Charging Power Package for Wearable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hengyu; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Chih; Zi, Yunlong; Wu, Changsheng; Wen, Zhen; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-11-22

    Recently, a self-charging power unit consisting of an energy harvesting device and an energy storage device set the foundation for building a self-powered wearable system. However, the flexibility of the power unit working under extremely complex deformations (e.g., stretching, twisting, and bending) becomes a key issue. Here, we present a prototype of an all-in-one shape-adaptive self-charging power unit that can be used for scavenging random body motion energy under complex mechanical deformations and then directly storing it in a supercapacitor unit to build up a self-powered system for wearable electronics. A kirigami paper based supercapacitor (KP-SC) was designed to work as the flexible energy storage device (stretchability up to 215%). An ultrastretchable and shape-adaptive silicone rubber triboelectric nanogenerator (SR-TENG) was utilized as the flexible energy harvesting device. By combining them with a rectifier, a stretchable, twistable, and bendable, self-charging power package was achieved for sustainably driving wearable electronics. This work provides a potential platform for the flexible self-powered systems.

  5. Development of a software package for electronic documentation of orthopaedic x-ray findings.

    PubMed

    Dew, Douglas K; Halpern, Steven J; Micheals, Charles E

    2007-10-11

    Proper documentation of x-ray findings, including anatomical location, joint position, arthritis location with severity, fracture patterns, bone changes,changes from joint arthroplasty, and ICD-9 coding,are a vital aspect of the orthopedic surgeons' daily office task. While radiology software is available for certain templated studies, there is little in the way of orthopaedic electronic documentation other than templated "pick-lists" for common findings. The authors developed a software package with line drawings of a selected anatomical area that are color coded to divide individual bones into proximal interarticular,distal inter-articular, and shaft fractures. Each color coded section of a bone details both fracture patterns and bone changes possible for that area of the bone or joint. When a cursor is moved over each section of the bone, the various fracture patterns and bone changes then appear on the screen. The chosen fracture pattern, along with its associated description, is then electronically recorded coupled with its ICD-9 code including the specific digit when appropriate.

  6. Advances in molecular quantum chemistry contained in the Q-Chem 4 program package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yihan; Gan, Zhengting; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Gilbert, Andrew T. B.; Wormit, Michael; Kussmann, Joerg; Lange, Adrian W.; Behn, Andrew; Deng, Jia; Feng, Xintian; Ghosh, Debashree; Goldey, Matthew; Horn, Paul R.; Jacobson, Leif D.; Kaliman, Ilya; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kuś, Tomasz; Landau, Arie; Liu, Jie; Proynov, Emil I.; Rhee, Young Min; Richard, Ryan M.; Rohrdanz, Mary A.; Steele, Ryan P.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Woodcock, H. Lee, III; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Zuev, Dmitry; Albrecht, Ben; Alguire, Ethan; Austin, Brian; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Bernard, Yves A.; Berquist, Eric; Brandhorst, Kai; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Brown, Shawn T.; Casanova, David; Chang, Chun-Min; Chen, Yunqing; Chien, Siu Hung; Closser, Kristina D.; Crittenden, Deborah L.; Diedenhofen, Michael; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Do, Hainam; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Edgar, Richard G.; Fatehi, Shervin; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Ghysels, An; Golubeva-Zadorozhnaya, Anna; Gomes, Joseph; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Harbach, Philipp H. P.; Hauser, Andreas W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Holden, Zachary C.; Jagau, Thomas-C.; Ji, Hyunjun; Kaduk, Benjamin; Khistyaev, Kirill; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihan; King, Rollin A.; Klunzinger, Phil; Kosenkov, Dmytro; Kowalczyk, Tim; Krauter, Caroline M.; Lao, Ka Un; Laurent, Adèle D.; Lawler, Keith V.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Lin, Ching Yeh; Liu, Fenglai; Livshits, Ester; Lochan, Rohini C.; Luenser, Arne; Manohar, Prashant; Manzer, Samuel F.; Mao, Shan-Ping; Mardirossian, Narbe; Marenich, Aleksandr V.; Maurer, Simon A.; Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Neuscamman, Eric; Oana, C. Melania; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; O'Neill, Darragh P.; Parkhill, John A.; Perrine, Trilisa M.; Peverati, Roberto; Prociuk, Alexander; Rehn, Dirk R.; Rosta, Edina; Russ, Nicholas J.; Sharada, Shaama M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Small, David W.; Sodt, Alexander; Stein, Tamar; Stück, David; Su, Yu-Chuan; Thom, Alex J. W.; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Vanovschi, Vitalii; Vogt, Leslie; Vydrov, Oleg; Wang, Tao; Watson, Mark A.; Wenzel, Jan; White, Alec; Williams, Christopher F.; Yang, Jun; Yeganeh, Sina; Yost, Shane R.; You, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Igor Ying; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Yan; Brooks, Bernard R.; Chan, Garnet K. L.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Goddard, William A., III; Gordon, Mark S.; Hehre, Warren J.; Klamt, Andreas; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Schmidt, Michael W.; Sherrill, C. David; Truhlar, Donald G.; Warshel, Arieh; Xu, Xin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Baer, Roi; Bell, Alexis T.; Besley, Nicholas A.; Chai, Jeng-Da; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D.; Furlani, Thomas R.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Jung, Yousung; Kong, Jing; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Liang, WanZhen; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Rassolov, Vitaly A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Herbert, John M.; Krylov, Anna I.; Gill, Peter M. W.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

  7. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Overview and the New Tenets for Cost Conscious Mission Assurance on Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The NEPP Program focuses on the reliability aspects of electronic devices (integrated circuits such as a processor in a computer). There are three principal aspects of this reliability: 1) Lifetime, inherent failure and design issues related to the EEE parts technology and packaging; 2) Effects of space radiation and the space environment on these technologies, and; 3) Creation and maintenance of the assurance support infrastructure required for mission success. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment, and to ensure that appropriate EEE parts research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. NEPPs FY15 goals are to represent the NASA voice to the greater aerospace EEE parts community including supporting anti-counterfeit and trust, provide relevant guidance to cost-effective missions, aid insertion of advanced (and commercial) technologies, resolve unexpected parts issues, ensure access to appropriate radiation test facilities, and collaborate as widely as possible with external entities. In accordance with the changing mission profiles throughout NASA, the NEPP Program has developed a balanced portfolio of efforts to provide agency-wide assurance for not only traditional spacecraft developments, but also those in-line with the new philosophies emerging worldwide. In this presentation, we shall present an overview of this program and considerations for EEE parts assurance as applied to cost conscious missions.

  8. Shock-isolation material selection for electronic packages in hard-target environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stotts, Jarrett Eugene

    2016-11-01

    High velocity munitions and kinetic penetrators experience monumental external forces, impulses, and accelerations. The hard target environment is immensely taxing on sophisticated electronic components and recorders designed to retrieve valuable data related to the systems performance and characteristics in the periods of flight, impact, and post-impact. Such electronic systems have upper limits of overall shock intensity which, if exceeded, will either shorten the operating life of the parts or risk destruction resulting in loss of both the data and the principal value of the recorder. The focus of this project was to refine the categorization of leading material types for encapsulation and passive shock isolation and implement them in a method useable for a wide variety of environments. Namely, a design methodology capable of being tailored to the specific impact conditions to maximize the lively hood of sensitive electronics and the information recorded. The results of the study concluded that the materials observed under consistent dynamic high strain rate tests, which include Conathane® EN-4/9, Slygard®-184, and Stycast™-2651, behaved well in certain aspects of energy transmission and shock when considering the frequency environment or package coupled with the isolation material’s application. Key points about the implementation of the materials in extreme shock environments is discussed with the connection to energy analysis, loss attributes, and pulse transmissibility modeling. However, attempts to model the materials solely based on energy transmissibility in the frequency domain using only external experimental data and simplified boundary conditions was not found to be consistent with that acquired from the pressure bar experiments. Further work will include the addition of further material experimentation of the encapsulants in other frequency and temperature states, confined and pre-load boundary states, and composite constructions.

  9. Recent advances in biopolymers and biopolymer-based nanocomposites for food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, X Z; Kumar, P; Alavi, S; Sandeep, K P

    2012-01-01

    Plastic packaging for food and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and also uses up valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like petroleum. With the current focus on exploring alternatives to petroleum and emphasis on reduced environmental impact, research is increasingly being directed at development of biodegradable food packaging from biopolymer-based materials. The proposed paper will present a review of recent developments in biopolymer-based food packaging materials including natural biopolymers (such as starches and proteins), synthetic biopolymers (such as poly lactic acid), biopolymer blends, and nanocomposites based on natural and synthetic biopolymers. The paper will discuss the various techniques that have been used for developing cost-effective biodegradable packaging materials with optimum mechanical strength and oxygen and moisture barrier properties. This is a timely review as there has been a recent renewed interest in research studies, both in the industry and academia, towards development of a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in other areas.

  10. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticulate patterns for surface finish in electronic package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seonhee; Cho, Hyejin; Kang, Seongkoo; Oh, Sungil; Kim, Donghoon

    2011-11-01

    Gold (Au) pads for surface finish in electronic package were developed by the inkjet printing method. The Au ink for printing was prepared by Au nanoparticles (NPs) coated with capping molecules of dodecylamine (C12H25NH2). The microstructures of the inkjet-printed Au films were characterized after sintering in various gas flows. The film sintered in air showed that bonding between NPs was not enough for further grain growth due to the incomplete decomposition of the capping layer. The film sintered under nitrogen (N2) had NPs existing on the surface and the bottom which did not participate in sintering. When the film was sintered under N2-bubbled through formic acid (FA/N2), a large portion of the pores were observed to make a holey pancake-like structure of the film. The microstructures of the inkjet-printed Au film became denser with grain growth when Au NPs were sintered under mixed gas flows of FA/N2 and N2. The resistivity of film was 4.79 μΩ cm, about twice the bulk value. Organic analysis showed that about 0.43% of residual organics was left in the film. Therefore, this Au film was chosen for solder ball shear test because the microstructure was denser compared to the films sintered under other gasses such as N2 or FA/N2 and less organic residue was found from organic analyses. Even though the film sintered under N2 showed the best electrical property (4.35 μΩ cm), it was not adopted in the shear test because NPs remaining on the bottom of the film could lead to the poor adhesion between the film and substrate and show low shear strength. The shear force was 8.04 newton (N) on average and the strength was 64 MPa. This shear strength is good enough to substitute the inkjet-printed Au nanoparticulate film for electroplating in electronic package.

  11. BORON NITRIDE CAPACITORS FOR ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone

    2010-11-01

    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  12. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (APEEM) subprogram within the Vehicle Technologies Program provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on understanding and improving the way the various new components of tomorrow's automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  13. Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near-field communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Banks, Anthony; Cheng, Huanyu; Xie, Zhaoqian; Xu, Sheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Liu, Zhuangjian; Gutruf, Philipp; Huang, Xian; Wei, Pinghung; Liu, Fei; Li, Kan; Dalal, Mitul; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Gupta, Sanjay; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2015-02-25

    Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near field communications (NFC) are presented. The systems include stretchable coils and thinned NFC chips on thin, low modulus stretchable adhesives, to allow seamless, conformal contact with the skin and simultaneous capabilities for wireless interfaces to any standard, NFC-enabled smartphone, even under extreme deformation and after/during normal daily activities.

  14. Advanced electron microscopy characterization of nanomaterials for catalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Su, Dong

    2017-02-11

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become one of the most powerful techniques in the fields of material science, inorganic chemistry and nanotechnology. In terms of resolutions, advanced TEM may reach a high spatial resolution of 0.05 nm, a high energy-resolution of 7 meV. In addition, in situ TEM can help researcher to image the process happened within 1 ms. This paper reviews the recent technical approaches of applying advanced TEM characterization on nanomaterials for catalysis. The text is organized according to the demanded information of nanocrystals from the perspective of application: for example, size, composition, phase, strain, and morphology. Themore » electron beam induced effect and in situ TEM are also introduced. As a result, I hope this review can help the scientists in related fields to take advantage of advanced TEM to their own researches.« less

  15. Future opportunities for advancing glucose test device electronics.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano "ink" composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, "ink," and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers.

  16. Advanced accelerating structures and their interaction with electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we give a brief description of several advanced accelerating structures, such as dielectric loaded waveguides, photonic band gap, metamaterials and improved iris-loaded cavities. We describe wakefields generated by passing high current electron beams through these structures, and applications of wakefields to advanced accelerator schemes. One of the keys to success for high gradient wakefield acceleration is to develop high current drive beam sources. As an example, the high current RF photo injector at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator, passed a {approx}80 nC electron beam through a high gradient dielectric loaded structure to achieve a 100 MV/m gradient. We will summarize recent related experiments on beam-structure interactions and also discuss high current electron beam generation and propagation and their applications to wakefield acceleration.

  17. Advanced Accelerating Structures and Their Interaction with Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gai Wei

    2009-01-22

    In this paper, we give a brief description of several advanced accelerating structures, such as dielectric loaded waveguides, photonic band gap, metamaterials and improved iris-loaded cavities. We describe wakefields generated by passing high current electron beams through these structures, and applications of wakefields to advanced accelerator schemes. One of the keys to success for high gradient wakefield acceleration is to develop high current drive beam sources. As an example, the high current RF photo injector at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator, passed a {approx}80 nC electron beam through a high gradient dielectric loaded structure to achieve a 100 MV/m gradient. We will summarize recent related experiments on beam-structure interactions and also discuss high current electron beam generation and propagation and their applications to wakefield acceleration.

  18. Future Opportunities for Advancing Glucose Test Device Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano “ink” composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, “ink,” and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers. PMID:22027300

  19. Synthesis and properties of transparent cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins for opto-electronic devices packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nan; Liu, WeiQu; Yan, ZhenLong; Wang, ZhengFang

    2013-01-01

    Cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins were successfully synthesized through a two-step reaction route: (і) hydrosilylation of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) and 1,2-epoxy-4-vinyl-cyclohexane (VCMX), (іі) blocking of unreacted Sisbnd H in (і) with n-butanol. The molecular structures of the cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 29Si NMR). High grafting efficiencies of epoxy groups were confirmed by 1H NMR combined with weighting results, indicating over 90 mol% of cycloaliphatic epoxy were grafted on the silicone resins. Subsequently, Sisbnd H groups from TMCTS were almost totally consumed after the blocking reactions. In comparison with commercial available cycloaliphatic epoxy resin 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ERL-4221) cured by MHHPA, the cured cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins exhibited better thermal stability, lower water absorption and higher UV/thermal resistance. Moreover, the characteristics of transmittance (>90%, 800 nm), 5 wt.% mass loss temperature (>330 °C) and no yellowing during thermal aging at 120 °C or UV aging for 288 h of the cured cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins, made them possible for power light-emitting diode (LED) encapsulants, or other packaging materials, like optical lenses, and electronic sealings.

  20. Collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms I. Package outline and high energy code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Jakub; Houfek, Karel

    2014-11-01

    Being motivated by the applied researchers’ persisting need for accurate scattering data for the collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms, we developed a computer package-Hex-that is designed to provide trustworthy results for all basic discrete and continuous processes within non-relativistic framework. The package consists of several computational modules that implement different methods, valid for specific energy regimes. Results of the modules are kept in a common database in the unified form of low-level scattering data (partial-wave T-matrices) and accessed by an interface program which is able to produce various derived quantities like e.g. differential and integral cross sections. This article is the first one of a series of articles that are concerned with the implementation and testing of the modules. Here we give an overview of their structure and present (a) the command-line interface program hex-db that can be also easily compiled into a derived code or used as a backend for a web-page form and (b) simple illustrative module specialized for high energies, hex-dwba, that implements distorted and plane wave Born approximation. Catalogue identifier: AETH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data etc.: 30367 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data etc.: 232032 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++11 Operating system: Any system with a C++11 compiler (e.g. GCC 4.8.1; tested on OpenSUSE 13.1 and Windows 8). RAM: Test run 3 MiB. CPC Library Classification: 2.4 Electron scattering External libraries:GSL [49], FFTW3[52], SQLite3 [46]. All of the libraries are open-source and maintained. Nature of problem: Extraction of derived (observable) quantities from partial

  1. Recent progress of the Los Alamos advanced free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Austin, R.H.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.; Goldstein, J.C.; Gierman, S.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Kong, S.H.; Plato, J.G.; Russell, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    Many industrial and research applications can benefit from the availability of a compact, user-friendly, broadly tunable and high average power free electron laser (FEL). Over the past four years, the Los Alamos Advanced FEL has been built with these design goals. The key to a compact FEL is the integration of advanced beam technologies such as a high-brightness photoinjector, a high-gradient compact linac, and permanent magnet beamline components. These technologies enable the authors to shrink the FEL size yet maintain its high average power capability. The Advanced FEL has been in operation in the near ir (4-6 {mu}m) since early 1993. Recent results of the Advanced FEL lasing at saturation and upgrades to improve its average power are presented.

  2. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  3. Final Report for the Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies (CAPPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    assure food safety. The objectives of CAPPS are to enhance safety and quality of aseptic and extended shelf - life products, to characterize emerging ...aseptic and extended shelf - life processes, and to assure the integrity and functionality of aseptic and extended shelf - life packaging. Examples of new...and Nutritional Quality of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables : Desirable Levels, Instrumental and Sensory Measurement, and the Effects of Processing

  4. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man. PMID:22346690

  5. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  6. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  7. Structure of a Conserved Retroviral RNA Packaging Element by NMR Spectroscopy and Cryo-Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Irobalieva, Rossitza N.; Tolbert, Blanton; Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Iyalla, Kilali; Loeliger, Kelsey; D’Souza, Victoria; Khant, Htet; Schmid, Michael F.; Garcia, Eric; Telesnitsky, Alice; Chiu, Wah; Summers, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    The 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTRs) of all gammaretroviruses contain a conserved “double hairpin motif” (ΨCD) that is required for genome packaging. Both hairpins (SL-C and SL-D) contain GACG tetraloops that, in isolated RNAs, are capable of forming “kissing” interactions stabilized by two intermolecular G-C base pairs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the double hairpin from the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV) ([ΨCD]2, 132-nucleotides, 42.8 kDaltons) using a 2H-edited NMR spectroscopy-based approach. This approach enabled the detection of 1H-1H dipolar interactions that were not observed in previous studies of isolated SL-C and SL-D hairpin RNAs using traditional 1H-1H correlated and 1H-13C-edited NMR methods. The hairpins participate in intermolecular cross-kissing interactions (SL-C to SL-D’ and SLC’ to SL-D), and stack in an end-to-end manner (SL-C to SL-D and SL-C’ to SL-D’) that gives rise to an elongated overall shape (ca. 95 Å by 45 Å by 25 Å). The global structure was confirmed by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), making [ΨCD]2 simultaneously the smallest RNA to be structurally characterized to date by cryo-ET and among the largest to be determined by NMR. Our findings suggest that, in addition to promoting dimerization, [ΨCD]2 functions as a scaffold that helps initiate virus assembly by exposing a cluster of conserved UCUG elements for binding to the cognate nucleocapsid domains of assembling viral Gag proteins. PMID:20933521

  8. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  9. DAMQT: A package for the analysis of electron density in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Rafael; Rico, Jaime Fernández; Ramírez, Guillermo; Ema, Ignacio; Zorrilla, David

    2009-09-01

    DAMQT is a package for the analysis of the electron density in molecules and the fast computation of the density, density deformations, electrostatic potential and field, and Hellmann-Feynman forces. The method is based on the partition of the electron density into atomic fragments by means of a least deformation criterion. Each atomic fragment of the density is expanded in regular spherical harmonics times radial factors, which are piecewise represented in terms of analytical functions. This representation is used for the fast evaluation of the electrostatic potential and field generated by the electron density and nuclei, as well as for the computation of the Hellmann-Feynman forces on the nuclei. An analysis of the atomic and molecular deformations of the density can be also carried out, yielding a picture that connects with several concepts of the empirical structural chemistry. Program summaryProgram title: DAMQT1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEDL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 278 356 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31 065 317 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 and C++ Computer: Any Operating system: Linux, Windows (Xp, Vista) RAM: 190 Mbytes Classification: 16.1 External routines: Trolltech's Qt (4.3 or higher) ( http://www.qtsoftware.com/products), OpenGL (1.1 or higher) ( http://www.opengl.org/), GLUT 3.7 ( http://www.opengl.org/resources/libraries/glut/). Nature of problem: Analysis of the molecular electron density and density deformations, including fast evaluation of electrostatic potential, electric field and Hellmann-Feynman forces on nuclei. Solution method: The method of Deformed Atoms in Molecules, reported elsewhere [1], is used for partitioning the molecular electron density

  10. Preconditioning techniques for constrained vector potential integral equations, with application to 3-D magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages

    SciTech Connect

    Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing constrained vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.

  11. Introducing the B I P (Biomedical Instrumentation Package). Many Important Electronic Functions in One Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Described are the use and purposes of the Biomedical Instrumentation Package (BIP) in science classrooms. Science activities are suggested and equipment use is described. A sample laboratory activity, which includes materials, procedure, and discussion, is provided. (SA)

  12. Application of Electronic Nose for Measuring Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen and Total Viable Counts in Packaged Pork During Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Wang, Haibiao; Sun, Lingxia; Zhao, Gaiming; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to predict the total viable counts (TVC) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork using an electronic nose (E-nose), and to assess the freshness of chilled pork during storage using different packaging methods, including pallet packaging (PP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40% O2 /40% CO2 /20% N2 ). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the E-nose signals, and the results showed that the relationships between the freshness of chilled pork and E-nose signals could be distinguished in the loadings plots, and the freshness of chilled pork could be distributed along 2 first principal components. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to correlate TVC and TVB-N to E-nose signals. High F and R2 values were obtained in the MLR output of TVB-N (F = 32.1, 21.6, and 24.2 for PP [R2 = 0.93], VP [R2 = 0.94], and MAP [R2 = 0.95], respectively) and TVC (F = 34.2, 46.4, and 7.8 for PP [R2 = 0.98], VP [R2 = 0.89], and MAP [R2 = 0.85], respectively). The results of this study suggest that it is possible to use the E-nose technology to predict TVB-N and TVC for assessing the freshness of chilled pork during storage.

  13. Flip-Chip Packaging of Low-Noise Metamorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors on Low-Cost Organic Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chin-Te; Kuo, Chien-I.; Hsu, Heng-Tung; Chang, Edward Yi; Hsu, Li-Han; Lim, Wee-Chin; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki

    2011-09-01

    The rapid growth of high-frequency wireless communication demands high-performance packaging structures at low cost. A flip-chip interconnect is one of the most promising technologies owing to its low parasitic effect and high performance at high frequencies. In this study, the in-house fabricated In0.6Ga0.4As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (mHEMT) device was flip-chip-assembled using a commercially available low-cost organic substrate. The packaged device with the optimal flip-chip structure exhibited almost similar DC and RF results to the bare die. An exopy-based underfill was applied to the improvement of reliability with almost no degradation of the electrical characteristics. Measurement results revealed that the proposed packaging structure maintained a low minimum noise figure of 3 dB with 6 dB associated gain at 62 GHz. Such a superior performance after flip-chip packaging demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed low-cost organic substrate for commercial high-frequency applications up to the W-band.

  14. Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding Evaluation Activities on a Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy for Nuclear Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, F; Punshon, C; Dorsch, T; Fielding, P; Richard, D; Yang, N; Hill, M; DeWald, A; Rebak, R; Day, S; Wong, L; Torres, S; McGregor, M; Hackel, L; Chen, H-L; Rankin, J

    2003-09-11

    The current waste package design for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA, employs gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in fabricating the waste packages. While GTAW is widely used in industry for many applications, it requires multiple weld passes. By comparison, single-pass welding methods inherently use lower heat input than multi-pass welding methods which results in lower levels of weld distortion and also narrower regions of residual stresses at the weld TWI Ltd. has developed a Reduced Pressure Electron Beam (RPEB) welding process which allows EB welding in a reduced pressure environment ({le} 1 mbar). As it is a single-pass welding technique, use of RPEB welding could (1) achieve a comparable or better materials performance and (2) lead to potential cost savings in the waste package manufacturing as compared to GTAW. Results will be presented on the initial evaluation of the RPEB welding on a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (a candidate alloy for the Yucca Mountain waste packages) in the areas of (a) design and manufacturing simplifications, (b) material performance and (c) weld reliability.

  15. 78 FR 46621 - Status of the Office of New Reactors' Implementation of Electronic Distribution of Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Status of the Office of New Reactors' Implementation of Electronic Distribution of Advanced Reactor Correspondence AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Implementation of electronic distribution of advanced reactor correspondence; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  16. Thermal characterization methodology of packages and substrates intended for power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratolojanahary, Faniry Emilson

    1993-12-01

    An analytical method, which will assist in thermal design problems, and whose formalism is analogous to that of two port network theory, is presented. This method addresses the frequent case of the heating elements being cooled by conduction toward a heat sink through a plane multilayered substrate (for example hybrid power technologies). The method permits thermal characterization of the packaging elements, as well as the formulation of the laws that govern the matching of materials and the evaluation of the package's thermal performance, with reduced computational means. The developed theory also indicates the means needed to measure the thermal parameters of the materials, packages, substrates, coolers, etc., as required by temperature computation. Thus a thermal characterization and measuring set up which is more particularly suited for the power hybrid devices is presented.

  17. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry. PMID:22346620

  18. 76 FR 12144 - Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 2, 2011. It appears to the... securities of Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the... of investors require a suspension of trading in Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc. Therefore, it...

  19. Microbiological and physicochemical properties of fresh retail cuts of beef packaged under an advanced vacuum skin system and stored at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Carreira, Luis; Franco, Carlos; Vázquez, Beatriz I; Fente, Cristina; Cepeda, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    The effect of an advanced vacuum skin packaging system on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of fresh retail cuts of beef (including meat portions from six different anatomical regions) stored at 4 degrees C was compared with the effect of traditional vacuum packaging. The vacuum skin packaging system whose effect on meat quality was evaluated in this work displayed two remarkable features: (i) the instantaneous heating of the lower surface of the upper film of the package before the film descended over the meat surface and (ii) the tight disposition of the plastic film on the meat surface, which avoided wrinkles and purges. Throughout storage at 4 degrees C, rates of bacterial growth were statistically significantly slower in beef portions processed with the vacuum skin packaging system than in those processed with traditional vacuum packaging, with average differences of 2.07, 1.60, and 1.25 log CFU/g in counts of aerobic mesophiles, anaerobes, and lactic acid bacteria, respectively. pH values were statistically significantly lower for beef portions packaged with the vacuum skin system than for those that were vacuum packaged in the traditional manner, probably because of the relative predominance of lactic acid bacteria observed in such samples, which coincided with both higher meat firmness values and a slower meat tenderization process. The vacuum skin system prevented the appearance of undesirable coloration on the meat surface and also significantly improved the commercial color of the meat as determined on the basis of luminosity (L*) and the redness (a*). Overall, the quality (as determined by microbiological and physicochemical analyses and by visual examination) of fresh retail cuts of beef packaged with the vacuum skin system and stored at 4 degrees C was higher than that of meat samples processed with the traditional vacuum-packaging system.

  20. Initial performance of Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Austin, R.H.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Los Alamos compact Advanced FEL has lased at 4.7 and 5.2 {mu}m with a 1-cm period wiggler and a high-brightness electron beam at 16.8 and 15.8 MeV, respectively. The measured electron beam normalized emittance is 1.7 {pi}{center_dot}mm{center_dot}mrad at a peak current of 100 A, corresponding to a beam brightness greater than 2 {times} 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}rad{sup 2}. Initial results indicate that the AFEL small signal gain is {approximately}8% at 0.3 nC (30 A peak). The maximum output energy is 7 mJ over a 2-{mu}s macropulse. The AFEL performance can be significantly enhanced by improvements in the rf and drive laser stability.

  1. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Advanced Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling

    2015-01-01

    Novel approach enables high-speed special-purpose processors Advanced reconfigurable and reprogrammable communication systems will require sub-130-nanometer electronics. Legacy single event upset (SEU) radiation-tolerant circuits are ineffective at speeds greater than 125 megahertz. In Phase I of this project, ICs, LLC, demonstrated new base-level logic circuits that provide SEU immunity for sub-130-nanometer high-speed circuits. In Phase II, the company developed an innovative self-restoring logic (SRL) circuit and a system approach that provides high-speed, SEU-tolerant solutions that are effective for sub-130-nanometer electronics scalable to at least 22-nanometer processes. The SRL system can be used in the design of NASA's next-generation special-purpose processors, especially reconfigurable communication processors.

  2. Arc Welders' pneumoconiosis: application of advanced scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L; Abraham, J L; DeNee, P B; Smith, J R

    1978-01-01

    Study of lung tissue from necropsy of a 58-year-old arc welder with arc welders' pneumoconiosis, confirmed by history, chest radiography, and pathology, demonstrates the versatility and usefulness of new techniques in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Secondary electron imaging, the most familiar SEM mode, showed heavy cellular infiltrates in alveoli, the interstitium, and within the interstices of loose whorled fibrotic nodules. Backscattered electron imaging, in which contrast is proportional to elemental atomic number, revealed intracellular metal particles not otherwise visible. Microprobe analysis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, mapped elemeental iron over the particle image and identified traces of silicon in the whorled nodules. Arc welders' pneumoconiosis appears to be more than a benign siderosis resulting from particulate iron deposition. Simultaneous exposure to other components of welding fumes may alter the pathologic picture, inducing a more complicated fibrotic reaction. The more recently developed advanced techniques of SEM are well suited to the study of pneumoconioses and other problems of heterogenous tissue and mixed chemical systems.

  3. Hot electron injector Gunn diode for advanced driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Lepsa, M. I.; Freundt, D.; Stock, J.; Montanari, S.

    2007-06-01

    This paper reviews the main aspects of the design, fabrication and characterization of GaAs Gunn diodes intended to be used in advanced driver assistance systems. The corresponding Gunn diode based oscillators operate at the microwave frequency of 77 GHz and deliver an output power up to 19.2 dBm (83.2 mW). To fulfill the high demands of the automotive industry, temperature stability and a high grade of frequency purity, the Gunn diode structure includes a hot electron injector. This is based on the heteroepitaxy of a graded gap AlxGa1-xAs layer and an adjacent thin highly doped GaAs layer. The hot electron injector properties are investigated using dc and rf electrical measurements, including the temperature influence as well. Specific production related data of the cavity oscillators using our Gunn diodes are presented. New alternatives, such as the resonant tunneling emitter as a hot electron injector and the Gunn diode based MMIC as oscillator, are introduced.

  4. Spirituality in men with advanced prostate cancer: "it's a holistic thing . . . it's a package".

    PubMed

    Lepherd, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    Spirituality is often regarded as being helpful during an unwell person's journey but definitions of the concept can be confusing, and its use synonymously with religion can be misleading. This research sought to answer the question, "What is the nature of spirituality in men with advanced prostate cancer," and to discover the role spirituality may have in these men as they face the challenges of living with their disease. A qualitative approach and narrative method was used to explore the spirituality of nine men with advanced prostate cancer who volunteered to participate and to tell the story of their cancer journey with particular focus on their spirituality. The study found that spirituality for these men, who were all Caucasians, was a "holistic thing" that involved physical, psychosocial, and spiritual matters that enabled them to transcend the everyday difficulties of their journey. Through their spirituality they obtained greater comfort and peace of mind during what was for many of them a very traumatic time. The central theme in the men's stories was that of connectedness-to themselves, to their partners, sometimes to a higher being, to other people such as their family and friends, and to other aspects of their lives.

  5. Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids: Child-Resistant Packaging, Nicotine Content, and Sales to Minors2

    PubMed Central

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R.; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy of the labeled quantity of the nicotine content of the e-liquids sold in unlicensed vape stores, whether the packaging of e-liquids sold within the vape stores was child-resistant, whether minors were present within vape stores, and whether sales to minors occurred. This study was conducted across North Dakota prior to implementation of a new e-cigarette state law and provided a baseline assessment before enactment of the new legal requirements. Design and Methods We tested samples of e-liquids and performed observations in 16 stores that were selling e-cigarettes but were not legally required to be licensed for tobacco retail. The e-liquids were analyzed for nicotine content using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for nicotine analysis. Results Of the 70 collected e-liquid samples that claimed to contain nicotine, 17% contained more than the labeled quantity and 34% contained less than the labeled quantity by 10% or more, with one sample containing 172% more than the labeled quantity. Of the 94 e-liquid containers sampled, only 35% were determined to be child-resistant. Minors were present in stores, although no sales to minors occurred. Conclusions Mislabeling of nicotine in e-liquids is common and exposes the user to the harmful effects of nicotine. The lack of child-resistant packaging for this potentially toxic substance is a serious public health problem. E-cigarettes should be included in the legal definition of tobacco products, child-resistant packaging and nicotine labeling laws should be enacted and strictly enforced, and vape stores should be licensed by states. PMID:27079973

  6. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; ...

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  7. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  8. Deep Impact Delta II Launch Vehicle Cracked Thick Film Coating on Electronic Packages Technical Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Kichak, Robert A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Wilson, Timmy R.

    2009-01-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft was launched on a Boeing Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on January 12, 2005. Prior to the launch, the Director of the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OS&MA) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) lead a team to render an independent opinion on the rationale for flight and the risk code assignments for the hazard of cracked Thick Film Assemblies (TFAs) in the E-packages of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Deep Impact Mission. The results of the evaluation are contained in this report.

  9. Efficient Thermal Dissipation Media for High Power Electronic Chip Packaging using CNT-Metal Based Composite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-30

    thickness of the films were 10?30 nm and 10?30 ?m, respectively. LED packages made with VA-CNTs films were tested on an InGaN LED chip. The VA-CNTs...film maintained a linear relationship of output light power without reaching saturation for the LED chip of 0.5 W InGaN . The VA-CNTs film greatly...Application of the VA-CNTs film for LED chips The synthesised VA-CNTs were utilised as heat spreaders to reduce the local temperature of high-power

  10. Advanced nanoimprint patterning for functional electronics and biochemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao

    Nano-fabrication has been widely used for a variety of disciplines, including electronics, material science, nano-optics, and nano-biotechnology. This dissertation focuses on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) based novel nano-patterning techniques for fabricating functional structures, and discusses their applications in advanced electronics and high-sensitivity molecular sensing. In this dissertation, examples of using nano-fabricated structures for promising electronic applications are presented. For instance, 10 nm and 18 nm features are NIL-fabricated for Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling transistors and graphene nano-ribbon transistors, using shadow evaporation and line-width shrinking techniques, respectively. An ultrafast laser melting based method is applied on flexible plastic substrates to correct defects of nano-features. Nano-texturing of sapphire substrate is developed to improve the light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by 70 %. A novel multi-layer nano-patterned Si-mediated catalyst is discovered to grow straight and uniform Si nanowires with optimized properties in size, location, and crystallization on amorphous SiO2 substrate. Nano-structures are also functionalized into highly sensitive bio-chemical sensors. Plasmonic nano-bar antenna arrays are demonstrated to effectively sense infrared molecules >10 times better than conventional plasmonic sensors. As small as 20 nm wide nano-channel fluidic devices are developed to linearize and detect DNA molecules for potential DNA sequencing. An integrated fluidic system is built to incorporate plasmonic nano-structures for 30X-enhanced fluorescence detection of large DNA molecules.

  11. Investigation of relativistic runaway electrons in electron cyclotron resonance heating discharges on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, C. S.; Lee, S. G.

    2014-07-15

    The behavior of relativistic runaway electrons during Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) discharges is investigated in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research device. The effect of the ECRH on the runaway electron population is discussed. Observations on the generation of superthermal electrons during ECRH will be reported, which will be shown to be consistent with existing theory for the development of a superthermal electron avalanche during ECRH [A. Lazaros, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1263 (2001)].

  12. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2016-07-28

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf-life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O2 and high CO2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and non-conventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  13. The VENUS/NWChem Software Package. Tight Coupling Between Chemical Dynamics Simulations and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun, Rui; De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.; Hase, William L.

    2014-03-01

    The interface for VENUS and NWChem, and the resulting software package for direct dynamics simulations are described. The coupling of the two codes is considered to be a tight coupling. The two codes are compiled and linked together and act as one executable with data being passed between the two codes through routine calls. The advantages of this type of coupling are discussed. The interface has been designed to have as little interference as possible with the core codes of both VENUS and NWChem. VENUS is the code that propagates the direct dynamics trajectories and, therefore, is the program that drives the overall execution of VENUS/NWChem. VENUS has remained an essentially sequential code, which uses the highly parallel structure of NWChem. Subroutines of the interface which accomplish the data transmission and communication between the two computer programs are described. Recent examples of the use of VENUS/NWChem for direct dynamics simulations are summarized.

  14. Advanced fertility diagnosis in stallion semen using transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Sandra; Bostedt, Hartwig; Failing, Klaus; Bergmann, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Routine semen analysis of stallions is based on light microscopy (LM). However, there are still a number of animals that are subfertile or even infertile not being identified with conventional semen analysis. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for advanced fertility diagnosis in stallion. We examined ejaculates of 46 stallions with known fertility. Animals were divided into three different groups: group 1, fertile stallions (pregnant mares> or =70%, n=29); group 2, subfertile stallions (pregnant mares 10-69%, n=14); group 3, infertile stallions (pregnant mares<10%, n=3). Ejaculates were collected in spring 2002. Conventional semen analysis (volume, sperm concentration, motility, live:dead ratio and percentage of morphologically normal sperm) was immediately performed after semen collection. Ultrastructural analysis included the evaluation of 200 acrosomes, heads, midpieces and cross-sections of tails as well as 100 longitudinal sections of tails from every ejaculate. Using LM, we found a significant increase of morphological deviations from 24.5% (x ) in group 1 to 34.5% in group 2 and 73.5% in group 3. Using TEM, we found a significant increase of detached acrosomes from 6.1% in group 1 to 7.6% in group 2 and 21.4% in group 3. Deviations in tubule pattern were also increased (but not significant) from 2.7% in fertile and 2.8% in subfertile to 11.4% in infertile stallions as well as multiple tails from 1.9% in fertile to 2.0% in subfertile and 8.9% in infertile. Our data indicate that TEM is suitable for advanced fertility diagnostic in stallions, giving a connection between fertility and morphology. It suggests that the most likely reason for sub- and infertility in stallion in case of increased LM pathomorphology of semen are acrosomal alterations, especially detached acrosomes.

  15. Advancement in thermal interface materials for future high-performance electronic applications. Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Huber, Dale L.; Rightley, Michael J.; Emerson, John Allen

    2006-02-01

    As electronic assemblies become more compact and increase in processing bandwidth, escalating thermal energy has become more difficult to manage. The major limitation has been nonmetallic joining using poor thermal interface materials (TIM). The interfacial, versus bulk, thermal conductivity of an adhesive is the major loss mechanism and normally accounts for an order magnitude loss in conductivity per equivalent thickness. The next generation TIM requires a sophisticated understanding of material and surface sciences, heat transport at submicron scales, and the manufacturing processes used in packaging of microelectronics and other target applications. Only when this relationship between bond line manufacturing processes, structure, and contact resistance is well-understood on a fundamental level will it be possible to advance the development of miniaturized microsystems. This report examines using thermal and squeeze-flow modeling as approaches to formulate TIMs incorporating nanoscience concepts. Understanding the thermal behavior of bond lines allows focus on the interfacial contact region. In addition, careful study of the thermal transport across these interfaces provides greatly augmented heat transfer paths and allows the formulation of very high resistance interfaces for total thermal isolation of circuits. For example, this will allow the integration of systems that exhibit multiple operational temperatures, such as cryogenically cooled detectors.

  16. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.

  17. Using advanced electron microscopy for the characterization of catalytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrz, William D.

    Catalysis will continue to be vitally important to the advancement and sustainability of industrialized societies. Unfortunately, the petroleum-based resources that currently fuel the energy and consumer product needs of an advancing society are becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extract as supplies diminish and the quality of sources degrade. Therefore, the development of sustainable energy sources and the improvement of the carbon efficiency of existing chemical processes are critical. Further challenges require that these initiatives are accomplished in an environmentally friendly fashion since the effects of carbon-based emissions are proving to be a serious threat to global climate stability. In this dissertation, materials being developed for sustainable energy and process improvement initiatives are studied. Our approach is to use materials characterization, namely advanced electron microscopy, to analyze the targeted systems at the nano- or Angstrom-scale with the goal of developing useful relationships between structure, composition, crystalline order, morphology, and catalytic performance. One area of interest is the complex Mo-V-M-O (M=Te, Sb, Ta, Nb) oxide system currently being developed for the selective oxidation/ammoxidation of propane to acrylic acid or acrylonitrile, respectively. Currently, the production of acrylic acid and acrylonitrile rely on propylene-based processes, yet significant cost savings could be realized if the olefin-based feeds could be replaced by paraffin-based ones. The major challenge preventing this feedstock replacement is the development of a suitable paraffin-activating catalyst. Currently, the best candidate is the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O complex oxide catalyst that is composed of two majority phases that are commonly referred to as M1 and M2. However, there is a limited understanding of the roles of each component with respect to how they contribute to catalyst stability and the reaction mechanism. Aberration

  18. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

  19. Study of thermally reworkable epoxy materials and thermal conductivity enhancement using carbon fiber for electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiying

    Epoxy resins are widely used as the underfill materials for the integrated circuit (IC) chips for the reliability enhancement and as the binder of electrically conductive adhesives (ECA). However, cured epoxy materials are infusible and insoluble networks which is a problem for the repair of a printed circuit board assembly packaged with epoxy materials. In this study, six diepoxides containing aromatic moieties and low temperature degradable linkages, secondary and tertiary benzoates, and carbonates, were synthesized and characterized. Underfills based on four of these epoxides were developed and evaluated respect to their properties and reworkabilility. One of the reworkable underfills was evaluated with the 85°C/85% relative humidity test as the underfill of several ball-grid-array components on a organic board, which showed a high enhanced reliability. Underfill materials based on a synthesized bisphenol-A diepoxide were developed for the no-flow underfill process and were evaluated regarding the application on both tin/lead and lead-free solders. The latent curing mechanism of the catalyst and the influence of fluxing agents were studied. The reworkable underfills showed satisfying overall properties on both Sn/Pb and Sn/Ag/Cu solders. A unique approach for solving the problem of low reliability of ECAs was demonstrated. Small amount of sacrificial metal and alloy powders were added in silver flake based ECA and applied on six pad surfaces. The aging of bulk resistivity and contact resistance of ECA/metal surface pairs were studied and two alloys stabilized the contact resistance on all tested metal surfaces. The internal heat generation of IC devices quickly increases which leads to deteriorated performance and low reliability. The thermally insulating property of polymeric underfills make this even worse with slow heat dissipation. In this study, a carbon fiber of high thermal conductivity was used together with silica in epoxy underfill materials and a 300

  20. Proposed Draft Military Handbook for Preparation of View Packages in Support of Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    and Charles S. Sawyer, "Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results," DTRC-88/035 (Sep...and Charles S. Sawyer, "Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results," DTRC-88/035 (Sep...F. Tittle 1 NOSC 1 EER Systems R. Smillie N. Bukowski 1 NUSC 1 EG&G A. Valm L. Snodgrass 2 NTSC I General Dynamics W. Rizzo Electronic Division IL

  1. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes from electron avalanches in thunderstorms - the detailed structure and time evolution of electron, photon, optical and radio emission - results from a new simulation software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    To design the MXGS coded mask imager of the ASIM mission to the ISS, to detect and locate TGF gamma-rays, a first order software package was written at UV to simulate the vertical expansion of gamma-ray photons from 15-20 km altitudes up to 300-600 km orbital altitudes, to make some estimate of the probable TGF spectra and diffuse beam structure that might be observed by MXGS. A new software package includes the simulation of the Runaway Electron Avalanche (REA) origin of TGFs by electron ionization and Bremsstrahlung scattering and photon emission. It uses the standard KeV-MeV scattering physics of electron and photon interactions, close range Moller electron ionization, Binary-Electron-Bethe models of electron scattering, positron Bhabha scattering and annihilation, electron excitation and photon emission. It also uses a super particle spatial mesh system to control particle-momentum flux densities, electric field evolution and exponential avalanche growth and falloff. The package takes care of all high energy scattering physics, leaving the user free to concentrate on defining the three components of scattering medium, electric-magnetic field geometry, and free electron flux field geometry whose details are the main unknown in TGF research. Results will be presented from TGF simulations using realistic electric fields expected within and above storm clouds, and will include video displays showing the evolving ionization structure of electron trajectories, the time evolution of photon flux fields, electron-positron flux fields, their important circular feedback movement in the local earth magnetic field, local molecular ion densities, and the dielectric effect of induced local electric fields. The second aim of the package is as a step in creating open source software which could evolve into a standard research software package approved by the REA-TGF research community to correctly simulate all the relevant physical processes involved in the complex phenomenon

  2. Application of advanced electronics to a future spacecraft computer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Advancements in hardware and software technology are summarized with specific emphasis on spacecraft computer capabilities. Available state of the art technology is reviewed and candidate architectures are defined.

  3. High-speed singulation of electronic packages using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in a water jet and realization of a 200-W green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Frank R.; Hu, Wentao; Spiegel, Akos; Vago, Nandor; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2003-07-01

    Each electronic chip is packaged in order to connect the integrated circuit and the printed circuit board. In consequence high-speed singulation of packages is an important step in the manufacturing process of electronic devices. The widely used technique of abrasive sawing encounters problems due to the combination of different materials used in packages such as copper and mold compound. The sawing blade rapidly blunts because of the copper adhering to the saw blade and covering the diamonds. In fact, the abrasive saw, well adapted to silicon wafer sawing, has problems to adapt to package materials. It has already been shown that the water jet guided laser can be used for efficient high quality singulation of leadframe based packages. In this technique a low-pressure water jet guides the laser beam like an optical fiber, providing efficient cooling of the cutting kerf at exactly the point that was heated during the laser pulse. We present new cutting results using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with 100 W average power, and the combination setup for generating a 200 W green laser beam. The timing between the two lasers can be precisely controlled.

  4. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  5. Electron Precipitation at Mars: Advancing Our Understanding with MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Noori, H.; Lillis, R. J.; Fillingim, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Electrons from the solar wind enter the Martian upper atmosphere from space in a process known as electron precipitation. These electrons are confined to move along magnetic field lines and, when those field lines intersect the atmosphere, the electrons collide with atmospheric neutral particles, resulting in heating, dissociation, ionization and excitation of those neutrals. Electron precipitation is an important source of energy input to the Mars upper atmosphere, and is typically the dominant source on the nightside. Past observations from Mars Global Surveyor have characterized patterns of electron precipitation, but only at ~400 km and ~2 AM local time. The MAVEN mission and in particular the SWEA instrument, provides an opportunity to study the distribution of suprathermal electrons in near-Mars space, over a range of altitudes from 120-6000 km and at a range of local times. We will present preliminary observations of flux patterns of these electrons.

  6. exciting: a full-potential all-electron package implementing density-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulans, Andris; Kontur, Stefan; Meisenbichler, Christian; Nabok, Dmitrii; Pavone, Pasquale; Rigamonti, Santiago; Sagmeister, Stephan; Werner, Ute; Draxl, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Linearized augmented planewave methods are known as the most precise numerical schemes for solving the Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory (DFT). In this review, we describe how this method is realized in the all-electron full-potential computer package, exciting. We emphasize the variety of different related basis sets, subsumed as (linearized) augmented planewave plus local orbital methods, discussing their pros and cons and we show that extremely high accuracy (microhartrees) can be achieved if the basis is chosen carefully. As the name of the code suggests, exciting is not restricted to ground-state calculations, but has a major focus on excited-state properties. It includes time-dependent DFT in the linear-response regime with various static and dynamical exchange-correlation kernels. These are preferably used to compute optical and electron-loss spectra for metals, molecules and semiconductors with weak electron-hole interactions. exciting makes use of many-body perturbation theory for charged and neutral excitations. To obtain the quasi-particle band structure, the GW approach is implemented in the single-shot approximation, known as G0W0. Optical absorption spectra for valence and core excitations are handled by the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which allows for the description of strongly bound excitons. Besides these aspects concerning methodology, we demonstrate the broad range of possible applications by prototypical examples, comprising elastic properties, phonons, thermal-expansion coefficients, dielectric tensors and loss functions, magneto-optical Kerr effect, core-level spectra and more.

  7. Exciting: a full-potential all-electron package implementing density-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Gulans, Andris; Kontur, Stefan; Meisenbichler, Christian; Nabok, Dmitrii; Pavone, Pasquale; Rigamonti, Santiago; Sagmeister, Stephan; Werner, Ute; Draxl, Claudia

    2014-09-10

    Linearized augmented planewave methods are known as the most precise numerical schemes for solving the Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory (DFT). In this review, we describe how this method is realized in the all-electron full-potential computer package, exciting. We emphasize the variety of different related basis sets, subsumed as (linearized) augmented planewave plus local orbital methods, discussing their pros and cons and we show that extremely high accuracy (microhartrees) can be achieved if the basis is chosen carefully. As the name of the code suggests, exciting is not restricted to ground-state calculations, but has a major focus on excited-state properties. It includes time-dependent DFT in the linear-response regime with various static and dynamical exchange-correlation kernels. These are preferably used to compute optical and electron-loss spectra for metals, molecules and semiconductors with weak electron-hole interactions. exciting makes use of many-body perturbation theory for charged and neutral excitations. To obtain the quasi-particle band structure, the GW approach is implemented in the single-shot approximation, known as G(0)W(0). Optical absorption spectra for valence and core excitations are handled by the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which allows for the description of strongly bound excitons. Besides these aspects concerning methodology, we demonstrate the broad range of possible applications by prototypical examples, comprising elastic properties, phonons, thermal-expansion coefficients, dielectric tensors and loss functions, magneto-optical Kerr effect, core-level spectra and more.

  8. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  9. Simplification of Low-Temperature Sintering Nanosilver for Power Electronics Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yunhui; Chen, Gang; Cao, Yunjiao; Li, Xin; Han, Dan; Chen, Xu

    2013-06-01

    Conventional solders cannot meet the requirements for high-temperature applications. Recently, a low-temperature sintering technique involving a nanosilver paste has been developed for attaching semiconductor chips to substrates. Sintered nanosilver joints showed high reliability in high-temperature applications. We used the nanosilver paste to attach 10 mm × 10 mm chips by introducing a pressure as low as only 1 MPa during drying at 185°C. Die-shear tests showed that shear strengths of higher than 50 MPa could be generated by applying 5 MPa at 225°C for only 10 s or 1 MPa at 150°C for 600 s, followed by sintering for only 60 s at 275°C. The sintering temperature could be reduced to 250°C in most applications with a slight reduction in shear strength. As a result of good bonding, significant plastic flow and ductile fracture of the sheared silver joint could be observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM also showed that the fracture of the sheared silver joint was a cohesive failure.

  10. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-approved electronic data interchange system. (1) Through cargo in transit to a foreign country. Cargo... contact information (address) in the “Notify Party” field of the advance electronic data transmission to CBP, to the extent that the CBP-approved electronic data interchange system is capable of...

  11. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-approved electronic data interchange system. (1) Through cargo in transit to a foreign country. Cargo... contact information (address) in the “Notify Party” field of the advance electronic data transmission to CBP, to the extent that the CBP-approved electronic data interchange system is capable of...

  12. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-approved electronic data interchange system. (1) Through cargo in transit to a foreign country. Cargo... contact information (address) in the “Notify Party” field of the advance electronic data transmission to CBP, to the extent that the CBP-approved electronic data interchange system is capable of...

  13. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-approved electronic data interchange system. (1) Through cargo in transit to a foreign country. Cargo... contact information (address) in the “Notify Party” field of the advance electronic data transmission to CBP, to the extent that the CBP-approved electronic data interchange system is capable of...

  14. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rail carrier must use a CBP-approved electronic data interchange system. (1) Through cargo in transit... and contact information (address) in the “Notify Party” field of the advance electronic data transmission to CBP, to the extent that the CBP-approved electronic data interchange system is capable...

  15. Electron acceleration with advanced injection methods at the ASTRA laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poder, Kristjan; Carreira-Lopes, Nelson; Wood, Jonathan; Cole, Jason; Dangor, Bucker; Foster, Peta; Gopal, Ram; Kamperidis, Christos; Kononenko, Olena; Mangles, Stuart; Olgun, Halil; Palmer, Charlotte; Symes, Daniel; Pattathil, Rajeev; Najmudin, Zulfikar; Imperial College London Team; Central Laser Facility Collaboration; Tata InsituteFundamental Research Collaboration; DESY Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Recent electron acceleration results from the ASTRA laser facility are presented. Experiments were performed using both the 40 TW ASTRA and the 350 TW ASTRA-Gemini laser. Fundamental electron beam properties relating to its quality were investigated both experimentally and with PIC simulations. For increased control over such parameters, various injection mechanisms such as self-injection and ionization injection were employed. Particular interest is given to the dynamics of ionization injected electrons in strongly driven wakes.

  16. USMC Electronic Warfare 2025: Trading Expertise for Advanced Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-15

    airborne electronic warlare during the transition period away from legacy equipment. EA-6B pilots and Electroilic Countermeasures Officers ( ECMOs ...Electronic Warfare (EW) capability. As an EA-6B Electronic Countenneasures Officer ( ECMO ), I anticipate that both the United States Marine Corps and all... ECMOs . An increased workload for Radio Battalion will have the same effect that the assumption of an additional function of Marine aviation will have on

  17. SaX: An open source package for electronic-structure and optical-properties calculations in the GW approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Samos, Layla; Bussi, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    We present here SaX (Self-energies and eXcitations), a plane-waves package aimed at electronic-structure and optical-properties calculations in the GW framework, namely using the GW approximation for quasi-particle properties and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the excitonic effects. The code is mostly written in FORTRAN90 in a modern style, with extensive use of data abstraction (i.e. objects). SaX employs state of the art techniques and can treat large systems. The package is released with an open source license and can be also download from http://www.sax-project.org/. Program summaryProgram title: SaX (Self-energies and eXcitations) Catalogue identifier: AEDF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 779 771 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 894 755 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN, plus some C utilities Computer: Linux PC, Linux clusters, IBM-SP5 Operating system: Linux, Aix Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: depending on the system complexity Classification: 7.3 External routines: Message-Passing Interface (MPI) to perform parallel computations. ESPRESSO ( http://www.quantum-espresso.org) Nature of problem: SaX is designed to calculate the electronic band-structure of semiconductors, including quasi-particle effects and optical properties including excitonic effects. Solution method: The electronic band-structure is calculated using the GW approximation for the self-energy operator. The optical properties are calculated solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the GW approximation. The wavefunctions are expanded on a plane-waves basis set, using norm-conserving pseudopotentials. Restrictions: Many objects are non-local matrix represented in plane wave basis

  18. Advances in tunable powerful lasers: The advanced free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.; Sheffield, R.

    1993-12-31

    In the past several decades, remarkable progress in laser science and technology has made it possible to obtain laser light from the ultra-violet to the far infra-red from a variety of laser types, and at power levels from milliwatts to kilowatts (and, some day, megawatts). However, the availability of tunable lasers at ``high`` power (above a few tens of watts) is more limited. Figure 1, an assessment of the availability of tunable lasers, shows the covered range to be about 400 to 2000 nanometers. A variety of dye lasers cover the visible and near infra red, each one of which is tunable over approximately a 10% range. In the same region, the TI:saphire laser is adjustable over a 20 to 25% range. And finally, optical parametric oscillators can cover the range from about 400 nanometers out to about 2000 nm (even farther at reduced energy output). The typical output energy per pulse may vary from a few to one hundred millijoules, and since repetition rates of 10 to 100 Hertz are generally attainable, average output powers of tens of watts are possible. In recent years, a new approach to powerful tunable lasers -- the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) -- has emerged. In this paper we will discuss advances in FEL technology which not only enable tunability at high average power over a very broad range of wavelengths, but also make this device more usable. At present, that range is about one micron to the far infra red; with extensions of existing technology, it should be extendable to the vacuum ultra violet region.

  19. Mechanical properties and microstructure investigation of Sn-Ag-Cu lead free solder for electronic package applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing

    While the electronics industry appears to be focusing on Sn-Ag-Cu as the alloy of choice for lead free electronics assembly, the exact composition varies by geographic region, supplier and user. Add to that dissolved copper and silver from the printed circuit board traces and surface finish, and there can be significant variation in the final solder joint composition. A systematic study of the mechanical and microstructural properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys with Ag varying from 2wt% to 4wt% and Cu varying from 0.5wt% to 1.5wt%, was investigated in this research study. Different sample preparation techniques (water quenched, oil quenched and water quenched followed by reflow) were explored and the resulting microstructure compared to that of a typical reflowed lead free chip scale package (CSP) solder joint. Tensile properties such as tensile strength, 0.2% yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength and creep behavior of selected alloy compositions (Sn-4Ag-1.5Cu, Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-2Ag-1.5Cu, Sn-2Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-3.5Ag-0.8Cu) were performed for three conditions: as-cast; aged for 100 hours at 125°C; and aged for 250 hours at 125°C. The microstructures of these alloys were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM) respectively and SEM based energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Fracture surface and cross-section analysis were performed on the specimens after creep testing. The creep testing results and the effect of high temperature aging on mechanical properties will also be presented for the oil quenched samples. A hyperbolic-sine creep model was adopted and used to fit the creep experiment data. The effect of adding the quaternary element bismuth to the Sn-3.5Ag-0.8Cu alloy on the mechanical properties was measured and compared with the mechanical properties of the ternary alloys. The results of this research study provide necessary data for the modeling of solder joint reliability for a range of Sn-Ag-Cu compositions and a baseline

  20. Nanofabrication by advanced electron microscopy using intense and focused beam∗

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The nanogrowth and nanofabrication of solid substances using an intense and focused electron beam are reviewed in terms of the application of scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM and STEM) to control the size, position and structure of nanomaterials. The first example discussed is the growth of freestanding nanotrees on insulator substrates by TEM. The growth process of the nanotrees was observed in situ and analyzed by high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and was mainly controlled by the intensity of the electron beam. The second example is position- and size-controlled nanofabrication by STEM using a focused electron beam. The diameters of the nanostructures grown ranged from 4 to 20 nm depending on the size of the electron beam. Magnetic nanostructures were also obtained using an iron-containing precursor gas, Fe(CO)5. The freestanding iron nanoantennas were examined by electron holography. The magnetic field was observed to leak from the nanostructure body which appeared to act as a ‘nanomagnet’. The third example described is the effect of a vacuum on the size and growth process of fabricated nanodots containing W in an ultrahigh-vacuum field-emission TEM (UHV-FE-TEM). The size of the dots can be controlled by changing the dose of electrons and the partial pressure of the precursor. The smallest particle size obtained was about 1.5 nm in diameter, which is the smallest size reported using this method. Finally, the importance of a smaller probe and a higher electron-beam current with atomic resolution is emphasized and an attempt to develop an ultrahigh-vacuum spherical aberration corrected STEM (Cs-corrected STEM) at NIMS is reported. PMID:27877936

  1. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  2. Electron Beam Transport in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ronald L

    2013-01-31

    The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy electron beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the electron beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single electron trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams were generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The electron beam was simulated by combining thousands of single electrons, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the electrons with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.

  3. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  4. Transmission Electron Microscopy Advances Reveal Subtle Comet Dust Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, H. A.; Bradley, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    TEM advances in multi-SDD-detector EDX mapping applied to Wild 2 dust and likely-cometary CP IDPs demonstrates chondritic fine-grained material at terminal particles is unlike GEMS and consistent with debris generated during the deceleration process.

  5. Preface: Special Topic Section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, Angelos; Martinez, Todd J.; Alavi, Ali; Kresse, Georg

    2015-09-14

    This Special Topic section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces contains a collection of research papers that showcase recent advances in the high accuracy prediction of materials and surface properties. It provides a timely snapshot of a growing field that is of broad importance to chemistry, physics, and materials science.

  6. Electron Trajectory Reconstruction for Advanced Compton Imaging of Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimley, Brian Christopher

    Gamma-ray imaging is useful for detecting, characterizing, and localizing sources in a variety of fields, including nuclear physics, security, nuclear accident response, nuclear medicine, and astronomy. Compton imaging in particular provides sensitivity to weak sources and good angular resolution in a large field of view. However, the photon origin in a single event sequence is normally only limited to the surface of a cone. If the initial direction of the Compton-scattered electron can be measured, the cone can be reduced to a cone segment with width depending on the uncertainty in the direction measurement, providing a corresponding increase in imaging sensitivity. Measurement of the electron's initial direction in an efficient detection material requires very fine position resolution due to the electron's short range and tortuous path. A thick (650 mum), fully-depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) developed for infrared astronomy has 10.5-mum position resolution in two dimensions, enabling the initial trajectory measurement of electrons of energy as low as 100 keV. This is the first time the initial trajectories of electrons of such low energies have been measured in a solid material. In this work, the CCD's efficacy as a gamma-ray detector is demonstrated experimentally, using a reconstruction algorithm to measure the initial electron direction from the CCD track image. In addition, models of fast electron interaction physics, charge transport and readout were used to generate modeled tracks with known initial direction. These modeled tracks allowed the development and refinement of the reconstruction algorithm. The angular sensitivity of the reconstruction algorithm is evaluated extensively with models for tracks below 480 keV, showing a FWHM as low as 20° in the pixel plane, and 30° RMS sensitivity to the magnitude of the out-of-plane angle. The measurement of the trajectories of electrons with energies as low as 100 keV have the potential to make electron

  7. Recent advances in molecular electronics based on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Campidelli, Stéphane; Chenevier, Pascale; Derycke, Vincent; Filoramo, Arianna; Goffman, Marcelo F

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional physical properties that make them one of the most promising building blocks for future nanotechnologies. They may in particular play an important role in the development of innovative electronic devices in the fields of flexible electronics, ultra-high sensitivity sensors, high frequency electronics, opto-electronics, energy sources and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). Proofs of concept of several high performance devices already exist, usually at the single device level, but there remain many serious scientific issues to be solved before the viability of such routes can be evaluated. In particular, the main concern regards the controlled synthesis and positioning of nanotubes. In our opinion, truly innovative use of these nano-objects will come from: (i) the combination of some of their complementary physical properties, such as combining their electrical and mechanical properties, (ii) the combination of their properties with additional benefits coming from other molecules grafted on the nanotubes, and (iii) the use of chemically- or bio-directed self-assembly processes to allow the efficient combination of several devices into functional arrays or circuits. In this article, we outline the main issues concerning the development of carbon nanotubes based electronics applications and review our recent results in the field.

  8. Advanced Opto-Electronics (LIDAR and Microsensor Development)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C. (Technical Monitor); Spangler, Lee H.

    2005-01-01

    Our overall intent in this aspect of the project were to establish a collaborative effort between several departments at Montana State University for developing advanced optoelectronic technology for advancing the state-of-the-art in optical remote sensing of the environment. Our particular focus was on development of small systems that can eventually be used in a wide variety of applications that might include ground-, air-, and space deployments, possibly in sensor networks. Specific objectives were to: 1) Build a field-deployable direct-detection lidar system for use in measurements of clouds, aerosols, fish, and vegetation; 2) Develop a breadboard prototype water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system based on highly stable, tunable diode laser technology developed previously at MSU. We accomplished both primary objectives of this project, in developing a field-deployable direct-detection lidar and a breadboard prototype of a water vapor DIAL system. Paper summarizes each of these accomplishments.

  9. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging

    PubMed Central

    Van Aert, Sandra; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T.; den Dekker, Arnold J.; Van Dyck, Dirk; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy. PMID:26870383

  10. Advancing Small Satellite Electronics Heritage for Microfluidic Biological Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Bruce; Mazmanian, Edward; Tapio, Eric

    2016-01-01

    DLR's Eu:CROPIS (Euglena and Combined Regenerative Organic-Food Production in Space) mission, launching in 2017, will carry multiple biological payloads into a sun-synchronous orbit, including NASA Ames' PowerCell experiment. PowerCell will attempt to characterize the viability of synthetic biology at micro-g, Lunar, and Martian gravity levels. PowerCell experiment requirements demand an electronic system similar to previous microfluidic biology payloads, but with an expanded feature set. As such, the system was based on PharmaSat (Diaz-Aguado et al. 2009), a previous successful biology payload from NASA Ames, and improved upon. Newer, more miniaturized electronics allow for greater capability with a lower part count and smaller size. Two identical PowerCell enclosures will fly. Each enclosure contains two separate and identical experiments with a 48-segment optical density measurement system, grow light system, microfluidic system for nutrient delivery and waste flushing, plus thermal control and environmental sensing/housekeeping including temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration. Electronics consist of a single Master PCB that interfaces to the spacecraft bus and regulates power and communication, plus LED, Detector, and Valve Manifold PCBs for each experiment. To facilitate ease of reuse on future missions, experiment electronics were designed to be compatible with a standard 3U small sat form factor and power bus, or to interface with a Master power/comm PCB for use in a larger satellite as in the case of PowerCell's flight on Eu:CROPIS.

  11. Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost...high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging requirements. The program balanced the need for...near term component and wafer-level vacuum packaging with the development of advanced high density wafer-level packaging solutions. Three vacuum

  12. Advanced manufacturing of SIMOX for low power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alles, Michael; Krull, Wade

    1996-04-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) has emerged as a key technology for low power electronics. The merits of SOI technology have been demonstrated, and are gaining acceptance in the semiconductor industry. In order for the SOI approach to be viable, several factors must converge, including the availability of SOI substrates in sufficient quantity, of acceptable quality, and at a competitive price. This work describes developments in SIMOX manufacturing technology and summarizes progress in each of these areas.

  13. Advanced Strained-Superlattice Photocathodes for Polarized Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Aaron Moy

    2005-01-31

    Polarized electrons have been essential for high-energy parity-violating experiments and measurements of the nucleon spin structure. The availability of a polarized electron beam was crucial to the success of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) in achieving a precise measurement of the electroweak mixing angle, and polarized electron beams will be required for all future linear colliders. Polarized electrons are readily produced by GaAs photocathode sources. When a circularly polarized laser beam tuned to the bandgap minimum is directed to the negative-electron-affinity (NEA) surface of a GaAs crystal, longitudinally polarized electrons are emitted into vacuum. The electron polarization is easily reversed by reversing the laser polarization. The important properties of these photocathodes for accelerator applications are: degree of polarization of the extracted beam; ability to extract sufficient charge to meet accelerator pulse-structure requirements; efficiency and stability of operation; and absence of any asymmetries in the beam properties (charge, position, energy, etc.) upon polarization reversal. The performance of GaAs photocathodes has improved significantly since they were first introduced in 1978 [1]. The theoretical maximum polarization of 50% for natural GaAs was first exceeded in 1991 using the lattice mismatch of a thin InGaAs layer epitaxially grown over a GaAs substrate to generate a strain in the former that broke the natural degeneracy between the heavy- and light-hole valence bands [2]. Polarizations as high as 78% were produced for the SLC from photocathodes based on a thin GaAs epilayer grown on GaAsP [3,4]. After 10 years of experience with many cathode samples at several laboratories [5], the maximum polarization using the GaAs/GaAsP single strained-layer cathode remained limited to 80%, while the quantum efficiency (QE) for a 100-nm epilayer is only 0.3% or less. Two factors were known to limit the polarization of these cathodes: (1) the

  14. Advanced Electron Holography Applied to Electromagnetic Field Study in Materials Science.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Park, Hyun Soon

    2016-11-17

    Advances and applications of electron holography to the study of electromagnetic fields in various functional materials are presented. In particular, the development of split-illumination electron holography, which introduces a biprism in the illumination system of a holography electron microscope, enables highly accurate observations of electromagnetic fields and the expansion of the observable area. First, the charge distributions on insulating materials were studied by using split-illumination electron holography and including a mask in the illumination system. Second, the three-dimensional spin configurations of skyrmion lattices in a helimagnet were visualized by using a high-voltage holography electron microscope. Third, the pinning of the magnetic flux lines in a high-temperature superconductor YBa2 Cu3 O7-y was analyzed by combining electron holography and scanning ion microscopy. Finally, the dynamic accumulation and collective motions of electrons around insulating biomaterial surfaces were observed by utilizing the amplitude reconstruction processes of electron holography.

  15. Applications of advanced electric/electronic technology to conventional aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbold, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The desirability of seven advanced technologies as applied to three commercial aircraft of 1985 to 1995 was investigated. Digital fly by wire, multiplexing, ring laser gyro, integrated avionics, all electric airplane, electric load management, and fiber optics were considered for 500 passenger, 50 passenger, and 30 passenger aircraft. The major figure of merit used was Net Value of Technology based on procurement and operating cost over the life of the aircraft. An existing computer program, ASSET, was used to resize the aircraft and evalute fuel usage and maintenance costs for each candidate configuration. Conclusions were that, for the 500 passenger aircraft, all candidates had a worthwhile payoff with the all electric airplane having a large payoff.

  16. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Barnaby D. A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M. C.; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D.; Robinson, Richard D.; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A.; Hovden, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data.

  17. Advanced characterization of twins using automated electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S. I.; Bingert, J. F.; Mason, T. A.; Larson, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained using an automated, crystallographically-based technique for twin identification. The technique is based on the automated collection of spatially specific orientation measurements by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The key features of the analysis are identification of potential twin boundaries by their misorientation character, identification of the distinct boundary planes among the symmetrically equivalent candidates, and validation of these boundaries through comparison with the boundary and twin plane traces in the sample cross section. Results on the application of this technique to deformation twins in zirconium are analyzed for the effect of twin type and amount and sense of uniaxial deformation. The accumulation of strain tends to increase the misorientation deviation at least to the degree of the trace deviation compared with recrystallization twins in nickel. In addition to the results on characterizing the twin character, results on extending the twin analysis to automated identification of parent and daughter material for structures exhibiting twin deformation are reported as well.

  18. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  19. ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS - RECENT THEORETICAL ADVANCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BELEGGIA,M.; POZZI, G.; TONOMURA, A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown in this work that the Fourier space approach can be fruitfully applied to the calculation of the fields and the associated electron optical phase shift of several magnetic and electrostatic structures, like superconducting vortices in conventional and high-T{sub c} superconductors, reverse biased p-n junctions, magnetic domains and nanoparticles. In all these cases, this novel approach has led to unexpected but extremely interesting results, very often expressed in analytical form, which allow the quantitative and reliable interpretation of the experimental data collected by means of electron holography or of more conventional Lorentz microscopy techniques. Moreover, it is worth recalling that whenever long-range electromagnetic fields are involved, a physical model of the object under investigation is necessary in order to take into account correctly the perturbation of the reference wave induced by the tail of the field protruding into the vacuum. For these reasons, we believe that the Fourier space approach for phase computations we have introduced and discussed in this chapter will represent an invaluable tool for the investigation of electromagnetic fields at the meso- and nano-scale.

  20. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Barnaby D.A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M.C.; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D.; Robinson, Richard D.; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A.; Hovden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data. PMID:27272459

  1. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barnaby D A; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M C; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D; Robinson, Richard D; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A; Hovden, Robert

    2016-06-07

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data.

  2. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials. Part III - Biodegradation of thermoformed rigid PLA packaging under industrial composting conditions.

    PubMed

    Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Adamus, Grazyna; Janeczek, Henryk; Richert, Jozef; Malinowski, Rafal; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a forensic engineering study on the biodegradation behaviour of prototype packaging thermoformed from PLA-extruded film and plain PLA film under industrial composting conditions. Hydrolytic degradation in water was conducted for reference. The effects of composting duration on changes in molar mass, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity of the polymeric material were monitored using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The chemical structure of water soluble degradation products of the polymeric material was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results show that the biodegradation process is less dependent on the thermoforming process of PLA and more dependent on the composting/degradation conditions that are applied. The increase in the dispersity index, leading to the bimodal molar mass distribution profile, suggests an autocatalytic hydrolysis effect at the early stage of the composting process, during which the bulk hydrolysis mechanism dominantly operates. Both the prototype PLA-packaging and PLA rigid film samples were shown to have a gradual increase in opacity due to an increase in the degree of crystallinity.

  3. Status and Perspectives of Ion Track Electronics for Advanced Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Muñoz, H. Gerardo; Alfonta, L.; Mandabi, Y.; Dias, J. F.; de Souza, C. T.; Bacakova, L. E.; Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Kiv, A. E.; Fuks, D.; Papaleo, R. M.

    New multifunctional ion irradiation-based three-dimensional electronic structures are developed for biotechnological applications, specifically for sensing of biomaterials, bacteria and mammalian cells. This is accomplished by combined micrometric surface and nanometric bulk microstructuring of insulators (specifically of polymer foils and SiO2/Si hybride structures) by adequate ion beams. Our main goal is the production of a cheap small universal generic working platform with multifunctional properties for biomedical analysis. Surface engineering of this platform enables cell bonding and its bulk engineering enables the extraction of cell secrets, for the sake of intercepting and analyzing the biomolecules used in cell communication. The exact knowledge of the spectrum of these cell-secreted signalling molecules should enable one to identify unambiguously the cell type. This knowledge will help developing strategies for preventive quorum sensing of bacteria, with the aim of fighting bacterial infections in an ecologically secure way.

  4. Topology Zero: Advancing Theory and Experimentation for Power Electronics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchino, Federico

    For decades, power electronics education has been based on the fundamentals of three basic topologies: buck, boost, and buck-boost. This thesis presents the analytical framework for the Topology Zero, a general circuit topology that integrates the basic topologies and provides significant insight into the behaviour of converters. As demonstrated, many topologies are just particular cases of the Topology Zero, an important contribution towards the understanding, integration, and conceptualization of topologies. The investigation includes steady-state, small-signal, and frequency response analysis. The Topology Zero is physically implemented as an educational system. Experimental results are presented to show control applications and power losses analysis using the educational system. The steady-state and dynamic analyses of the Topology Zero provide profuse proof of its suitability as an integrative topology, and of its ability to be indirectly controlled. As well, the implementation of the Topology Zero within an experimentation system is explained and application examples are provided.

  5. Advances and applications of electronic speckle pattern interferometry /ESPI/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokberg, O. J.

    1980-05-01

    The principle of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is explained by means of comparison with conventional holography. Because ESPI image recording and reconstruction are performed by videotechniques, laboratory experiments may be studied through real-time presentations of readily interpretable vibration patterns on a large TV screen, with a new image being formed every 1/25 sec. These properties, combined with the high sensitivity, noncontact, and nondestructive properties of the method, make ESPI a measuring tool uniquely suited for studies of extremely unstable objects. Among examples of applications covered are: the testing of sonar transducers in both air and water, the analysis of loudspeakers, studies of the behavior of piezoelectric transducers, the classification of turbine blade resonances, and the observation of the human eardrum.

  6. Unbunched beam electron-proton instability in the PSR and advanced hadron facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tai-Sen; Pisent, A.; Neuffer, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the possibility of the occurrence of transverse instability induced by trapped electrons in unbunched beams in the Proton Storage Ring and the proposed Advance Hadron Facility (AHF) at Los Alamos, as well as in the proposed Kaon Factory at TRIUMF. We found that the e-p instability may be possible for unbunched beams in the PSR but is unlikely to occur in the advanced hadron facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Feng, S.; Brigham, D.; Beaman, B.

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a 'cold temperature surface operational' version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package. We build on our previous work to develop strategies for incorporating Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power (ULT/ULP) electronics, lower voltage power supplies, as well as innovative thermal design concepts for instrument packages. Cryotesting has indicated that our small Si RHBD CMOS chips can deliver >80% of room temperature performance at 40K (nominal minimum lunar surface temperature). We leverage collaborations, past and current, with the JPL battery development program to increase power system efficiency in extreme environments. We harness advances in MOSFET technology that provide lower voltage thresholds for power switching circuits incorporated into our low voltage power supply concept. Conventional power conversion has a lower efficiency. Our low power circuit concept based on 'synchronous rectification' could produce stable voltages as low as 0.6 V with 85% efficiency. Our distributed micro-battery-based power supply concept incorporates cold temperature power supplies operating with a 4 V or 8 V battery. This work will allow us to provide guidelines for applying the low temperature, low power system approaches generically to the widest range of surface instruments.

  8. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  9. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  10. A Packaged Self-Powered System with Universal Connectors Based on Hybridized Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bojing; Zheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Hong; Yao, Yan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-03

    A packaged self-powered system by hybridizing nanogenerators (PSNGS) is demonstrated. The performance of the PSNGS is tested in a biofluid and used for powering an electronic thermometer. Select waterproof universal connectors are designed and fabricated for energy and signal transmission. This PSNGS and the connectors can significantly advance the development of self-powered implanted medical devices and wearable/portable electronics.

  11. Thin film CIGS photovoltaic modules: monolithic integration and advanced packaging for high performance, high reliability and low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and have been grabbing an increasingly larger market share. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, and a fast high-quality CIGS reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable cover plates in the first stage, while in the second stage the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. HelioVolt also developed best-in-class packaging technologies that provide unparalleled environmental stability. High quality CIGS films with large grains were fabricated on the production line, and high-performance highreliability monolithic modules with a form factor of 120 cm × 60 cm are being produced at high yield and low cost. With conversion efficiency levels around 14% for cells and 12% for modules, HelioVolt is commercializing the process on its first production line with 20 MW capacity, and is planning its next GW-scale factory.

  12. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  13. Advanced Undergraduate-Laboratory Experiment on Electron Spin Resonance in Single-Crystal Ruby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lee A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An electron-spin-resonance experiment which has been successfully performed in an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory is described. A discussion of that part of the theory of magnetic resonance necessary for the understanding of the experiment is also provided in this article. (DT)

  14. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  15. Environmental Loss Characterization of an Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Insulation Package Using a Mock Heater Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schifer, Nicholas A.; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two highefficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. While electrical power output can be precisely quantified, thermal power input to the Stirling cycle cannot be directly measured. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, the Mock Heater Head was developed with the same relative thermal paths as a convertor using a conducting rod to represent the Stirling cycle and tested to provide a direct comparison to numerical and empirical models used to predict convertor net heat input. The Mock Heater Head also served as the pathfinder for a higher fidelity version of validation test hardware, known as the Thermal Standard. This paper describes how the Mock Heater Head was tested and utilized to validate a process for the Thermal Standard.

  16. Advancing Efficient All-Electron Electronic Structure Methods Based on Numeric Atom-Centered Orbitals for Energy Related Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Volker

    This talk describes recent advances of a general, efficient, accurate all-electron electronic theory approach based on numeric atom-centered orbitals; emphasis is placed on developments related to materials for energy conversion and their discovery. For total energies and electron band structures, we show that the overall accuracy is on par with the best benchmark quality codes for materials, but scalable to large system sizes (1,000s of atoms) and amenable to both periodic and non-periodic simulations. A recent localized resolution-of-identity approach for the Coulomb operator enables O (N) hybrid functional based descriptions of the electronic structure of non-periodic and periodic systems, shown for supercell sizes up to 1,000 atoms; the same approach yields accurate results for many-body perturbation theory as well. For molecular systems, we also show how many-body perturbation theory for charged and neutral quasiparticle excitation energies can be efficiently yet accurately applied using basis sets of computationally manageable size. Finally, the talk highlights applications to the electronic structure of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials, as well as to graphene-based substrates for possible future transition metal compound based electrocatalyst materials. All methods described here are part of the FHI-aims code. VB gratefully acknowledges contributions by numerous collaborators at Duke University, Fritz Haber Institute Berlin, TU Munich, USTC Hefei, Aalto University, and many others around the globe.

  17. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Lunney, D.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O.; Kalvas, T.; and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  18. Users Guide on Scaled CMOS Reliability: NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark; Cooper, Mark; Johnston, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of advanced CMOS technology is a complex problem that is usually addressed from the standpoint of specific failure mechanisms rather than overall reliability of a finished microcircuit. A detailed treatment of CMOS reliability in scaled devices can be found in Ref. 1; it should be consulted for a more thorough discussion. The present document provides a more concise treatment of the scaled CMOS reliability problem, emphasizing differences in the recommended approach for these advanced devices compared to that of less aggressively scaled devices. It includes specific recommendations that can be used by flight projects that use advanced CMOS. The primary emphasis is on conventional memories, microprocessors, and related devices.

  19. DensToolKit: A comprehensive open-source package for analyzing the electron density and its derivative scalar and vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Hernández-Pérez, Julio M.

    2015-11-01

    DensToolKit is a suite of cross-platform, optionally parallelized, programs for analyzing the molecular electron density (ρ) and several fields derived from it. Scalar and vector fields, such as the gradient of the electron density (∇ρ), electron localization function (ELF) and its gradient, localized orbital locator (LOL), region of slow electrons (RoSE), reduced density gradient, localized electrons detector (LED), information entropy, molecular electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities K and G, among others, can be evaluated on zero, one, two, and three dimensional grids. The suite includes a program for searching critical points and bond paths of the electron density, under the framework of Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules. DensToolKit also evaluates the momentum space electron density on spatial grids, and the reduced density matrix of order one along lines joining two arbitrary atoms of a molecule. The source code is distributed under the GNU-GPLv3 license, and we release the code with the intent of establishing an open-source collaborative project. The style of DensToolKit's code follows some of the guidelines of an object-oriented program. This allows us to supply the user with a simple manner for easily implement new scalar or vector fields, provided they are derived from any of the fields already implemented in the code. In this paper, we present some of the most salient features of the programs contained in the suite, some examples of how to run them, and the mathematical definitions of the implemented fields along with hints of how we optimized their evaluation. We benchmarked our suite against both a freely-available program and a commercial package. Speed-ups of ˜2×, and up to 12× were obtained using a non-parallel compilation of DensToolKit for the evaluation of fields. DensToolKit takes similar times for finding critical points, compared to a commercial package. Finally, we present some perspectives for the future development and

  20. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  1. Observation of runaway electron beams by visible color camera in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuejiang; Fu, Jia; Li, Jiahong; Yang, Yu; Wang, Fudi; Li, Yingying; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Baonian; Chen, Zhongyong

    2010-03-01

    The synchrotron radiation originated from the energetic runaway electrons has been measured by a visible complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera working in the wavelength ranges of 380-750 nm in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak [H. Q. Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 49, 995 (2007)]. With a tangential viewing into the plasma in the direction of electron approach on the equatorial plane, the synchrotron radiation from the energetic runaway electrons was measured in full poloidal cross section. The synchrotron radiation diagnostics provides a direct pattern of the runaway beam inside the plasma. The energy and pitch angle of runaway electrons have been obtained according to the synchrotron radiation pattern. A stable shell shape of synchrotron radiation has been observed in a few runaway discharges.

  2. Observation of runaway electron beams by visible color camera in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Yuejiang; Fu Jia; Li Jiahong; Yang Yu; Wang Fudi; Li Yingying; Zhang Wei; Wan Baonian; Chen Zhongyong

    2010-03-15

    The synchrotron radiation originated from the energetic runaway electrons has been measured by a visible complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera working in the wavelength ranges of 380-750 nm in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak [H. Q. Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 49, 995 (2007)]. With a tangential viewing into the plasma in the direction of electron approach on the equatorial plane, the synchrotron radiation from the energetic runaway electrons was measured in full poloidal cross section. The synchrotron radiation diagnostics provides a direct pattern of the runaway beam inside the plasma. The energy and pitch angle of runaway electrons have been obtained according to the synchrotron radiation pattern. A stable shell shape of synchrotron radiation has been observed in a few runaway discharges.

  3. Observation of runaway electron beams by visible color camera in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuejiang; Fu, Jia; Li, Jiahong; Yang, Yu; Wang, Fudi; Li, Yingying; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Baonian; Chen, Zhongyong

    2010-03-01

    The synchrotron radiation originated from the energetic runaway electrons has been measured by a visible complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera working in the wavelength ranges of 380-750 nm in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak [H. Q. Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 49, 995 (2007)]. With a tangential viewing into the plasma in the direction of electron approach on the equatorial plane, the synchrotron radiation from the energetic runaway electrons was measured in full poloidal cross section. The synchrotron radiation diagnostics provides a direct pattern of the runaway beam inside the plasma. The energy and pitch angle of runaway electrons have been obtained according to the synchrotron radiation pattern. A stable shell shape of synchrotron radiation has been observed in a few runaway discharges.

  4. Hot-Electron Gallium Nitride Two Dimensional Electron Gas Nano-bolometers For Advanced THz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Rahul

    Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in semiconductor heterostructures was identified as a promising medium for hot-electron bolometers (HEB) in the early 90s. Up until now all research based on 2DEG HEBs is done using high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. These systems have demonstrated very good performance, but only in the sub terahertz (THz) range. However, above ˜0.5 THz the performance of AlGaAs/GaAs detectors drastically deteriorates. It is currently understood, that detectors fabricated from standard AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures do not allow for reasonable coupling to THz radiation while maintaining high conversion efficiency. In this work we have developed 2DEG HEBs based on disordered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor, that operate at frequencies beyond 1THz at room temperature. We observe strong free carrier absorption at THz frequencies in our disordered 2DEG film due to Drude absorption. We show the design and fabrication procedures of novel micro-bolometers having ultra-low heat capacities. In this work the mechanism of 2DEG response to THz radiation is clearly identified as bolometric effect through our direct detection measurements. With optimal doping and detector geometry, impedances of 10--100 O have been achieved, which allow integration of these devices with standard THz antennas. We also demonstrate performance of the antennas used in this work in effectively coupling THz radiation to the micro-bolometers through polarization dependence and far field measurements. Finally heterodyne mixing due to hot electrons in the 2DEG micro-bolometer has been performed at sub terahertz frequencies and a mixing bandwidth greater than 3GHz has been achieved. This indicates that the characteristic cooling time in our detectors is fast, less than 50ps. Due to the ultra-low heat capacity; these detectors can be used in a heterodyne system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a local oscillator (LO) which typically provides output powers in the micro

  5. Temporal Electron-bunch Shaping from a Photoinjector for Advanced Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, Francois; Piot, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Advanced-accelerator applications often require the production of bunches with shaped temporal distributions. An example of sought-after shape is a linearly-ramped current profile that can be improve the transformer ratio in beam-driven acceleration, or produce energy-modulated pulse for, e.g., the subsequent generation of THz radiation. Typically,  such a shaping is achieved by manipulating ultra-relativistic electron bunches. In this contribution we discuss the possibility of shaping the bunch via photoemission and demonstrate using particle-in-cell simulations the production of MeV electron bunches with quasi-ramped current profile.

  6. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (APEEM) subprogram within the Vehicle Technologies Program provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE) and electric motor technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  7. FY2011 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2012-01-31

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), thermal management, and traction drive system technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  8. FY2012 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), thermal management, and traction drive system technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow's automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  9. Summary Describing Integration of ERM Methodology into Supervisory Control Framework with Software Package Documentation; Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M4AT-16PN2301052

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Dib, Gerges; Veeramany, Arun; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Roy, Surajit

    2016-09-20

    This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.

  10. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase III. Electronic Warfare Trainers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase III- Electronic Warfare Trainers) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Polzella . Donald J...Features, addressed a portion of this subthrust. Dr. Wayne Waag (AFHRL/OTU) was the Contract Monitor and Dr. Donald J. Polzella and Dr. David C. Hubbard...training is practicable (see Polzella , 1983, p.8). However, instructional features are expensive to implement, especially those features that require the

  11. Advanced search of the electronic medical record: augmenting safety and efficiency in radiology.

    PubMed

    Zalis, Michael; Harris, Mitchell

    2010-08-01

    The integration of electronic medical record (EMR) systems into clinical practice has been spurred by general consensus and recent federal incentives and is set to become a standard feature of clinical practice in the US. We discuss how the addition of advanced search capabilities to the EMR can improve the radiologist's ability to integrate contextual data into workflows associated with both for diagnostic and interventional procedures.

  12. Advanced post-acceleration methodology for pseudospark-sourced electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Yin, H.; Zhang, L.; Shu, G.; He, W.; Zhang, Q.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Cross, A. W.

    2017-02-01

    During its conductive phase, a pseudospark discharge is able to generate a low energy electron beam with a higher combined current density and brightness compared with electron beams formed from any other known type of electron source. In this paper, a configuration is proposed to post-accelerate an electron beam extracted from a single-gap pseudospark discharge cavity in order to achieve high quality high energy intense electron beams. The major advancement is that the triggering of the pseudospark discharge, the pseudospark discharge itself, and the post-accelerating of the electron beam are all driven by a single high voltage pulse. An electron beam with a beam current of ˜20 A, beam voltage of 40 kV, and duration of ˜180 ns has been generated using this structure. The beam energy can be adjusted through adjusting the amplitude of the voltage pulse and the operating voltage of the whole structure, which can be varied from 24 to 50 kV with an efficient triggering method under fixed gas pressure below ˜10 Pa.

  13. Advances in molecular electronics: Synthesis and testing of potential molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, David Wilson, Jr.

    New potential molecular electronics devices have been synthesized based on our knowledge of previous systems that have come out of our group. Previous studies and current studies have shown that simple molecular systems demonstrate negative differential resistance (NDR) and memory characteristics. The new systems rely primarily on the redox properties of the compounds to improve upon the solid state properties already observed. Most of these new organic compounds use thiol-based "alligator clips" for attachment to metal surfaces. Some of the compounds, however, contain different "alligator clips," primarily isonitriles, for attachment to metal substrates. It is our hope that these new "alligator clips" will offer lower conductivity barriers (higher current density). Electrochemical tests have been performed in order to evaluate those redox properties and in the hope of using those electrochemical results as a predictive tool to evaluate the usefulness of those compounds. Also, organic structures with polymerizable functionalities have been synthesized in order to cross-link the molecules once they are a part of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). This has been shown to enable the electrochemical growth of polypyrrole from a SAM in a controllable manner.

  14. Development of a Power Electronics Controller for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, Douglas K.; Priest, Joel F.; Keiter, Douglas E.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Under a U.S. Department of Energy program for radioisotope power systems, Lockheed Martin is developing an Engineering Unit of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This is an advanced version of the previously reported SRG110 generator. The ASRG uses Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Incorporated under a NASA Research Announcement contract. The ASRG makes use of a Stirling controller based on power electronics that eliminates the tuning capacitors. The power electronics controller synchronizes dual-opposed convertors and maintains a fixed frequency operating point. The controller is single-fault tolerant and uses high-frequency pulse width modulation to create the sinusoidal currents that are nearly in phase with the piston velocity, eliminating the need for large series tuning capacitors. Sunpower supports this effort through an extension of their controller development intended for other applications. Glenn Research Center (GRC) supports this effort through system dynamic modeling, analysis and test support. The ASRG design arrived at a new baseline based on a system-level trade study and extensive feedback from mission planners on the necessity of single-fault tolerance. This paper presents the baseline design with an emphasis on the power electronics controller detailed design concept that will meet space mission requirements including single fault tolerance.

  15. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  16. Generation of high-quality electron beams from a laser-based advanced accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. M. Elsied; Nasr, A. M. Hafz; Li, Song; Mohammad, Mirzaie; Thomas, Sokollik; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    At Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) we have established a research laboratory for advanced acceleration research based on high-power lasers and plasma technologies. In a primary experiment based on the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, multi-hundred MeV electron beams of reasonable quality are generated using 20-40 TW, 30 femtosecond laser pulses interacting independently with helium, neon, nitrogen and argon gas jet targets. The laser-plasma interaction conditions are optimized for stabilizing the electron beam generation from each type of gas. The electron beam pointing angle stability and divergence angle as well as the energy spectra from each gas jet are measured and compared. Supported by 973 National Basic Research Program of China (2013CBA01504) and Natural Science Foundation of China NSFC (11121504, 11334013, 11175119, 11374209)

  17. An aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; MacDowell, A.A.; Duarte, R.; Doran, A.; Forest, E.; Kelez, N.; Marcus, M.; Munson, D.; Padmore, H.; Petermann, K.; Raoux, S.; Robin, D.; Scholl, A.; Schlueter, R.; Schmid, P.; Stohr, J.; Wan, W.; Wei, D.H.; Wu, Y.

    2003-11-01

    Design of a new aberration corrected Photoemission electron microscope PEEM3 at the Advanced Light Source is outlined. PEEM3 will be installed on an elliptically polarized undulator beamline and will be used for the study of complex materials at high spatial and spectral resolution. The critical components of PEEM3 are the electron mirror aberration corrector and aberration-free magnetic beam separator. The models to calculate the optical properties of the electron mirror are discussed. The goal of the PEEM3 project is to achieve the highest possible transmission of the system at resolutions comparable to our present PEEM2 system (50 nm) and to enable significantly higher resolution, albeit at the sacrifice of intensity. We have left open the possibility to add an energy filter at a later date, if it becomes necessary driven by scientific need to improve the resolution further.

  18. BOK-Underfill Optimization for FPGA Package/Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Commercial-off-the-shelf area array package technologies in high-reliability versions are being considered for NASA electronic systems. These packages are prone to early failure due to the severe mechanical shock and vibration of launch, as well as other less severe conditions, such as mechanical loading during descent, rough terrain mobility, handling, and ground tests. As the density of these packages increases and the size of ball interconnections decrease, susceptibility to mechanical loading and cycling fatigue grows. This report presents a summary of the body of knowledge developed for the evaluation of area array packages and is based on surveys of literature from industry and academia. For high-reliability applications, the limited data that exists will be presented. Most data from industry deals with mechanical fatigue caused by four-point bend tests, as well as from drop tests for hand-held electronics; the most recent data will be presented, along with a brief background of prior literature. Understanding the key design guidelines and failure mechanisms from past tests is critical to developing an approach that will minimize future failures. Additional specific testing enables low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages.

  19. Advanced electron microscopy characterization of tri-layer rare-earth oxide superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Patrick; Disa, Ankit; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Klie, Robert; University of Illinois-Chicago Team; Yale University Team

    2015-03-01

    Rare-earth nickelates are known to display complex electronic and magnetic behaviors owed to a very localized and sensitive Ni-site atomic and electronic structure. Toward realizing the goal of manipulating of the energetic ordering of Ni d orbitals and 2D conduction, the present work focuses on the experimental characterization of thin film superlattice structures consisting of alternating layers of LaTiO3 and LaNiO3 sandwiched between a dull insulator, LaAlO3. Using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-based methods, properties such as interfacial sharpness, electron transfer, O presence, and local electronic structure can be probed at the atomic scale, and will be discussed at length. By combining both energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and electronic energy loss (EEL) spectroscopies in an aberration-corrected STEM, it is possible to attain energy and spatial resolutions of 0.35 eV and 100 pm, respectively. Focus of the talk will remain not only on the aforementioned properties, but will also include details and parameters of the acquisitions to facilitate future characterization at this level.

  20. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  1. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  2. Qualification and Reliability for MEMS and IC Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Advanced IC electronic packages are moving toward miniaturization from two key different approaches, front and back-end processes, each with their own challenges. Successful use of more of the back-end process front-end, e.g. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Wafer Level Package (WLP), enable reducing size and cost. Use of direct flip chip die is the most efficient approach if and when the issues of know good die and board/assembly are resolved. Wafer level package solve the issue of known good die by enabling package test, but it has its own limitation, e.g., the I/O limitation, additional cost, and reliability. From the back-end approach, system-in-a-package (SIAP/SIP) development is a response to an increasing demand for package and die integration of different functions into one unit to reduce size and cost and improve functionality. MEMS add another challenging dimension to electronic packaging since they include moving mechanical elements. Conventional qualification and reliability need to be modified and expanded in most cases in order to detect new unknown failures. This paper will review four standards that already released or being developed that specifically address the issues on qualification and reliability of assembled packages. Exposures to thermal cycles, monotonic bend test, mechanical shock and drop are covered in these specifications. Finally, mechanical and thermal cycle qualification data generated for MEMS accelerometer will be presented. The MEMS was an element of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) qualified for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity that successfully is currently roaring the Martian surface

  3. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in an Average Power Position (I-24) in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. M . Ryskamp; R. C. Howard; R. C. Pedersen; S. T. Khericha

    1998-10-01

    The Fissile Material Disposition Program Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan details a series of test irradiations designed to investigate the use of weapons-grade plutonium in MOX fuel for light water reactors (LWR) (Cowell 1996a, Cowell 1997a, Thoms 1997a). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons-derived test fuel contains small amounts of gallium (about 2 parts per million). A concern exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel and into the clad, inducing embrittlement. For preliminary out-of-pile experiments, Wilson (1997) states that intermetallic compound formation is the principal interaction mechanism between zircaloy cladding and gallium. This interaction is very limited by the low mass of gallium, so problems are not expected with the zircaloy cladding, but an in-pile experiment is needed to confirm the out-of-pile experiments. Ryskamp (1998) provides an overview of this experiment and its documentation. The purpose of this Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP) is to demonstrate the safe irradiation and handling of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide (MOX) Fuel Average Power Test (APT) experiment as required by Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) 3.9.1 (LMITCO 1998). This ESAP addresses the specific operation of the MOX Fuel APT experiment with respect to the operating envelope for irradiation established by the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO 1997a). Experiment handling activities are discussed herein.

  4. Gold-copper nanostars as photo-thermal agents: synthesis and advanced electron microscopy characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazán-Díaz, Lourdes; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Velázquez-Salazar, J. Jesús; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Romeu, David; Reyes-Gasga, José; Herrera-Becerra, Raúl; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Guisbiers, Grégory

    2015-12-01

    Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra.Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06491k

  5. Advanced photonic, electronic, and web engineering systems: WILGA Symposium, January 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The cycle of WILGA Symposia [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of SPIE, IEEE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Multi-Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The January conference was attended by around 100 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical photonics, electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced photonic, electronic circuits and systems. The 32 nd WILGA Symposium took place on 27 May - 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. These two editions of WILGA Conferences - January and May have generated more than 250 articles, from which around 100 were chosen by the Symposium and Conference Committees to be published in this volume of Proc.SPIE. WILGA Symposium papers are traditionally submitted via the WILGA web page [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] to the SPIE Proceedings publishing system [spie.org]. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. All Wilga papers are published in journals Elektronika, IJET-PAN and in Proc.SPIE. Topical tracks of the symposium usually embrace, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium In its two editions a year is a summary of the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country and this geographical region in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also

  6. Evaluation of Small Form Factor Fiber Optic Interconnects for the NASA Electronics Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie; Thomes, W. Joe; Blair, Diana; Chuska, Rick; Switzer, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The Diamond AVIM optical fiber connector has been used for over a decade in flight environments. AVIM which stands for Aviation Intermediate Maintenance is always referenced as a fiber optic connector type from the DIN (Deutsches Institut fur Normung) family of optical fiber connectors. The newly available Mini AVIM and DMI (Definition Multimedia Interface) connectors also by Diamond provide similar features as the high performance AVIM with the added benefits of being small form factor for board mount and internal box use where long connectors and strain relief can not be accommodated. Transceiver, fiber laser technology and receiver optic technology based on small sized constraints will benefit the most by the reduction in connector form factor. It is for this reason that the Mini AVIM is being evaluated for multimode and single mode optical fiber use in both fiber based and cable based packaging configurations. In a fiber based termination, there are no cable materials to bond to the connector. The only bonding that is conducted is the mounting of the fiber with epoxy to the connector ferrules (which are called DMI ferrules). In a cable configuration, the compatibility of the connector subcomponents along with the upjacketing materials of the cable around the fiber needs to be considered carefully for termination fabrication. Cabled terminations will show greater insertion loss and high probability of failures during thermal cycling testing. This is due to the stressing of the combination of materials that each have different Coefficients of Thermal Expansion (CTE's) and that are bonded together to the connector subcomponents. As the materials flex during thermal excursions, forces are applied to the termination and can make the system fail if the grouping of materials (per their CTE's) are not compatible and this includes cable materials, epoxies, ferrule and connector body components. For this evaluation, multimode 100 micron core step index fiber was used for

  7. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Mitch

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  8. Advanced Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopies of Iron-Sulfur Proteins: Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM)

    PubMed Central

    Cutsail, George E.; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    The advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, provide unique insights into the structure, coordination chemistry, and biochemical mechanism of Nature’s widely distributed iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) proteins. This review describes the ENDOR and ESEEM techniques and then provides a series of case studies on their application to a wide variety of FeS proteins including ferredoxins, nitrogenase, and radical SAM enzymes. PMID:25686535

  9. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecchini, M. L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M.; Fuochi, P. G.

    1995-02-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 μg/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D 10 values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.12 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2°C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila.

  10. Advances in the modeling of single electron transistors for the design of integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yaqing; Sui, Bingcai; Yi, Xun; Fang, Liang; Zhou, Hailiang

    2010-09-01

    Single electron transistor (SET) has become a promising candidate for the key device of logic circuit in the near future. The advances of recent 5 years in the modeling of SETs are reviewed for the simulation of SET/hybrid CMOS-SET integrated circuit. Three dominating SET models, Monte Carlo model, master equation model and macro model, are analyzed, tested and compared on their principles, characteristics, applicability and development trend. The Monte Carlo model is suitable for SET structure research and simulation of small scale SET circuit, while the analytical model based on combination with master equation and macro model is suitable to simulate the SET circuit at balanceable efficiency and accuracy.

  11. Uses of electronic health records for public health surveillance to advance public health.

    PubMed

    Birkhead, Guthrie S; Klompas, Michael; Shah, Nirav R

    2015-03-18

    Public health surveillance conducted by health departments in the United States has improved in completeness and timeliness owing to electronic laboratory reporting. However, the collection of detailed clinical information about reported cases, which is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, to understand transmission, or to determine disease-related risk factors, is still heavily dependent on manual processes. The increasing prevalence and functionality of electronic health record (EHR) systems in the United States present important opportunities to advance public health surveillance. EHR data have the potential to further increase the breadth, detail, timeliness, and completeness of public health surveillance and thereby provide better data to guide public health interventions. EHRs also provide a unique opportunity to expand the role and vision of current surveillance efforts and to help bridge the gap between public health practice and clinical medicine.

  12. FY2013 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Susan A.

    2014-02-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) technology area within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  13. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-09-01

    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  14. Cryo-electron Microscopy Reconstruction and Stability Studies of the Wild Type and the R432A Variant of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Reveal that Capsid Structural Stability Is a Major Factor in Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, Lauren M.; Lins, Bridget; Janssen, Maria; Bennett, Antonette; Chipman, Paul; McKenna, Robert; Chen, Weijun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Cardone, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising therapeutic gene delivery vectors and better understanding of their capsid assembly and genome packaging mechanism is needed for improved vector production. Empty AAV capsids assemble in the nucleus prior to genome packaging by virally encoded Rep proteins. To elucidate the capsid determinants of this process, structural differences between wild-type (wt) AAV2 and a packaging deficient variant, AAV2-R432A, were examined using cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction both at an ∼5.0-Å resolution (medium) and also at 3.8- and 3.7-Å resolutions (high), respectively. The high resolution structures showed that removal of the arginine side chain in AAV2-R432A eliminated hydrogen bonding interactions, resulting in altered intramolecular and intermolecular interactions propagated from under the 3-fold axis toward the 5-fold channel. Consistent with these observations, differential scanning calorimetry showed an ∼10°C decrease in thermal stability for AAV2-R432A compared to wt-AAV2. In addition, the medium resolution structures revealed differences in the juxtaposition of the less ordered, N-terminal region of their capsid proteins, VP1/2/3. A structural rearrangement in AAV2-R432A repositioned the βA strand region under the icosahedral 2-fold axis rather than antiparallel to the βB strand, eliminating many intramolecular interactions. Thus, a single amino acid substitution can significantly alter the AAV capsid integrity to the extent of reducing its stability and possibly rendering it unable to tolerate the stress of genome packaging. Furthermore, the data show that the 2-, 3-, and 5-fold regions of the capsid contributed to producing the packaging defect and highlight a tight connection between the entire capsid in maintaining packaging efficiency. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of AAV genome packaging is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the capsid determinants

  15. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry.

  16. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)Calculation in Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Package: EELS-FDTD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Large, Nicolas; Cao, Yang; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Nordlander, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a unique tool that is extensively used to investigate the plasmonic response of metallic nanostructures since the early works in the '50s. To be able to interpret and theoretically investigate EELS results, a myriad of different numerical techniques have been developed for EELS simulations (BEM, DDA, FEM, GDTD, Green dyadic functions). Although these techniques are able to predict and reproduce experimental results, they possess significant drawbacks and are often limited to highly symmetrical geometries, non-penetrating trajectories, small nanostructures, and free standing nanostructures. We present here a novel approach for EELS calculations using the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method: EELS-FDTD. We benchmark our approach by direct comparison with results from the well-established boundary element method (BEM) and published experimental results. In particular, we compute EELS spectra for spherical nanoparticles, nanoparticle dimers, nanodisks supported by various substrates, and gold bowtie antennas on a silicon nitride substrate. Our EELS-FDTD implementation can be easily extended to more complex geometries and configurations and can be directly implemented within other numerical methods. Work funded by the Welch Foundation (C-1222, L-C-004), and the NSF (CNS-0821727, OCI-0959097).

  17. Self-consistent implementation of meta-GGA functionals for the ONETEP linear-scaling electronic structure package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, James C.; Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2016-11-01

    Accurate and computationally efficient exchange-correlation functionals are critical to the successful application of linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT). Local and semi-local functionals of the density are naturally compatible with linear-scaling approaches, having a general form which assumes the locality of electronic interactions and which can be efficiently evaluated by numerical quadrature. Presently, the most sophisticated and flexible semi-local functionals are members of the meta-generalized-gradient approximation (meta-GGA) family, and depend upon the kinetic energy density, τ, in addition to the charge density and its gradient. In order to extend the theoretical and computational advantages of τ-dependent meta-GGA functionals to large-scale DFT calculations on thousands of atoms, we have implemented support for τ-dependent meta-GGA functionals in the ONETEP program. In this paper we lay out the theoretical innovations necessary to implement τ-dependent meta-GGA functionals within ONETEP's linear-scaling formalism. We present expressions for the gradient of the τ-dependent exchange-correlation energy, necessary for direct energy minimization. We also derive the forms of the τ-dependent exchange-correlation potential and kinetic energy density in terms of the strictly localized, self-consistently optimized orbitals used by ONETEP. To validate the numerical accuracy of our self-consistent meta-GGA implementation, we performed calculations using the B97M-V and PKZB meta-GGAs on a variety of small molecules. Using only a minimal basis set of self-consistently optimized local orbitals, we obtain energies in excellent agreement with large basis set calculations performed using other codes. Finally, to establish the linear-scaling computational cost and applicability of our approach to large-scale calculations, we present the outcome of self-consistent meta-GGA calculations on amyloid fibrils of increasing size, up to tens of thousands of atoms.

  18. Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

    2006-12-31

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

  19. Recent advances in the application of electron tomography to materials chemistry.

    PubMed

    Leary, Rowan; Midgley, Paul A; Thomas, John Meurig

    2012-10-16

    Nowadays, tomography plays a central role in pureand applied science, in medicine, and in many branches of engineering and technology. It entails reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an object from a tilt series of two-dimensional (2D) images. Its origin goes back to 1917, when Radon showed mathematically how a series of 2D projection images could be converted to the 3D structural one. Tomographic X-ray and positron scanning for 3D medical imaging, with a resolution of ∼1 mm, is now ubiquitous in major hospitals. Electron tomography, a relatively new chemical tool, with a resolution of ∼1 nm, has been recently adopted by materials chemists as an invaluable aid for the 3D study of the morphologies, spatially-discriminating chemical compositions, and defect properties of nanostructured materials. In this Account, we review the advances that have been made in facilitating the recording of the required series of 2D electron microscopic images and the subsequent process of 3D reconstruction of specimens that are vulnerable, to a greater or lesser degree, to electron beam damage. We describe how high-fidelity 3D tomograms may be obtained from relatively few 2D images by incorporating prior structural knowledge into the reconstruction process. In particular, we highlight the vital role of compressed sensing, a recently developed procedure well-known to information theorists that exploits ideas of image compression and "sparsity" (that the important image information can be captured in a reduced data set). We also touch upon another promising approach, "discrete" tomography, which builds into the reconstruction process a prior assumption that the object can be described in discrete terms, such as the number of constituent materials and their expected densities. Other advances made recently that we outline, such as the availability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes, electron wavelength monochromators, and sophisticated specimen goniometers

  20. Description of the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) for the OSS-1 Shuttle mission and JSC plasma chamber test in conjunction with the fast pulse electron gun (FPEG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives, equipment, and techniques for the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) carried by the OSS-1 instrument payload of the STS-4 and scheduled for the Spacelab-2 mission are described. The goals of the first flight were to examine the Orbiter-magnetoplasma interactions by measuring the electric and magnetic field strengths, the ionized particle wakes, and the generated waves. The RMS was employed to lift the unit out of the bay in order to allow characterization of the fields, EM interference, and plasma contamination within 15 m of the Orbiter. The PDP will also be used to examine plasma depletion, chemical reaction rates, waves, and energized plasma produced by firing of the Orbiter thrusters. Operation of the PDP was carried out in the NASA Space Environment Simulation Laboratory test chamber, where the PDP was used to assay the fields, fluxes, wave amplitudes, and particle energy spectra. The PDP instrumentation is also capable of detecting thermal ions, thermal electrons suprathermal particles, VHF/UHF EMI levels, and the S-band field strength.

  1. Electron multiplication CCD detector technology advancement for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA (Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset) is a NASA space observatory. It will host two major astronomical instruments: a wide-field imager (WFI) to search for dark energy and carry out wide field near infrared (NIR) surveys, and a coronagraph instrument (CGI) to image and spectrally characterize extrasolar planets. In this paper, we discuss the work that has been carried out at JPL in advancing Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) technology to higher flight maturity, with the goal of reaching a NASA technology readiness level of 6 (TRL-6) by early-to-mid 2016. The EMCCD has been baselined for both the coronagraph's imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) based on its sub-electron noise performance at extremely low flux levels - the regime where the AFTA CGI will operate. We present results from a study that fully characterizes the beginning of life performance of the EMCCD. We also discuss, and present initial results from, a recent radiation test campaign that was designed and carried out to mimic the conditions of the WFIRST-AFTA space environment in an L2 orbit, where we sought to assess the sensor's end of life performance, particularly degradation of its charge transfer efficiency, in addition to other parameters such as dark current, electron multiplication gain, clock induced charge and read noise.

  2. Advances in Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy Structure Determination applied to Sub-tomogram Averaging

    PubMed Central

    Bharat, Tanmay A.M.; Russo, Christopher J.; Löwe, Jan; Passmore, Lori A.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent innovations in specimen preparation, data collection, and image processing have led to improved structure determination using single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we explore some of these advances to improve structures determined using electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) and sub-tomogram averaging. We implement a new three-dimensional model for the contrast transfer function, and use this in a regularized likelihood optimization algorithm as implemented in the RELION program. Using direct electron detector data, we apply both single-particle analysis and sub-tomogram averaging to analyze radiation-induced movements of the specimen. As in single-particle cryo-EM, we find that significant sample movements occur during tomographic data acquisition, and that these movements are substantially reduced through the use of ultrastable gold substrates. We obtain a sub-nanometer resolution structure of the hepatitis B capsid, and show that reducing radiation-induced specimen movement may be central to attempts at further improving tomogram quality and resolution. PMID:26256537

  3. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  4. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  5. Quantifying export flows of used electronics: advanced methods to resolve used goods within trade data.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huabo; Miller, T Reed; Gregory, Jeremy; Kirchain, Randolph

    2014-03-18

    There is limited convincing quantitative data on the export of used electronics from the United States (U.S.). Thus, we advance a methodology to quantify the export flows of whole units of used electronics from the U.S. using detailed export trade data, and demonstrate the methodology using laptops. Since used electronics are not explicitly identified in export trade data, we hypothesize that exports with a low unit value below a used-new threshold specific to a destination world region are used. The importance of using the most disaggregated trade data set available when resolving used and new goods is illustrated. Two detailed U.S. export trade data sets were combined to arrive at quantities and unit values for each port, mode of transport, month, trade partner country, and trade code. We add rigor to the determination of the used-new threshold by utilizing both the Neighborhood valley-emphasis method (NVEM) and published sales prices. This analysis found that 748 to 1199 thousand units of used laptops were exported from the U.S. in 2010, of which 78-81% are destined for non-OECD countries. Asia was found to be the largest destination of used laptop exports across all used-new threshold methods. Latin American and the Caribbean was the second largest recipient of these exports. North America and Europe also received used laptops from the U.S. Only a small fraction of used laptops was exported to Africa. However, these quantities are lower bound estimates because not all shipments of used laptops may be shipped using the proper laptop trade code. Still, this approach has the potential to give insight into the quantity and destinations of the exports if applied to all used electronics product types across a series of years.

  6. Advances in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of dynamic self-assembling nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Christina J.; Moyer, Tyson J.; Lee, Sungsoo S.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the structural information of nanoscale materials in their solvent-exposed state is crucial, as a result, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has become an increasingly popular technique in the materials science, chemistry, and biology communities. Cryo-TEM provides a method to directly visualize the specimen structure in a solution-state through a thin film of vitrified solvent. This technique complements X-ray, neutron, and light scattering methods that probe the statistical average of all species present; furthermore, cryo-TEM can be used to observe changes in structure over time. In the area of self-assembly, this tool has been particularly powerful for the characterization of natural and synthetic small molecule assemblies, as well as hybrid organic–inorganic composites. In this review, we discuss recent advances in cryogenic TEM in the context of self-assembling systems with emphasis on characterization of transitions observed in response to external stimuli. PMID:23204913

  7. Advances in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of dynamic self-assembling nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Christina J; Moyer, Tyson J; Lee, Sungsoo S; Stupp, Samuel I

    2012-12-01

    Elucidating the structural information of nanoscale materials in their solvent-exposed state is crucial, as a result, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has become an increasingly popular technique in the materials science, chemistry, and biology communities. Cryo-TEM provides a method to directly visualize the specimen structure in a solution-state through a thin film of vitrified solvent. This technique complements X-ray, neutron, and light scattering methods that probe the statistical average of all species present; furthermore, cryo-TEM can be used to observe changes in structure over time. In the area of self-assembly, this tool has been particularly powerful for the characterization of natural and synthetic small molecule assemblies, as well as hybrid organic-inorganic composites. In this review, we discuss recent advances in cryogenic TEM in the context of self-assembling systems with emphasis on characterization of transitions observed in response to external stimuli.

  8. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  9. Advanced Packaging for VLSI/VHSIC (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits/Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) Applications: Electrical, Thermal, and Mechanical Considerations - An IR&D Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    GHz. The 36% ed "for-" everal"packagestyles ",Onc" we-have chracteri.ed the transmission"line paraetes fo eah oftheindiidul semens , atouh- 68-P...include polyimlide, level or two-tiered package lead configuration. The polyester polyethersulfane, and polyparabanic acid. problem can occur when fatigued

  10. Recent advances in PC-Linux systems for electronic structure computations by optimized compilers and numerical libraries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Shiang K; Yu, Chin-Hui

    2002-01-01

    One of the most frequently used packages for electronic structure research, GAUSSIAN 98, is compiled on Linux systems with various hardware configurations, including AMD Athlon (with the "Thunderbird" core), AthlonMP, and AthlonXP (with the "Palomino" core) systems as well as the Intel Pentium 4 (with the "Willamette" core) machines. The default PGI FORTRAN compiler (pgf77) and the Intel FORTRAN compiler (ifc) are respectively employed with different architectural optimization options to compile GAUSSIAN 98 and test the performance improvement. In addition to the BLAS library included in revision A.11 of this package, the Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software (ATLAS) library is linked against the binary executables to improve the performance. Various Hartree-Fock, density-functional theories, and the MP2 calculations are done for benchmarking purposes. It is found that the combination of ifc with ATLAS library gives the best performance for GAUSSIAN 98 on all of these PC-Linux computers, including AMD and Intel CPUs. Even on AMD systems, the Intel FORTRAN compiler invariably produces binaries with better performance than pgf77. The enhancement provided by the ATLAS library is more significant for post-Hartree-Fock calculations. The performance on one single CPU is potentially as good as that on an Alpha 21264A workstation or an SGI supercomputer. The floating-point marks by SpecFP2000 have similar trends to the results of GAUSSIAN 98 package.

  11. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven Reitzenstein, Stephan; Strittmatter, André

    2015-07-15

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  12. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  13. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  14. Reliability of CCGA 1152 and CCGA 1272 Interconnect Packages for Extreme Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages of high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performance, and compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logics and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, flight avionics, and payload electronics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short- and long-term space missions. Certain planetary satellites require operations of thermally uncontrolled hardware under extremely cold and hot temperatures with large diurnal temperature change from day to night. The planetary protection requires the hardware to be baked at +125 C for 72 hours to kill microbugs to avoid any biological contamination, especially for sample return missions. Therefore, the present CCGA package reliability research study has encompassed the temperature range of 185 to +125 C to cover various NASA deep space missions. Advanced 1152 and 1272 CCGA packaging interconnects technology test hardware objects have been subjected to ex treme temperature thermal cycles from 185 to +125 C. X-ray inspections of CCGA packages have been made before thermal cycling. No anomalous behavior and process problems were observed in the x-ray images. The change in resistance of the daisy-chained CCGA interconnects was measured as a function of increasing number of thermal cycles. Electrical continuity measurements of daisy chains have shown no anomalies, even until 596 thermal cycles. Optical inspections of hardware have shown a significant fatigue for CCGA 1152 packages over CCGA 1272 packages. No catastrophic failures have been observed yet in the results. Process qualification and assembly are required to optimize the CCGA assembly processes. Optical inspections of CCGA boards have been made after 258 and 596 thermal

  15. New advancements in 793 nm fiber-coupled modules for Th fiber laser pumping, including packages optimized for low SWaP applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Chris; Guiney, Tina; Irwin, David; Patterson, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Targeted at the 793nm absorption band, DILAS Diode Laser, Inc. offers a range of products specifically designed for Thulium fiber laser pumping, spanning from 12 W to <300W of pump power and coupled into fiber sizes starting at 105um and upwards. A variety of different diode architectures are utilized, ranging from single-emitters, conduction-cooled bars, and DILAS's T-bar structure extended to the 793nm range, resulting in a wide variety of power levels and packaging options to support different applications. As IRCM for airborne platforms is a major application for Tm fiber lasers, packages optimized for low SWaP will be presented, which utilize a combination of the T-bar structure and macrochannel coolers specifically designed for compact, lightweight applications. Examples and results of Tm fiber lasers pumped using DILAS diodes will also be presented and discussed.

  16. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiński, Piotr; Górecki, Krzysztof; Bogdanowicz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the selected articles presented at the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference, held in Gdansk, Poland on September 20-23, 2015 (IMAPS Poland 2015). The conference has been held under the scientific patronage of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Poland Chapter and the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunication, Polish Academy of Science and jointly hosted by the Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics (GUT) and the Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (GMU). The IMAPS Poland conference series aims to advance interdisciplinary scientific information exchange and the discussion of the science and technology of advanced electronics. The IMAPS Poland 2015 conference took place in the heart of Gdansk, two minutes walking distance from the beach. The surroundings and location of the venue guaranteed excellent working and leisure conditions. The three-day conference highlighted invited talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of electronics and electronic material science. The eight sessions covered areas in the fields of electronics packaging, interconnects on PCB, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), MEMS devices, transducers, sensors and modelling of electronic devices. The conference was attended by 99 participants from 11 countries. The conference schedule included 18 invited presentations and 78 poster presentations.

  17. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing information for vessel cargo. 103.31a Section 103.31a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing information for vessel cargo. 103.31a Section 103.31a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Other...

  19. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization §...

  20. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization §...

  1. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.105..., except as provided by agency mission; (n) Acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for travel... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105...

  2. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.105..., except as provided by agency mission; (n) Acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for travel... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105...

  3. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.105..., except as provided by agency mission; (n) Acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for travel... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105...

  4. Analysis of line integrated electron density using plasma position data on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Researcha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Y. U.; Chung, J.

    2010-10-01

    A 280 GHz single-channel horizontal millimeter-wave interferometer system has been installed for plasma electron density measurements on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. This system has a triangular beam path that does not pass through the plasma axis due to geometrical constraints in the superconducting tokamak. The term line density on KSTAR has a different meaning from the line density of other tokamaks. To estimate the peak density and the mean density from the measured line density, information on the position of the plasma is needed. The information has been calculated from tangentially viewed visible images using the toroidal symmetry of the plasma. Interface definition language routines have been developed for this purpose. The calculated plasma position data correspond well to calculation results from magnetic analysis. With the position data and an estimated plasma profile, the peak density and the mean density have been obtained from the line density. From these results, changes of plasma density themselves can be separated from effects of the plasma movements, so they can give valuable information on the plasma status.

  5. Initial high-power testing of the ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) ECH (electron cyclotron heating) system

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a moderate aspect ratio torsatron that will utilize 53.2 GHz 200 kW Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) to produce nearly current-free target plasmas suitable for subsequent heating by strong neutral beam injection. The initial configuration of the ECH system from the gyrotron to ATF consists of an optical arc detector, three bellows, a waveguide mode analyzer, two TiO/sub 2/ mode absorbers, two 90/sup 0/ miter bends, two waveguide pumpouts, an insulating break, a gate valve, and miscellaneous straight waveguide sections feeding a launcher radiating in the TE/sub 02/ mode. Later, a focusing Vlasov launcher will be added to beam the ECH power to the saddle point in ATF magnetic geometry for optimum power deposition. The ECH system has several unique features; namely, the entire ECH system is evacuated, the ECH system is broadband, forward power is monitored by a newly developed waveguide mode analyzer, phase correcting miter bends will be employed, and the ECH system will be capable of operating short pulse to cw. Initial high-power tests show that the overall system efficiency is 87%. The waveguide mode analyzer shows that the gyrotron mode output consists of 13% TE/sub 01/, 82.6% TE/sub 02/, 2.5% TE/sub 03/, and 1.9% TE/sub 04/. 4 refs.

  6. Development of advanced-type multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Nunomiya, T; Abe, S; Aoyama, K; Nakamura, T

    2007-01-01

    An advanced-type small, light, multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter has been developed using silicon semiconductor radiation detectors for dose management of workers at nuclear power plants and accelerator facilities. This dosemeter is 62 x 82 x 27 mm(3) in size and approximately 130 g in weight, which is capable of measuring personal gamma ray and neutron dose equivalents, Hp(10), simultaneously. The neutron dose equivalent can be obtained using two types of silicon semiconductors: a slow-neutron sensor (<1 MeV) and a fast-neutron sensor (>1 MeV). The slow neutron sensor is a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon on which a natural boron layer is deposited around an aluminium electrode. The fast neutron sensor is also a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon crystal on which an amorphous silicon hydride is deposited. The neutron energy response corresponding to the fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficient given by ICRP Publication 74 has been evaluated using a monoenergetic neutron source from 250 keV to 15 MeV at the Fast Neutron Laboratory of Tohoku University. As the result, the Hp(10) response to neutrons in the energy range of 250 keV and 4.4 MeV within +/-50% difference has been obtained.

  7. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  8. Lead-Free vs Tin-Lead Reliability of Advanced Electronic Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide the technical background and specific information published in literature related to reliability test, analyses, modeling, and associated issues for lead-free solder package assemblies in comparison to their tin-lead solder alloys. It also presents current understanding of lead-free thermal cycle test performance in support.

  9. Laser-assisted ultrathin bare die packaging: a route to a new class of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Val R.; Swenson, Orven; Atanasov, Yuriy; Schneck, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Ultrathin flip-chip semiconductor die packaging on paper substrates is an enabling technology for a variety of extremely low-cost electronic devices with huge market potential such as RFID smart forms, smart labels, smart tickets, banknotes, security documents, etc. Highly flexible and imperceptible dice are possible only at a thickness of less than 50 μm, preferably down to 10-20 μm or less. Several cents per die cost is achievable only if the die size is <= 500 μm/side. Such ultrathin, ultra-small dice provide the flexibility and low cost required, but no conventional technology today can package such die onto a flexible substrate at low cost and high rate. The laser-enabled advanced packaging (LEAP) technology has been developed at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota, to accomplish this objective. Presented are results using LEAP to assemble dice with various thicknesses, including 350 μm/side dice as thin as 20 μm and less. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using a laser to package conventional silicon dice with such small size and thickness. LEAP-packaged RFID-enabled paper for financial and security applications is also demonstrated. The cost of packaging using LEAP is lower compared to the conventional pick-and-place methods while the rate of packaging is much higher and independent of the die size.

  10. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  11. Instrumentation and Beam Dynamics Study of Advanced Electron-Photon Facility in Indiana University

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Tianhuan

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been specified. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  12. Long-term results of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy for nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingtai; Che, Xu; Zhang, Jianwei; Huang, Huang; Zhao, Dongbing; Tian, Yantao; Li, Yexiong; Feng, Qinfu; Zhang, Zhihui; Jiang, Qinglong; Zhang, Shuisheng; Tang, Xiaolong; Huang, Xianghui; Chu, Yunmian; Zhang, Jianghu; Sun, Yuemin; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Chengfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To assess prognostic benefits of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and evaluate optimal adjuvant treatment after IOERT. A retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data was conducted at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Cancer Center. Two hundred forty-seven consecutive patients with nonmetastatic LAPC who underwent IOERT between January 2008 and May 2015 were identified and included in the study. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from the day of IOERT. Prognostic factors were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40%, 14%, and 7.2%, respectively, with a median OS of 9.0 months. On multivariate analysis, an IOERT applicator diameter < 6 cm (hazards ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.97), no intraoperative interstitial sustained-release 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.32–0.66), and receipt of postoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy (HR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04–0.25) were significantly associated with improved OS. Pain relief after IOERT was achieved in 111 of the 117 patients, with complete remission in 74 and partial remission in 37. Postoperative complications rate and mortality were 14.0% and 0.4%, respectively. Nonmetastatic LAPC patients with smaller size tumors could achieve positive long-term survival outcomes with a treatment strategy incorporating IOERT and postoperative adjuvant treatment. Chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy might be a recommended adjuvant treatment strategy for well-selected cases. Intraoperative interstitial sustained-release 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy should not be recommended for patients with nonmetastatic LAPC. PMID:27661028

  13. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  14. Cooling system for electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  15. Cooling system for electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  16. Recent advances in electronic structure theory and their influence on the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F+H2 yields HF+H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.

  17. Recent advances in electronic structure theory and their influence on the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence correlation energy. These computational advances also provide a vehicle for systematically improving the calculations and for estimating the residual error in the calculations. Calculations on selected diatomic and triatomic systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy that currently can be achieved for molecular systems. In particular, the F + H2 yields HF + H potential energy hypersurface is used to illustrate the impact of these computational advances on the calculation of potential energy surfaces.

  18. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-approved electronic data interchange system no later than either 30 minutes or 1 hour prior to the carrier... by truck, to the extent that the particular CBP-approved electronic data interchange system employed... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required...

  19. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Organization) code (M) (The approved electronic data interchange system supports both 3- and 2-character ICAO... trip/flight number (M); (iii) The carrier/ICAO code (M) (The approved electronic data interchange... the required cargo information to CBP must be effected through a CBP-approved electronic...

  20. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... electronic data interchange system no later than either 30 minutes or 1 hour prior to the carrier's reaching... by truck, to the extent that the particular CBP-approved electronic data interchange system employed... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required...

  1. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or its authorized agent must use a CBP-approved electronic data interchange system (currently, the... the CBP-approved electronic system has received and accepted this data, the system will generate and... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for outward cargo...

  2. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Organization) code (M) (The approved electronic data interchange system supports both 3- and 2-character ICAO... trip/flight number (M); (iii) The carrier/ICAO code (M) (The approved electronic data interchange... the required cargo information to CBP must be effected through a CBP-approved electronic...

  3. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or its authorized agent must use a CBP-approved electronic data interchange system (currently, the... the CBP-approved electronic system has received and accepted this data, the system will generate and... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic information for outward cargo...

  4. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... electronic data interchange system no later than either 30 minutes or 1 hour prior to the carrier's reaching... the particular CBP-approved electronic data interchange system employed can accept this information... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required...

  5. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... electronic data interchange system no later than either 30 minutes or 1 hour prior to the carrier's reaching... by truck, to the extent that the particular CBP-approved electronic data interchange system employed... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required...

  6. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... electronic data interchange system no later than either 30 minutes or 1 hour prior to the carrier's reaching... the particular CBP-approved electronic data interchange system employed can accept this information... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required...

  7. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or its authorized agent must use a CBP-approved electronic data interchange system (currently, the... the CBP-approved electronic system has received and accepted this data, the system will generate and... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic information for outward cargo...

  8. Ultrastructure Processing and Environmental Stability of Advanced Structural and Electronic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    network dissolution, electron beam simulated desorption, electron signal decay, oxidation, oxide layer , growth kinetics, silicon carbide, assivation...surface layers on silicate glasses are reviewed. A type IIIB glass surface is proposed. The mechanisms of hydrothermal attack of two phase lithia...method to make reliable lifetime predictions. Use of electron beam techniques is essential for understanding surface layers formed on glasses (Section III

  9. Predicted reliability of aerospace electronics: Application of two advanced probabilistic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    Two advanced probabilistic design-for-reliability (PDfR) concepts are addressed and discussed in application to the prediction, quantification and assurance of the aerospace electronics reliability: 1) Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, which is an extension of the currently widely used Arrhenius model and, in combination with the exponential law of reliability, enables one to obtain a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful formula for the evaluation of the probability of failure (PoF) of a material or a device after the given time in operation at the given temperature and under the given stress (not necessarily mechanical), and 2) Extreme Value Distribution (EVD) technique that can be used to assess the number of repetitive loadings that result in the material/device degradation and eventually lead to its failure by closing, in a step-wise fashion, the gap between the bearing capacity (stress-free activation energy) of the material or the device and the demand (loading). It is shown that the material degradation (aging, damage accumulation, flaw propagation, etc.) can be viewed, when BAZ model is considered, as a Markovian process, and that the BAZ model can be obtained as the ultimate steady-state solution to the well-known Fokker-Planck equation in the theory of Markovian processes. It is shown also that the BAZ model addresses the worst, but a reasonably conservative, situation. It is suggested therefore that the transient period preceding the condition addressed by the steady-state BAZ model need not be accounted for in engineering evaluations. However, when there is an interest in understanding the transient degradation process, the obtained solution to the Fokker-Planck equation can be used for this purpose. As to the EVD concept, it attributes the degradation process to the accumulation of damages caused by a train of repetitive high-level loadings, while loadings of levels that are considerably lower than their extreme values do not contribute

  10. Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Emerson, John A.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Giunta, Rachel K.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  11. Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Emerson, John A.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Giunta, Rachel K.; Zamora, David Lee; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-04-15

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  12. Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the…

  13. A 1-kW power demonstration from the advanced free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.; Conner, C.A.; Fortgang, C.M.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective of this project was to engineer and procure an electron beamline compatible with the operation of a 1-kW free-electron laser (FEL). Another major task is the physics design of the electron beam line from the end of the wiggler to the electron beam dump. This task is especially difficult because electron beam is expected to have 20 kW of average power and to simultaneously have a 25% energy spread. The project goals were accomplished. The high-power electron design was completed. All of the hardware necessary for high-power operation was designed and procured.

  14. Performance of an Advanced Repetitively Pulsed Electron Beam Pumped KrF Laser Driver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    meet the IFE requirements. The initial system employs a gas switched Marx with improved reliability and maintenance schedule. The Marx will later be retrofitted (circa 2006) with advanced solid state switches, presently un

  15. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  16. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  17. Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and Terahertz Vacuum Electronic Radiation Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    Models for Microstrip Computer-Aided Design,” in Microwave Symposium Digest , 1980 IEEE MTT-S International, 1980, p. 407. [2] B.B. Yang, S.L...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0359 Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and Terahertz John Booske UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN SYSTEM...12-2014 Final Technical Performance Report October 1, 2011 - September 30, 2014 Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and

  18. Signal processor packaging design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

    1993-10-01

    The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

  19. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  20. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  1. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  2. Experimentally characterizing the electronic structures of f-electron systems using advanced high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Stephen, A

    2013-02-03

    We aim to (i) provide data that directly addresses the fundamental roles of actinide valence electrons in chemical bonding, and (ii) serve to provide prototypical data for the heavy element computational chemistry community. These goals will be achieved through the first pure rotational spectroscopic measurements on prototypical systems at ultra-high resolution. These systems encompass low oxidation state uranium and thorium compounds including, but not limited to, UX and ThX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, and UY and ThY, Y = O, S, and other simple U and Th-containing compounds. Our primary experimental tools involve time-domain rotational spectroscopy achieving line widths and resolutions of a few kHz.

  3. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  4. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  5. Packaging of MEMS microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiertag, Gregor; Winter, Matthias; Leidl, Anton

    2009-05-01

    To miniaturize MEMS microphones we have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding. In this new packaging technology MEMS and ASIC are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate. The package is sealed by a laminated polymer foil and by a metal layer. The sound port is on the bottom side in the ceramic substrate. In this paper the packaging technology is explained in detail and results of electro-acoustic characterization and reliability testing are presented. We will also explain the way which has led us from the packaging of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) components to the packaging of MEMS microphones.

  6. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; Doyle, E. J.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Jackson, G. L.; Kaufman, M. C.; Luce, T. C.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Politzer, P. A.; Porkolab, M.; Ryan, P. M.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Turco, F.; Zeng, L.

    2014-02-01

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ˜2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  7. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M.; Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Porkolab, M.; Turco, F.

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ∼2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  8. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-10-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  9. Progress and new advances in simulating electron microscopy datasets using MULTEM.

    PubMed

    Lobato, I; Van Aert, S; Verbeeck, J

    2016-09-01

    A new version of the open source program MULTEM is presented here. It includes a graphical user interface, tapering truncation of the atomic potential, CPU multithreading functionality, single/double precision calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) simulations using experimental detector sensitivities, imaging STEM (ISTEM) simulations, energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) simulations, STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) simulations along with other improvements in the algorithms. We also present a mixed channeling approach for the calculation of inelastic excitations, which allows one to considerably speed up time consuming EFTEM/STEM-EELS calculations.

  10. Comparison of the degradation effects of heavy ion, electron, and cobalt-60 irradiation in an advanced bipolar process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Goben, Charles A.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of the degradation effects of high-energy particles (heavy Br ions and electrons) and Co-60 gamma-rays on the current gain of minimum-geometry bipolar transistors made from an advanced process. The data clearly illustrate the total-ionizing-dose vs particle-fluence behavior of this bipolar transistor produced by an advanced process. In particular, bulk damage from Co-60 gamma rays in bipolar transistors (base transport factor degradation) and surface damage in bipolar transistors from ionizing radiation (emitter-efficiency degradation) have been observed. The true equivalence between various types of radiation for this process technology has been determined on the basis of damage from the log K1 intercepts.

  11. Possibilities and limitations of advanced transmission electron microscopy for carbon-based nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiaoxing; Bittencourt, Carla; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    A major revolution for electron microscopy in the past decade is the introduction of aberration correction, which enables one to increase both the spatial resolution and the energy resolution to the optical limit. Aberration correction has contributed significantly to the imaging at low operating voltages. This is crucial for carbon-based nanomaterials which are sensitive to electron irradiation. The research of carbon nanomaterials and nanohybrids, in particular the fundamental understanding of defects and interfaces, can now be carried out in unprecedented detail by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). This review discusses new possibilities and limits of AC-TEM at low voltage, including the structural imaging at atomic resolution, in three dimensions and spectroscopic investigation of chemistry and bonding. In situ TEM of carbon-based nanomaterials is discussed and illustrated through recent reports with particular emphasis on the underlying physics of interactions between electrons and carbon atoms.

  12. Possibilities and limitations of advanced transmission electron microscopy for carbon-based nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Carla; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major revolution for electron microscopy in the past decade is the introduction of aberration correction, which enables one to increase both the spatial resolution and the energy resolution to the optical limit. Aberration correction has contributed significantly to the imaging at low operating voltages. This is crucial for carbon-based nanomaterials which are sensitive to electron irradiation. The research of carbon nanomaterials and nanohybrids, in particular the fundamental understanding of defects and interfaces, can now be carried out in unprecedented detail by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). This review discusses new possibilities and limits of AC-TEM at low voltage, including the structural imaging at atomic resolution, in three dimensions and spectroscopic investigation of chemistry and bonding. In situ TEM of carbon-based nanomaterials is discussed and illustrated through recent reports with particular emphasis on the underlying physics of interactions between electrons and carbon atoms. PMID:26425406

  13. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Part 2: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Control Functions for Single-Phase Utility-Connected Inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Kramer, W.

    2008-11-01

    Integrating renewable energy and distributed generations into the Smart Grid architecture requires power electronic (PE) for energy conversion. The key to reaching successful Smart Grid implementation is to develop interoperable, intelligent, and advanced PE technology that improves and accelerates the use of distributed energy resource systems. This report describes the simulation, design, and testing of a single-phase DC-to-AC inverter developed to operate in both islanded and utility-connected mode. It provides results on both the simulations and the experiments conducted, demonstrating the ability of the inverter to provide advanced control functions such as power flow and VAR/voltage regulation. This report also analyzes two different techniques used for digital signal processor (DSP) code generation. Initially, the DSP code was written in C programming language using Texas Instrument's Code Composer Studio. In a later stage of the research, the Simulink DSP toolbox was used to self-generate code for the DSP. The successful tests using Simulink self-generated DSP codes show promise for fast prototyping of PE controls.

  14. The development of advanced cooling methods for high-power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, T. J.; Ciaccio, M. P.; Downing, R. S.; Smith, W. G.

    1990-10-01

    Consideration is given to various technologies developed to meet the difficult cooling requirements of high-density power electronics equipment for the aerospace industry. Topics discussed include liquid impingement cooling, compact high-density cooler, integrally cooled semiconductor, high heat flux cold plane, immersion cooling, modular reflux cooler, and forced-flow two-phase cooling systems. It is concluded that the new technologies are capable of providing the temperature control necessary to maintain desired electronic reliabilities using high-conductance cooling approaches.

  15. Electronic GaAs-on-Silicon Material for Advanced High-Speed Optoelectronic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    boundaries , low angle grain boundaries , twinning, and dislocations. Bauser et al. [20] have reported convincing experimental evidence that liquid-phase...Electron mobilities as high as 2000 cm2/V-s were measured. The GaAs films on silicon substrates formed by CSVT were used to seed the subsequent growth...film. Electron mobilities as high as 2000 cm2/V-s were measured in CSVT GaAs films on silicon. The effects of various process parameters on film

  16. Impact of a Care Directives Activity Tab in the Electronic Health Record on Documentation of Advance Care Planning

    PubMed Central

    Turley, Marianne; Wang, Susan; Meng, Di; Kanter, Michael; Garrido, Terhilda

    2016-01-01

    Context: To ensure patient-centered end-of-life care, advance care planning (ACP) must be documented in the medical record and readily retrieved across care settings. Objective: To describe use of the Care Directives Activity tab (CDA), a single-location feature in the electronic health record for collecting and viewing ACP documentation in inpatient and ambulatory care settings, and to assess its association with ACP documentation rates. Design: Retrospective pre- and postimplementation analysis in 2012 and 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California among 113,309 patients aged 65 years and older with ACP opportunities during outpatient or inpatient encounters. Main Outcome Measures: Providers’ CDA use rates and documentation rates of advance directives and physician orders for life-sustaining treatments stratified by CDA use. Results: Documentation rates of advance directives and physician orders for life-sustaining treatments among patients with outpatient and inpatient encounters were 3.5 to 9.6 percentage points higher for patients with CDA use vs those without it. The greatest differences were for orders for life-sustaining treatments among patients with inpatient encounters and for advance directives among patients with outpatient encounters; both were 9.6 percentage points higher among those with CDA use than those without it. All differences were significant after controlling for yearly variation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Statistically significant differences in documentation rates between patients with and without CDA use suggest the potential of a standardized location in the electronic health record to improve ACP documentation. Further research is required to understand effects of CDA use on retrieval of preferences and end-of-life care. PMID:27057820

  17. Discovery Learning and Teaching with Electronic Corpora in an Advanced German Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the design and implementation of a usage-based and corpus-based advanced German grammar course. Teaching materials for the course included DWDS, or "Digitales Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache": a large, representative, free and publicly available corpus of contemporary German texts. The article outlines specific…

  18. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  19. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  20. GRAPHICS MANAGER (GFXMGR): An interactive graphics software program for the Advanced Electronics Design (AED) graphics controller, Model 767

    SciTech Connect

    Faculjak, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    Graphics Manager (GFXMGR) is menu-driven, user-friendly software designed to interactively create, edit, and delete graphics displays on the Advanced Electronics Design (AED) graphics controller, Model 767. The software runs on the VAX family of computers and has been used successfully in security applications to create and change site layouts (maps) of specific facilities. GFXMGR greatly benefits graphics development by minimizing display-development time, reducing tedium on the part of the user, and improving system performance. It is anticipated that GFXMGR can be used to create graphics displays for many types of applications. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  2. Recent Advances in Electron Tomography: TEM and HAADF-STEM Tomography for Materials Science and IC Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kubel, C; Voigt, A; Schoenmakers, R; Otten, M; Su, D; Lee, T; Carlsson, A; Engelmann, H; Bradley, J

    2005-11-09

    Electron tomograph tomography is a well y well-established technique for three-dimensional structure determination of (almost) amorphous specimens in life science applications. With the recent advances in nanotechnology and the semiconductor industry, there is also an increasing need for high-resolution 3D structural information in physical sciences. In this paper, we evaluate the capabilities and limitations of TEM and HAADF-STEM tomography for the 3D structural characterization of partially crystalline to highly crystalline materials. Our analysis of catalysts, a hydrogen storage material, and different semiconductor devices shows that features with a diameter as small as 1-2 nm can be resolved in 3D by electron tomography. For partially crystalline materials with small single crystalline domains, TEM tomography provides reliable 3D structural information. HAADF-STEM tomography is more versatile and can also be used for high-resolution 3D imaging of highly crystalline materials such as semiconductor devices.

  3. Advanced High Energy Density Secondary Batteries with Multi-Electron Reaction Materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Luo, Rui; Huang, Yongxin; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    Secondary batteries have become important for smart grid and electric vehicle applications, and massive effort has been dedicated to optimizing the current generation and improving their energy density. Multi-electron chemistry has paved a new path for the breaking of the barriers that exist in traditional battery research and applications, and provided new ideas for developing new battery systems that meet energy density requirements. An in-depth understanding of multi-electron chemistries in terms of the charge transfer mechanisms occuring during their electrochemical processes is necessary and urgent for the modification of secondary battery materials and development of secondary battery systems. In this Review, multi-electron chemistry for high energy density electrode materials and the corresponding secondary battery systems are discussed. Specifically, four battery systems based on multi-electron reactions are classified in this review: lithium- and sodium-ion batteries based on monovalent cations; rechargeable batteries based on the insertion of polyvalent cations beyond those of alkali metals; metal-air batteries, and Li-S batteries. It is noted that challenges still exist in the development of multi-electron chemistries that must be overcome to meet the energy density requirements of different battery systems, and much effort has more effort to be devoted to this.

  4. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  5. Advanced High Energy Density Secondary Batteries with Multi‐Electron Reaction Materials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Rui; Huang, Yongxin; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondary batteries have become important for smart grid and electric vehicle applications, and massive effort has been dedicated to optimizing the current generation and improving their energy density. Multi‐electron chemistry has paved a new path for the breaking of the barriers that exist in traditional battery research and applications, and provided new ideas for developing new battery systems that meet energy density requirements. An in‐depth understanding of multi‐electron chemistries in terms of the charge transfer mechanisms occuring during their electrochemical processes is necessary and urgent for the modification of secondary battery materials and development of secondary battery systems. In this Review, multi‐electron chemistry for high energy density electrode materials and the corresponding secondary battery systems are discussed. Specifically, four battery systems based on multi‐electron reactions are classified in this review: lithium‐ and sodium‐ion batteries based on monovalent cations; rechargeable batteries based on the insertion of polyvalent cations beyond those of alkali metals; metal–air batteries, and Li–S batteries. It is noted that challenges still exist in the development of multi‐electron chemistries that must be overcome to meet the energy density requirements of different battery systems, and much effort has more effort to be devoted to this. PMID:27840796

  6. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  7. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  8. Advances in Ultrafast Control and Probing of Correlated-Electron Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Simon; Rini, Matteo; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Cavalleri, Andrea

    2011-02-24

    Here in this paper, we present recent results on ultrafast control and probing of strongly correlated-electron materials. We focus on magnetoresistive manganites, applying excitation and probing wavelengths that cover the mid-IR to the soft X-rays. In analogy with near-equilibrium filling and bandwidth control of phase transitions, our approach uses both visible and mid-IR pulses to stimulate the dynamics by exciting either charges across electronic bandgaps or specific vibrational resonances. Lastly, x-rays are used to unambiguously measure the microscopic electronic, orbital, and structural dynamics. Our experiments dissect and separate the nonequilibrium physics of these compounds, revealing the complex interplay and evolution of spin, lattice, charge, and orbital degrees of freedoms in the time domain.

  9. Strain mapping at nanometer resolution using advanced nano-beam electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdol, V. B.; Ercius, P.; Ophus, C.; Ciston, J.; Gammer, C. E-mail: aminor@lbl.gov; Jin, X. G.; Minor, A. M. E-mail: aminor@lbl.gov

    2015-06-22

    We report on the development of a nanometer scale strain mapping technique by means of scanning nano-beam electron diffraction. Only recently possible due to fast acquisition with a direct electron detector, this technique allows for strain mapping with a high precision of 0.1% at a lateral resolution of 1 nm for a large field of view reaching up to 1 μm. We demonstrate its application to a technologically relevant strain-engineered GaAs/GaAsP hetero-structure and show that the method can even be applied to highly defected regions with substantial changes in local crystal orientation. Strain maps derived from atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy images were used to validate the accuracy, precision and resolution of this versatile technique.

  10. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies for the Detection of Volatile Biomarker Metabolites in the Human Breath

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose) devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to point-of-care clinical disease diagnoses. This exciting new area of electronic disease detection and diagnosis promises to yield much faster and earlier detection of human diseases and disorders, allowing earlier, more effective treatments, resulting in more rapid patient recovery from various afflictions. E-nose devices are particularly suited for the field of disease diagnostics, because they are sensitive to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and can effectively distinguish between different complex gaseous mixtures via analysis of electronic aroma sensor-array output profiles of volatile metabolites present in the human breath. This review provides a summary of some recent developments of electronic-nose technologies, particularly involving breath analysis, with the potential for providing many new diagnostic applications for the detection of specific human diseases associated with different organs in the body, detectable from e-nose analyses of aberrant disease-associated VOCs present in air expired from the lungs. PMID:25738426

  11. Advances in electronic-nose technologies for the detection of volatile biomarker metabolites in the human breath.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alphus D

    2015-03-02

    Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose) devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to point-of-care clinical disease diagnoses. This exciting new area of electronic disease detection and diagnosis promises to yield much faster and earlier detection of human diseases and disorders, allowing earlier, more effective treatments, resulting in more rapid patient recovery from various afflictions. E-nose devices are particularly suited for the field of disease diagnostics, because they are sensitive to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and can effectively distinguish between different complex gaseous mixtures via analysis of electronic aroma sensor-array output profiles of volatile metabolites present in the human breath. This review provides a summary of some recent developments of electronic-nose technologies, particularly involving breath analysis, with the potential for providing many new diagnostic applications for the detection of specific human diseases associated with different organs in the body, detectable from e-nose analyses of aberrant disease-associated VOCs present in air expired from the lungs.

  12. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-06-01

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology-based society.

  13. Advances in the field of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    In single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), molecules suspended in a thin aqueous layer are rapidly frozen and imaged at cryogenic temperature in the transmission electron microscope. From the random projection views, a three-dimensional image is reconstructed, enabling the structure of the molecule to be obtained. In this article I discuss technological progress over the past decade, which has, in my own field of study, culminated in the determination of ribosome structure at 2.5-Å resolution. I also discuss likely future improvements in methodology.

  14. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology.

    PubMed

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J

    2016-06-28

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology-based society.

  15. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology

    PubMed Central

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology–based society. PMID:27317740

  16. Design, Development, and Evaluation of Electronic Portfolios for Advanced Degree Programs in Technology and School Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carol A.

    2004-01-01

    Across the various programs of study, portfolios serve many functions and purposes. Electronic portfolios have been used as a culminating product for students in our Master of Library Science and Master of Education in Instructional Technology at East Carolina University. Two conclusions were drawn from this study - (1) authentic assessment using…

  17. Advanced three-dimensional electron microscopy techniques in the quest for better structural and functional materials

    PubMed Central

    Schryvers, D; Cao, S; Tirry, W; Idrissi, H; Van Aert, S

    2013-01-01

    After a short review of electron tomography techniques for materials science, this overview will cover some recent results on different shape memory and nanostructured metallic systems obtained by various three-dimensional (3D) electron imaging techniques. In binary Ni–Ti, the 3D morphology and distribution of Ni4Ti3 precipitates are investigated by using FIB/SEM slice-and-view yielding 3D data stacks. Different quantification techniques will be presented including the principal ellipsoid for a given precipitate, shape classification following a Zingg scheme, particle distribution function, distance transform and water penetration. The latter is a novel approach to quantifying the expected matrix transformation in between the precipitates. The different samples investigated include a single crystal annealed with and without compression yielding layered and autocatalytic precipitation, respectively, and a polycrystal revealing different densities and sizes of the precipitates resulting in a multistage transformation process. Electron tomography was used to understand the interaction between focused ion beam-induced Frank loops and long dislocation structures in nanobeams of Al exhibiting special mechanical behaviour measured by on-chip deposition. Atomic resolution electron tomography is demonstrated on Ag nanoparticles in an Al matrix. PMID:27877554

  18. Electronic Literacies in the Workplace: Technologies of Writing. Advances in Computers and Composition Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patricia, Ed.; Dautermann, Jennie, Ed.

    Contending that technology, especially when it networks writers to other writers, is more than a mere scribal tool, this book presents 14 essays designed to ignite interest in technology as one of the material conditions of workplace writing contexts. After an introduction ("Issues of Written Literacy and Electronic Literacy in Workplace…

  19. Integrating Advance Organizers and Multidimensional Information Display in Electronic Performance Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Wei-Chen; Chao, Chia-An

    2007-01-01

    This study has reviewed major design approaches for electronic performance support systems and identified two common problems: users' inability to comprehend screen-based material and poorly designed instructional scaffolds. This paper presents a design approach, called the "Matrix-Aided Performance System" ("MAPS"), which enables these problems…

  20. Advanced Electronics Technologies: Challenges for Radiation Effects Testing, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging Electronics Technologies include: 1) Changes in the commercial semiconductor world; 2) Radiation Effects Sources (A sample test constraint); and 3) Challenges to Radiation Testing and Modeling: a) IC Attributes-Radiation Effects Implication b) Fault Isolation c) Scaled Geometry d) Speed e) Modeling Shortfall f) Knowledge Status

  1. A Modular and Configurable Instrument Electronics Architecture for "MiniSAR"- An Advanced Smallsat SAR Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jaime; Pastena, Max; Bierens, Laurens

    2013-08-01

    MiniSAR is a Dutch program focused on the development of a commercial smallsat featuring a SAR instrument, led by SSBV as prime contractor. In this paper an Instrument Electronics (IEL) system concept to meet the MiniSAR demands is presented. This system has several specificities wrt similar initiatives in the European space industry, driven by our main requirement: keep it small.

  2. Micromechanics and advanced designs for curved photodetector arrays in hemispherical electronic-eye cameras.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gunchul; Jung, Inhwa; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Song, Jizhou; Wang, Shuodao; Ko, Heung Cho; Huang, Yonggang; Ha, Jeong Sook; Rogers, John A

    2010-04-09

    The fabrication of a hemispherical electronic-eye camera with optimized designs based upon micromechanical analysis is reported. The photodetector arrays combine layouts with multidevice tiles and extended, non-coplanar interconnects to improve the fill factor and deformability, respectively. Quantitative comparison to micromechanics analysis reveals the key features of these designs. Color images collected with working cameras demonstrate the utility of these approaches.

  3. Electronic Router

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  4. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  5. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  6. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  7. Ceramic packaging for MEMS-based microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Ceramic packaging is crucial to the development of MEMS-based microsystems. It is an enabling technology, giving the ability to build complex packages that combine MEMS, electronics, optics, and sensors in a compact volume. In addition, ceramic hermetic packaging has a long history of providing protection to the enclosed devices, even under harsh conditions. These capabilities are being used at Sandia to package complex, MEMS-based microsystems. Looking ahead, ceramic packaging is developing new capabilities important to microsystems, such as the addition of fluidic channels. These developments will make ceramic packaging a viable option for a wide variety of compact, highly integrated microsystems. However, MEMS, particularly surface micromachines, have new reliability concerns that ceramic packaging needs to address. One example is stiction, where small amounts of water can generate surface forces large enough to cause parts to stick together. This demonstrates the need to measure and control the internal environment with greater precision than has been required in the past. Despite these challenges, it is clear that ceramic packaging will be a key technology for complex microsystems in the future.

  8. Transformation of food packaging from passive to innovative via nanotechnology: concepts and critiques.

    PubMed

    Mlalila, Nichrous; Kadam, Dattatreya M; Swai, Hulda; Hilonga, Askwar

    2016-09-01

    In recent decades, there is a global advancement in manufacturing industry due to increased applications of nanotechnology. Food industry also has been tremendously changing from passive packaging to innovative packaging, to cope with global trends, technological advancements, and consumer preferences. Active research is taking place in food industry and other scientific fields to develop innovative packages including smart, intelligent and active food packaging for more effective and efficient packaging materials with balanced environmental issues. However, in food industry the features behind smart packaging are narrowly defined to be distinguished from intelligent packaging as in other scientific fields, where smart materials are under critical investigations. This review presents some scientific concepts and features pertaining innovative food packaging. The review opens new research window in innovative food packaging to cover the existing disparities for further precise research and development of food packaging industry.

  9. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  10. Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

  11. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L.; Cornell, M.; Kaplan, L.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the risk associated with accidents involving aircraft with carbon fiber composite structural components is examined. The individual fiber segments cause electrical and electronic equipment to fail under certain operating conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model was used to computer the risk. Aircraft accidents with fire, release of carbon fiber material, entrainment of carbon fibers in a smoke plume transport of fibers downwind, transfer of some fibers/into the the interior of buildings, failures of electrical and electronic equipment, and economic impact of failures are discussed. Risk profiles were prepared for individual airports and the Nation. The vulnerability of electrical transmission equipment to carbon fiber incursion and aircraft accident total costs is investigated.

  12. Advancements in electron cyclotron emission imaging demonstrated by the TEXTOR ECEI diagnostic upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, B.; Kong, X.; Liang, T.; Spear, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Pol, M. J. van de; Jaspers, R.; Donne, A. J. H.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.

    2009-09-15

    A new TEXTOR electron cyclotron emission imaging system has been developed and employed, providing a diagnostic with new features and enhanced capabilities when compared to the legacy system it replaces. Optical coupling to the plasma has been completely redesigned, making use of new minilens arrays for reduced optical aberration and providing the new feature of vertical zoom, whereby the vertical coverage is now remotely adjustable on a shot-by-shot basis from 20-35 cm. Other innovations, such as the implementation of stacked quasioptical planar notch filters, allow for the diagnostic to be operated without interruption or degradation in performance during electron cyclotron resonance heating. Successful commissioning of the new diagnostic and a demonstration of the improved capabilities are presented in this paper, along with a discussion of the new technologies employed.

  13. Graphene and Donor-Acceptor Molecules/Nanoparticle Composites for Advanced Electronics Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-26

    induced by carbon and boron fullerenes (C60, C70, C80 and B80). Spin-polarized first-principles calculations were performed on zigzag boron− nitride ...structures and electronic properties of two-dimensional single-layer graphene in the presence of non-covalent interactions induced by carbon and boron...fullerenes (C60, C70, C80 and B80) and spin-polarized first-principles calculations performed on zigzag boron− nitride nanoribbons (z-BNNRs) with lines

  14. Theoretical analysis of advanced schemes for free electron laser with a large {mu}{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhulin, V.I.; Zanadvorov, N.P.

    1995-12-31

    The possibility to operate with a short pulse FEL (electron pulse length a {sigma} {approx_equal} 1mm) in far infrared region (with the radiation wavelength 10{mu}m {le}{lambda}{le}300{mu}m) gives rise to many new applications. The parameter {mu}{sub c} = N{lambda}/{sigma}, which characterises the interaction time between the electron and radiation pulses in the undulator with N periods, becomes rather large ({mu}{sub c}{approximately}10) even for {lambda}{approximately}100{mu}m. An increase in {lambda} leads to the reduction in output power owing to an increase in both the diffraction losses and {mu}{sub c}. We consider two options capable to improve the situation in the FEL with planar undulator geometry: I. Reduction of the diffraction losses by use of circular or rectangular hollow waveguides in the cavity. II. Effective reduction of {mu}{sub c} factor by increasing the FEL-interaction time by means of the optical klystron undulator scheme. We demonstrate that; I. Introduction of a waveguide into the cavity causes additional difficulties. In both circular and rectangular cases the waveguide dispersion leads to the undesirable variation of radiation pulse shape. For the circular case the effect of depolarization becomes important and leads to the additional losses (up to 30%) due to the violation of the axial symmetry and linear polarization. II. The optical klystron scheme consisting of several separated undulators, can indeed increase the FEL-interaction time. The right choice of electron bunch delay between these undulators gives the possibility to couple several successive electron pulses with one radiation pulse during one passage through the cavity. This results in considerable increase in FEL-interaction time and corresponding increase in gain.

  15. MORPH-II, a software package for the analysis of scanning-electron-micrograph images for the assessment of the fractal dimension of exposed stone surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf

    2000-01-01

    Turcotte, 1997, and Barton and La Pointe, 1995, have identified many potential uses for the fractal dimension in physicochemical models of surface properties. The image-analysis program described in this report is an extension of the program set MORPH-I (Mossotti and others, 1998), which provided the fractal analysis of electron-microscope images of pore profiles (Mossotti and Eldeeb, 1992). MORPH-II, an integration of the modified kernel of the program MORPH-I with image calibration and editing facilities, was designed to measure the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces of stone specimens as imaged in cross section in an electron microscope.

  16. Microgravity experiments on boiling and applications: research activity of advanced high heat flux cooling technology for electronic devices in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2004-11-01

    Research and development on advanced high heat flux cooling technology for electronic devices has been carried out as the Project of Fundamental Technology Development for Energy Conservation, promoted by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO). Based on the microgravity experiments on boiling heat transfer, the following useful results have obtained for the cooling of electronic devices. In subcooled flow boiling in a small channel, heat flux increases considerably more than the ordinary critical heat flux with microbubble emission in transition boiling, and dry out of the heating surface is disturbed. Successful enhancement of heat transfer is achieved by a capillary effect from grooved surface dual subchannels on the liquid supply. The critical heat flux increases 30-40 percent more than for ordinary subchannels. A self-wetting mechanism has been proposed, following investigation of bubble behavior in pool boiling of binary mixtures under microgravity. Ideas and a new concept have been proposed for the design of future cooling system in power electronics.

  17. Some recent advances in gold-based catalysis facilitated by aberration corrected analytical electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiruvalam, R.; He, Q.; Herzing, A. A.; Pritchard, J.; Dimitratos, N.; Lopez-Sanchez, J. A.; Edwards, J. K.; Carley, A. F.; Hutchings, G. J.; Kiely, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The recent availability of aberration corrected analytical electron microscopes (ACAEM) is revolutionizing our ability to characterize nanostructured catalyst materials. Some recent case studies are presented whereby the application of the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging technique, coupled with STEM-XEDS analysis, has given us a more detailed and realistic view of the catalyst morphology. The examples chosen include supported Au catalysts for low temperature CO oxidation and supported AuPd bimetallic alloy catalysts for the direct production of H2O2.

  18. NCD Diamond Semiconductor System for Advanced Power Electronics Systems Integration : CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, Anirudha

    2016-07-22

    The integration of 2D materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) with diamond (3D) was achieved by forming an heterojunction between these two materials and its electrical performance was studied experimentally. The device charactertics did show good rectifying nature when p-type single crystal diamond was integrated with n-type MoS2. These results are very encouraging indicating possible applications in semiconductor electronics, however further studies are required for a detailed understanding of the transport phenomena at the MoS2/diamond interface.

  19. Impact of external influences on food packaging.

    PubMed

    Brody, A L

    1977-09-01

    Since the food supply is dependent upon an effective packaging system, threats to packaging represent implied threats to food processing and distribution. Enacted and potential legislation and regulation are retarding technological and commercial progress in food packaging and have already restricted some food packaging/processins systems. The results of these external influences is not simply the sum of the individual acts, but is a cascading self-imposed arresting of food packaging/processing advancement. The technological bases for the enacted and proposed legislation and regulation are presented in the enumeration of the external influences on food packaging. Economic and sociological arguments and facts surrounding the issues are also presented. Among the external influences on food packaging detailed are indirect additives, nutritional labeling, benefit:risk, solid waste and litter, environmental pollution, universal product code, and food industry productivity. The magnitude of the total impact of these external influences upon the food supply is so large that assertive action must be taken to channel these influences into more productive awareness. An objective and comprehensive public communications program supported by the technological community appears mandatory.

  20. EUV mask pattern inspection with an advanced electron beam inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Inazuki, Yuichi; Tsukasa, Abe; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Xiao, Hong; Jau, Jack

    2009-12-01

    Readiness of defect-free mask is one of the biggest challenges to insert extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography into semiconductor high volume manufacturing for 22nm half pitch (HP) node and beyond. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2008, minimum size of defect needed to be removed is 25nm for 22nm HP node in 2013 [1]. It is necessary, therefore, to develop EUV mask pattern inspection tool being capable of detecting 25nm defect. Electron beam inspection (EBI) is one of promising tools which will be able to meet such a tight defect requirement. In this paper, we evaluated defect detection sensitivity of electron beam inspection (EBI) system developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI) using 88nm half-pitch (HP) line-and-space (L/S) pattern and 128nm HP contact-hole (C/H) pattern EUV mask. We found the EBI system can detect 25nm defects. We, furthermore, fabricated 4 types of EUV mask structures: 1) w/ anti-reflective (AR) layer and w/ buffer layer, 2) w/ AR layer and w/o buffer layer, 3) w/o AR layer and w/ buffer layer, 4) w/o AR layer and w/o buffer layer. And the sensitivity and inspectability for the EBI were compared. It was observed that w/o AR layer structure introduce higher image contrast and lead to better inspectability, although there is no significant different in sensitivity.

  1. Self-assembly of silicon nanowires studied by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Agati, Marta; Amiard, Guillaume; Borgne, Vincent Le; Castrucci, Paola; Dolbec, Richard; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; El Khakani, My Alì

    2017-01-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was successfully applied to the analysis of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) that were self-assembled during an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) process. The ICP-synthesized SiNWs were found to present a Si–SiO2 core–shell structure and length varying from ≈100 nm to 2–3 μm. The shorter SiNWs (maximum length ≈300 nm) were generally found to possess a nanoparticle at their tip. STEM energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy combined with electron tomography performed on these nanostructures revealed that they contain iron, clearly demonstrating that the short ICP-synthesized SiNWs grew via an iron-catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism within the plasma reactor. Both the STEM tomography and STEM-EDX analysis contributed to gain further insight into the self-assembly process. In the long-term, this approach might be used to optimize the synthesis of VLS-grown SiNWs via ICP as a competitive technique to the well-established bottom-up approaches used for the production of thin SiNWs. PMID:28326234

  2. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  3. A microelectronics approach for the ROSETTA surface science package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandau, Rainer (Editor); Alkalaj, Leon

    1996-01-01

    In relation to the Rosetta surface science package, the benefits of the application of advanced microelectronics packaging technologies and other output from the Mars environmental survey (MESUR) integrated microelectronics study are reported on. The surface science package will be designed to operate for tens of hours. Its limited mass and power consumption make necessary a highly integrated design with all the instruments and subunits operated from a centralized control and information management subsystem.

  4. The consequences of physical post-treatments (microwave and electron-beam) on food/packaging interactions: A physicochemical and toxicological approach.

    PubMed

    Riquet, A M; Breysse, C; Dahbi, L; Loriot, C; Severin, I; Chagnon, M C

    2016-05-15

    The safety of microwave and electron-beam treatments has been demonstrated, in regards to the formation of reaction products that could endanger human health. An integrated approach was used combining the potential toxicity of all the substances likely to migrate to their chemical characterizations. This approach was applied to polypropylene (PP) films prepared with a selection of additives. Components were identified by liquid and gas chromatography using a mass selective detector system. Their potential toxicity was assessed using three in vitro short-term bioassays and their migrations were carried out using a standards-based approach. After the electron-beam treatment some additives decomposed and there was a significant increase in the polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons concentration. PP prepared with Irgafos 168 led to a significantly strong cytotoxic effect and PP prepared with Irganox 1076 induced a dose-dependant estrogenic effect in vitro. Migration values were low and below the detection limit of the analytical method applied.

  5. Advances in nanoimprint lithography and applications in plasmonic-enhanced electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yixing

    The research work in this thesis comprises of two parts. The first part focuses on nanofabrication techniques for better control of nanostructures, such as line edge roughness control and critical structure dimensions, for improvement in large area lift-off of ultra-thin (sub-40 nm) and ultra-small (sub-20 nm) nanostructures, and for improvement in mold-substrate separation. The second part of this thesis studies one important application of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in the field of plasmonic-enhanced electron source. In the first part, a post-fabrication method, termed Self-limited Self Perfection by Liquefaction (SP-SPEL), is studied. SP-SPEL has experimentally demonstrated to reduce the trench width with precise control down to 20 nm from original 90 nm width, - 450% reduction. In addition, SP-SPEL increases the trench width uniformity and reduces the low-frequency line edge roughness. Second, a tri-layer method is studied to offer large area, efficient lift-off of ultra-thin (sub-40 nm) and ultra-fine (sub-20 nm) nanostructures. Using this method, a nanoimprint mold is fabricated. Third, tribo-electronics in NIL has been studied. It has been shown that tribo-charge can not only skew the AFM measurement by over 400%, but also largely increase the mold-substrate separation force. To solve this problem, a new mold structure is firstly proposed by Professor Stephen Y Chou and has demonstrated to reduce the separation force by over 8 fold. In the second part, a plasmonic-enhanced nanostructured electron source is studied, for both semiconducting and metallic photoemissive materials. For the semiconducting photocathode, a vertical cavity structure, comprising a top sub-wavelength mesh, ultra-thin (~ 40 nm) semiconducting materials in the middle and metallic back-plane, has demonstrated a 30 fold enhancement in photoelectron emission over a planar thin film. In addition, for the metallic photocathode, a 3D nanocavity, termed "Disk coupled Dots-on-Pillar Antenna

  6. Single-Event Effect (SEE) Survey of Advanced Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays: NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The NEPP Reconfigurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) task has been charged to evaluate reconfigurable FPGA technologies for use in space. Under this task, the Xilinx single-event-immune, reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) XQR5VFX130 device was evaluated for SEE. Additionally, the Altera Stratix-IV and SiliconBlue iCE65 were screened for single-event latchup (SEL).

  7. Design and characterization of a 32-channel heterodyne radiometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Han, X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Gao, X.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-07-15

    A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer has been developed for the measurement of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). This system collects X-mode ECE radiation spanning a frequency range of 104–168 GHz, where the frequency coverage corresponds to a full radial coverage for the case with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.3 T. The frequency range is equally spaced every 2 GHz from 105.1 to 167.1 GHz with an RF bandwidth of ∼500 MHz and the video bandwidth can be switched among 50, 100, 200, and 400 kHz. Design objectives and characterization of the system are presented in this paper. Preliminary results for plasma operation are also presented.

  8. Electron-Beam Dynamics for an Advanced Flash-Radiography Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-11-17

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for multipulse flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Furthermore, beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in-cell codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup, image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. The beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  9. Study of Advanced Electronic Applications to Aeronautical Display and Control Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    0 x 0J 0g" 14 NP4 00, II 77 III A -- HI P4 E-1 4)029 -0 0o -o~ 1-2~ -- 2 bD p. c kD 0 r HbD c 0 t02Co 1-M~ D- r -A ;j CI WN I-H 0 00 - V -r0 jLb 30...Ground Processing Equipment for SSR 94 Q. Independent Reply Path and Tapered Pulse for General Aviation Only 96 R . Conclusions 98 IV. Electronic...National Basis (Low-Cost General Aviation Aircraft Only) 60 V LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont’d) Page 22. Potential Ground Displays of General Aviation

  10. Electron-beam dynamics for an advanced flash-radiography accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr.

    2015-06-22

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in cell (PIC) codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup (BBU), image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. Beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  11. Advanced Techniques for Neoclassical Tearing Mode Control by Electron Cyclotron Current Drive in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, F.

    2008-11-01

    Novel techniques have been developed in DIII-D for (1) control of rapidly rotating neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and (2) control of NTMs that have locked to a residual error field or the resistive wall. Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has been successful at suppression of NTMs in present tokamaks, but will face new challenges in ITER where NTMs are expected to be more prone to locking. In order to avoid locking, rotating islands must be controlled at small widths that are expected to be narrower than the ECCD deposition. Under these conditions, modulated ECCD is predicted to stabilize more efficiently than continuous current drive. (1) A new technique developed at DIII-D detects the island using oblique electron cyclotron emission with a line of sight equivalent to that of the ECCD. This removes much of the uncertainty in mapping the island structure from the detector to the current drive location. This method was used both to measure the radial alignment between ECCD and the island, and to synchronize the modulation in phase with the island O-point, successfully stabilizing an NTM with mode numbers m/n=3/2. (2) If islands do grow large enough to lock, locked mode control will be necessary for recovery or avoiding disruption in ITER. A potential difficulty associated with locking is that the mode can lock in a position not necessarily accessible to ECCD. To obviate this problem, magnetic perturbations were used for the first time to unlock and reposition a locked m/n=2/1 mode in order to bring it in view of the gyrotron beam, leading to a significant reduction in island size. Once unlocked, magnetic perturbations were also used to sustain and control the mode rotation, which has the potential for easier ECCD modulation

  12. Self-amplified spontaneous emission saturation at the Advanced Photon Source free-electron laser (abstract) (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moog, E. R.; Milton, S. V.; Arnold, N. D.; Benson, C.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Dejus, R. J.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Gluskin, E.; Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O.; Nassiri, A.; Sajaev, V.; Soliday, R.; Tieman, B. J.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Wiemerslage, G.; Yang, B. X.

    2002-03-01

    Today, many bright photon beams in the ultraviolet and x-ray wavelength range are produced by insertion devices installed in specially designed third-generation storage rings. There is the possibility of producing photon beams that are orders of magnitude brighter than presently achieved at synchrotron sources, by using self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) free-electron laser (FEL) project was built to explore the SASE process in the visible through vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range. While the understanding gained in these experiments will guide future work to extend SASE FELs to shorter wavelengths, the APS FEL itself will become a continuously tunable, bright light source. Measurements of the SASE process to saturation have been made at 530 and 385 nm. A number of quantities were measured to confirm our understanding of the SASE process and to verify that saturation was reached. The intensity of the FEL light was measured versus distance along the FEL, and was found to flatten out at saturation. The statistical variation of the light intensity was found to be wide in the exponential gain region where the intensity is expected to be noisy, and narrower once saturation was reached. Absolute power measurements compare well with GINGER simulations. The FEL light spectrum at different distances along the undulator line was measured with a high-resolution spectrometer, and the many sharp spectral spikes at the beginning of the SASE process coalesce into a single peak at saturation. The energy spread in the electron beam widens markedly after saturation due to the number of electrons that transfer a significant amount of energy to the photon beam. Coherent transition radiation measurements of the electron beam as it strikes a foil provide additional confirmation of the microbunching of the electron beam. The quantities measured confirm that saturation was indeed reached. Details are

  13. Advances in physiologic lung assessment via electron beam computed tomography (EBCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Eric A.

    1999-09-01

    Lung function has been evaluated in both health and disease states by techniques, such as pulmonary function tests, which generally study aggregate function. These decades old modalities have yielded a valuable understanding of global physiologic and pathophysiologic structure-to-function relationships. However, such approaches have reached their limits. They cannot meet the current and anticipated needs of new surgical and pharmaceutical treatments. 4-D CT can provide insights into regional lung function (ventilation and blood flow) and thus can provide information at an early stage of disease when intervention will have the greatest impact. Lung CT over the last decade has helped with further defining anatomic features in disease, but has lagged behind advances on the cellular and molecular front largely because of the failure to account for functional correlates to structural pathology. Commercially available CT scanners are now capable of volumetric data acquisition in a breath-hold and capable of multi-level slice acquisitions of the heart and lungs with a per slice scan aperture of 50 - 300 msec, allowing for regional blood flow measurements. Static, volumetric imaging of the lung is inadequate in that much of lung pathology is a dynamic phenomenon and, thus, is only detectable if the lung is imaged as air and blood are flowing. This paper review the methodologies and early physiologic findings associated with our measures of lung tissue properties coupled with regional ventilation and perfusion.

  14. GENERAL PURPOSE ADA PACKAGES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Ten families of subprograms are bundled together for the General-Purpose Ada Packages. The families bring to Ada many features from HAL/S, PL/I, FORTRAN, and other languages. These families are: string subprograms (INDEX, TRIM, LOAD, etc.); scalar subprograms (MAX, MIN, REM, etc.); array subprograms (MAX, MIN, PROD, SUM, GET, and PUT); numerical subprograms (EXP, CUBIC, etc.); service subprograms (DATE_TIME function, etc.); Linear Algebra II; Runge-Kutta integrators; and three text I/O families of packages. In two cases, a family consists of a single non-generic package. In all other cases, a family comprises a generic package and its instances for a selected group of scalar types. All generic packages are designed to be easily instantiated for the types declared in the user facility. The linear algebra package is LINRAG2. This package includes subprograms supplementing those in NPO-17985, An Ada Linear Algebra Package Modeled After HAL/S (LINRAG). Please note that LINRAG2 cannot be compiled without LINRAG. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some are oriented for avionics applications. All are designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Several of the packages use conventions introduced by other programming languages. A package of string subprograms is based on HAL/S (a language designed for the avionics software in the Space Shuttle) and PL/I. Packages of scalar and array subprograms are taken from HAL/S or generalized current Ada subprograms. A package of Runge-Kutta integrators is patterned after a built-in MAC (MIT Algebraic Compiler) integrator. Those packages modeled after HAL/S make it easy to translate existing HAL/S software to Ada. The General-Purpose Ada Packages program source code is available on two 360K 5.25" MS-DOS format diskettes. The software was developed using VAX Ada v1.5 under DEC VMS v4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler and it should execute either interactively or in batch. The largest package

  15. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  16. Total skin electron beam therapy as palliative treatment for cutaneous manifestations of advanced, therapy-refractory cutaneous lymphoma and leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To retrospectively access the outcome and toxicity of a total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) in patients with cutaneous lymphoma (CL) or leukemia. Patients and methods Treatment results of 25 patients (median age 63 years; 5 female, 20 male) with cutaneous manifestations of advanced and therapy-refractory CL (n = 21; T-cell lymphomas n = 18, B-cell lymphomas n = 3) stage IIB-IV or leukemia (n = 4; AML n = 2, CLL n = 1, PDC n = 1) treated between 1993 and 2010 were reviewed. All patients were symptomatic. The median total dose was 29Gy, applied in 29 fractions of median 1 Gy each. Results The median follow-up was 10 months. Palliation was achieved in 23 patients (92%). A clinical complete response was documented in 13 (52%) and a partial response in 10 patients (40%). The median time to skin progression was 5 months (range 1–18 months) and the actuarial one-year progression-free survival 35%. The median overall survival (OS) after the initiation of TSEBT was 10 months (range 1–46 months) and the actuarial one-year OS 45%. TSEBT related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in all patients during the treatment period. An acute grade 3 epitheliolysis developed in eight patients (32%). Long-term adverse events as a hyperpigmentation of the skin (grade 1 or 2) were documented in 19 patients (76%), and a hypohidrosis in seven patients (28%). Conclusion For palliation of symptomatic cutaneous manifestations of advanced cutaneous lymphoma or leukemia, total skin electron beam therapy is an efficient and well tolerated considerable treatment option. PMID:22838493

  17. Advances in Computational Radiation Biophysics for Cancer Therapy: Simulating Nano-Scale Damage by Low-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncic, Zdenka

    2015-10-01

    Computational radiation biophysics is a rapidly growing area that is contributing, alongside new hardware technologies, to ongoing developments in cancer imaging and therapy. Recent advances in theoretical and computational modeling have enabled the simulation of discrete, event-by-event interactions of very low energy (≪ 100 eV) electrons with water in its liquid thermodynamic phase. This represents a significant advance in our ability to investigate the initial stages of radiation induced biological damage at the molecular level. Such studies are important for the development of novel cancer treatment strategies, an example of which is given by microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Here, new results are shown demonstrating that when excitations and ionizations are resolved down to nano-scales, their distribution extends well outside the primary microbeam path, into regions that are not directly irradiated. This suggests that radiation dose alone is insufficient to fully quantify biological damage. These results also suggest that the radiation cross-fire may be an important clue to understanding the different observed responses of healthy cells and tumor cells to MRT.

  18. Advances in Computational Radiation Biophysics for Cancer Therapy: Simulating Nano-Scale Damage by Low-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncic, Zdenka

    Computational radiation biophysics is a rapidly growing area that is contributing, alongside new hardware technologies, to ongoing developments in cancer imaging and therapy. Recent advances in theoretical and computational modeling have enabled the simulation of discrete, event-by-event interactions of very low energy (≪ 100 eV) electrons with water in its liquid thermodynamic phase. This represents a significant advance in our ability to investigate the initial stages of radiation induced biological damage at the molecular level. Such studies are important for the development of novel cancer treatment strategies, an example of which is given by microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Here, new results are shown demonstrating that when excitations and ionizations are resolved down to nano-scales, their distribution extends well outside the primary microbeam path, into regions that are not directly irradiated. This suggests that radiation dose alone is insufficient to fully quantify biological damage. These results also suggest that the radiation cross-fire may be an important clue to understanding the different observed responses of healthy cells and tumor cells to MRT.

  19. A Mathematica package for calculation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled in a diamond-structure single crystal (quantum approach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadegan, B.

    2013-03-01

    The presented Mathematica code is an efficient tool for simulation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure single crystal. The program is based on the quantum theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling at electron energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Continuum potentials for different planes of diamond, silicon and germanium single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The code is designed to calculate the electron wave functions, transverse electron states in the planar continuum potential, transition energies, line widths of channeling radiation and depth dependencies of the population of quantum states. Finally the spectral distribution of spontaneously emitted channeling radiation is obtained. The simulation of radiation spectra considerably facilitates the interpretation of experimental data. Catalog identifier: AEOH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 446 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 209805 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Platforms on which Mathematica is available. Operating system: Operating systems on which Mathematica is available. RAM: 1 MB Classification: 7.10. Nature of problem: Planar channeling radiation is emitted by relativistic charged particles during traversing a single crystal in direction parallel to a crystallographic plane. Channeling is modeled as the motion

  20. Advanced Characterization of Slags and Refractory Bricks Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    John Kay; Kurt Eylands

    2007-09-30

    Numerous studies have been conducted to determine changes that occur in slag that cause a rapid change in viscosity, but these studies have been limited by the inability to characterize/identify the phases present in the slag. Rapid freezing of slag in entrained gasifiers and slagging combustion systems can cause a shutdown of the system. The reactions occurring in slag that result in rapid freezing of slags are not well understood. It is believed that electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) can be used to analyze slags and aid in their characterization although its use has not been found in literature. The EBSD technique allows particle-by-particle mineralogy based on diffraction patterns generated by the electron beam when the sample is tilted to a high angle. The diffraction pattern (Kikuchi bands) can only come from crystalline phases, which makes this technique ideally suited to study crystal formation in slags where oftentimes the crystals are very small and a reasonable chemical analysis cannot be made by conventional energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) methods in the scanning electron microscope. The ability to have mineralogical data based on the crystalline structure of a phase rather than a chemical analysis by EDS allows much better interpretation of the temperature regimes in which specific phases tend to form. Knowing the type and relative amounts of a phase crystallizing in a slag is critical in predicting the viscosity of a slag at a given temperature. Six slag samples were selected based on the parent coal. Unfortunately, none of the slags appeared to have any crystalline material associated with them. The funding for this project was not adequate for generating more slags from the various coal types. For this reason, sample archives were searched for those containing slags that were not rapidly quenched. A slag from a bituminous coal was found to contain several dendritic crystals (10 {mu}m to 50 {mu}m in size) that formed near the edges of the

  1. 75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... 111 Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Advance... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) for the optional use of Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb), no later than January of 2011; and expects to require the...

  2. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  3. Advanced microstructural analysis of ferrite materials by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Mücklich, F.

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of the achieved texture is of great importance for the performance of ferrite materials, either bulk or thin films. The recently developed electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique enables a spatially resolved study of the crystallographic orientations by means of recording of Kikuchi patterns. To our knowledge, such a thorough EBSD analysis was not yet performed in any oxidic magnetic material, and only very recently on magnetite thin films by us. A good surface polishing/cleaning is essential for this analysis, as the method requires an undisturbed surface area for a high image quality (IQ). This information is recorded to each measured Kikuchi pattern, together with a parameter describing the quality of indexation. Here, the spatially highly resolved EBSD mappings provide additional information as compared to the standard analysis techniques, which can contribute to an optimization of the growth process. Furthermore, an analysis of the grain aspect ratio is possible which provides further insight to the microstructural dependence of the magnetic properties of ferrites.

  4. Recent Advances in Polymeric Materials Used as Electron Mediators and Immobilizing Matrices in Developing Enzyme Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O.; Agyei, Nana M.

    2012-01-01

    Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. However, there are a number of challenges to be addressed in order to fulfill the applications of polymeric based polymers such as cost and shortening the long laboratory synthetic pathways involved in sensor preparation. Furthermore, the toxicological effects on flora and fauna of some of these polymeric materials have not been well studied. Given these disadvantages, efforts are now geared towards introducing low cost biomaterials that can serve as alternatives for the development of novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review highlights recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on different polymeric material. The synergistic action of some of these polymeric materials and nanocomposites imposed when combined on electrode during sensing is discussed. PMID:22368503

  5. Performance of the high brightness linac for the Advanced Free Electron Laser Initiative at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.; Austin, R.H.; Chan, K.D.C.; Gierman, S.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Kong, S.H.; Nguyen, D.C.; Russell, S.J.; Timmer, C.A.

    1993-09-01

    The AFEL accelerator has produced beams of greater than 2 {times} 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2} at 1 nC (brightness = 2*I/{var_epsilon}{sup 2}, with I greater than 100 A and {var_epsilon} of than 2 {pi} mm-mrad normalized ms emittance). The 1300 MHz standing-wave accelerator uses on-axis coupling cells. The electron source is a photoinjector with a CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode. The photoinjector is an integral part of a single 11-cell accelerator structure. The accelerator operates between 12 and 18 MeV. The beam emittance growth in the accelerator is minimized by using a photoinjector, a focusing solenoid to correct the emittance growth due to space charge, and a special design of the coupling slots between accelerator cavities to minimize quadrupole effects. This paper describes the experimental results and compares those results with PARMELA simulation. The simulation code PARMELA was modified for this effort. This modified version uses SUPERFISH files for the accelerator cavity fields, MAFIA files for the fields due to the coupling slots in the accelerator cells, and POISSON files for the solenoid field in the gun region.

  6. Advances in Neutron Spectroscopy and High Magnetic Field Instrumentation for studies of Correlated Electron Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Granroth, Garrett E

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Spectroscopy has provided critical information on the magnetism in correlated electron systems. Specifically quantum magnets, superconductors, and multi-ferroics are areas of productive research. A discussion of recent measurements on the SEQUOIA spectrometer will provide examples of how novel instrumentation concepts are used on the latest generation of spectrometers to extend our knowledge in such systems. The now ubiquitous function of sample rotation allows for full mapping of volumes of $Q$ and $\\omega$ space. An instrument focused on low angles could extend these maps to cover more of the first Brillioun zone. Innovative chopper cascades allow two unique modes of operation. Multiplexed measurements allow the simultaneous measurement of high and low energy features in an excitation spectrum. Alternatively by limiting the neutron bandwidth incident on the Fermi Chopper, background from subsequent time frames is removed, enabling the observation of weak, large energy transfer features. Finally the implementation of event-based detection for neutron experiments is time correlated experiments. Diffraction studies of the high field spin states in MnWO$_4$ using magnetic fields up to 30 T, provided by a pulsed magnet, illustrate this method. Expanding the high field studies to spectroscopy will require a novel instrument, focused around a world class DC magnet, like Zeemans proposed for the SNS.

  7. Magnetic and Structural characterization of Co nanowires using advanced electron microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Sanchez, John Eder; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Ponnce, Arturo; UTSA Team

    2015-03-01

    We report the magnetic imaging and crystalline structure of high aspect ratio cobalt nanowires. Experimental results of magnetization reversal in cobalt nanowires are presented to illustrate the functionality of the in situ magnetization process through the manipulation of the objective lens. By making use of this applicability, we measure the magnetization and show experimental evidence of the magnetic flux distribution in polycrystalline cobalt nanowires using off-axis electron holography. The retrieved phase map can distinguishes the magnetic contribution from the crystalline contribution with high accuracy. To determine the size and orientation of the grains within the Co nanowires, PED-assisted orientation mapping was performed. Finally, the magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the crystalline orientation map, obtained by PED-assisted crystal phase orientation mapping. The large shape anisotropy determines the mayor magnetization direction rather than the magneto-crystalline anisotropy in the studied nanowires. The combination of the two techniques allowed us to directly visualize the effects of the crystallographic texture on the magnetization of the nanowire. The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. B.J.H. Stadler for providing the samples and financial support from NSF PREM #DMR 0934218, CONACYT, #215762 and Department of Defense #64756-RT-REP.

  8. ADVANCED X-BAND TEST ACCELERATOR FOR HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON AND GAMMA RAY BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P; Chu, T S; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Adolphsen, C; Jongewaard, E N; Raubenheimer, T; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, J W

    2010-05-12

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  9. Advanced X-Band Test Accelerator for High Brightness Electron and Gamma Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Roark; Anderson, Scott; Barty, Christopher; Chu, Tak Sum; Ebbers, Chris; Gibson, David; Hartemann, Fred; Adolphsen, Chris; Jongewaard, Erik; Raubenheimer, Tor; Tantawi, Sami; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; /SLAC

    2012-07-03

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  10. Electron-Beam Dynamics for an Advanced Flash-Radiography Accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-11-17

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for multipulse flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Furthermore, beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in-cell codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup, image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and themore » resistive wall instability. The beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.« less

  11. Development of Advanced Beam Halo Diagnostics at the Jefferson Lab Free-Electron-Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shukui Zhang, Stephen Benson, Dave Douglas, Frederick Wilson, Hao Zhang, Anatoly Shkvarunets, Ralph Fiorito

    2011-03-01

    High average current and high brightness electron beams are needed for many applications. At the Jefferson Lab FEL facility, the search for dark matter with the FEL laser beam has produced some interesting results, and a second very promising experiment called DarkLight, using the JLab Energy-recovery-linac (ERL) machine has been put forward. Although the required beam current has been achieved on this machine, one key challenge is the management of beam halo. At the University of Md. (UMD) we have demonstrated a high dynamic range halo measurement method using a digital micro-mirror array device (DMD). A similar system has been established at the JLab FEL facility as a joint effort by UMD and JLab to measure the beam halo on the high current ERL machine. Preliminary experiments to characterize the halo were performed on the new UV FEL. In this paper, the limitations of the present system will be analyzed and a discussion of other approaches (such as an optimized coronagraph) for further extending the dynamic range will be presented. We will also discuss the possibility of performing both longitudinal and transverse (3D) halo measurements together on a single system.

  12. Working with Consortia - Advanced Packaging Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanche, Jim; Strickland, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Description: Support the responsible NASA official for lead-free solder evaluation. Serve as the NASA technical liaison to the NASA/DoD Pb-free Project. Assure NASA areas of interest are included in JG-PP follow-on work. Support NASA/DoD telcons and face-to-face meetings. Update MSFC lead-free solder lessons learned report. FY10 plans: - Reliability data on lead-free solder applications for various part lead finishes and board finishes. - Update lead-free solder risks and risk mitigation strategies for NASA. - Evaluate lead-free alloy/lead-free finish reliability in design application. - Status CAVE project on Pb-free solder aging effects. - Compile the LTESE flight and bench data.

  13. Advanced electron-beam pattern generation technology for 180-nm masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Sauer, Charles A.; Wang, William; Vernon, Matthew; Prior, Richard; Pearce-Percy, Henry T.; Cole, Damon M.; Mankos, Marian

    1997-02-01

    Optical lithography will be the dominant technique used for 180 nm generation production devices. With a reduced feature size on the wafer, 4X optical reduction, optical proximity correction (OPC), and phase shift lithography techniques, mask-related errors become even more critical to wafer yield. In addition, small feature sizes and lithography enhancement techniques require finer edge resolution. Clearly, new patten generation tools are needed for this generation of maskmaking requirements. Multipass gray (MPG) writing strategy was introduced with the MEBESR 4500S. The ability to deliver a 4X improvement in dose while improving throughput is a significant advantage over previous MEBES systems. Since MPG is used in conjunction with offset scan voting, reduction in butting of over 50% has been demonstrated with MPG. Higher doses are now possible with use of a multipass writing strategy and a brighter source. As a result, resists with higher contrast and process robustness can be used. A significant improvement in uniformity is noted with the new process, an essential step needed in meeting 180 nm requirements. Dry etch is essential to meet these new requirements and with sufficient process margin to be manufacturable. This paper describes the key electron-beam pattern generation technology necessary to meet the requirement of 180 nm masks, including a high dose field- emission gun and column capable of delivering 800 A/cm2; complete dynamic beam correction; a digital stage servo to provide stable, reproducible stage control under high acceleration conditions; a high speed data path to support 320 MHz beam blanking and a 10 nm data address. This paper also examines the improvements made to the MEBES platform and documents the resulting improvements and compares these results to the requirements for 180 nm masks.

  14. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  15. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  16. Project Information Packages: Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    This brochure describes a new series of Project Information Packages, a U.S. Office of Education response to the need for a systematic approach to disseminating exemplary projects. The packages describe procedures for developing the necessary administrative support and management framework, as well as instructional methods and techniques. The six…

  17. Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.

    PubMed

    Hall, R

    2005-10-01

    Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.

  18. Analytical screening studies on irradiated food packaging.

    PubMed

    Driffield, M; Bradley, E L; Leon, I; Lister, L; Speck, D R; Castle, L; Potter, E L J

    2014-01-01

    Foods may be irradiated in their final packaging and this process may affect the composition of the packaging and in turn affect the migration of substances into food. Headspace and liquid injection GC-MS and HPLC with time-of-flight MS have been used to identify and estimate levels of radiolytic products in irradiated finished plastic packaging materials. Fifteen retail packaging materials were studied. Investigations were carried out into the effect of different irradiation types (gamma and electron beam), irradiation doses (1, 3, 7 and 10 kGy) and dose rates (5 kGy s(-1) for electron beam and 0.4 and 1.85 kGy h(-1) for gamma) on the radiolytic products. Any differences seen in comparing the two ionising radiation types were attributed largely to the very different dose rates; for electron beam a 10 kGy dose was delivered in just 2 s whereas using gamma it took 5.4 h. Differences were also seen when comparing the same samples irradiated at different doses. Some substances were not affected by irradiation, others decreased in concentration and others were formed upon increasing doses of irradiation. These results confirm that irradiation-induced changes do occur in substances with the potential to migrate and that the safety of the finished packaging material following irradiation should be assessed.

  19. STRUMPACK -- STRUctured Matrices PACKage

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    STRUMPACK - STRUctured Matrices PACKage - is a package for computations with sparse and dense structured matrix, i.e., matrices that exhibit some kind of low-rank property, in particular Hierarchically Semi Separable structure (HSS). Such matrices appear in many applications, e.g., FEM, BEM, Integral equations. etc. Exploiting this structure using certain compression algorithms allow for fast solution of linear systems and/or fast computation of matrix-vector products, which are the two main building blocks of matrix computations. STRUMPACK has presently two main components: a distributed-memory dense matrix computations package and a shared-memory sparse direct solver.

  20. In vivo proton-electron double-resonance imaging of extracellular tumor pH using an advanced nitroxide probe.

    PubMed

    Samouilov, Alexandre; Efimova, Olga V; Bobko, Andrey A; Sun, Ziqi; Petryakov, Sergey; Eubank, Timothy D; Trofimov, Dmitrii G; Kirilyuk, Igor A; Grigor'ev, Igor A; Takahashi, Wataru; Zweier, Jay L; Khramtsov, Valery V

    2014-01-21

    A variable radio frequency proton-electron double-resonance imaging (VRF PEDRI) approach for pH mapping of aqueous samples has been recently developed (Efimova et al. J. Magn. Reson. 2011, 209, 227-232). A pH map is extracted from two PEDRI acquisitions performed at electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies of protonated and unprotonated forms of a pH-sensitive probe. To translate VRF PEDRI to an in vivo setting, an advanced pH probe was synthesized. Probe deuteration resulted in a narrow spectral line of 1.2 G compared to a nondeuterated analogue line width of 2.1 G allowing for an increase of Overhauser enhancements and reduction in rf power deposition. Binding of the probe to the cell-impermeable tripeptide, glutathione (GSH), allows for targeting to extracellular tissue space for monitoring extracellular tumor acidosis, a prognostic factor in tumor pathophysiology. The probe demonstrated pH sensitivity in the 5.8-7.8 range, optimum for measurement of acidic extracellular tumor pH (pH(e)). In vivo VRF PEDRI was performed on Met-1 tumor-bearing mice. Compared to normal mammary glands with a neutral mean pH(e) (7.1 ± 0.1), we observed broader pH distribution with acidic mean pH(e) (6.8 ± 0.1) in tumor tissue. In summary, VRF PEDRI in combination with a newly developed pH probe provides an analytical approach for spatially resolved noninvasive pHe monitoring, in vivo.

  1. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology.

    PubMed

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-04-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  2. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    PubMed Central

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future. PMID:23833515

  3. A Packaged Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope for Microspacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Stell, C. B.; Vorperian, V.; Arakaki, G. A.; Rice, J. T.; Li, W. J.; Chakraborty, I.; Shceglov, K.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent work on the design, fabrication, and packaging of a silicon MIcro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) microgyroscope designed for space applications. A hermetically sealed package that houses the microgyroscope and most of its control electronics has been built and tested.

  4. Application of advanced diesel technology to inland waterway towboats. variable timing, electronic fuel injection. Final report, September 1985-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, D.P.

    1989-03-01

    This report represents the test and evaluation of advanced diesel technology components on the DDC Series 149 Marine engine. The tests were conducted on an inland-waterways towboat and consist of over 20,000 engine hours of operation during the testing. The Detroit Diesel Series 16V-149 engine rated at 900 SHP was tested aboard the M/V ESCATAWPA owned and operated by Warrior and Gulf Navigation Company. Both port and starboard engines were instrumented to measure engine operating parameters, propeller-shaft torque, and fuel consumption. The data were collected by a computer-based data-acquisition system and written to floppy disc for analysis. The tasks included: (1) baseline evaluation of naturally-aspirated (NA) engines; (2) upgrade both engines to turbocharged intercooled and blower bypassed (TIB) configuration and measure performance; (3) upgrade port engine with Detroit Diesel electronic control (DDEC) and measure performance; (4) change port engine to high-torque rise governor setting and measure performance; (5) upgrade starboard engine with DDEC.

  5. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  6. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  7. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  8. Advanced Electronic Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-15

    feedback- tropv ofthe etched %kork using the SFM is under %a\\. A second RI 1-. s\\stem is, also under construction s" hich conittoiled Z -axis dris to...maintain focus despite -’Ic nopialari\\. ocu ssnse it it axiiwaion can be used in either the plastia or reaLICt cion etching I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~oe

  9. Advanced Electronic Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-15

    Circuits )Group 23 3 1. Introduction 3 IT. -’iMNOS Memory 3 ITT. ’TRestructurable VLSI-"-’) 4 IV. 4Silicon Processin~g, 4 Computer Systems - Group 28 ,6...1 II I I DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS GROUP 23 I. INTRODUCTION Scaling experiments, linking technologies and the development of CMOS design rules are...chips where the on-chip decoding is bypassed. B. Megabit Design The design of a 1-megabit memory chip has been initiated. Several key improvements over

  10. Molding compound trends in a denser packaging world: Qualification tests and reliability concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Lo, R. H. Y.; Chen, A. S.; Belani, J. G.

    1993-12-01

    Molding compound development has traditionally been driven by the memory market, then subsequent applications filter down to other IC technologies such as logic, analog, and ASIC. However, this strategy has changed lately with the introduction of thin packages such as PQFP & TSOP. Rather than targeting a compound for a family of IC such as DRAM or SRAM, compound development efforts are now focused at specific classes of packages. The configurations of these thin packages impose new functional requirements that need to be revisited to provide the optimized combination of properties. The evolution of qualification tests mirrors the advances in epoxy and compounding technologies. From the first standard novolac-based epoxies of the 1970s to the latest 3(sup rd)-generation ultra-low stress materials, longer test times at increasingly harsher environments were achieved. This paper benchmarks the current reliability tests used by the electronic industry, examines those tests that affect and are affected by the molding compounds, discusses the relevance of accelerated testing, and addresses the major reliability issues facing current molding compound development efforts. Six compound-related reliability concerns were selected: moldability, package stresses, package cracking, halogen-induced intermetallic growth at bond pads, moisture-induced corrosion, and interfacial delamination. Causes of each failure type are surveyed and remedies are recommended. Accelerated tests are designed to apply to a limited quantity of devices, bias, or environmental conditions larger than usual ratings, to intensify failure mechanisms that would occur under normal operating conditions. The observed behavior is then extrapolated from the lot to the entire population. Emphasis is on compressing the time necessary to obtain reliability data. This approach has two main drawbacks. With increasingly complex devices, even accelerated tests are expensive. And with new technologies, it becomes

  11. MEMS performance challenges: packaging and shock tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Liwei

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes recent advances in the MEMS performance challenges with emphases on packaging and shock tests. In the packaging area, metal to metal bonding processes have been developed to overcome limitations of the glass frit bonding by means of two specific methods: (1) pre-reflow of solder for enhanced bonding adhesion, and (2) the insertion of thin metal layer between parent metal bonding materials. In the shock test area, multiscale analysis for a MEMS package system has been developed with experimental verifications to investigate dynamic responses under drop-shock tests. Structural deformation and stress distribution data are extracted and predicted for device fracture and in-operation stiction analyses for micro mechanical components in various MEMS sensors, including accelerometers and gyroscopes.

  12. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  13. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  14. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  15. Method Of Packaging And Assembling Electro-Microfluidic Devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Emerson, John A.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Giunta, Rachel K.; Zamora, David Lee; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-11-23

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  17. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  18. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  19. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of cesium telluride photocathodes: A promising electron source for the Los Alamos Advanced FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, S.H.; Nuguyen, D.C.; Sheffield, R.L.; Sherwood, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Advanced FEL at Los Alamos embodies a Y{sub 2}CsSb photocathode as an electron source. The photocathode consists of a K{sub 2}CsSb film deposited on a molybdenum plug that can be inserted into the linac of the FEL. However, because K{sub 2}CsSb is easily contaminated and has a half-life of less than a day when in use, switching to a more rugged high quantum efficiency (QE) material such as Cs{sub 2}Te is considered as a means to lengthen the beam time. Cs{sub 2}Te films were deposited on molybdenum plugs in an ultrahigh-vacuum research chamber. Several Cs{sub 2}Te films were measured in-situ for their spectral responses with a bias voltage of 90V; the resulting QEs were 12-18% at a wavelength of 254 nm, 0.2-1.2% at 334 nm, 10{sup {minus}4}-10{sup {minus}3} at 365 nm, and 10{sup {minus}7}-10{sup {minus}5} at 546 nm. For this cathode to be useful, the authors need to frequency quadruple the 1052 mn line of the Nd:YLF laser to achieve a wavelength of 263 mm. Initial studies showed that the 251-nm QE of Cs{sub 2}Te is much less sensitive to contamination than the 526-nm QE of K{sub 2}CsSb. The authors exposed Cs{sub 2}Te photocathodes to air at 10{sup {minus}4} torr for five minutes. As a result, the QEs dropped from 16-18% to 1-2% at 254 mn. However, heating the cathode to 165{degrees}C revived the QE to about 10%. They conclude that Cs{sub 2}Te is a very rugged photocathode material for use in an rf photoelectron source.