Science.gov

Sample records for advanced emission control

  1. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  2. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  3. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  4. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  5. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  8. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  11. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  12. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  13. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  14. Developments and advances in emission control technology. SP-1120

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Automotive emission control is an increasingly complex subject that continues to be of vital importance. Tighter emission standards as well as requirements for increased emission system performance and durability have resulted in ongoing development and continuing advances in emission control technology. A great deal of attention continues to be focused on technologies for emission control during cold-start. Detailed analyses are required to determine fundamental mechanisms which govern emission control under a wide variety of operating conditions. Effects of possible catalyst poisons as well as the mechanical durability of aftertreatment systems are being evaluated. Engine, vehicle, and aftertreatment sensors are being utilized to monitor and ensure emission control performance. Improved analytical techniques are being used to help understand emissions problems and to suggest avenues to solutions. Papers assembled in this volume touch on all of these areas. Catalyst durability papers address issues related to hot vibration testing and catalyst durability based on substrate surface area. A variety of papers related to the chemical composition of fuels address issues such as fuel hydrocarbon and NO conversion in three-way catalysts, fuel composition effects on emissions in urban traffic, and fuel sulfur effects on catalysts and on-board diagnostics (OBD-II) systems. Information useful for understanding the performance of cold-start technologies is described in papers on a numerical method for predicting warm-up characteristics of catalysts systems, axial characterization of warmup and underfloor catalytic converters, and EHC impact on extended soak times. Other approaches for reducing cold-start emissions are addressed in papers on in-cylinder catalysts and the use of intake air oxygen enrichment technology. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  15. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO sub x emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments designed to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere was discussed. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  16. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  17. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    are significantly increased. More comprehensive analysis of the effects of SCR on diesel NOx and N2O emissions will be reported in the presentation. These on-road emission studies indicate that advanced emission control systems such as DPF and SCR dramatically reduce PM and NOx emissions, but can cause undesirable side effects like increased NO2 and N2O emissions.

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  19. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO/x/ emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments have been and continue to be sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NO/x/) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NO/x/ emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  20. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  1. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  2. Technology Reinvestment Program/Advanced ``Zero Emission'' Control Valve (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Napoleon

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this effort are to determine, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of significantly reducing the cost and expanding the applications for a family of Advanced Zero Emissions Control Valves that meets the fugitive emissions requirements of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. This program is a direct technology spin-off from the valve technology that is critical to the US Navy's Nuclear Powered Fleet. These zero emissions valves will allow the Hydrocarbon and Chemical Processing Industries, etc., to maintain their competitiveness and still meet environmental and safety requirements. Phase 2 is directed at refining the basic technologies developed during Phase 1 so that they can be more readily selected and utilized by the target market. In addition to various necessary certifications, the project will develop a full featured digital controller with ``smart valve'' growth capability, expanding valve sizes/applications and identifying valve materials to permit applications in severe operational environments.

  3. Advanced emissions control development project. Phase I, Final report, November 1, 1993--February 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-29

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase 1 activities were primarily aimed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emissions control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal.

  4. Advanced emissions control development project. Final report, November 1, 1993--February 29, 1996. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, G.A.

    1996-02-29

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase I activities were primarily directed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emission control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. The AECDP facility consists of an ESP, pulse-jet baghouse, and wet scrubber. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal. In order to successfully apply the results of the program to utility systems, the relationship between the performance of the CEDF/AECDP test equipment and commercial units had to be established. The first step in the verification process was to validate that the flue gas treatment devices - boiler/convection pass simulator, ESP, baghouse, and wet SO{sub 2} scrubber - operate in a manner representative of commercial units.

  5. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  6. Performance of the NO{sub x} emissions advisor and advanced steam temperature control at Possum Point Station

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, M.; Labbe, D.

    1995-10-01

    Virginia Power installed Stone and Webster`s NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor and Advanced Steam Temperature Control Systems on Possum Point Units 3 and 4 during the Spring of 1995 to achieve near-term NO{sub x} compliance objectives and improve thermal performance. The installation of the advanced control and automation systems was integrated into the existing control system using standard hardware and software. The advanced control systems operate under Windows-NT on a Pentium personal computer (PC) in a multi-process environment, exchanging data with the distributed control system (DCS) through a dedicated serial link. Testing has demonstrated NO, reductions of greater than 20 percent through the application of the NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor on these units, while maintaining steam temperatures and unit efficiency. Possum Point Power Station Units 3 and 4 are pulverized coal, tangentially fired boilers, producing 107 and 232 MW, respectively.

  7. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  8. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented.

  9. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}8, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in Babcock and Wilcox`s state-of-the-art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; and establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  10. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emission compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emission control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  11. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}4, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B and W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  12. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  13. Advanced emissions control development program: Phase 2 final report, February 29, 1996--August 31, 1997. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.; Holmes, M.J.; Redinger, K.E.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the advanced emissions control development program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals [antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, and selenium], fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP`s and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals; (2) mercury goes through particulate control devices almost entirely uncontrolled; (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride; and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however additional work is needed to understand the relationship between the wet scrubber`s operating conditions and mercury capture.

  14. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  15. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials.

    PubMed

    Beale, A M; Gao, F; Lezcano-Gonzalez, I; Peden, C H F; Szanyi, J

    2015-10-21

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3-SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptionally high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ∼5 years that led to the introduction of these catalysts into practical applications. This review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetic studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis.

  16. Advanced pulverized coal combustor for control of NO/sub x/ emissions. First quarterly report, September 24-December 24, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pam, R.; Chu, E. K.; Kelly, J. T.

    1981-01-30

    The first quarter results under the Advanced Pulverized Coal Combustor for Control of NO/sub x/ Emissions Program (DOE Contract DE-AC22-80PC30296) are reported. A preliminary gas phase reaction model for predicting fuel NO/sub x/ formation during combustion of methane fuel has been constructed. Predictions of NO/sub x/ formation under stirred reactor conditions agree with existing experimental data. Thermal NO/sub x/ and coal reaction data will be developed and verified during the next reporting period. Progress has been made in formulating the changes necessary to upgrade the Acurex PROF code for use as the comprehensive data analysis tool in this program. The radiation modeling and the incorporation of the needed modifications into the PROF code will occur during the next reporting period. The idealized combustor was designed, and requests for bids to fabricate the combustor were submitted. Combustor fabrication will be completed during the next reporting period.

  17. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, Andrew M.; Gao, Feng; Lezcano-Gonzalez, Ines; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2015-10-05

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade a renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3 SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptional high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ~5 years that lead to the introduction of these catalysts into practical application. The review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetics studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that are still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis. Funding A.M.B. and I.L.G. would like to thank EPSRC for funding. F.G., C.H.F.P. and J.Sz. gratefully acknowledge

  18. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}6 for the period: January 1 to March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, George A.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B{ampersand}W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self- consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  19. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}5 for the period October 1 to December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, George A.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five year project aimed at the development of practical, cost- effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  20. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  1. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  2. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  3. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  4. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  5. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  6. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  7. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.

  8. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  9. Advanced Low Emissions Subsonic Combustor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Reid

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in commercial and military aircraft gas turbines have yielded significant improvements in fuel efficiency and thrust-to-weight ratio, due in large part to increased combustor operating pressures and temperatures. However, the higher operating conditions have increased the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which is a pollutant with adverse impact on the atmosphere and environment. Since commercial and military aircraft are the only important direct source of NOx emissions at high altitudes, there is a growing consensus that considerably more stringent limits on NOx emissions will be required in the future for all aircraft. In fact, the regulatory communities have recently agreed to reduce NOx limits by 20 percent from current requirements effective in 1996. Further reductions at low altitude, together with introduction of limits on NOx at altitude, are virtual certainties. In addition, the U.S. Government recently conducted hearings on the introduction of federal fees on the local emission of pollutants from all sources, including aircraft. While no action was taken regarding aircraft in this instance, the threat of future action clearly remains. In these times of intense and growing international competition, the U.S. le-ad in aerospace can only be maintained through a clear technological dominance that leads to a product line of maximum value to the global airline customer. Development of a very low NOx combustor will be essential to meet the future needs of both the commercial and military transport markets, if additional economic burdens and/or operational restrictions are to be avoided. In this report, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) presents the study results with the following specific objectives: Development of low-emissions combustor technologies for advances engines that will enter into service circa 2005, while producing a goal of 70 percent lower NOx emissions, compared to 1996 regulatory levels. Identification of solution approaches to

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}7 for the period: April 1 to June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost- effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B{ampersand}W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  11. Advance Control Measures & Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As areas develop their path forward or action plan, they should consider a variety of voluntary and mandatory measures and programs. The resources on this page can help, and participants are also encouraged to talk with their EPA Advance contact

  12. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  13. Particulate Emissions Control using Advanced Filter Systems: Final Report for Argonne National Laboratory, Corning Inc. and Hyundai Motor Company CRADA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Hee Je; Choi, Seungmok

    2015-10-09

    This is a 3-way CRADA project working together with Corning, Inc. and Hyundai Motor Co. (HMC). The project is to understand particulate emissions from gasoline direct-injection engines (GDI) and their physico-chemical properties. In addition, this project focuses on providing fundamental information about filtration and regeneration mechanisms occurring in gasoline particulate filter (GPF) systems. For the work, Corning provides most advanced filter substrates for GPF applications and HMC provides three-way catalyst (TWC) coating services of these filter by way of a catalyst coating company. Then, Argonne National Laboratory characterizes fundamental behaviors of filtration and regeneration processes as well as evaluated TWC functionality for the coated filters. To examine aging impacts on TWC and GPF performance, the research team evaluates gaseous and particulate emissions as well as back-pressure increase with ash loading by using an engine-oil injection system to accelerate ash loading in TWC-coated GPFs.

  14. Advances in Adaptive Control Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2009-01-01

    This poster presentation describes recent advances in adaptive control technology developed by NASA. Optimal Control Modification is a novel adaptive law that can improve performance and robustness of adaptive control systems. A new technique has been developed to provide an analytical method for computing time delay stability margin for adaptive control systems.

  15. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  16. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  17. Advanced Formation Flight Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    stabilizes the time dependent linearized plant (7.9) than it is to synthesize a control law which stabilizes the LTI plant (7.5). However, if a stabilizing ... control law is available, Lyapunov’s stabilizability result can also be applied to non LTI scenarios which arise from the application of linearization to

  18. Advances in infection control

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several initiatives took place in recent years in relation to nosocomial infection control in order to increase patient safety. Some of these initiatives will be commented in this brief review. PMID:27074240

  19. Advanced Sulfur Control Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Portzer, J.W.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.

    1996-12-31

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of an alternate concept for the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents in which elemental sulfur, instead of SO{sub 2}, is produced. If successful, this concept will eliminate or alleviate problems caused by the highly exothermic nature of the regeneration reaction, the tendency for metal sulfate formation, and the need to treat the regeneration off-gas to prevent atmospheric SO{sub 2}, emissions. Iron and cerium-based sorbents were chosen on the basis of thermodynamic analysis to determine the feasibility of elemental sulfur production. The ability of both to remove H{sub 2}S during the sulfidation phase is less than that of zinc-based sorbents, and a two-stage desulfurization process will likely be required. Preliminary experimental work used electrobalance reactors to compare the relative rates of reaction of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O with FeS. More detailed studies of the regeneration of FeS as well as the sulfidation of CeO{sub 2} and regeneration of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}S are being carried out in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor equipped with a unique analytical system which permits semi-continuous analysis of the distribution of elemental sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and SO{sub 2} in the reaction product gas.

  20. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-11-01

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur without coal gas or with limited use. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) regeneration, (2) substoichiometric (partial) oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Preliminary assessment of these approaches indicated that developing SO{sub 2} regeneration faced the fewest technical and economic problems among the four process options. Elemental sulfur is the only likely product of SO{sub 2} regeneration and the SO{sub 2} required for the regeneration can be obtained by burning a portion of the sulfur produced. Experimental efforts have thus been concentrated on SO{sub 2}-based regeneration processes. Results from laboratory investigations are presented and discussed.

  1. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-08-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  2. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  3. Advanced program weight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derwa, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Advanced Program Weight Control System (APWCS) are reported. The APWCS system allows the coordination of vehicle weight reduction programs well in advance so as to meet mandated requirements of fuel economy imposed by government and to achieve corporate targets of vehicle weights. The system is being used by multiple engineering offices to track weight reduction from inception to eventual production. The projected annualized savings due to the APWCS system is over $2.5 million.

  4. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  5. Advanced Thermal HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    WojciechVoytek, Sak

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a fast acting HPT Active Clearance Control System to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions CHALLENGE: Reduction of HPT blade clearance throughout engine operation System complexity, reliability and cost must remain comparable or surpass today s engines Reduced clearance may increase possibility of rubs

  6. Delayed coker fractionator advanced control

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. ); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. )

    1993-08-01

    In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

  7. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  8. Advanced Motor-Controller Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-22

    which document the three stages of develop- _ - fment. "U Volume Summary A. Phase I Report Flux Synthesis and PWM Synthesis Techniques Theory and...Three Phase Power Bridge and Evaluation of Motor Controller Volume Summary The three reports assembled in this votume represent work performed...1963-A * I ADVANCED MOTOR-CONTROLLER * DEVELOPMENT Final Report for Period October 1979 - June 1983 June 22, 1983 Report DTNSRDC-PASD-CR-1-83

  9. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  10. The evolution of automobile exhaust emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C.

    1993-12-31

    Automobile catalytic converters have progressed from oxidation-only systems in the mid 1970`s to the current three-way catalytic converters which control emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide to very low levels. New exhaust emission regulations adopted Federally and in California which come into effect during the 1990`s once again demand new emission control system technology. A new generation of catalytic converter systems coupled with attention to fuel composition characterizes this third phase of exhaust emission control.

  11. Advanced Concepts for Sea Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    technology sea control missions, 1,000 tonnes to advances occur, and the threat needs 25,000 tonnes would be representative change, a proper balance can be...sea loiter aircraft, conventional subcavitating fully-sub- utilizing the stopped rotor concept; merged foils, thus providing a very a small sea...augmentation engines have been platform characteristics at conventional moved from their overhung location to a displacement ship speeds but at a re- . place

  12. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  13. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  14. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  15. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  16. Advanced instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underly modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost. 71 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  18. Advanced controls for light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedron, S. G.; Edelen, A. L.; Milton, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a summary of our team's recent efforts in developing adaptive, artificial intelligence-inspired techniques specifically to address several control challenges that arise in machines/systems including those in particle accelerator systems. These techniques can readily be adapted to other systems such as lasers, beamline optics, etc… We are not at all suggesting that we create an autonomous system, but create a system with an intelligent control system, that can continually use operational data to improve itself and combines both traditional and advanced techniques. We believe that the system performance and reliability can be increased based on our findings. Another related point is that the controls sub-system of an overall system is usually not the heart of the system architecture or design process. More bluntly, often times all of the peripheral systems are considered as secondary to the main system components in the architecture design process because it is assumed that the controls system will be able to "fix" challenges found later with the sub-systems for overall system operation. We will show that this is not always the case and that it took an intelligent control application to overcome a sub-system's challenges. We will provide a recent example of such a "fix" with a standard controller and with an artificial intelligence-inspired controller. A final related point to be covered is that of system adaptation for requirements not original to a system's original design.

  19. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  20. Emissions control for ground power gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudney, R. A.; Priem, R. J.; Juhasz, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Mroz, T. S.; Mularz, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The similarities and differences of emissions reduction technology for aircraft and ground power gas turbines is described. The capability of this technology to reduce ground power emissions to meet existing and proposed emissions standards is presented and discussed. Those areas where the developing aircraft gas turbine technology may have direct application to ground power and those areas where the needed technology may be unique to the ground power mission are pointed out. Emissions reduction technology varying from simple combustor modifications to the use of advanced combustor concepts, such as catalysis, is described and discussed.

  1. Advanced Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Program Goals 5 3.2 Reference Engine Description 6 4.0 GENERAL AEROTHERMODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL DESIGN STUDIES 11 4.1 Combustion Concepts 11 4.2...Pressure Loss Variation with Reactor Length 29 22 Preliminary Flowpath for Concept 2 31 23 Dependence of Idle Combustion Efficiency on Equivalence Ratio...Controlled Variable Geometry 52 38 Concept 4: Combustion Stability Margin Dependence on Cruise Conditions for Engine Speed-Controlled Variable

  2. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  3. Assessment of Pneumatic Controller Emission Measurements ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) production facilities have the potential to emit greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and other hydrocarbons (HCs) to the atmosphere. ONG production sites have multiple emission sources including storage tank venting, enclosed combustion devices, engine exhaust, pneumatic controllers and uncontrolled leaks. Accounting for up to 37.8 percent of CH4 emissions, pneumatic controllers are one of the most significant sources of CH4 in ONG production field operations. Recent measurement studies used the only commercially-available high volume sampling (HVS) technology (Bacharach Hi Flow Sampler, Bacharach, Inc., New Kensington, PA) to quantify CH4 emission rates of pneumatic devices on ONG production pads and compare to inventory estimates. Other studies indicate that this HVS may malfunction, causing underestimates of emissions in certain scenarios encountered in ONG production and should not be used for some sources such as heavy emissions from condensate storage tanks. The HVS malfunction can occur on relatively large emissions, where the measured leak concentrations exceed 5%, and is ascribed to a sensor transition failure in the instrument. The HVS malfunction is believed to be exacerbated by several factors (large emission rates, amount of non-CH4 HCs in the emission stream, non-optimal HVS calibration frequency, firmware, and emission measurement coupling geometries). The degree to which HVS measurements of emissions from pneumatic co

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE: Emission measurement techniques for advanced powertrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Masayuki

    2000-10-01

    Recent developments in high-efficiency low-emission powertrains require the emission measurement technologies to be able to detect regulated and unregulated compounds with very high sensitivity and a fast response. For example, levels of a variety of nitrogen compounds and sulphur compounds should be analysed in real time in order to develop aftertreatment systems to decrease emission of NOx for the lean burning powertrains. Also, real-time information on the emission of particulate matter for the transient operation of diesel engines and direct injection gasoline engines is invaluable. The present paper reviews newly introduced instrumentation for such emission measurement that is demanded for the developments in advanced powertrain systems. They include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and fast response flame ionization detection. In addition, demands and applications of the fuel reformer developments for fuel cell electric vehicles are discussed. Besides the detection methodologies, sample handling techniques for the measurement of concentrations emitted from low emission vehicles for which the concentrations of the pollutants are significantly lower than the concentrations present in ambient air, are also described.

  5. Economic convergence of environmental control and advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.E.; Haslbeck, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emerging advanced technologies for environmental control have many advantages over conventional, single pollutant removal processes. Features include high efficiencies, multiple pollutant control and zero waste streams. In the past, the economics for state-of-the-art emission control processes could not compete with proven, low-efficiency scrubbers that create throw away by-products. With the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the entire economic environment has changed. If a single process can provide a facility`s compliance requirements for Title I, Title III and Title IV of the CAAA, its net costs can be lower than conventional technology and actually provide economic incentives for overcontrol. The emission allowance program is maturing and the annual revenues from overcontrol of SO{sub 2} are easily quantified. The economics of NO{sub x} control and offsets are currently being realized as EPA identified Title IV requirements, and facilities begin to realize the impact from Title I NO{sub x} control. Air toxic control from Title III could require yet a third control process for a facility to maintain emission compliance. The costs associated with single control strategies vs. multiple pollutant control processes will be discussed and compared. This paper will also present a specific application of the NOXSO Process and identify the potential advantages that can transform advanced technologies, like NOXSO, into the prudent solution for overall environmental compliance.

  6. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  7. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  8. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  9. ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, R.; Bolton, B; Oladipo, A; Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z; Radwan, A

    2003-08-24

    Advanced diesel engine and aftertreatment technologies have been developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines. The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies (CLEAN Combustion{copyright}) with prototype aftertreatment systems. CLEAN Combustion{copyright} allows partial control of exhaust species for aftertreatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and aftertreatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and transient dynamometer test-beds to simulate chassis dynamometer test cycles.

  10. NASA/GE advanced low emissions combustor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekstedt, E. E.; Fear, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Low Emissions Combustor Program consisted of the design and testing of advanced combustor concepts utilizing lean, premixed, prevaporized fuel and variable geometry. The objective was to evaluate the potential of these combustor systems to provide very low pollutant emissions levels, superior performance and high durability relative to contemporary combustor designs. Four full annular combustor concepts were designed and fabricated for a 30:1 pressure ratio high bypass turbofan engine. The four full annular combustors with active variable geometry were tested at pressures up to approximately 0.7 MPa with Jet A fuel. The two most promising concepts were also tested in a high pressure sector combustor test rig capable of operation at the maximum engine pressures. The high pressure sector combustor tests were conducted with Jet A and a fuel with reduced hydrogen content. Results of the sector combustor tests are presented in this paper. The potential for very low emissions with premixed fuel was demonstrated. However, autoignition or flashback within the premixing systems was encountered at high pressures. Further development effort is required to address this problem area.

  11. [Emission control way of volatile organic compounds in industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zou, Lan; Zhang, Ming-Hui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the volatile nature, the way of controlling way of VOCs was different from other atmospheric pollutants. By analyzing the emission characteristics of VOCs, four kinds of control way were proposed, which were the source control, organized emission control, fugitive emission control and the total amount control, and the control modes of each control way were also analyzed and compared.

  12. Advanced catalytic combustors for low pollutant emissions, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of employing the known attractive and distinguishing features of catalytic combustion technology to reduce nitric oxide emissions from gas turbine engines during subsonic, stratospheric cruise operation was investigated. Six conceptual combustor designs employing catalytic combustion were defined and evaluated for their potential to meet specific emissions and performance goals. Based on these evaluations, two parallel-staged, fixed-geometry designs were identified as the most promising concepts. Additional design studies were conducted to produce detailed preliminary designs of these two combustors. Results indicate that cruise nitric oxide emissions can be reduced by an order of magnitude relative to current technology levels by the use of catalytic combustion. Also, these combustors have the potential for operating over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle and at cruise with a low pressure drop, high combustion efficiency and with a very low overall level of emission pollutants. The use of catalytic combustion, however, requires advanced technology generation in order to obtain the time-temperature catalytic reactor performance and durability required for practical aircraft engine combustors.

  13. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, É.; Guenther, A.

    2007-12-01

    Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can

  14. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    ) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a total deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. Emission speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (< 100 km) the emission sources, indicating that emission reduction may result in direct deposition decrease near the source locations. Among the sources, BC contributes to about 68% to 91% of total deposition. Excluding the BC's contribution, EGU contributes to nearly 50% of deposition caused by CONUS emissions in the Northeast, Southeast and East Central regions, while emissions from natural processes are more important in the Pacific and West Central regions (contributing up to 40% of deposition). The modeling results implies that implementation of the new emission standards proposed by USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) would significantly benefit regions that have larger contributions from EGU sources. Control of mercury emissions from coal combustion processes has attracted great attention due to its toxicity and the emission-control regulations and has lead to advancement in state-of-the-art control technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 °C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and

  15. Nanophotonic control of circular dipole emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feber, B.; Rotenberg, N.; Kuipers, L.

    2015-04-01

    Controlling photon emission by single emitters with nanostructures is crucial for scalable on-chip information processing. Nowadays, nanoresonators can affect the lifetime of linear dipole emitters, while nanoantennas can steer the emission direction. Expanding this control to the emission of orbital angular momentum-changing transitions would enable a future coupling between solid state and photonic qubits. As these transitions are associated with circular dipoles, such control requires knowledge of the interaction of a complex dipole with optical eigenstates containing local helicity. We experimentally map the coupling of classical, circular dipoles to photonic modes in a photonic crystal waveguide. We show that, depending on the combination of the local helicity of the mode and the dipole helicity, circular dipoles can couple to left- or rightwards propagating modes with a near-unity directionality. The experimental maps are in excellent agreement with calculations. Our measurements, therefore, demonstrate the possibility of coupling the spin to photonic pathway.

  16. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with MBS scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, P.R.

    1998-12-31

    Sodium metabisulfite (MBS)-assisted water scrubbing was selected as the most cost-effective and reliable technology for removal of dilute formaldehyde emissions from a resin manufacturing plant. Dilute formaldehyde emission streams (e.g., from process hoods, sample hoods, and other miscellaneous captured sources) required treatment in order to meet the anticipated Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards and state air toxic requirements. Other conventional technologies (e.g., thermal oxidation, carbon adsorption, and biofiltration) were considered, but later discarded because they were cost prohibitive or technically impractical. Segregation of dilute volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from other more concentrated VOC and HAP emissions facilitated the use of technologies tailored to the characteristics of each stream type, and thereby provided significant cost savings. While past experience has shown that simple water scrubbing of dilute formaldehyde emissions would not meet generally accepted treatment performance (90+% control), removals in excess of 95% can be readily achieved with the addition of a reactant like MBS to the scrubbing liquor. MBS in solution reacts with formaldehyde absorbed by the scrubber water to form a bisulfite salt, rendering the reacted formaldehyde non-volatile. The reaction accelerates mass transfer of formaldehyde into the scrubbing liquid, thereby decreasing the size and cost of emission control equipment. Design of such systems should also consider the chemistry of the make-up water (and scrubber water) used in the process. Recirculating water scrubbers can be susceptible to carbonate scaling and other inorganic fouling experienced in similar water treatment systems (e.g., air strippers). The addition of salts to the recirculating scrubber solutions can be controlled to limit potential sulfur dioxide emissions and deposits.

  17. Advanced Adaptive Optics Control Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Optimal estimation and control methods for high energy laser adaptive optics systems are described. Three system types are examined: Active...the adaptive optics approaches and potential system implementations are recommended.

  18. Advanced motor-controller development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesster, L. E.; Zeitlin, D. B.; Hall, W. B.

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this development program was to investigate a promising alternative technique for control of a squirrel cage induction motor for subsea propulsion or hydraulic power applications. The technique uses microprocessor based generation of the pulse width modulation waveforms, which in turn permits use of a true integral volt-second pulse width control for the generation of low harmonic content sine waves from a 3 phase Graetz transistor power bridge.

  19. Advancing Control in Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Kaila Marie

    Controlling molecular weight, architecture, and comonomer incorporation in polymers is of paramount importance for the preparation of functional materials. This dissertation will highlight the development of three strategies that improve control in macromolecular synthesis, ranging from initial polymerization to macromolecular post-modification. Controlled radical polymerization is a well-established platform for macromolecular engineering. However, many techniques require metal or sulfur additives and yield macromolecules with chain ends that are chemically reactive and thermally unstable. This dissertation presents a light-mediated method for the removal of such end groups, which is effective for a variety of chain ends as well as polymer families, both in solution and with spatial control on surfaces. Polymers with improved thermal and chemical stability can now be obtained under mild, metal-free conditions and with external regulation. To circumvent the presence of such reactive chain ends altogether, triazine-based unimolecular initiators were developed. These metal- and sulfur-free mediators are shown to control the radical polymerization of several monomer classes. Generally, the distribution of functional groups throughout the macromolecular backbone is important for numerous applications. An efficient and high-yielding strategy for the functionalization of well-defined polyethers is described herein. By controlling both the number and location of underwater adhesive catechol groups, these biomimetic macromolecules may facilitate future insights into the mechanics of mussel and underwater adhesion, and related antifouling materials.

  20. Advanced thermal control for spacecraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, Robert; Parker, Kelsey

    2015-09-01

    In optical systems just like any other space borne system, thermal control plays an important role. In fact, most advanced designs are plagued with volume constraints that further complicate the thermal control challenges for even the most experienced systems engineers. Peregrine will present advances in satellite thermal control based upon passive heat transfer technologies to dissipate large thermal loads. This will address the use of 700 W/m K and higher conducting products that are five times better than aluminum on a specific basis providing enabling thermal control while maintaining structural support.

  1. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  2. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  3. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

  4. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  5. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP). This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i) oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii) combustion of the fuel, and (iii) heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC) through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  7. Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorsa, Antonio; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Françoise; Panteley, Elena

    Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory contains selected contributions written by lecturers at the third (annual) Formation d'Automatique de Paris (FAP) (Graduate Control School in Paris). Following on from the lecture notes from the second FAP (Volume 311 in the same series) it is addressed to graduate students and researchers in control theory with topics touching on a variety of areas of interest to the control community such as nonlinear optimal control, observer design, stability analysis and structural properties of linear systems.

  8. Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2010-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

  9. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  10. Factors controlling dimethylsulfide emission from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The factors that control the emission of methylated gases from salt marshes are being studied. Research focusses on dimethylsulfide (DMS) formation and the mechanism of DMS and CH4 emission to the atmosphere. The approach is to consider the plants as valves regulating the emission of methylated gases to the atmosphere with the goal of developing appropriate methods for emission measurement. In the case of CH4, the sediment is the source and transport to the atmosphere occurs primarily through the internal gas spaces in the plants. The source of DMS appears to be dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) which may play a role in osmoregulation in plant tissues. Concentrations of DMSP in leaves are typically several-fold higher than in roots and rhizomes. Even so, the large below ground biomass of this plant means that 2/3 of the DMSP in the ecosystem is below ground on the aerial basis. Upon introduction to sediment water, DMSP rapidly decomposes to DMS and acrylic acid. The solubility of a gas (its equilibrium vapor pressure) is a fundamental aspect of gas exchange kinetics. The first comprehensive study was conducted of DMS solubility in freshwater and seawater. Data suggest that the Setchenow relation holds for H at intermediate salinities collected. These data support the concept that the concentration of DMS in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  11. Advanced instrumentation concepts for environmental control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Schubert, F. H.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and isolation were defined. A computer-guided fault correction instruction program was developed and demonstrated in a packaged unit which also contains the operator/system interface.

  12. Yield advances in peanut - weed control effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in weed management are a contributing factor to advancements in peanut yield. Widespread use of vacuum planters and increased acceptance of narrow row patterns enhance weed control by lessening bareground caused by skips and promoting quick canopy closure. Cultivation was traditionall...

  13. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  14. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  15. Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

  16. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  17. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  18. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  19. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  20. Technology for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.; Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Various experiments are sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling aircraft engine emissions into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  1. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Terra, the Earth Observing System's (EOS) flagship satellite platform on December 18, 1999. The polar-orbiting Terra contains five remote sensing instruments, which enable the scientific study and analyses of global terrestrial processes and manifestations of global change. One of the five instruments is the multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which is built in Japan by a consortium of government, industry, and research groups. It has three spectral bands in the visible near-infrared region (VNIR), six bands in the shortwave infrared region (SWIR), and five bands in the thermal infrared region (TIR), with 15-, 30-, and 90-meter ground resolutions, respectively. This combination of wide spectral coverage and high spatial resolution allows ASTER to discriminate among a wide variety of surface materials. The VNIR subsystem also has a backward-viewing telescope for high-resolution (15-meter) stereoscopic observation in the along-track direction, which facilitates the generation of digital elevation models (DEM).

  2. Rapid prototyping of an advanced motion controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. S.

    This paper illustrates how, using existing research material, an advanced motion control system was developed both rapidly and economically. The paper emphasizes the approach used to put the system together, rather than the results of the evaluation (which is still under way). The system consists of a field-oriented controlled (FOC) induction motor, along with a pulse-population modulated current motor drive. Specific areas addressed in this paper include: a thorough overview of the technologies involved in the project (with emphasis on FOC theory); use of advanced simulation tools and models to aid in system design and debug; use of existing systems wherever possible to help speed up development; and developing the system in an environment suited to true development work.

  3. The Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Arnold, N.D.; Daly, R.T.; Gunderson, G.R.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Anderson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a 7-GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible and expandable control system. The control system must be capable of operating the APS storage ring alone, and in conjunction with its injector synchrotron for filling, as well as operating both storage ring and injection facilities as machines with separate missions. The control system design is based on the (now classic) precepts of high-performance workstations as operators consoles, distributed microprocessors to control equipment interfacing and preprocess data, and an interconnecting network. The current design includes about 45 distributed microprocessors and five console systems, which may consist of one or more workstations. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

  5. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  6. IMPROVE EMISSION INVENTORIES THROUGH ADVANCES IN METHODS AND MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are the foundation of cost-effective air quality management strategies. The emission inventory must be complete, accurate, timely, transparent, and affordable. The general approach is to identify the largest uncertainties that can impact model outputs and a...

  7. Control emissions from marine vessel loading

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.N.; Cross, S.R.

    1994-03-01

    Regulations set by the US Coast Guard require safety measures during the loading of marine vessels connected to vapor collection systems. These regulations (which were promulgated in July 1990) immediately impacted all companies involved with the loading of benzene, due to previously enacted US Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing benzene transfer. In addition, regulations issued by the states of California, New Jersey, and Louisiana impose additional marine emission control requirements. These regulations effectively work together--the federal or state environmental rule first requires the collection of the vapors generate from vessel loading, and then the Coast Guard regulation governs the safety features that must be applied to the system. Depending on the vapor pressure of the chemical, a 10,000-barrel barge may emit over one ton of chemical to the atmosphere. Such large volumes make marine loading a prime target for the push to further reduce atmospheric pollution, and its is a good be that many more companies will be asked to look at the recovery of vapors during the loading of marine vessels. This article will aid the engineer who may be asked to evaluate the various methods of controlling emissions from vessel loading. It provides some guidance on the requirements of the Coast Guard regulations and briefly outlines some of the technologies that have been used to process the collected vapors. Some important design considerations unique to marine systems are discussed to help engineers avoid some of the potential pitfalls. Finally, some estimated costs are provided for two common types of marine vapor control systems.

  8. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  9. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  10. Coke quench car emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coke quench car emission control system includes a coke car and a filter car connected in tandem for joint movement on rails disposed adjacent a coke oven. A hood and recuperator are mounted on a third car disposed on auxiliary rails which extend longitudinally along the upper portions of both the quench car and the filter car and in end-wise alignment. The hood is adapted to be coupled to the coke oven for receiving coke during a pushing operation. The recuperation has an inlet coupled to the hood for receiving emissions and withdrawing heat therefrom. The recuperator also has an outlet which is disposed adjacent the inlet of a filter system mounted on the filter car, when the third car is positioned atop the quench car. The third car is sized so that it can be moved on the auxiliary rails from a position atop the quench car to a position atop the filter car whereby the quench car can be exposed for a quenching operation.

  11. Advancing tuberculosis control within reforming health systems.

    PubMed

    Weil, D E

    2000-07-01

    In developing nations, diverse health reform programs are affecting the design, financing and delivery of health care services as well as public health practice. This paper summarizes the characteristics of major reform strategies seeking to improve efficiency, equity and quality. Opportunities and risks for tuberculosis control are identified, as are responses in managing the reform transition. Recommendations are provided to advance tuberculosis control in this dynamic environment. These include participation in the planning process; demonstration of synergy between reform objectives and tuberculosis control; articulation of core functions to be protected; technical, managerial and leadership capacity-building; documentation of effects and best practices; and collaboration with those pursuing other public health priorities and reform analysis.

  12. Advanced Control Considerations for Turbofan Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the application of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model for an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. The nonlinear engine model is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the advanced control methodology over a wide range of operating points and life cycle conditions. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from the nonlinear engine model and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. MBEC is used here to show how advanced control architectures can improve efficiency during the design phase of a turbofan engine by reducing conservative operability margins. The operability margins that can be reduced, such as stall margin, can expand the engine design space and offer potential for efficiency improvements. Application of MBEC architecture to a nonlinear engine simulation is shown to reduce the thrust specific fuel consumption by approximately 1% over the baseline design, while maintaining safe operation of the engine across the flight envelope.

  13. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  14. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  15. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  16. Survey of Emissions Associated with Enclosed Combustor Emission Control Devices in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, W. B.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in local and regional air quality. A large source of VOCs comes from the oil and gas industry and the Denver-Julesburg Basin (D-J Basin) has seen a sharp increase in production in recent years primarily due to advances in horizontal drilling techniques. To help curb emissions with extraction and production of natural gas and its associated oil, emission control devices are required for facilities emitting over 6 tons of hydrocarbons per year. Within the ozone non-attainment area, which encompasses Denver and much of the front range, enclosed combustion devices (enclosed flares) are required to reduce hydrocarbon emissions by at least 95%. While certification tests indicate that these enclosed combustor devices provide high destruction removal efficiencies, there is considerable interest in knowing how well they perform in the field. As part of Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) project conducted during the Summer of 2014, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) surveyed oil and gas operations within the Wattenberg gas field and the surrounding D-J Basin. The AML deployed a full suite of gas and particle phase instrumentation providing a comprehensive set of on-line, real-time measurements for the major natural gas components (methane and ethane) and their combustion products (CO2, CO, NOx) using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Additional gas phase organic gas emissions were made using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Particle number and composition were determined using a condensation particle counter and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A summary of the number of enclosed combustor devices measured and their observed combustion efficiencies will be presented.

  17. Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Diaz, Rosemary T.; Gappinger, Robert O.; Tang, Hong; Lam, Raymond K.; Sidick, Erkin; Hein, Randall C.; Rud, Mayer; Troy, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT) is built as a versatile facility for developing and demonstrating, in hardware, the future technologies of wave front sensing and control algorithms for active optical systems. The testbed includes a source projector for a broadband point-source and a suite of extended scene targets, a dispersed fringe sensor, a Shack-Hartmann camera, and an imaging camera capable of phase retrieval wavefront sensing. The testbed also provides two easily accessible conjugated pupil planes which can accommodate the active optical devices such as fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and segmented mirrors. In this paper, we describe the testbed optical design, testbed configurations and capabilities, as well as the initial results from the testbed hardware integrations and tests.

  18. Unregulated emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine with various fuels and emission control systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shida; Frank, Brian P; Lanni, Thomas; Rideout, Greg; Meyer, Norman; Beregszaszy, Chris

    2007-07-15

    This study evaluated the effects of various combinations of fuels and emission control technologies on exhaust emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine tested on an engine dynamometer. Ten fuels were studied in twenty four combinations of fuel and emission control technology configurations. Emission control systems evaluated were diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF), and the CRDPF coupled with an exhaust gas recirculation system (EGRT). The effects of fuel type and emission control technology on emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), and 1,3-butadiene, elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC/OC), carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-PAHs (n-PAHs) are presented in this paper. Regulated gaseous criteria pollutants of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been reported elsewhere. In general, individual unregulated emission with a CRDPF or an EGRT system is similar (at very low emission level) or much lower than that operating solely with a DOC and choosing a "best" fuel. The water emulsion PuriNO(x) fuel exhibited higher BTEX, carbonyls and PAHs emissions compared to other ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels tested in this study while n-PAH emissions were comparable to that from other ULSD fuels. Naphthalene accounted for greater than 50% of the total PAH emissions in this study and there was no significant increase of n-PAHs with the usage of CRDPF.

  19. Instrumentation advances in emissions characterization from propellant/explosive combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Morrison, D.J.; Mullins, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Results from a chamber study to characterize emissions from combustion of selected pure energetic materials are presented in this paper. The study was carried out as a part of a comprehensive air pathways risk assessment for a propellant and explosive manufacturing facility that engages in open burning methods for manufacturing waste disposal. Materials selected for emissions characterization in this study included both aluminized and non-aluminized composite propellant, a double base propellant and a plastic bonded explosive. Combustion tests in a specialized chamber revealed very low emissions for gaseous products of incomplete combustion such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Analysis of gaseous and aerosol emission products for a pre-selected target analyte list that included both volatile and semi-volatile organics revealed either low or non-detectable emissions for the four energetic types tested. Hydrogen chloride was detected as a major emission product from propellants containing ammonium perchlorate. Results from this work reveal that about one-half of the chlorine in the original material is released as hydrogen chloride. Based on earlier work, the balance of the chlorine emissions is expected to be in the form of chlorine gas.

  20. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-02-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

  1. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  2. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  3. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-03-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  4. Mercuty Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  5. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  6. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  7. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  8. ADVANCED DEHYDRATOR DESIGN SAVES GAS AND REDUCES HAP EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glycol dehydrators remove water from gas pipe lines. An advanced dehydrator by Engineered Concepts, Farmington, NM, saves a significant amount of gas, while reducing hazardous air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and CO2 air pollutants

  9. Characterization and Simulation of the Thermoacoustic Instability Behavior of an Advanced, Low Emissions Combustor Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive research is being done toward the development of ultra-low-emissions combustors for aircraft gas turbine engines. However, these combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities. This type of instability was recently observed in an advanced, low emissions combustor prototype installed in a NASA Glenn Research Center test stand. The instability produces pressure oscillations that grow with increasing fuel/air ratio, preventing full power operation. The instability behavior makes the combustor a potentially useful test bed for research into active control methods for combustion instability suppression. The instability behavior was characterized by operating the combustor at various pressures, temperatures, and fuel and air flows representative of operation within an aircraft gas turbine engine. Trends in instability behavior versus operating condition have been identified and documented, and possible explanations for the trends provided. A simulation developed at NASA Glenn captures the observed instability behavior. The physics-based simulation includes the relevant physical features of the combustor and test rig, employs a Sectored 1-D approach, includes simplified reaction equations, and provides time-accurate results. A computationally efficient method is used for area transitions, which decreases run times and allows the simulation to be used for parametric studies, including control method investigations. Simulation results show that the simulation exhibits a self-starting, self-sustained combustion instability and also replicates the experimentally observed instability trends versus operating condition. Future plans are to use the simulation to investigate active control strategies to suppress combustion instabilities and then to experimentally demonstrate active instability suppression with the low emissions combustor prototype, enabling full power, stable operation.

  10. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  15. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  16. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  17. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  18. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  19. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  20. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  1. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  2. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  3. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  4. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  5. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    PubMed

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  6. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  7. Gaseous emissions from plants in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubay, Denis T.

    1988-01-01

    Plant growth in a controlled ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous emission of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.

  8. Control Software for Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Embedded software has been developed specifically for controlling an Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). A Video Guidance Sensor is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. Such a system includes pulsed laser diodes and a video camera, the output of which is digitized. From the positions of digitized target images and known geometric relationships, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. The present software consists of two subprograms running in two processors that are parts of the AVGS. The subprogram in the first processor receives commands from an external source, checks the commands for correctness, performs commanded non-image-data-processing control functions, and sends image data processing parts of commands to the second processor. The subprogram in the second processor processes image data as commanded. Upon power-up, the software performs basic tests of functionality, then effects a transition to a standby mode. When a command is received, the software goes into one of several operational modes (e.g. acquisition or tracking). The software then returns, to the external source, the data appropriate to the command.

  9. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  10. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  11. Cold-start hydrocarbon emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This article describes an effective, energy-efficient strategy for dealing with this problem using HC traps and heat-exchange related catalyst beds that have been successfully tested. The worldwide regulatory climate for continued and dramatic reductions in vehicle exhaust emissions will continue unabated for some time. The best known of these mandates includes California Air Resources Board`s Low Emission Vehicle (CARB LEV) program, the Ozone Transport Commission`s recent petition to the EPA for partial adoption of CARB`s LEV program, and the European Economic Community`s proposed staged multi-tier approach to reduce auto exhaust pollution. Since up to 70% of hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions occur during the cold-start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), significant reductions in total FTP HC emissions must include a cold-start HC abatement strategy.

  12. CO emissions in China: Uncertainties and implications of improved energy efficiency and emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Nielsen, Chris P.; McElroy, Michael B.; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jie

    2012-03-01

    A bottom-up methodology and an improved database of emission factors combining the latest domestic field measurements are developed to estimate the emissions of anthropogenic CO from China at national and provincial levels. The CO emission factors for major economic sectors declined to varying degrees from 2005 to 2009, attributed to improved energy efficiency and/or emission control regulations. Total national CO emissions are estimated at 173 Tg for 2005 and have been relatively stable for subsequent years, despite fast growth of energy consumption and industrial production. While industry and transportation sources dominated CO emissions in developed eastern and north-central China, residential combustion played a much greater role in the less developed western provinces. The uncertainties of national Chinese CO emissions are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation at -20% to +45% (95% confidence interval). Due to poor understanding of emission factors and activity levels for combustion of solid fuels, the largest uncertainties are found for emissions from the residential sector. The trends of bottom-up emissions compare reasonably to satellite observation of CO columns and to ground observations of CO2-CO correlation slopes. The increase in the ratio for emissions of CO2 relative to CO suggests that China has successfully improved combustion efficiencies across its economy in recent years, consistent with national policies to improve energy efficiency and to control criteria air pollutants.

  13. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, J.N.; Menzies, B.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control/optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  14. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional

  15. Precipitation controls isoprene emissions from tropical ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Gatti, L. V.; Guenther, A. B.; Karl, T.; Trostdorf, C. R.; Martins, W. C.; Rinne, H. J.; Yamazaki, A.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene emissions from tropical regions account for a majority of isoprene produced globally. Current estimates of global isoprene emissions use meteorological inputs (temperature and light), ecosystem leaf area, and a time invariant, ecosystem specific emissions factor. This approach has been verified to work well for deciduous mid-latitude forests, but the approach has not been tested for tropical ecosystems where seasonality is induced by precipitation. Recent flux studies at two field stations in the tropics found strong effects of precipitation regime (dry vs. wet season) on isoprene emissions. A flux study conducted during the wet season (October 1999) at the La Selva Biological Station (10° 26' N, 83° 59' W, precipitation 4000 mm yr{-1}) found whole system isoprene emissions rates between 2--10 mg C m-2 h-1, while a second campaign during the dry season (April 2003) found values ranging 8--16 mg C m-2 h-1. This difference could not be explained by changes in ambient temperature or light using established emissions algorithms. The second field site near Santarém, Brazil in the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (2° 51' S, 54° 58' W, precipitation 2000 mm yr{-1}), part of the Large scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazônia (LBA), showed a similar pattern. Additionally, a 13 month isoprene concentration record at this station found a 4 fold increase during the dry season. Application of a one dimensional chemistry model predicts a similar change in isoprene source strength. A standard emission model using temperature and light could not account for these seasonal changes, but adding an empirical term that accounted for previous precipitation greatly enhanced the fit.

  16. Assessment and control of chrysotile asbestos emissions from unpaved roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, R. K.; Connor, M. A., Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The findings of field surveys and a test program to assess chrysotile asbestos emissions generated by vehicular use of unpaved roads surfaced with crushed serpentinite rock are presented. Included are discussions of Federal asbestos regulations, sampling and analysis procedures, human health effects, and various emission control techniques. The Enviromental Protection Agency believes that asbestos emissions which occur from unpaved roads and other dusty sources surfaced with serpentinite should be reduced to the greatest extent practical. Local, State, and Federal agencies responsible for road maintenance in the limited areas where asbestos emissions occur are in the best position to assess local conditions and implement the most appropriate control measures.

  17. Could Acoustic Emission Testing Show a Pipe Failure in Advance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, S. D.; Teixeira, J. C. G.

    2004-02-01

    During the last 20 years PETROBRAS has been attempting to use Acoustic Emission (AE) as an inspection tool. In this period the AE concept has changed from a revolutionary method to a way of finding areas to make a complete inspection. PETROBRAS has a lot of pressure vessels inspected by AE and with other NDTs techniques to establish their relationship. In other hand, PETROBRAS R&D Center has conducted destructive hydrostatic tests in pipelines samples with artificial defects made by milling. Those tests were monitored by acoustic emission and manual ultrasonic until the complete failure of pipe sample. This article shows the results obtained and a brief proposal of analysis criteria for this environment of test.

  18. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz.

  19. Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.

    1983-12-01

    The Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) program is to establish the technology necessary to satisfy space station and related large space structures requirements for efficient, reliable, and cost effective energy storage and attitude control. Technology advances in the area of integrated flywheel systems capable of performing the dual functions of energy storage and attitude control are outlined.

  20. Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.; Groom, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advanced control and power system (ACAPS) program is to establish the technology necessary to satisfy space station and related large space structures requirements for efficient, reliable, and cost effective energy storage and attitude control. Technology advances in the area of integrated flywheel systems capable of performing the dual functions of energy storage and attitude control are outlined.

  1. Controlling laser emission by selecting crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijuan; Han, Shujuan; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huanjin; Yu, Haohai; Han, Shuo; Xu, Xinguang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anisotropy of laser crystal, we demonstrate a method of adjusting laser emission by selecting crystal orientation. When the light propagating direction varies from a to c axis of Nd:LiGd(MoO4)2 crystal, emission wavelength exhibits a sensitive change of 1061 nm → 1061/1062 + 1068 nm → 1068 nm. The experimental discipline is well explained by a theoretical study of simulating on the spatial distribution of stimulated emission cross-section. This letter manifests that the laser property along non-principal-axis direction is also valuable for research and application, which breaks through the traditional custom of using laser materials processed along principal-axis.

  2. Structureborne noise control in advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Structureborne noise is discussed as a contributor to propeller aircraft interior noise levels that are nonresponsive to the application of a generous amount of cabin sidewall acoustic treatment. High structureborne noise levels may jeopardize passenger acceptance of the fuel-efficient high-speed propeller transport aircraft designed for cruise at Mach 0.65 to 0.85. These single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation tractor and pusher propulsion systems will consume 15 to 30 percent less fuel than advanced turbofan systems. Structureborne noise detection methodologies and the importance of development of a structureborne noise sensor are discussed. A structureborne noise generation mechanism is described in which the periodic components or propeller swirl produce periodic torques and forces on downstream wings and airfoils that are propagated to the cabin interior as noise. Three concepts for controlling structureborne noise are presented: (1) a stator row swirl remover, (2) selection of a proper combination of blade numbers in the rotor/stator system of a single-rotation propeller, and the rotor/rotor system of a counter-rotation propeller, and (3) a tuned mechanical absorber.

  3. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  4. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

    2004-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to

  5. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Paticulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay Almlie

    2004-09-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task

  6. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology

  8. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a

  9. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Nam, Y. U.

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  10. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research.

    PubMed

    Lampert, M; Anda, G; Czopf, A; Erdei, G; Guszejnov, D; Kovácsik, Á; Pokol, G I; Réfy, D; Nam, Y U; Zoletnik, S

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  11. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Réfy, D.; Nam, Y. U.; Zoletnik, S.

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  12. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  13. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  14. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  15. 40 CFR 89.110 - Emission control information label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of this section may be attached to a location other than the engine, in cases where the required... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards... affix at the time of manufacture a permanent and legible label identifying each nonroad engine....

  16. Controls on methane emissions from Alnus glutinosa saplings.

    PubMed

    Pangala, Sunitha R; Gowing, David J; Hornibrook, Edward R C; Gauci, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed significant tree-mediated methane emissions in wetlands; however, conditions and processes controlling such emissions are unclear. Here we identify factors that control the emission of methane from Alnus glutinosa. Methane fluxes from the soil surface, tree stem surfaces, leaf surfaces and whole mesocosms, pore water methane concentrations and physiological factors (assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration) were measured from 4-yr old A. glutinosa trees grown under two artificially controlled water-table positions. Up to 64% of methane emitted from the high water-table mesocosms was transported to the atmosphere through A. glutinosa. Stem emissions from 2 to 22 cm above the soil surface accounted for up to 42% of total tree-mediated methane emissions. Methane emissions were not detected from leaves and no relationship existed between leaf surface area and rates of tree-mediated methane emissions. Tree stem methane flux strength was controlled by the amount of methane dissolved in pore water and the density of stem lenticels. Our data show that stem surfaces dominate methane egress from A. glutinosa, suggesting that leaf area index is not a suitable approach for scaling tree-mediated methane emissions from all types of forested wetland.

  17. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-10-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter July--September 2003. Significant progress has been made in Task 1 (Site Preparation), Task 2 (Test performance) and Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: the site preparation has been completed, two weeks of tests have been performed and the power generating units to be compared from an economical standpoint have been selected and accurately described. In the experimental part of this effort (task1), the partners in this project demonstrated the feasibility of 100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas on 1.5MW coal-fired boiler. The air infiltration have been reduced to approximately 5% of the stoichiometry, enabling to reach around 70% of CO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Higher air in-leakage reduction is expected using alternative boiler operating procedure in order to achieve higher CO{sub 2} concentration in flue gas for further sequestration or reuse. The NO{sub x} emissions have been shown considerably lower in O{sub 2}-fired conditions than in air-baseline, the reduction rate averaging 70%. An additional week of tests is scheduled mid October 2003 for combustion parameter optimization, and some more days of operation will be dedicated to mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. Out of the $485k already allocated in this project, $300k has been spent and reported to date, mainly in site preparation ({approx}$215k) and test performance ({approx}$85k). In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $240k has been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $540k as on September 30, 2003.

  18. Investigation of the performance of the General Electric ADVANCE positron emission tomograph in 3D mode

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, T.K.; Kohlmyer, S.G.; Miyaoka, R.S.; Kaplan, M.S.; Stearns, C.W.; Schubert, S.F.

    1996-08-01

    Performance measurements of the General Electric ADVANCE Positron Emission Tomograph operating with the septa retracted (3D mode) were made. All reconstructions were performed with the GE ADVANCE 3D package. Performance tests were carried out with: the NEMA phantoms; a 3D Hoffman phantom; a Data Spectrum torso phantom with lung and cardiac inserts; and the Utah 3D evaluation phantom. Data collected included: transaxial and axial resolution, uniformity, recovery coefficients, count rate performance, dead time accuracy, and effect of scatter correction.

  19. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence.

  20. Advanced Thermal Emission Imaging Systems Definition and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, Karl; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Raytheon Company, is pleased to submit this quarterly progress report of the work performed in the third quarter of Year 2 of the Advanced THEMIS Project, July through September 2002. We review here progress in the proposed tasks. During July through September 2002 progress was made in two major tasks, Spectral Response Characterization and Flight Instrument Definition. Because of staffing problems and technical problems earlier in the program we have refocused the remaining time and budget on the key technical tasks. Current technical problems with a central piece of test equipment has lead us to request a 1 quarter extension to the period of performance. This request is being made through a separate letter independent of this report.

  1. Further exhaust emission control for two-stroke engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kazuo; Nakano, Masamitsu; Ukawa, Haruo; Inaga, Hisashi

    1994-09-01

    Two-stroke engines are being utilized in large numbers as small utility, lawn and garden equipment engines. The following two subjects were examined with regards to exhaust emission control. The first subject was to compare the theoretical values of a combustion model simulation with the experimentally measured values of the base line emission of two-stroke volume. The second subject was to examine the emission conformability to the 1995 and 1999 California Air Resources Board (CARB) exhaust emission regulations California Regulations for 1995 and Later Utility and Lawn and Garden Equipment Engine, adopted at March 20, 1992, amended, at November 3, 1993. in two-stroke engines with various combinations between various fuels, fuel supply systems and scavenging systems. For this subject it was determine;that the emission control systems based on the lean combustion can be used to meet the 1995 CARB exhaust emission regulations. However, it was also concluded that to meet the 1999 CARB exhaust emission regulations, various emission control systems with various combinations regarding such parameters as fuels, scavenging systems and exhaust systems must be used. 27 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  3. Diesel particulate emission control without engine modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Filowitz, M.S.; Vataru, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an ashless, fuel supplement which was found to typically reduce diesel particulate emissions by over 30% while significantly improving fuel economy and power output without any modifications to existing diesel engines or fuels. The treating cost is an order of magnitude less than the estimated cost of reducing aromatic content at the refinery to achieve particulate reductions. The particulate reduction is virtually all from the carbon (soot) fraction. The reduced soot formation translates into less abrasives and less soot-loading stress on the engine oil. Diesel tests conducted are also discussed.

  4. Emission current control system for multiple hollow cathode devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, John R. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An emission current control system for balancing the individual emission currents from an array of hollow cathodes has current sensors for determining the current drawn by each cathode from a power supply. Each current sensor has an output signal which has a magnitude proportional to the current. The current sensor output signals are averaged, the average value so obtained being applied to a respective controller for controlling the flow of an ion source material through each cathode. Also applied to each controller are the respective sensor output signals for each cathode and a common reference signal. The flow of source material through each hollow cathode is thereby made proportional to the current drawn by that cathode, the average current drawn by all of the cathodes, and the reference signal. Thus, the emission current of each cathode is controlled such that each is made substantially equal to the emission current of each of the other cathodes. When utilized as a component of a multiple hollow cathode ion propulsion motor, the emission current control system of the invention provides for balancing the thrust of the motor about the thrust axis and also for preventing premature failure of a hollow cathode source due to operation above a maximum rated emission current.

  5. Historical evaluation of vehicle emission control in Guangzhou based on a multi-year emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yu; Yao, Zhiliang; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2013-09-01

    The Guangzhou government adopted many vehicle emission control policies and strategies during the five-year preparation (2005-2009) to host the 2010 Asian Games. This study established a multi-year emission inventory for vehicles in Guangzhou during 2005-2009 and estimated the uncertainty in total vehicle emissions by taking the assumed uncertainties in fleet-average emission factors and annual mileage into account. In 2009, the estimated total vehicle emissions in Guangzhou were 313 000 (242 000-387 000) tons of CO, 60 900 (54 000-70 200) tons of THC, 65 600 (56 800-74 100) tons of NOx and 2740 (2100-3400) tons of PM10. Vehicle emissions within the urban area of Guangzhou were estimated to be responsible for ˜40% of total gaseous pollutants and ˜25% of total PM10 in the entire city. Although vehicle use intensity increased rapidly in Guangzhou during 2005-2009, vehicle emissions were estimated to have been reduced by 12% for CO, 21% for THC and 20% for PM10 relative to those in 2005. NOx emissions were estimated to have remained almost constant during this period. Compared to the "without control" scenario, 19% (15%-23%) of CO, 20% (18%-23%) of THC, 9% (8%-10%) of NOx and 16% (12%-20%) of PM10 were estimated to have been mitigated from a combination of the implementation of Euro III standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles and improvement of fuel quality. This study also evaluated several enhanced vehicle emission control actions taken recently. For example, the enhanced I/M program for LDVs was estimated to reduce 11% (9%-14%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC and 2% (2%-3%) of NOx relative to total vehicle emissions in 2009. Total emission reductions by temporary traffic controls for the Asian Games were estimated equivalent to 9% (7%-11%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC, 5% (5%-6%) of NOx and 10% (8%-13%) of PM10 estimated total vehicle emissions in 2009. Those controls are essential to further vehicle emission mitigation in Guangzhou

  6. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Charlene R. Crocker; Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller

    2003-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  7. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  8. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  9. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  10. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  11. Electric Materials in advance of Technologies for CO2 Emission Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuzo

    Electric materials for the CO2 emission reduction and the climate changes mitigation are reviewed for this special issue. In the diversified society and the climate changes in the global environment, the advanced electric materials and their effective application technologies are a significant and argent field. Proceedings of superconducting materials, fuel cell materials, solar cell materials etc. are spectacular.

  12. Advanced reconstruction of attenuation maps using SPECT emission data only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, André; Goedicke, Andreas; Aach, Til

    2009-02-01

    Today, attenuation corrected SPECT, typically performed using CT or Gadolinium line source based transmission scans, is more and more becoming standard in many medical applications. Moreover, the information about the material density distribution provided by these scans is key for other artifact compensation approaches in advanced SPECT reconstruction. Major drawbacks of these approaches are the additional patient radiation and hardware/maintenance costs as well as the additional workflow effort, e.g. if the CT scans are not performed on a hybrid scanner. It has been investigated in the past, whether it is possible to recover this structural information solely from the SPECT scan data. However, the investigated methods often result in noticeable image artifacts due to cross-dependences between attenuation and activity distribution estimation. With the simultaneous reconstruction method presented in this paper, we aim to effectively prevent these typical cross-talk artifacts using a-priori known atlas information of a human body. At first, an initial 3D shape model is coarsely registered to the SPECT data using anatomical landmarks and each organ structure within the model is identified with its typical attenuation coefficient. During the iterative reconstruction based on a modified ML-EM scheme, the algorithm simultaneously adapts both, the local activity estimation and the 3D shape model in order to improve the overall consistency between measured and estimated sinogram data. By explicitly avoiding topology modifications resulting in a non-anatomical state, we ensure that the estimated attenuation map remains realistic. Several tests with simulated as well as real patient SPECT data were performed to test the proposed algorithm, which demonstrated reliable convergence behaviour in both cases. Comparing the achieved results with available reference data, an overall good agreement for both cold as well as hot activity regions could be observed (mean deviation: -5.98%).

  13. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The fourth reporting period in Phase II (July 1--September 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on gas reburning. The pilot scale tests reported in previous Quarterly Reports QR-2 and QR-3 were continued. The objective was to simulate furnace conditions at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and to improve the process performance. The tests were conducted in EER's Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). During the reporting period, measurements of CO and ammonia emissions were conducted for reburn + SNCR conditions, as well as tests on the effect of sodium on NO{sub x} control efficiency. Exhaust levels of CO remained below 100 ppm in all tests. Prospective process conditions for the full-scale facility have been identified that can provide over 80% NO{sub x} reduction while maintaining ammonia slip below 4 ppm. Addition of sodium resulted in NO{sub x} control improvement of about 7-10 percentage points. The objective of modeling work was to further understand the influence of the mixing process on gas reburning and to identify factors that can increase the effectiveness of NO reduction. Modeling results demonstrated that the main features of gas reburning could be described using a detailed chemical mechanism with one-dimensional representation of mixing.

  14. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2004-01-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter October-December 2003. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed in the previous reporting period. In this reporting period, one week of combustion parameters optimization has been performed in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. Under full-oxy conditions (100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas) in 1.5MW{sub th} coal-fired boiler, the following parameters have been varied and their impact on combustion characteristics measured: the recirculated flue gas flow rate has been varied from 80% to 95% of total flue gas flow, and the total oxygen flow rate into the primary air zone of the boiler has been set to levels ranging from 15% to 25% of the total oxygen consumption in the overall combustion. In current reporting period, significant progress has also been made in Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: mass and energy balance calculations and cost assessment have been completed on plant capacity of 533MW{sub e} gross output while applying the methodology described in previous reporting periods. Air-fired PC Boiler and proposed Oxygen-fired PC Boiler have been assessed, both for retrofit application and new unit. The current work schedule is to review in more details the experimental data collected so far as well as the economics results obtained on the 533MWe cases, and to develop a work scope for the remainder of the project. Approximately one week of pilot testing is expected during the first quarter of 2004, including mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. The project was on hold from mid-November through December 2003 due to non-availability of funds. Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $497k have been spent to date ($480 reported so far), mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $330k has been cost-shared by the

  15. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure /Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  16. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  17. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  18. Emissions and fuel economy effects of vehicle exhaust emission control device (revision). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.

    1998-10-01

    This report describes testing by EPA of the Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Device (VEECD) retrofit device under Section 32918 of Title 49 U.S.C. Retrofit Devices (RD). The VEECD is described by the developer in the international patent application as an embodiment of air bleed principle. It is intended to be retrofitted to vehicles produced without any, or with earlier-technology emission control systems. The developer claims (RD Application Appendix A) that the valve significantly reduces CO and HC emissions without substantially increasing CO{sub 2} or NOx emissions. Incidental city fuel economy enhancement was also claimed. Non-FTP test data obtained for 1986/87 European vehicles from two laboratories in the UK was submitted. This data (Appendix B) was analyzed using the t-test for the difference of constant speed data (30/60/85MPH) at 95% confidence level.

  19. Advanced controls pay out in 6 weeks at Texas refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Bullerdiek, E.A.; Hobbs, J.W.

    1995-06-19

    Marathon Oil Co. installed advanced controls on two crude units and a fluid catalytic cracking unit main fractionator at its 70,000 b/d Texas City, Tex., refinery. The advanced controls were based on inferred properties supplied by an outside vendor, who also provided consulting and assistance during the implementation phases. (Inferred properties are on-line computations for estimating laboratory test properties, such as ASTM boiling point and flash point, that are used for product quality control.) The paper discusses inferred properties, bias updating, control strategies, control implementation, and post-project work, including fuzzy logic, the statistical quality control program, benefits, and availability.

  20. Controlling template erosion with advanced cleaning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, SherJang; Yu, Zhaoning; Wähler, Tobias; Kurataka, Nobuo; Gauzner, Gene; Wang, Hongying; Yang, Henry; Hsu, Yautzong; Lee, Kim; Kuo, David; Dress, Peter

    2012-03-01

    We studied the erosion and feature stability of fused silica patterns under different template cleaning conditions. The conventional SPM cleaning is compared with an advanced non-acid process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry optical critical dimension (SE-OCD) measurements were used to characterize the changes in pattern profile with good sensitivity. This study confirmed the erosion of the silica patterns in the traditional acid-based SPM cleaning mixture (H2SO4+H2O2) at a rate of ~0.1nm per cleaning cycle. The advanced non-acid clean process however only showed CD shift of ~0.01nm per clean. Contamination removal & pattern integrity of sensitive 20nm features under MegaSonic assisted cleaning is also demonstrated.

  1. Advanced control technology for LSST platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmunds, R. S.

    1981-02-01

    Basic technology in the design, mechanization, and analysis of control systems for large flexible space structures was examined. The focus of the platform control effort was on pointing control. The reason for this emphasis was because of the unique problems in this area posed by multiple independent experiment packages operating simultaneously on a single platform. Attitude control and stationkeeping were also addressed for future consideration.

  2. Smart Engines Via Advanced Model Based Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Marc

    2000-08-20

    A ''new'' process for developing control systems - Less engine testing - More robust control system - Shorter development cycle time - ''Smarter'' approach to engine control - On-board models describe engine behavior - Shorter, systematic calibration process - Customer and legislative requirements designed-in.

  3. Characterization of emissions from combustion sources: controlled studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes Session I papers (given at the EPA Workshop on Characterization of Contaminant Emissions from Indoor Sources, Chapel Hill, NC, May 1985) that illustrate the progress made to date on characterizing indoor-combustion emissions from unvented space heaters, gas appliances, and sidestream cigarette smoke. The state of knowledge of such emissions and their controllability is summarized by four general statements: (1) Unvented gas-fired appliances are important sources of indoor CO and NOx, but not of organic emissions; (2) Important combustion sources of indoor organics, include smoking and possibly kerosene heaters; (3) The extent of the problems of leakage from vented appliances is simply not known; (4) Indoor combustion sources do not appear to present major problems with controllability, if source removal is an acceptable alternative. From an engineering standpoint, the most-challenging issue is burner design changes for unvented appliances.

  4. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  5. Optical control of the emission direction of a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, I. J.; Wasley, N. A.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Ramsay, A. J.; Thijssen, A. C. T.; Oulton, R.; Hugues, M.

    2013-12-09

    Using the helicity of a non-resonant excitation laser, control over the emission direction of an InAs/GaAs quantum dot is demonstrated. The quantum dot is located off-center in a crossed-waveguide structure, such that photons of opposite circular polarization are emitted into opposite waveguide directions. By preferentially exciting spin-polarized excitons, the direction of emission can therefore be controlled. The directional control is quantified by using the ratio of the intensity of the light coupled into the two waveguides, which reaches a maximum of ±35%.

  6. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  7. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  8. Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, G. J.; Chanton, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Based on simultaneous measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands extending from subarctic peatlands to subtropical marshes, a positive correlation between CH4 emission and net ecosystem production is reported. It is suggested that net ecosystem production is a master variable integrating many factors which control CH4 emission in vegetated wetlands. It is found that about 3 percent of the daily net ecosystem production is emitted back to the atmosphere as CH4. With projected stimulation of primary production and soil microbial activity in wetlands associated with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the potential for increasing CH4 emission from inundated wetlands, further enhancing the greenhouse effect, is examined.

  9. Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Liu, H; Zhang, Z G; Wang, Q; Zhu, S N

    2017-02-03

    Our experiment shows that the thermal emission of phonon can be controlled by magnetic resonance (MR) mode in a metasurface (MTS). Through changing the structural parameter of metasurface, the MR wavelength can be tuned to the phonon resonance wavelength. This introduces a strong coupling between phonon and MR, which results in an anticrossing phonon-plasmons mode. In the process, we can manipulate the polarization and angular radiation of thermal emission of phonon. Such metasurface provides a new kind of thermal emission structures for various thermal management applications.

  10. Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X.; Liu, H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    Our experiment shows that the thermal emission of phonon can be controlled by magnetic resonance (MR) mode in a metasurface (MTS). Through changing the structural parameter of metasurface, the MR wavelength can be tuned to the phonon resonance wavelength. This introduces a strong coupling between phonon and MR, which results in an anticrossing phonon-plasmons mode. In the process, we can manipulate the polarization and angular radiation of thermal emission of phonon. Such metasurface provides a new kind of thermal emission structures for various thermal management applications. PMID:28157206

  11. Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Our experiment shows that the thermal emission of phonon can be controlled by magnetic resonance (MR) mode in a metasurface (MTS). Through changing the structural parameter of metasurface, the MR wavelength can be tuned to the phonon resonance wavelength. This introduces a strong coupling between phonon and MR, which results in an anticrossing phonon-plasmons mode. In the process, we can manipulate the polarization and angular radiation of thermal emission of phonon. Such metasurface provides a new kind of thermal emission structures for various thermal management applications.

  12. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  13. Advanced control strategies for fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Siettos, C.I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.; Bafas, G.V.

    1999-11-01

    Generating the best possible control strategy comprises a necessity for industrial processes, by virtue of product quality, cost reduction and design simplicity. Three different control approaches, namely an Input-Output linearizing, a fuzzy logic and a PID controller, are evaluated for the control of a fluidized bed dryer, a typical non-linear drying process of wide applicability. Based on several closed loop characteristics such as settling times, maximum overshoots and dynamic performance criteria such as IAE, ISE and ITAE, it is shown that the Input-Output linearizing and the fuzzy logic controller exhibit a better performance compared to the PID controller tuned optimally with respect to IAE, for a wide range of disturbances; yet, the relevant advantage of the fuzzy logic over the conventional nonlinear controller issues upon its design simplicity. Typical load rejection and set-point tracking examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. SUMMARY REPORT CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS BY REBURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers NOx control employing reburning technology: A new, effective method of controlling NOx emissions from a wide range of stationary combustion sources including large, coal-fired, utility boilers. Although reburning potentially is applicable ...

  15. Positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Word, R. C.; Fitzgerald, J. P. S.; Könenkamp, R.

    2014-09-15

    We report the positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission in a continuous gap antenna structure of sub-micron size. We show experimentally that a nanoscale area of plasmon-enhanced electron emission can be motioned by changing the polarization of an exciting optical beam of 800 nm wavelength. Finite-difference calculations are presented to support the experiments and to show that the plasmon-enhanced electric field distribution of the antenna can be motioned precisely and predictively.

  16. Advanced rotorcraft control using parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

    1991-01-01

    A reliable algorithm for the evaluation of a quadratic performance index and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters is presented. The algorithm is part of a design algorithm for an optimal linear dynamic output feedback controller that minimizes a finite time quadratic performance index. The numerical scheme is particularly robust when it is applied to the control law synthesis for systems with densely packed modes and where there is a high likelihood of encountering degeneracies in the closed loop eigensystem. This approach through the use of a accurate Pade series approximation does not require the closed loop system matrix to be diagonalizable. The algorithm has been included in a control design package for optimal robust low order controllers. Usefulness of the proposed numerical algorithm has been demonstrated using numerous practical design cases where degeneracies occur frequently in the closed loop system under an arbitrary controller design initialization and during the numerical search.

  17. Chemical characterization of emissions from advanced technology light-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lisa

    Results of detailed emissions measurements of seven 2000 model year advanced technology vehicles are reported. Six of the seven vehicles were imported from Europe and Japan and are not yet available for sale in Canada. Three of the vehicles were with direct injection diesel (DDI) technology, three with gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology and one vehicle was a gasoline-electric hybrid. It is expected that vehicles with these technologies will be forming a larger fraction of the Canadian light-duty vehicle fleet in the coming years in response to requirements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector in support of Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol; and as a result of improving fuel quality (most notably reducing the sulphur content of both diesel and gasoline). It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts on air quality of such changes in the composition of the vehicle fleet. The emissions from these vehicles were characterized over four test cycles representing different driving conditions. Samples of the exhaust were collected for determining methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds for the purposes of comparing ozone-forming potential of the emissions. Although these vehicles were not certified to Canadian emissions standards as tested, all vehicles met the then current Tier 1 emission standards, except for one diesel vehicle which did not meet the particulate matter (PM) standard. The DDI vehicles had the highest NO X emissions, the highest specific reactivity and the highest ozone-forming potential of the vehicles tested. When compared to conventional gasoline vehicles, the ozone-forming potential was equivalent. The GDI vehicles had lower NO X emissions, lower specific reactivity and lower ozone-forming potential than the conventional gasoline vehicles. Both the diesel and GDI vehicles had higher PM emissions than the conventional gasoline vehicles. The gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle

  18. Rotorcraft flying qualities improvement using advanced control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Postlethwaite, I.; Howitt, J.; Foster, N.

    1993-01-01

    We report on recent experience gained when a multivariable helicopter flight control law was tested on the Large Motion Simulator (LMS) at DRA Bedford. This was part of a study into the application of multivariable control theory to the design of full-authority flight control systems for high-performance helicopters. In this paper, we present some of the results that were obtained during the piloted simulation trial and from subsequent off-line simulation and analysis. The performance provided by the control law led to level 1 handling quality ratings for almost all of the mission task elements assessed, both during the real-time and off-line analysis.

  19. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  20. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  1. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  2. Advanced Topics in Wet-Weather Discharge Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses four related but generally independent wet-weather flow (WWF) topic areas, namely: i) opportunities for advanced practices in WWF control technology, particularly as it applies to sewered systems; ii) tradeoffs between storage facilities (tanks) and enlarged...

  3. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.

    1991-11-11

    This paper is a status report on the ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE (ALS) control system. The current status, performance data, and future plans will be discussed. Manpower, scheduling, and costs issues are addressed.

  4. EPA moves to control offshore emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    This paper reports that except for most of the Gulf Coast, the Environmental Protection Agency proposes to hold all U.S. offshore rigs and platforms within about 28 miles from shore to the same standards as onshore facilities. EPA estimated compliance will cost the oil industry $2.2 million/year for all sources on the Outer Continental Shelf. The rule, the first EPA has proposed to control air pollution from OCS operations, covers drilling and production off Alaska, the Pacific coast states, the Atlantic coast states, and the Florida Gulf Coast. It does not affect OCS areas off Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

  5. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  6. Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controls for Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Garg, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    The research vision of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the area of integrated flight and propulsion controls technologies is described. In particular the Integrated Method for Propulsion and Airframe Controls developed at the Lewis Research Center is described including its application to an advanced aircraft configuration. Additionally, future research directions in integrated controls are described.

  7. Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Chul; Huang, Kevin C Y; Brongersma, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Nanometallic optical antennas are rapidly gaining popularity in applications that require exquisite control over light concentration and emission processes. The search is on for high-performance antennas that offer facile integration on chips. Here we demonstrate a new, easily fabricated optical antenna design that achieves an unprecedented level of control over fluorescent emission by combining concepts from plasmonics, radiative decay engineering and optical beaming. The antenna consists of a nanoscale plasmonic cavity filled with quantum dots coupled to a miniature grating structure that can be engineered to produce one or more highly collimated beams. Electromagnetic simulations and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the beaming process. The metals defining the plasmonic cavity can be utilized to electrically control the emission intensity and wavelength. These findings facilitate the realization of a new class of active optical antennas for use in new optical sources and a wide range of nanoscale optical spectroscopy applications.

  8. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  9. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    This project develops a family of novel Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) NO{sub x} control technologies, which can achieve 95% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The conventional Advanced Reburning (AR) process integrates basic reburning and N-agent injection. The SGAR systems include six AR variants: (1) AR-Lean--injection of the N-agent and promoter along with overfire air; (2) AR-Rich--injection of N-agent and promoter into the reburning zone; (3) Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR)--injection of N-agents and promoters both into the reburning zone and with overfire air; (4) AR-Lean + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters with overfire air and into the temperature zone at which Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is effective; (5) AR-Rich + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters into the reburning zone and into the SNCR zone; and (6) Promoted Reburning + Promoted SNCR--basic or promoted reburning followed by basic or promoted SNCR process. The project was conducted in two phases over a five-year period. The work included a combination of analytical and experimental studies to confirm the process mechanisms, identify optimum process configurations, and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. Phase I was conducted from October, 1995 to September, 1997 and included both analytical studies and tests in bench and pilot-scale test rigs. Phase I moved AR technology to Maturity Level III-Major Subsystems. Phase II is conducted over a 45 month period (October, 1997-June, 2001). Phase II included evaluation of alternative promoters, development of alternative reburning fuel and N-Agent jet mixing systems, and scale up. The goal of Phase II was to move the technology to Maturity Level I-Subscale Integrated System. Tests in combustion facility ranging in firing rate from 0.1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr demonstrated the

  10. Advances in the IGNITOR Plasma Control^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villone, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.; Rubinacci, F.; Ramogida, G.; Bombarda, F.; Coletti, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Coppi, B.

    2007-11-01

    The IGNITOR vertical position and shape controller has been designed on the basis of the CREATE-L linearized plasma response model, taking into account the engineering constraints of the machine and the features of the burning plasma regimes to be obtained. Special care has been devoted to the design of a robust control system, that can operate even when a degradation of the performance of the electro-magnetic diagnostics may occur. The coupling between the vertical position control and the plasma shape control has been analyzed, in order to allow the plasma vertical position to be stabilized also in the case where a shape disturbance is provoked by a change of the main plasma parameters. Simulations of the control system response have been carried out using realistic models of the electrical power supply system. The non-linear computation of equilibrium flux maps before and after the perturbation shows that the system is able to recover from all the assumed disturbances with this control scheme. In addition, the control of the plasma current and of the separatrix of the double-null plasma configuration is being studied.^*Sponsored in part by ENEA and the US D.O.E.

  11. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  12. Advanced control concepts. [for shuttle ascent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. B.; Coppey, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The problems of excess control devices and insufficient trim control capability on shuttle ascent vehicles were investigated. The trim problem is solved at all time points of interest using Lagrangian multipliers and a Simplex based iterative algorithm developed as a result of the study. This algorithm has the capability to solve any bounded linear problem with physically realizable constraints, and to minimize any piecewise differentiable cost function. Both solution methods also automatically distribute the command torques to the control devices. It is shown that trim requirements are unrealizable if only the orbiter engines and the aerodynamic surfaces are used.

  13. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  14. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  15. Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

    1993-06-01

    A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

  16. Resource recovery emission control system comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response to the necessity for control of acid gases, fine particulate, mercury vapor, and organics present in the flue gas emitted from the incineration of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste has followed the conventional steps for emerging technology. These are: adaptation of existing equipment and its failure; development of new technologies; fear of failure of new technologies; modification of technology; overcoming of concerns by extended operation. It has been established that incineration of wastes produces a flue gas containing: particulates including fine particulates in which toxic heavy metals and organics are concentrated; acid gases, primarily HCl and SO/sub 2/ with quantities produced increasing with time; mercury and organic vapor; high concentrations of incandescent particles. The initial reponse was to apply existing types of equipment to the problem.

  17. Cliffside 6 integrated emissions control system

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, D.G.; Rader, P.C.; Gansley, R.R.; Wang, W.

    2009-04-15

    The article takes an inside look into the environmental hardware going into one of the highest profile coal-fired power plants projects in the US, a new 800 MW supercritical coal-fired facility at Cliffside, NC, Unit C6. This is currently under construction and scheduled to be in commercial service in 2012. To evaluate the alternative air quality control system (AQCS) options, Duke Energy established a cross-functional team and used a decision analysis process to select the 'best balanced choice'. Alstom's integrated AQCS which combines dry and wet flue gas desulfurization systems was the best balanced choice. Replacing an ESP with a spray dryer absorber achieved major cost savings and eliminated the need for wastewater treatment. 1 ref., 2 photos.

  18. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  19. Automated Deployment of Advanced Controls and Analytics in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritoni, Marco

    Buildings use 40% of primary energy in the US. Recent studies show that developing energy analytics and enhancing control strategies can significantly improve their energy performance. However, the deployment of advanced control software applications has been mostly limited to academic studies. Larger-scale implementations are prevented by the significant engineering time and customization required, due to significant differences among buildings. This study demonstrates how physics-inspired data-driven models can be used to develop portable analytics and control applications for buildings. Specifically, I demonstrate application of these models in all phases of the deployment of advanced controls and analytics in buildings: in the first phase, "Site Preparation and Interface with Legacy Systems" I used models to discover or map relationships among building components, automatically gathering metadata (information about data points) necessary to run the applications. During the second phase: "Application Deployment and Commissioning", models automatically learn system parameters, used for advanced controls and analytics. In the third phase: "Continuous Monitoring and Verification" I utilized models to automatically measure the energy performance of a building that has implemented advanced control strategies. In the conclusions, I discuss future challenges and suggest potential strategies for these innovative control systems to be widely deployed in the market. This dissertation provides useful new tools in terms of procedures, algorithms, and models to facilitate the automation of deployment of advanced controls and analytics and accelerate their wide adoption in buildings.

  20. Advanced traffic control strategies for intelligent vehicle highway systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, Nathan H.; Stamatiadis, C.; Tarnoff, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses traffic signal control strategies that are suitable for advanced traffic management within IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems). The strategies consist of a multi-level design for the real-time, traffic-adaptive control of the urban signal network system. Each control level has different response characteristics, with the more advanced levels incorporating in a nested fashion the capabilities of the lower levels. A principal goal of the new multi-level design is to invoke a selected control strategy when it can provide the greatest benefit.

  1. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  2. Control of Smart Building Using Advanced SCADA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Vivin Thomas

    For complete control of the building, a proper SCADA implementation and the optimization strategy has to be build. For better communication and efficiency a proper channel between the Communication protocol and SCADA has to be designed. This paper concentrate mainly between the communication protocol, and the SCADA implementation, for a better optimization and energy savings is derived to large scale industrial buildings. The communication channel used in order to completely control the building remotely from a distant place. For an efficient result we consider the temperature values and the power ratings of the equipment so that while controlling the equipment, we are setting a threshold values for FDD technique implementation. Building management system became a vital source for any building to maintain it and for safety purpose. Smart buildings, refers to various distinct features, where the complete automation system, office building controls, data center controls. ELC's are used to communicate the load values of the building to the remote server from a far location with the help of an Ethernet communication channel. Based on the demand fluctuation and the peak voltage, the loads operate differently increasing the consumption rate thus results in the increase in the annual consumption bill. In modern days, saving energy and reducing the consumption bill is most essential for any building for a better and long operation. The equipment - monitored regularly and optimization strategy is implemented for cost reduction automation system. Thus results in the reduction of annual cost reduction and load lifetime increase.

  3. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes an acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuously vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  4. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1990-05-02

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuously vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level. 2 figs.

  5. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  6. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

  8. Advanced Motor and Motor Control Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for

  9. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the

  10. Advances in Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Hardware and Software.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Marina; Garcia, Ernest V

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques remain today's most reliable modality for the assessment and quantification of myocardial perfusion. In recent years, the field has experienced tremendous progress both in terms of dedicated cameras for cardiac applications and software techniques for image reconstruction. The most recent advances in single-photon emission computed tomography hardware and software are reviewed, focusing on how these improvements have resulted in an even more powerful diagnostic tool with reduced injected radiation dose and acquisition time.

  11. Modern advances in sustainable tick control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks are the vector of the many different organisms responsible for both animal and human diseases. Understanding the progress we have made and new directions in tick control is critical to the sustainability of human and animal health. The integration of vaccines, acaricides, and new acaricide ap...

  12. Advances in temperature derivative control and calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmerich, J.L.; Loos, J.; Miller, A.; Milverton, P.

    1996-11-01

    Temperature stabilization by inertial feedback control has proven a powerful tool to create the ultrastable environment essential for high resolution calorimetry. A thermally insulated mass, connected to a base through Seebeck effect sensors (thermopiles) is used as a reference to control the base temperature. The thermopile signal is proportional to both the heat capacity of the reference mass and the derivative {dot {Theta}} of the base temperature {Theta}. Using vacuum insulation and bismuth telluride thermopiles, we designed and tested temperature derivative sensors (TDSs) with sensitivities up to 3300 VsK{sup {minus}1}. Standard industrial controllers with approximately {plus_minus}1 {mu}V input noise and stability, permit control of temperature derivatives to {plus_minus}3{times}10{sup {minus}10} Ks{sup {minus}1}. Single-cup thermoelectric calorimeters coupled to the TDS-controlled base permitted measurement of heat flow from samples in a power range from 3 {mu}W to 10 W with high accuracy ({plus_minus}100 ppm), resolution ({plus_minus}0.2 {mu}W), and reproducibility ({plus_minus}1 {mu}W). The design of two instruments is described in detail. Their performance is demonstrated on a variety of measurements, e.g., the determination of sample heat capacities with temperature ramp rates {dot {Theta}}={plus_minus}5{times}10{sup {minus}6} Ks{sup {minus}1}, the half-life of a 3 g tritium sample in a uranium getter bed, the decay heat of depleted uranium, and the heat evolution of epoxy resin. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  14. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of performance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays) and the human operator. In the remote control engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  15. Controlled drop emission by wetting properties in driven liquid filaments.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Aguilar, R; Nistal, R; Hernández-Machado, A; Pagonabarraga, I

    2011-05-01

    The controlled formation of micrometre-sized drops is of great importance to many technological applications. Here we present a wetting-based destabilization mechanism of forced microfilaments on either hydrophilic or hydrophobic stripes that leads to the periodic emission of droplets. The drop emission mechanism is triggered above the maximum critical forcing at which wetting, capillarity, viscous friction and gravity can balance to sustain a stable driven contact line. The corresponding critical filament velocity is predicted as a function of the static wetting angle, which can be tuned through the substrate behaviour, and shows a strong dependence on the filament size. This sensitivity explains the qualitative difference in the critical velocity between hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes, and accounts for previous experimental results of splashing solids. We demonstrate that this mechanism can be used to control independently the drop size and emission period, opening the possibility of highly monodisperse and flexible drop production techniques in open microfluidic geometries.

  16. Particulate Emissions from a Pre-Emissions Control Era Spark-Ignition Vehicle: A Historical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    John M.E. Storey; C. Scott Sluder; Douglas A. Blom; Erin Higinbotham

    2000-06-19

    This study examined the particulate emissions from a pre-emissions control era vehicle operated on both leaded and unleaded fuels for the purpose of establishing a historical benchmark. A pre-control vehicle was located that had been rebuilt with factory original parts to approximate an as-new vehicle prior to 1968. The vehicle had less than 20,000 miles on the rebuilt engine and exhaust. The vehicle underwent repeated FTP-75 tests to determine its regulated emissions, including particulate mass. Additionally, measurements of the particulate size distribution were made, as well as particulate lead concentration. These tests were conducted first with UTG96 certification fuel, followed by UTG96 doped with tetraethyl lead to approximate 1968 levels. Results of these tests, including transmission electron micrographs of individual particles from both the leaded and unleaded case are presented. The FTP composite PM emissions from this vehicle averaged 40.5 mg/mile using unleaded fuel. The results from the leaded fuel tests showed that the FTP composite PM emissions increased to an average of 139.5 mg/mile. Analysis of the particulate size distribution for both cases demonstrated that the mass-based size distribution of particles for this vehicle is heavily skewed towards the nano-particle range. The leaded-fuel tests showed a significant increase in mass concentration at the <0.1 micron size compared with the unleaded-fuel test case. The leaded-fuel tests produced lead emissions of nearly 0.04 g/mi, more than a 4-order-of-magnitude difference compared with unleaded-fuel results. Analysis of the size-fractionated PM samples showed that the lead PM emissions tended to be distributed in the 0.25 micron and smaller size range.

  17. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  18. Advanced concepts for controlling energy surety microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Today, researchers, engineers, and policy makers are seeking ways to meet the world's growing demand for energy while addressing critical issues such as energy security, reliability, and sustainability. Many believe that distributed generators operating within a microgrid have the potential to address most of these issues. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a concept called energy surety in which five of these 'surety elements' are simultaneously considered: energy security, reliability, sustainability, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The surety methodology leads to a new microgrid design that we call an energy surety microgrid (ESM). This paper discusses the unique control requirement needed to produce a microgrid system that has high levels of surety, describes the control system from the most fundamental level through a real-world example, and discusses our ideas and concepts for a complete system.

  19. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  20. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  1. Advanced Technology Direction and Control Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-16

    WORK UN4IT NUMBERS The MITRE Corporation ’ 1820 flolley Madison Blvd. Work Unit 2214G McLean, VJ rginia 22102 Ii. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS...Satellite communications using low power technique. A spread spectrum system being developed by The MITRE Corporation for the Maritime Commission. vI I,: I...300-3000 MHz; SHF (super high frequency), 3-30 GHz; EHF (extra high frequency), 30-300 GHz. 3-3 The MITRE Corporation prepared a survey of

  2. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  3. Advanced Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously satisfying the demands of energy storage and attitude control through the use of rotating flywheels. It was demonstrated that, for a wide spectrum of applications, such a system possessed many advantages over contemporary energy storage and attitude control approaches. More recent technology advances in composite material rotors, magnetic suspension systems, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the applicability and merits of this concept. This study is undertaken to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for a space station application. System and component designs are developed to establish the performance of this concept and system trade studies conducted to examine the viability of this approach relative to conventional candidate systems. It is clearly demonstrated that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but also offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost for the space station mission.

  4. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  5. Economic implications of incorporating emission controls to mitigate air pollutants emitted from a modeled hydrocarbon-fuel biorefinery in the United States: Economic implications of air emission controls for a hydrocarbon-fuel biorefinery

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Davis, Ryan; ...

    2016-07-15

    The implementation of the US Renewable Fuel Standard is expected to increase the construction and operation of new biofuel facilities. Allowing this industry to grow without adversely affecting air quality is an important sustainability goal sought by multiple stakeholders. However, little is known about how the emission controls potentially required to comply with air quality regulations might impact biorefinery cost and deployment strategies such as siting and sizing. In this study, we use a baseline design for a lignocellulosic hydrocarbon biofuel production process to assess how the integration of emission controls impacts the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of themore » biofuel produced. We evaluate the change in MFSP for two cases as compared to the baseline design by incorporating (i) emission controls that ensure compliance with applicable federal air regulations and (ii) advanced control options that could be used to achieve potential best available control technology (BACT) emission limits. Our results indicate that compliance with federal air regulations can be achieved with minimal impact on biofuel cost (~$0.02 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) higher than the baseline price of $5.10 GGE-1). However, if air emissions must be further reduced to meet potential BACT emission limits, the cost could increase nontrivially. For example, the MFSP could increase to $5.50 GGE-1 by adopting advanced emission controls to meet potential boiler BACT limits. Given tradeoffs among emission control costs, permitting requirements, and economies of scale, these results could help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing and mitigate risks associated with air permitting.« less

  6. Controlling satellite communication system unwanted emissions in congested RF spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Donald; Heymann, Roger

    2007-09-01

    , developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). In the USA, the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) has adopted Europe's DVB-S and DVB-S2 standards for satellite digital transmission. With today's digital modulations, RF spectral side lobes can extend out many times the modulating frequency on either side of the carrier at excessive power levels unless filtered. Higher-order digital modulations include quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 8 PSK (8-ary phase shift keying), 16 APSK (also called 12-4 APSK (amplitude phase shift keying)), and 16 QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation); they are key for higher spectrum efficiency to enable higher data rate transmissions in limited available bandwidths. Nonlinear high-power amplifiers (HPAs) can regenerate frequency spectral side lobes on input-filtered digital modulations. The paper discusses technologies and techniques for controlling these spectral side lobes, such as the use of square root raised cosine (SRRC) filtering before or during the modulation process, HPA output power back-off (OPBO), and RF filters after the HPA. Spectral mask specifications are a common method of the NTIA and ITU to define spectral occupancy power limits. They are intended to reduce interference among RF spectrum users by limiting excessive radiation at frequencies beyond the regulatory allocated bandwidth.The focus here is on the communication systems of U.S. government satellites used for space research, space operations, Earth exploration satellite services (EESS), meteorological satellite services (METSATS), and other government services. The 8025 to 8400 megahertz (MHz) X band can be used to illustrate the "unwanted emissions" issue. 8025 to 8400 MHz abuts the 8400 to 8450 MHz band allocated by the NTIA and ITU to space research for space-to-Earth transmissions such as receiving very weak Deep Space Network signals. The views and ideas expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily

  7. Using OPC technology to support the study of advanced process control.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    OPC, originally the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) for Process Control, brings a broad communication opportunity between different kinds of control systems. This paper investigates the use of OPC technology for the study of distributed control systems (DCS) as a cost effective and flexible research tool for the development and testing of advanced process control (APC) techniques in university research centers. Co-Simulation environment based on Matlab, LabVIEW and TCP/IP network is presented here. Several implementation issues and OPC based client/server control application have been addressed for TCP/IP network. A nonlinear boiler model is simulated as OPC server and OPC client is used for closed loop model identification, and to design a Model Predictive Controller. The MPC is able to control the NOx emissions in addition to drum water level and steam pressure.

  8. Advanced Controller for the Free-Piston Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Scott S.; Jamison, Mike; Roth, Mary Ellen; Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is being considered as an advanced power conversion technology to be used for future NASA deep space missions requiring long life radioisotope power systems. This technology has a conversion efficiency of over 25%, which is significantly higher than the efficiency of the Radioisotope Thermal-electric Generators (RTG) now in use. The NASA Glenn Research Center has long been recognized as a leader in Stirling technology and is responsible for the development of advanced technologies that are intended to significantly improve key characteristics of the Stirling convertor. The advanced technologies identified for development also consider the requirements of potential future missions and the new capabilities that have become available in the associated technical areas. One of the key areas identified for technology development is the engine controller. To support this activity, an advanced controller is being developed for the Stirling power convertor. This controller utilizes active power factor correction electronics and microcontroller-based controls. The object of this paper is to present an overview of the advanced controller concept with modeling, simulation and hardware test data.

  9. Solar wind control of Jupiter's hectometric radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, C. H.; Desch, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    Radio, plasma, and magnetic field data obtained by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were used to examine the manner in which the Jovian hectometric radio emission (HOM) is controlled by the solar wind. Using the method of superposed epochs, it was found that the higher energy HOM is correlated with the IMF as well as with the solar wind density and pressure. However, unlike the Io-independent decametric radio emission (Non-Io DAM), the HOM displayed no correlation with the solar wind velocity, although this radio component appear to be also influenced by the IMF. The results suggest separate HOM amd Non-Io DAM sources.

  10. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle system simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott J.; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-22

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity-controlled compression ignition has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. In this paper, a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition strategy is employed where the engine switches from reactivity-controlled compression ignition to conventional diesel combustion when speed and load demand are outside of the experimentally determined reactivity-controlled compression ignition range. The potential for reactivity-controlled compression ignition to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition–enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition, conventional diesel combustion, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Drive cycle simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. Multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Finally, engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared with conventional diesel combustion, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.

  11. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle system simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Curran, Scott J.; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-22

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity-controlled compression ignition has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. In this paper, a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition strategy is employed where the engine switches from reactivity-controlled compression ignition to conventional diesel combustion whenmore » speed and load demand are outside of the experimentally determined reactivity-controlled compression ignition range. The potential for reactivity-controlled compression ignition to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition–enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition, conventional diesel combustion, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Drive cycle simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. Multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Finally, engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared with conventional diesel combustion, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.« less

  12. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Ho

    1997-10-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The project was started on July 1, 1994 and this is the thirteenth quarterly technical progress report. Specifically, the following progress has been made during this performance period from July 1, 1997 through September 30, 1997.

  13. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  14. Air quality assessment and control of emission rates.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Yuri N; Parra-Guevara, David; Belitskaya, Davydova Valentina

    2005-12-01

    Mathematical methods based on the adjoint model approach are given for the air-pollution estimation and control in an urban region. A simple advection-diffusion-reaction model and its adjoint are used to illustrate the application of the methods. Dual pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones are derived and used to develop two non-optimal strategies and one optimal strategy for controlling the emission rates of enterprises. A linear convex combination of these strategies represents a new sufficient strategy. A method for detecting the enterprises, which violate the emission rates prescribed by a control, is given. A method for determining an optimal position for a new enterprise in the region is also described.

  15. Biofiltration: An innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Leson, G. ); Winer, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.

  16. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  17. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  18. Control of several emissions during olive pomace thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

    2014-10-13

    Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25-750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min⁻¹. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  19. Ozone trends in Atlanta, Georgia - Have emission controls been effective?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Ronald W.; Richardson, Jennifer L.; Chameldes, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Nine years of summertime ozone data from the Atlanta metropolitan area are analyzed and compared to local emissions of volatile organic carbon and nitrogen oxides. Trends from 1979 to 1987 were studied for the number of days per year ozone exceeded the NAAQS standard, the second-highest ozone level observed per year, and the first quartile summertime average ozone observed, as well as the mean difference between the ozone level observed downwind and upwind of the city. Because this last parameter is sensitive to chemical factors but relatively insensitive to the number of days each year with meteorological conditions conducive to ozone formation, its trend may be best suited for determining how effective emission controls have been in reducing O3 in the Atlanta area. In spite of the fact that sizeable reductions have been claimed for volatile organic carbon emissions over the past several years, the data give no indication that ozone levels have decreased and in fact, imply that summertime ozone production may have increased. The results imply that either emissions have not decreased as much as has been claimed or that ozone is not sensitive to anthropogenic volatile organic carbon emissions.

  20. Venturi/vortex technology for controlling chromium electroplating emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, K.J.; Northrup, J.; Heck, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    A new technology has been developed to control air emissions from hexavalent chromium electroplating tanks. The venturi/vortex scrubber uses a patented drain assembly to pull plating solution, air with toxic particulates above the solution, and unpopped bubbles of generated gases down with a gravity generated vortex effect. The recirculated plating solution acts as the scrubbing liquid and air agitation is eliminated. Separated gases are passed through a condenser/filter to remove any remaining fumes. The device is almost entirely constructed of CPVC. This device offers several advantages over conventional end-of-pipe systems including significantly lower cost, no wastewater, no extensive ventilation system, and emissions are recycled. The system can be is easily retrofitted to existing tanks, however, a loose fitting tank lid is recommended. A pilot demonstration has been performed at Benet Laboratory, Watervliet, NY (US Army) with a 1,500 gallon chromic acid electroplating tank and 1,500 Amps of applied current. Overall chromium emissions results were 0.00002 mg/Amp-hr, surpassing the stringent California State requirement of 0.006 mg/Amp-hr. Emission prevention by capturing unpopped bubbles is the method in which this system reduces the most emissions. The system met current ambient worker safety standards. Two major improvements are recommended: an increase in gas flow rate through the system and a solution to the system`s sensitivity to the plating solution level.

  1. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

  2. 78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance... an information collection request (ICR), ``Emission Control System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program (Renewal)'' (EPA ICR No. 0116.10, OMB Control...

  3. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Minimum Control Requirements for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulange, Richard; Jones, Harry; Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Advanced control technologies are not necessary for the safe, reliable and continuous operation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. ALS systems can and are adequately controlled by simple, reliable, low-level methodologies and algorithms. The automation provided by advanced control technologies is claimed to decrease system mass and necessary crew time by reducing buffer size and minimizing crew involvement. In truth, these approaches increase control system complexity without clearly demonstrating an increase in reliability across the ALS system. Unless these systems are as reliable as the hardware they control, there is no savings to be had. A baseline ALS system is presented with the minimal control system required for its continuous safe reliable operation. This baseline control system uses simple algorithms and scheduling methodologies and relies on human intervention only in the event of failure of the redundant backup equipment. This ALS system architecture is designed for reliable operation, with minimal components and minimal control system complexity. The fundamental design precept followed is "If it isn't there, it can't fail".

  5. Understanding and constraining global controls on dust emissions from playas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Robert; Eckardt, Frank; Vickery, Kate; Wiggs, Giles; Hipondoka, Martin; Murray, Jon; Baddock, Matt; Brindley, Helen; King, James; Nield, Jo; Thomas, Dave; Washington, Richard; Haustein, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Playas are ephemeral, endorheic lake systems that are common in arid regions. They have been identified as both regionally and globally significant sources of mineral dust. Emissions of dust from large playas can therefore impact significantly on regional climate through a range of land/atmosphere interactions. However, not all playas have or will emit dust, and those that do emit dust rarely do so consistently. Thus, global models that target ephemeral lakes at source areas often struggle to model the emission characteristics of the locations accurately. It is clear that our understanding of controls on dust emission from these environments varies at global scales (i.e. relevant to climate models) is poorly understood. Existing research confirms that the potential for dust emission from playas within dryland regions can be extremely varied; large disparities are noted to exist from one playa to another, and significant spatial/temporal heterogeneity has been observed within those playas that do emit dust. Research also shows that dust fluxes from playa surfaces varies vary based on hydrological gradient or ephemeral inflows and may change over time in response to human or climate forcing mechanisms. Consequently, despite the presence of abundant fine sediment and suitable wind conditions, some playas will remain supply limited and will not emit dust as they are either too wet (e.g. via extensive groundwater discharge) not salty enough (e.g. salts have been removed from the surface by groundwater recharge) or there is not a sufficient supply of sand (coarse particles) on or at the upwind edge of the playa surface to cause dust emission. Other playas (e.g. Owens Lake) have emitted dust at a disproportionate (regionally/nationally) significant level seemingly without constraint (becoming effectively transport capacity limited) through optimal combinations of the same factors. Finally, we can also see situations where dust emitting playa systems flip between supply

  6. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  7. GHG emissions during the high-rate production of compost using standard and advanced aeration strategies.

    PubMed

    Puyuelo, B; Gea, T; Sánchez, A

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated different strategies for the optimization of the aeration during the active thermophilic stage of the composting process of source-selected Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (or biowaste) using reactors at bench scale (50L). These strategies include: typical cyclic aeration, oxygen feedback controller and a new self-developed controller based on the on-line maximization of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) during the process. Results highlight differences found in the emission of most representative greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from composting (methane and nitrous oxide) as well as in gases typically related to composting odor problems (ammonia as typical example). Specifically, the cyclic controller presents emissions that can double that of OUR controller, whereas oxygen feedback controller shows a better performance with respect to the cyclic controller. A new parameter, the respiration index efficiency, is presented to quantitatively evaluate the GHG emissions and, in consequence, the main negative environmental impact of the composting process. Other aspects such as the stability of the compost produced and the consumption of resources are also evaluated for each controller.

  8. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system.

    PubMed

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2013-05-24

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). We couple fluorophores to a plasmonic antenna to create a superemitter with an enhanced decay rate. In a superemitter analog of the seminal Drexhage experiment we probe the LDOS of a nanomechanically approached mirror. Because of the electrodynamic interaction of the antenna with its own mirror image, the superemitter traces the inverse of the LDOS enhancement provided by the mirror, in stark contrast to a bare source, whose decay rate is proportional to the mirror LDOS.

  9. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The seventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 1999) included experimental activities and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning. The goal of combustion tests was to determine the efficiency of advanced reburning using coal as the reburning fuel. Tests were conducted in Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). Several coals were tested. The modeling effort was focused on the description of N-agent injection along with overfire air. Modeling identified process parameters that can be used to optimize the AR-Lean process.

  10. Vision Based Autonomous Robotic Control for Advanced Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    The advanced inspection system is an autonomous control and analysis system that improves the inspection and remediation operations for ground and surface systems. It uses optical imaging technology with intelligent computer vision algorithms to analyze physical features of the real-world environment to make decisions and learn from experience. The advanced inspection system plans to control a robotic manipulator arm, an unmanned ground vehicle and cameras remotely, automatically and autonomously. There are many computer vision, image processing and machine learning techniques available as open source for using vision as a sensory feedback in decision-making and autonomous robotic movement. My responsibilities for the advanced inspection system are to create a software architecture that integrates and provides a framework for all the different subsystem components; identify open-source algorithms and techniques; and integrate robot hardware.

  11. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly

    2000-03-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The tenth reporting period in Phase II (January 1-March 31, 2000) included proof-of concept tests in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. Several variants of Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) were studied, including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, reburning + SNCR, and Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR). Tests demonstrated that the SGAR performance was the most effective under MIAR conditions achieving maximum overall NO{sub x} reduction of 96%.

  12. Improving Advanced Inverter Control Convergence in Distribution Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Baggu, Murali

    2016-11-21

    Simulation of modern distribution system powerflow increasingly requires capturing the impact of advanced PV inverter voltage regulation on powerflow. With Volt/var control, the inverter adjusts its reactive power flow as a function of the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage. Similarly, Volt/watt control curtails active power production as a function of PCC voltage. However, with larger systems and higher penetrations of PV, this active/reactive power flow itself can cause significant changes to the PCC voltage potentially introducing oscillations that slow the convergence of system simulations. Improper treatment of these advanced inverter functions could potentially lead to incorrect results. This paper explores a simple approach to speed such convergence by blending in the previous iteration's reactive power estimate to dampen these oscillations. Results with a single large (5MW) PV system and with multiple 500kW advanced inverters show dramatic improvements using this approach.

  13. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  14. Overview of the US program of controls for advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Sackett, J.I.; Monson, R.; Lindsay, R.W.; Carroll, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    An automated control system can incorporate control goals and strategies, assessment of present and future plant status, diagnostic evaluation and maintenance planning, and signal and command validation. It has not been feasible to employ these capabilities in conventional hard-wired, analog, control systems. Recent advances in computer-based digital data acquisition systems, process controllers, fiber-optic signal transmission artificial intelligence tools and methods, and small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers---with both numeric and symbolic capabilities---have provided many of the necessary ingredients for developing large, practical automated control systems. Furthermore, recent reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. This paper presents an overall US national perspective for advanced controls research and development. The goals of high reliability, low operating cost and simple operation are described. The staged approach from conceptualization through implementation is discussed. Then the paper describes the work being done by ORNL, ANL and GE. The relationship of this work to the US commercial industry is also discussed.

  15. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  16. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  17. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, Digby; Liu, Jun; Liu, Sue; Al-Rifaie, Mohammed; Sikora; Elzbieta

    2000-06-01

    The principal goals of this project are to develop advanced electrochemical emission spectroscopic (EES) methods for monitoring the corrosion of carbon steel in simulated DOE liquid waste and to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms of the corrosion of metals (e.g. iron, nickel, and chromium) and alloys (carbon steel, low alloy steels, stainless steels) in thes e environments. During the first two years of this project, significant advances have been made in developing a better understanding of the corrosion of iron in aqueous solutions as a function of pH, on developing a better understanding of the growth of passive films on metal surfaces, and on developing EES techniques for corrosion monitoring. This report summarizes work on beginning the third year of the 3-year project.

  18. Application of infinite model predictive control methodology to other advanced controllers.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ayyad, M; Dubay, R; Hernandez, J M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an application of most recent developed predictive control algorithm an infinite model predictive control (IMPC) to other advanced control schemes. The IMPC strategy was derived for systems with different degrees of nonlinearity on the process gain and time constant. Also, it was shown that IMPC structure uses nonlinear open-loop modeling which is conducted while closed-loop control is executed every sampling instant. The main objective of this work is to demonstrate that the methodology of IMPC can be applied to other advanced control strategies making the methodology generic. The IMPC strategy was implemented on several advanced controllers such as PI controller using Smith-Predictor, Dahlin controller, simplified predictive control (SPC), dynamic matrix control (DMC), and shifted dynamic matrix (m-DMC). Experimental work using these approaches combined with IMPC was conducted on both single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems and compared with the original forms of these advanced controllers. Computer simulations were performed on nonlinear plants demonstrating that the IMPC strategy can be readily implemented on other advanced control schemes providing improved control performance. Practical work included real-time control applications on a DC motor, plastic injection molding machine and a MIMO three zone thermal system.

  19. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 1: Pratt and Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 1 of these reports describes the studies performed by Pratt & Whitney.

  20. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  1. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  2. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  3. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.; Brown, W. Jr.; Cork, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), under construction for the past seven years, has become operational. The accelerator has been successfully commissioned using a control system based on hundreds of controllers of our own design and high performance personal computers which are the operator interface. The first beamlines are being commissioned using a control system based on VME hardware and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software. The two systems are being integrated, and this paper reports on the current work being done.

  4. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  5. Controlling death: the false promise of advance directives.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Henry S

    2007-07-03

    Advance directives promise patients a say in their future care but actually have had little effect. Many experts blame problems with completion and implementation, but the advance directive concept itself may be fundamentally flawed. Advance directives simply presuppose more control over future care than is realistic. Medical crises cannot be predicted in detail, making most prior instructions difficult to adapt, irrelevant, or even misleading. Furthermore, many proxies either do not know patients' wishes or do not pursue those wishes effectively. Thus, unexpected problems arise often to defeat advance directives, as the case in this paper illustrates. Because advance directives offer only limited benefit, advance care planning should emphasize not the completion of directives but the emotional preparation of patients and families for future crises. The existentialist Albert Camus might suggest that physicians should warn patients and families that momentous, unforeseeable decisions lie ahead. Then, when the crisis hits, physicians should provide guidance; should help make decisions despite the inevitable uncertainties; should share responsibility for those decisions; and, above all, should courageously see patients and families through the fearsome experience of dying.

  6. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M; Cole, Daniel L; Fugate, David L; Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Muhlheim, Michael David; Rao, Nageswara S; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  7. Concurrent design of an RTP chamber and advanced control system

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, P.; Schaper, C.; Kermani, A.

    1995-12-31

    A concurrent-engineering approach is applied to the development of an axisymmetric rapid-thermal-processing (RTP) reactor and its associated temperature controller. Using a detailed finite-element thermal model as a surrogate for actual hardware, the authors have developed and tested a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) controller. Closed-loop simulations are performed by linking the control algorithm with the finite-element code. Simulations show that good temperature uniformity is maintained on the wafer during both steady and transient conditions. A numerical study shows the effect of ramp rate, feedback gain, sensor placement, and wafer-emissivity patterns on system performance.

  8. THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL ON THE CONTROL OF OTHER MWC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 20, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source performance standards for new municipal waste combustion (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The proposed national regulations require tighter particulate matter control and a...

  9. Dynamic control of light emission faster than the lifetime limit using VO2 phase-change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cueff, Sébastien; Li, Dongfang; Zhou, You; Wong, Franklin J.; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Ramanathan, Shriram; Zia, Rashid

    2015-10-01

    Modulation is a cornerstone of optical communication, and as such, governs the overall speed of data transmission. Currently, the two main strategies for modulating light are direct modulation of the excited emitter population (for example, using semiconductor lasers) and external optical modulation (for example, using Mach-Zehnder interferometers or ring resonators). However, recent advances in nanophotonics offer an alternative approach to control spontaneous emission through modifications to the local density of optical states. Here, by leveraging the phase-change of a vanadium dioxide nanolayer, we demonstrate broadband all-optical direct modulation of 1.5 μm emission from trivalent erbium ions more than three orders of magnitude faster than their excited state lifetime. This proof-of-concept demonstration shows how integration with phase-change materials can transform widespread phosphorescent materials into high-speed optical sources that can be integrated in monolithic nanoscale devices for both free-space and on-chip communication.

  10. VOC emissions controls for aluminum cold rolling mills

    SciTech Connect

    Genoble, A.L.; Lagoe, D.J.; Wasyluk, W.J.R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a case history of retrofitting VOC emissions controls to two (2) aluminum cold rolling mills at an aluminum sheet complex in central New York. The plant site was located in the northeast ozone transport region, and it was necessary to achieve compliance with VOC emissions limitations. Emissions control equipment included high efficiency filters for VOC mists and a wash oil process for scrubbing VOC vapors. All rolling oil was recovered for reuse on site. A vacuum distillation process was used to separate wash oil from rolling oil. The equipment began operating in mid-1995, and long term results have proven the validity of the recovery concept. Total project costs were $7.2 million for two (2) 60,000 ACFM systems. Project duration from the date of the initial request for equipment price quotations to the first round of stack testing was twenty (20) months. The modular construction of the vacuum distillation equipment simplified field erection and shortened the duration of field work. Stack testing indicated overall VOC collection efficiencies that exceeded regulatory requirements. Initially, problems were experienced with Method 25 stack testing methodology. Final results were confirmed by two (2) independent methods.

  11. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  12. The DPC-2000 advanced control system for the Dynamitron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestler, Bernard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    1993-07-01

    The DPC-2000 is an advanced control system utilizing the latest technology in computer control circuitry and components. Its overall design is modular and technologically advanced to keep up with customer and engineering demands. The full control system is presented as four units. They are the Remote I/O (Input / Output), Local Analog and Digital I/O, Operator Interface and the Main Computer. The central processing unit, the heart of the system, executes a high level language program that communicates to the different sub-assemblies through advanced serial and parallel communication lines. All operational parameters of the accelerator are monitored, controlled and corrected at close to 20 times per second. The operator is provided with a selection of many informative screen displays. The control program handles all graphic screen displays and the updating of these screens directly; it does not have to communicate to a display terminal. This adds to the quick response and excellent operator feedback received while operating the machine. The CPU also has the ability to store and record all process variable setpoints for each product that will be treated. This allows the operator to set up the process parameters by selecting the product identification code from a menu presented on the display screen. All process parameters are printed to report at regular intervals during a process run for later analysis and record keeping.

  13. Planner-Based Control of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Kortenkamp, David; Fry, Chuck; Bell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster: simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods. We describe reference implementation of an advanced control system using the IDEA control architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. IDEA uses planning/scheduling as the sole reasoning method for predictive and reactive closed loop control. We describe preliminary experiments in planner-based control of ALS carried out on an integrated ALS simulation developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  14. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Ledin, A; Lundy, L; Holten Lützhøft, H C; Wickman, T; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on 'Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants' (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected European priority hazardous substances (PHSs) to surface waters. The ECSs included (1) business-as-usual, (2) full implementation of relevant European (EU) directives, (3) ECS2 in combination with voluntary options for household, municipalities and industry, (4) ECS2 combined with industrial treatment and best available technologies (BAT), (5) ECS2 in combination with stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment, (6) ECS2 in combination with advanced wastewater treatment, and (7) combinations of ECS3-6. The SHCC approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to allow compensating for data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PHSs: cadmium (Cd), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), nonylphenol (NP) and pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in surface waters to differing extents in response to the application of alternative ECS. To achieve the required reduction in PHS levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is prioritised and feasible combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant for mitigating releases.

  15. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  16. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  17. Active Control of Combustor Instability Shown to Help Lower Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2002-01-01

    In a quest to reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities, or high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves, that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the safe operating life of the combustor and turbine. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research and Technology Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Pratt & Whitney and United Technologies Research Center, is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities. With active combustion control, the fuel is pulsed to put pressure oscillations into the system. This cancels out the pressure oscillations being produced by the instabilities. Thus, the engine can have lower pollutant emissions and long life.The use of active combustion instability control to reduce thermo-acoustic-driven combustor pressure oscillations was demonstrated on a single-nozzle combustor rig at United Technologies. This rig has many of the complexities of a real engine combustor (i.e., an actual fuel nozzle and swirler, dilution cooling, etc.). Control was demonstrated through modeling, developing, and testing a fuel-delivery system able to the 280-Hz instability frequency. The preceding figure shows the capability of this system to provide high-frequency fuel modulations. Because of the high-shear contrarotating airflow in the fuel injector, there was some concern that the fuel pulses would be attenuated to the point where they would

  18. Greenhouse gas emission from covered windrow composting with controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ermolaev, Evgheni; Pell, Mikael; Smårs, Sven; Sundberg, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from full-scale composting of municipal solid waste, investigating the effects of process temperature and aeration combinations, is scarce. Oxygen availability affects the composition of gases emitted during composting. In the present study, two experiments with three covered windrows were set up, treating a mixture of source separated biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions from Uppsala, Sweden, and structural amendment (woodchips, garden waste and re-used compost) in the volume proportion 1:2. The effects of different aeration and temperature settings on the emission of methane (CH(4)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) during windrow composting with forced aeration following three different control schemes were studied. For one windrow, the controller was set to keep the temperature below 40 °C until the pH increased, another windrow had minimal aeration at the beginning of the process and the third one had constant aeration. In the first experiment, CH(4) concentrations (CH(4):CO(2) ratio) increased, from around 0.1% initially to between 1 and 2% in all windrows. In the second experiment, the initial concentrations of CH(4) displayed similar patterns of increase between windrows until day 12, when concentration peaked at 3 and 6%, respectively, in two of the windrows. In general, the N(2)O fluxes remained low (0.46 ± 0.02 ppm) in the experiments and were two to three times the ambient concentrations. In conclusion, the emissions of CH(4) and N(2)O were low regardless of the amount of ventilation. The data indicates a need to perform longer experiments in order to observe further emission dynamics.

  19. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Cipiti, Ben; Demuth, Scott Francis; Fallgren, Andrew James; Jarman, Ken; Li, Shelly; Meier, Dave; Miller, Mike; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  20. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  1. Integrated intelligent systems in advanced reactor control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmeyer, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    An intelligent, reactor control room, information system is designed to be an integral part of an advanced control room and will assist the reactor operator's decision making process by continuously monitoring the current plant state and providing recommended operator actions to improve that state. This intelligent system is an integral part of, as well as an extension to, the plant protection and control systems. This paper describes the interaction of several functional components (intelligent information data display, technical specifications monitoring, and dynamic procedures) of the overall system and the artificial intelligence laboratory environment assembled for testing the prototype. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  2. An advanced teleoperator control system - Design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Lee, Hahk S.

    1992-01-01

    The design goal of an advanced teleoperator control system is twofold: 1) to allow the operator's manual control to be robust to system nonlinearities such as time delays and operator's control errors, and 2) to support the high performance of teleoperation while reducing the operator's control burden by providing the master and slave arms with desirable dynamic properties and by allowing the slave arm to automatically perform such control tasks as compliance and force control in the form of task sharing. The authors present a novel teleoperator control system achieving the above design goal by taking the following into consideration: the human dynamics involved in generating control command based on visual and forced feedback is modeled and incorporated into the controller design and evaluation; the dynamic characteristics of slave and master arms are actively modified in such a way as to implement the desirable dynamic characteristics; and the force feedback is redefined in terms of the combination of opposition and force discrepancies in order to establish the required man/machine dynamic coordination under shared control. The proposed control system with human dynamics in the control loop is simulated and compared with a number of conventional methods in the presence of human control errors and time delays.

  3. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: Review of global products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Michael; Tsu, Hiroji; Hulley, Glynn; Iwao, Koki; Pieri, David; Cudahy, Tom; Kargel, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 15-channel imaging instrument operating on NASA's Terra satellite. A joint project between the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years, since March 2000. The archive now contains over 2.8 million scenes; for the majority of them, a stereo pair was collected using nadir and backward telescopes imaging in the NIR wavelength. The majority of users require only a few to a few dozen scenes for their work. Studies have ranged over numerous scientific disciplines, and many practical applications have benefited from ASTER's unique data. A few researchers have been able to mine the entire ASTER archive, that is now global in extent due to the long duration of the mission. Six examples of global products are described in this contribution: the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), the most complete, highest resolution DEM available to all users; the ASTER Emissivity Database (ASTER GED), a global 5-band emissivity map of the land surface; the ASTER Global Urban Area Map (AGURAM), a 15-m resolution database of over 3500 cities; the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), an archive of over 1500 active volcanoes; ASTER Geoscience products of the continent of Australia; and the Global Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project.

  4. Advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of a near-zero emission power plant with chemical looping combustion.

    PubMed

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Tsatsaronis, George; Morosuk, Tatiana

    2012-03-06

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from power plants can be used to mitigate CO(2) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, CCS technologies are energy intensive, decreasing the operating efficiency of a plant and increasing its costs. Recently developed advanced exergy-based analyses can uncover the potential for improvement of complex energy conversion systems, as well as qualify and quantify plant component interactions. In this paper, an advanced exergoenvironmental analysis is used for the first time as means to evaluate an oxy-fuel power plant with CO(2) capture. The environmental impacts of each component are split into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. In an effort to minimize the environmental impact of the plant operation, we focus on the avoidable part of the impact (which is also split into endogenous and exogenous parts) and we seek ways to decrease it. The results of the advanced exergoenvironmental analysis show that the majority of the environmental impact related to the exergy destruction of individual components is unavoidable and endogenous. Thus, the improvement potential is rather limited, and the interactions of the components are of lower importance. The environmental impact of construction of the components is found to be significantly lower than that associated with their operation; therefore, our suggestions for improvement focus on measures concerning the reduction of exergy destruction and pollutant formation.

  5. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  6. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  7. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  8. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  9. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  10. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  11. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  12. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  13. Optimizing the mix of strategies for control of vehicular emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lejano, R.P.; Ayala, P.M.; Gonzales, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    A number of strategies for the control of vehicular emissions are being considered by the Philippine government to address Metropolitan Manila`s air quality problem. An analytical tool is needed for optimizing criteria pollutant reductions given the budgetary constraints. The simplest approach is to take costs and pollutant removals to be linear with each strategy`s scale of activity, and this is readily solved as a linear programming problem. Another approach is to use a dynamic system of weights which shift with progressive improvements in pollutant emissions. The two approaches yield somewhat different results, suggesting the sensitivity of the solution to the assumed weights. The study also illustrates the importance of a sound methodology for evaluating priorities given to different air quality goals. One such methodology may involve a polling of expert panels and the public to gain insight into the relative importance given to competing emissions reduction goals. An informal polling of resource agency staff was conducted and discussed in this paper. The authors take the position that proper planning involves tracing intermediate steps to the final outcome and not just focusing on the latter. 17 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  14. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  15. Mine planning and emission control strategies using geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, F.; Kim, Y.C.

    1983-03-01

    This paper reviews the past four years' research efforts performed jointly by the University of Arizona and the Homer City Owners in which geostatistics were applied to solve various problems associated with coal characterization, mine planning, and development of emission control strategies. Because geostatistics is the only technique which can quantify the degree of confidence associated with a given estimate (or prediction), it played an important role throughout the research efforts. Through geostatistics, it was learned that there is an urgent need for closely spaced sample information, if short-term coal quality predictions are to be made for mine planning purposes.

  16. Recent advances in active control of aircraft cabin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Gopal; Fuller, Christopher

    2002-11-01

    Active noise control techniques can provide significant reductions in aircraft interior noise levels without the structural modifications or weight penalties usually associated with passive techniques, particularly for low frequency noise. Our main objective in this presentation is to give a review of active control methods and their applications to aircraft cabin noise reduction with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges facing the noise control engineer in the practical application of these techniques. The active noise control method using secondary acoustic sources, e.g., loudspeakers, as control sources for tonal noise reduction is first discussed with results from an active noise control flight test demonstration. An innovative approach of applying control forces directly to the fuselage structure using piezoelectric actuators, known as active structural acoustic control (ASAC), to control cabin noise is then presented. Experimental results from laboratory ASAC tests conducted on a full-scale fuselage and from flight tests on a helicopter will be discussed. Finally, a hybrid active/passive noise control approach for achieving significant broadband noise reduction will be discussed. Experimental results of control of broadband noise transmission through an aircraft structure will be presented.

  17. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration.

  18. Definition study for temperature control in advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyce, Thomas A.; Rosenberger, Franz; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-09-01

    Some of the technical requirements for an expedient application of temperature control to advanced protein crystal growth activities are defined. Lysozome was used to study the effects of temperature ramping and temperature gradients for nucleation/dissolution and consecutive growth of sizable crystals and, to determine a prototype temperature program. The solubility study was conducted using equine serum albumin (ESA) which is an extremely stable, clinically important protein due to its capability to bind and transport many different small ions and molecules.

  19. Definition study for temperature control in advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyce, Thomas A.; Rosenberger, Franz; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the technical requirements for an expedient application of temperature control to advanced protein crystal growth activities are defined. Lysozome was used to study the effects of temperature ramping and temperature gradients for nucleation/dissolution and consecutive growth of sizable crystals and, to determine a prototype temperature program. The solubility study was conducted using equine serum albumin (ESA) which is an extremely stable, clinically important protein due to its capability to bind and transport many different small ions and molecules.

  20. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  1. Integrated modeling of methane source, sinks, and emissions control costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul K.

    2002-06-01

    The overall objective of this three-year collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to develop a framework which would incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science, scenarios, and technical change, to allow for the effective and efficient analysis of possible future strategies to control methane. As part of this research project, we developed a model that takes into account more explicit treatment of the mechanisms controlling each important methane regional source and sink to study non-linear effects involved in methane chemistry in the atmosphere. On the policy front, we developed the relationship between economics and climatic impacts of methane emission reductions. On the application front, we applied the newly developed advanced methane modeling capabilities to study the effects of a wide range of possible scenarios of future methane emissions on climate and to examined the costs associated with achieving specific greenhouse gas reduction targets for a range of emission pathways. The significant findings from the DOE supported study are outlined.

  2. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  3. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  4. Reliability, Safety and Error Recovery for Advanced Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    For long-duration automated operation of regenerative life support systems in space environments, there is a need for advanced integration and control systems that are significantly more reliable and safe, and that support error recovery and minimization of operational failures. This presentation outlines some challenges of hazardous space environments and complex system interactions that can lead to system accidents. It discusses approaches to hazard analysis and error recovery for control software and challenges of supporting effective intervention by safety software and the crew.

  5. CONTROL OF TRACE METAL EMISSIONS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS C. HO

    1998-02-18

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. This final technical report details the work performed, the conclusions obtained, and the accomplishments achieved over the project performance period from July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1997. Specifically, this report consists of the following five chapters: Chapter 1. Executive Summary; Chapter 2. Metal Capture by Various Sorbents; Chapter 3. Simultaneous Metal and Sulfur Capture; Chapter 4. Sorption and Desorption of Mercury on Sorbents; and Chapter 5. Project Conclusions. In summary, the metals involved in the project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium and the sorbents tested included bauxite, zeolite and calcined limestone. The three sorbents have been found to have various degree of metal capture capability on arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead

  6. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions for peatlands in Northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Dise, N.B.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S.

    1993-06-20

    Controls on methane emission from peatlands in northern Minnesota were investigated by correlation to environmental variables and by field manipulations. From September 1988 through September 1990, methane flux measurements were made at weekly to monthly intervals at six sites in the Marcell Experimental Forest, northern Minnesota (two open bog sites, two forested bog sites, a poor fen, and a fen lagg). Flux was related to water table position and peat temperature with simple correlations at individual sites and multiple regression on all sites together. The effect of water table was also investigated experimentally in {open_quotes}bog corrals{close_quotes} (open-ended metal enclosures set in the peat) in which water table was artificially raised to the surface in the driest peatland. Temperature largely controlled variation in flux within individual ecosystems at Marcell, but hydrology distinguished between-site variation. Water table position, peat temperature, and degree of peat humification explained 91% of the variance in log CH{sub 4} flux, predicted annual methane emission from individual wetlands successfully, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased emission by 2.5x and 2.2x, respectively. Just as expanding the scale of investigation from a single habitat in a wetland to several wetlands necessitates incorporation of additional variables to explain flux (water table, peat characteristics), modeling flux from several wetland regions, if possible, will require the addition of climate parameters. 30 refs., 8 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  8. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  9. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Farina, C.

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magnetic field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.

  11. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; ...

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magneticmore » field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.« less

  12. CO₂ laser emission modes to control enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Alonso-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Galo, Rodrigo; Rios, Daniela; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-08-01

    Considering the importance and prevalence of dental erosion, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different modes of pulse emission of CO2 laser associated or not to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1.23% gel, in controlling enamel erosion by profilometry. Ninety-six fragments of bovine enamel were flattened and polished, and the specimens were subjected to initial erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid (pH = 2). Specimens were randomly assigned according to surface treatment: APF 1.23% gel and gel without fluoride (control), and subdivided according to the modes of pulse CO2 laser irradiation: no irradiation (control), continuous, ultrapulse, and repeated pulse (n = 12). After surface treatment, further erosive challenges were performed for 5 days, 4 × 2 min/day. Enamel structure loss was quantitatively determined by a profilometer, after surface treatment and after 5 days of erosive challenges. Two-away ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the pulse emission mode of the CO2 laser and the presence of fluoride (P ≤ 0.05). The Duncan's test showed that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode and the specimens only received fluoride, promoted lower enamel loss than that other treatments. A lower dissolution of the enamel prisms was observed when it was irradiated with CO2 laser in continuous mode compared other groups. It can be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode was the most effective to control the enamel structure loss submitted to erosive challenges with hydrochloric acid.

  13. Refinements and Tests of an Advanced Controller to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.; Fleming, P.

    2010-12-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated 3-D turbulent wind inflow field, with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, while maximizing energy capture. Active damping should be added to these dynamic structures to maintain stability for operation in a complex environment. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), we have designed, implemented, and tested advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on linear models of the turbine that are generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we present field test results of an advanced control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads in Region 3.

  14. Advances in the development of FTIR continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhouxiong; Demirgian, J.C.; Hwang, E.

    1995-06-01

    The integrated, transportable FTIR-CEM was successfully tested from September 13 to 21, 1994, at the K-25 TSCA incinerator, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. the field test followed the requirements of a procedure, which was submitted to the EPA for approval. The test results met all the requirement listed in the proposed procedure. Extensive spiking tests were conducted during the field test. The FTIR-CEM quantitatively detected all spiked analytes measured the stack emission variation during the ignition period of the incinerator. For the stack samples obtained under normal incineration conditions, no target analytes were detected at concentrations above the instrument detection limits, except for methane, which was occasionally detected at 4-5 ppM. Future work will involve making the master control software more robust to use, improving the accuracy of the analytical methods, and testing system effectiveness for various emission sources. A commercial version of the system is currently being developed.

  15. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  16. Recent Advances in Computational Studies of Charge Exchange X-ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbee, Renata

    2016-06-01

    Interest in astrophysical sources of charge exchange (CX) has grown since X-ray emission from comet Hyakutake was first observed, the origin of which is primarily due to CX processes between neutral species in the comet’s atmosphere and highly charged ions from the solar wind. More recent observations have shown that CX may have a significant contribution to the X-ray emission spectra of a wide variety of environments within our solar system including solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with neutral gases in the heliosphere and in planetary atmospheres, as well as beyond the solar system in galaxy clusters, supernova remnants, and star forming galaxies.While the basic process of CX has been studied for many decades, the reliability of the existing data is not uniform, and the coverage of the astrophysically important projectile and target combinations and collisional velocities is insufficient. The need for reliable and robust CX X-ray emission models will only be amplified with the with the high resolution X-ray spectra expected from the soft X-ray imaging calorimeter spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Hitomi X-ray observatory. In this talk, I will discuss recent advances in theoretical CX cross sections and X-ray modeling with a focus on CX diagnostics. The need for experimental X-ray spectra and cross sections for benchmarking current theory will also be highlighted. This work was performed in collaboration with David Lyons, Patrick Mullen, David Schultz, Phillip Stancil, and Robin Shelton. Work at UGA was partially supported by NASA grant NNX09AC46G.

  17. Advanced interactive displays for deployable command and control centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrysik, Peter A.; Parada, Francisco E.; Stedman, Terrance A.; Zhang, Jingyuan

    2003-09-01

    Command and control in today's battlefield environment requires efficient and effective control of massive amounts of constantly changing information from a variety of databases and real-time sensors. Using advanced information technology for presentation and interactive control enables more extensive data fusion and correlation to present an accurate picture of the battlespace to commanders and their staffs. The Interactive DataWall being developed by the Advanced Displays and Intelligent Interfaces (ADII) technology team of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Information Directorate (AFRL/IF) is a strong contender for solving the information management problems facing the 21st century military commander. It provides an ultra high-resolution large screen display with multi-modal, wireless interaction. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology has been combined with specialized hardware and software developed in-house to provide a unique capability for multimedia data display and control. The technology once isolated to a laboratory environment has been packaged into deployable systems that have been successfully transitioned to support the warfighter in the field.

  18. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, W. A.; Hassan, K. H.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.; Wylie, S. R.

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  19. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  20. Control of harmful hydrocarbon species in the exhaust of modern advanced GDI engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, A. O.; Abu-jrai, A.; Turner, D.; Tsolakis, A.; Xu, H. M.; Golunski, S. E.; Herreros, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic but currently non-regulated hydrocarbon compounds ranging from C5-C11, before and after a zoned three-way catalytic converter (TWC) in a modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GDI engine has been operated under conventional and advanced combustion modes, which result in better fuel economy and reduced levels of NOx with respect to standard SI operation. However, these fuel-efficient conditions are more challenging for the operation of a conventional TWC, and could lead to higher level of emissions released to the environment. Lean combustion leads to the reduction in pumping losses, fuel consumption and in-cylinder emission formation rates. However, lean HCCI will lead to high levels of unburnt HCs while the presence of oxygen will lower the TWC efficiency for NOx control. The effect on the catalytic conversion of the hydrocarbon species of the addition of hydrogen upstream the catalyst has been also investigated. The highest hydrocarbon engine-out emissions were produced for HCCI engine operation at low engine load operation. The catalyst was able to remove most of the hydrocarbon species to low levels (below the permissible exposure limits) for standard and most of the advanced combustion modes, except for naphthalene (classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer) and methyl-naphthalene (which has the potential to cause lung damage). However, when hydrogen was added upstream of the catalyst, the catalyst conversion efficiency in reducing methyl-naphthalene and naphthalene was increased by approximately 21%. This results in simultaneous fuel economy and environmental benefits from the effective combination of advanced combustion and novel aftertreatment systems.

  1. Assessment of Cancer-Associated Biomarkers by Positron Emission Tomography: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Collier, T. Lee; Lecomte, Roger; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Meikle, Steve; Ruth, Thomas J.; Scopinaro, Francesco; Signore, Alberto; Van Brocklin, Henry; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Waterhouse, Rikki N.

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a powerful means to non-invasively image and quantify protein expression and biochemical changes in living subjects at nano- and picomolar levels. As the field of molecular imaging develops, and as advances in the biochemistry, pharmacology, therapeutics, and molecular biology of disease are made, there is a corresponding increase in the number of clinically relevant, novel disease-associated biomarkers that are brought to the attention of those developing imaging probes for PET. In addition, due to the high specificity of the PET radiotracers being developed, there is a demand for PET cameras with higher sensitivity and resolution. This manuscript reviews advances over the past five years in clinical and pre-clinical PET instrumentation and in new PET probes and imaging methods associated with the latest trends in the molecular imaging of cancer. Included in the PET tracer review is a description of new radioligands for steroid receptors, growth factor receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, sigma receptors, tumor-associated enzymes, gene reporter probes, markers for tumor hypoxia and metabolism, and sites associated with angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. The use of PET imaging in drug development, including the monitoring of cancer chemotherapy, also is discussed. PMID:14646039

  2. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  3. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  4. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  5. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  6. Model-based advanced process control of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C W; Shariff, R; Stanley, S J; Smith, D W; Zhang, Q; Saumer, E D

    2002-01-01

    The drinking water treatment industry has seen a recent increase in the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for process modelling and offline process control tools and applications. While conceptual frameworks for integrating the ANN technology into the real-time control of complex treatment processes have been proposed, actual working systems have yet to be developed. This paper presents development and application of an ANN model-based advanced process control system for the coagulation process at a pilot-scale water treatment facility in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The system was successfully used to maintain a user-defined set point for effluent quality, by automatically varying operating conditions in response to changes in influent water quality. This new technology has the potential to realize significant operational cost saving for utilities when applied in full-scale applications.

  7. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  8. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  9. Benchmarking of Advanced Control Strategies for a Simulated Hydroelectric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finotti, S.; Simani, S.; Alvisi, S.; Venturini, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses and develops the design of advanced control strategies for a typical hydroelectric plant during unsteady conditions, performed in the Matlab and Simulink environments. The hydraulic system consists of a high water head and a long penstock with upstream and downstream surge tanks, and is equipped with a Francis turbine. The nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic turbine and the inelastic water hammer effects were considered to calculate and simulate the hydraulic transients. With reference to the control solutions addressed in this work, the proposed methodologies rely on data-driven and model-based approaches applied to the system under monitoring. Extensive simulations and comparisons serve to determine the best solution for the development of the most effective, robust and reliable control tool when applied to the considered hydraulic system.

  10. Use of IBM's Advanced Control System in Undergraduate Process Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Lowell B.; Sullivan, Gerald R.

    1986-01-01

    This article: (1) traces some of the history behind the International Business Machines (IBM) and academic arrangement; (2) describes the Advanced Control System and how it is used in undergraduate process control courses; (3) discusses benefits to students and teachers; and (4) summarizes future plans. (JN)

  11. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  12. PREFACE: European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Sören

    2014-12-01

    The European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis is an annual event that has been organised since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary and Denmark. The overall planning of the workshops is conducted by the Intelligent Control and Diagnosis (ICD) steering committee. This year's ACD workshop took place at HTW Berlin (University of Applied Sciences) and was organised by the Control Engineering group of School of Engineering I of HTW Berlin. 38 papers were presented at ACD 2014, with contributions spanning a variety of fields in modern control science: Discrete control, nonlinear control, model predictive control, system identification, fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control, control applications, applications of fuzzy logic, as well as modelling and simulation, the latter two forming a basis for all tasks in modern control. Three interesting and high-quality plenary lectures were delivered. The first plenary speaker was Wolfgang Weber from Pepperl+Fuchs, a German manufacturer of state-of-the-art industrial sensors and process interfaces. The second and third plenary speakers were two internationally high-ranked researchers in their respective fields, Prof. Didier Theilliol from Université de Lorraine and Prof. Carsten Scherer from Universität Stuttgart. Taken together, the three plenary lectures sought to contribute to closing the gap between theory and applications. On behalf of the whole ACD 2014 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who submitted papers and participated in the workshop. We hope it was a fruitful and memorable event for all. Together we are looking forward to the next ACD workshop in 2015 in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Horst Schulte (General Chair), Sören Georg (Programme Chair)

  13. Advanced Controls for the Multi-pod Centipod WEC device

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, Alan; Fleming, Alex

    2016-02-15

    Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) has developed a Wave Energy Converter (WEC), Centipod, which is a multiple point absorber, extracting wave energy primarily in the heave direction through a plurality of point absorber floats sharing a common stable reference structure. The objective of this project was to develop advanced control algorithms that will be used to reduce Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). This project investigated the use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve the power capture of the WEC. The MPC controller developed in this work is a state-space, “look ahead” controller approach using knowledge of past and current states to predict future states to take action with the PTO to maximize power capture while still respecting system constraints. In order to maximize power, which is the product of force and velocity, the controller must aim to create phase alignment between excitation force and velocity. This project showed a 161% improvement in the Annual Energy Production (AEP) for the Centipod WEC when utilizing MPC, compared to a baseline, fixed passive damping control strategy. This improvement in AEP was shown to provide a substantial benefit to the WEC’s overall Cost of Energy, reducing LCOE by 50% from baseline. The results of this work proved great potential for the adoption of Model Predictive Controls in Wave Energy Converters.

  14. Catalytic destruction vs. adsorption in controlling dioxin emission.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Moo Been

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs achieved with a catalytic filter (CF) and with activated carbon injection followed by bag filter (ACI+BF) as applied in an industrial waste incinerator (IWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), respectively. Catalytic filtration has been successfully applied to remove PCDD/Fs from gas streams. Comparing the CF to the ACI+BF system, it appears that the PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with a CF is higher than that of an ACI+BF system. The PCDD/F emissions from both incinerators are well controlled to meet the regulatory limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Additionally, the PCDD/F concentration in BF ash is higher than the regulation limit of Taiwan (1.0 ng I-TEQ/g). In contrast, the PCDD/F concentration in CF ash is only 0.274 ng I-TEQ/g. The difference is attributed to the fact that the ACI+BF system just transfers PCDD/Fs from gas phase to solid phase and further increases the PCDD/F concentration in fly ash, while CF technology effectively destroys the gas-phase PCDD/Fs. Therefore, the disposal of the fly ash discharged from CF would be less expensive compared with the fly ash discharged from the ACI+BF system. In this study, the PCDD/F emission factors of both incinerators are also established.

  15. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-06

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  16. Controlling the directionality of spontaneous emission by evanescent wave coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Lun E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Hao, Guo-Dong E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Toda, Naoya

    2015-09-28

    We report an approach toward controlling the directionality of spontaneous emissions by employing the evanescent wave coupling effect in a subwavelength-sized ridge or truncated cone structure. An InGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode in which a stripe-shaped InGaAs/GaAs quantum well with a stripe width of about 100 nm is embedded at the center of a subwavelength-sized GaAs ridge (of width ∼520 nm) is fabricated by micro processing and epitaxial regrowth techniques. Strong directionalities characterized by a half-intensity angle of 43° are observed in planes perpendicular to the ridge axis. The directionality is found to be almost independent of operating conditions.

  17. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  18. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  19. Design of an AdvancedTCA board management controller (IPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J.; Bobillier, V.; Haas, S.; Joos, M.; Mico, S.; Vasey, F.

    2017-03-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the upgrade of the back-end electronics of the CMS and ATLAS experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . In this context, the electronic systems for experiments group at CERN is running a project to evaluate, specify, design and support xTCA equipment. As part of this project, an Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) for ATCA blades, based on a commercial solution, has been designed to be used on existing and future ATCA blades. This paper reports on the status of this project presenting the hardware and software developments.

  20. Evaluation of advanced displays for engine monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of two advanced display concepts for monitoring engine performance for commercial transport aircraft was studied. The concepts were the Engine Monitoring and Control System (EMACS) display developed by NASA Langley and a display by exception design. Both of these concepts were based on the philosophy of providing information that is directly related to the pilot's task. Both concepts used a normalized thrust display. In addition, EMACS used column deviation indicators; i.e., the difference between the actual parameter value and the value predicted by an engine model, for engine health monitoring; while the Display by Exception displayed the engine parameters if the automated system detected a difference between the actual and the predicted values. The results showed that the advanced display concepts had shorter detection and response times. There were no differences in any of the results between manual and auto throttles. There were no effects upon perceived workload or performance on the primary flight task. The majority of pilots preferred the advanced displays and thought they were operationally acceptable. Certification of these concepts depends on the validation of the engine model. Recommendations are made to improve both the EMACS and the display by exception display formats.

  1. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  2. Interactive and cooperative sensing and control for advanced teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the paradigm of interactive and cooperative sensing and control as a fundamental mechanism of integrating and fusing the strengths of man and machine for advanced teleoperation. The interactive and cooperative sensing and control is considered as an extended and generalized form of traded and shared control. The emphasis of interactive and cooperative sensing and control is given to the distribution of mutually nonexclusive subtasks to man and machine, the interactive invocation of subtasks under the man/machine symbiotic relationship, and the fusion of information and decisionmaking between man and machine according to their confidence measures. The proposed interactive and cooperative sensing and control system is composed of such major functional blocks as the logical sensor system, the sensor-based local autonomy, the virtual environment formation, and the cooperative decision-making between man and machine. The Sensing-Knowledge-Command (SKC) fusion network is proposed as a fundamental architecture for implementing cooperative and interactive sensing and control. Simulation results are shown.

  3. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The third reporting period in Phase II (April 1--June 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and comparison of the results with full-scale data. The pilot scale tests were performed with the objective of simulating furnace conditions of ongoing full-scale tests at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and defining the processes controlling AR performance to subsequently improve the performance. The tests were conducted in EER' s Boiler Simulator Facility. The main fuel pulsing system was used at the BSF to control the degree of unmixedness, thus providing control over furnace gas O{sub 2} and CO concentrations. Results on AR-Lean, presented in the previous quarterly report, were compared with full-scale data. Performance of reburn+SNCR was tested to predict NO{sub x} control at Greenidge. The results of the BSF reburn+SNCR simulation tests demonstrated that there are synergistic advantages of using these two technologies in series. In particular, injection of overfire air provides additional mixing that reduces negative effects on AR performance at the temperature regime of the Greenidge boiler.

  4. Indicator system for advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  5. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...EPA is issuing this Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to describe information currently available and information being collected that will be used by the Administrator to issue a subsequent proposal regarding whether, in the Administrator's judgment, aircraft lead emissions from aircraft using leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) cause or contribute to air pollution which may......

  6. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y.; Argonne National Lab., IL; General Electric Co., San Jose, CA )

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  7. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of recent and forthcoming emission regulations in the northern European emission control area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-06-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 33%, from 322 ktons to 217 ktons, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 20%, from 74 ktons to 59 ktons. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the South-Eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 85% in SOx emissions and a~reduction of 50% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all shipping varied between 10% and 63%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  8. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  9. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO[sub x] emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO[sub x] emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO[sub x] emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO[sub x] emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO[sub x] emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  10. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  11. Advanced control of nonlinear beams with Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymchenko, M.; Gomez-Diaz, J. S.; Lee, J.; Nookala, N.; Belkin, M. A.; Alù, A.

    2016-12-01

    The application of the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase approach to the design of nonlinear metasurfaces has recently enabled subdiffractive phase control over the generated nonlinear fields, embedding phased array features in ultrathin structures. Here, we rigorously model, analyze, and design highly efficient nonlinear metasurfaces with advanced functionalities, including the generation of pencil beams steered in arbitrary directions in space, as well as vortex beams with polarization-dependent angular momentum, and we extend the PB approach to various nonlinear processes. To this purpose, we develop an accurate and efficient theoretical framework—inspired by the linear phase array theory—based on the effective nonlinear susceptibility method, thus avoiding the use of time-consuming numerical simulations. Our findings allow exploiting the flat nonlinear optics paradigm, enabling exciting applications based on subwavelength field control over flat and large-scale structures with giant nonlinear responses.

  12. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Payne; Lary Swanson; Antonio Marquez; Ary Chang; Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-09-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The twelfth reporting period in Phase II (July 3-October 15, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task No.2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  13. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Zamansky

    2000-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The eleventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task 2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  14. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The ninth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 1999) included preparation of the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace for tests and setting the SGAR model to predict process performance under Tower Furnace conditions. Based on results of previous work, a paper has been prepared and submitted for the presentation at the 28 Symposium (International) on Combustion to be held at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

  15. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The thirteenth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 2000) included SGAR tests in which coal was used as the reburning fuel. All test work was conducted at GE-EER's 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility. Three test series were performed including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and reburning + SNCR. Tests demonstrated that over 90% NO{sub x} reduction could be achieved with utilization of coal as a reburning fuel in SGAR. The most effective SGAR variant is reburning + SNCR followed by AR-Lean and AR-Rich.

  16. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United

    1991-07-30

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. The results of this research are to be made available to ICF Kaiser Engineers who are currently working on the Engineering Development of Advanced Flotation under a separate contract with DOE under the Acid Rain Control Initiative program. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying degrees of weathering, namely, open to the atmosphere, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 29 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... (ACC) which combines the control of smog and soot causing pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions... both smog forming pollutants and greenhouse gases, and amendments to its zero emission vehicle...

  18. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  19. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  20. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McNicol, Gavin

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  1. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; D. K. Ottesen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1998-11-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom of line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  2. Humidity control of particle emissions in aeolian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Sanderson, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Humidity is an important control of the wind speed required to entrain particles into an air flow and is well known to vary on a global scale, as do dust emissions. This paper reports on wind tunnel experiments which quantify this control through placing a polymer capacitance sensor immediately at the bed surface. The sensor measured changes in the humidity (RH) of the pore air in real time. RH was varied between 15% and 80% and the critical wind speed determined for the release of particles to the air stream. The results strongly support earlier suggestions that fine particles are most affected in relatively dry atmospheres, particularly those which are tightly packed. An analytical model is proposed to describe this relationship which depends on determination of the matric potential from the Kelvin equation. The total contact area between particle asperities adjoined by pendular rings is represented as a power function of the number of layers of adsorbed water. The value of the exponent appears to be governed by the surface roughness of the particles and their packing arrangement. Parallel developments in colloid interface science and atomic force microscopy, relevant to industrial and pharmaceutical applications, support these conclusions in principle and will likely have an important bearing on future progress in parameterization of the proposed model.

  3. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  4. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Eficiency NO(x) Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.; Maly, P.M.; Sheldon, M.S.; Moyeda, D.; Gardiner, W.C., Jr.; Lissianski, V.V.

    1997-04-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The sixth reporting period (January I - March 31, 1997) included both experimental and modeling activities. New kinetic experimental data for high-temperature decomposition of sodium carbonate were obtained in a flow reactor at the University of Texas in Austin. Pilot scale combustion tests in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility were continued with firing coal and using natural gas as reburn fuel. The results demonstrate that over 90% NO control is achievable by injecting one or two N-agents with sodium promoters into the reburning zone and with the overfire air. Advanced reburning technologies does not cause significant byproduct emissions. The AR kinetic model was updated to include chemical reactions of sodium carbonate decomposition. Modeling was conducted on evaluation of the effect of sodium on process kinetics in the rebuming zone. This study revealed that increasing or decreasing radical concentrations in the presence of sodium can significantly affect the reactions responsible for NO reduction under fuel-rich conditions. The effect of mixing time on performance with sodium was also evaluated. Initial activities on engineering design methodology for second generation AR improvements are described.

  6. Advanced Issues of Wind Turbine Modelling and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simani, Silvio

    2015-11-01

    The motivation for this paper comes from a real need to have an overview about the challenges of modelling and control for very demanding systems, such as wind turbine systems, which require reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety over power conversion efficiency. These issues have begun to stimulate research and development in the wide control community particularly for these installations that need a high degree of “sustainability”. Note that this topic represents a key point mainly for offshore wind turbines with very large rotors, since they are characterised by challenging modelling and control problems, as well as expensive and safety critical maintenance works. In this case, a clear conflict exists between ensuring a high degree of availability and reducing maintenance times, which affect the final energy cost. On the other hand, wind turbines have highly nonlinear dynamics, with a stochastic and uncontrollable driving force as input in the form of wind speed, thus representing an interesting challenge also from the modelling point of view. Suitable control methods can provide a sustainable optimisation of the energy conversion efficiency over wider than normally expected working conditions. Moreover, a proper mathematical description of the wind turbine system should be able to capture the complete behaviour of the process under monitoring, thus providing an important impact on the control design itself. In this way, the control scheme could guarantee prescribed performance, whilst also giving a degree of “tolerance” to possible deviation of characteristic properties or system parameters from standard conditions, if properly included in the wind turbine model itself. The most important developments in advanced controllers for wind turbines are addressed, and open problems in the areas of modelling of wind turbines are also outlined.

  7. Automated UV process analyzers/distributed control boost emission control process efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fabre, M.C.

    1987-10-01

    The Marathon Petroleum Company refinery in Garyville, LA, refines more than 200,000 bbl/day of crude oil. Waste process gases-H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/-are handled by a single system. Emission control efficiency and reliability needed to be improve in the H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ acid gas conversion process. To maintain the EPA emission maximum of only 10 ppm H/sub 2/S, the process required almost continuous manual inspection. The need for frequent optical measurements, the susceptibility of process upset due to human error or steam variances, and stream overloading problems combined to make the process unreliable. In its ongoing effort to ensure maximum emission control efficiency, Marathathon retrofit the process to an automated self-diagnostic treatment and monitoring system in 1986. The multistep treatment process controls and treats Marathon;s acid gas-by-product through two existing Claus process units and SO/sub 2/-to-H/sub 2/S converters, a desuperheater, an amine scrubber and a thermal oxidizer. Critical to maintaining both the stack emission control and the efficiency of the process are a pair of automated UV-photometric analyzers. The instruments were incorporated to monitor the gas streams and to fine-tune the process equipment (through the plant's existing distributed control system) to meet variably operating conditions. Since the retrofitted and monitoring system became operational, Marathon has eliminated the compliance reporting problems that had formerly plaqued the plant. Stack efficiency (measuring stream content of SO/sub 2/) has been consistently maintained at levels of 50% or less of the allowable EPA maximum. By automating the analysis procedures, little hands-on-or visual maintenance, sample testing, calibration, and report preparation time are required, saving an estimated 60% in yearly operations and maintenance costs.

  8. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E.; Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  9. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yujing; Oh, Julia L.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.

  10. Advanced Low-Emissions Catalytic-Combustor Program, phase 1. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgess, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Six catalytic combustor concepts were defined, analyzed, and evaluated. Major design considerations included low emissions, performance, safety, durability, installations, operations and development. On the basis of these considerations the two most promising concepts were selected. Refined analysis and preliminary design work was conducted on these two concepts. The selected concepts were required to fit within the combustor chamber dimensions of the reference engine. This is achieved by using a dump diffuser discharging into a plenum chamber between the compressor discharge and the turbine inlet, with the combustors overlaying the prediffuser and the rear of the compressor. To enhance maintainability, the outer combustor case for each concept is designed to translate forward for accessibility to the catalytic reactor, liners and high pressure turbine area. The catalytic reactor is self-contained with air-cooled canning on a resilient mounting. Both selected concepts employed integrated engine-starting approaches to raise the catalytic reactor up to operating conditions. Advanced liner schemes are used to minimize required cooling air. The two selected concepts respectively employ fuel-rich initial thermal reaction followed by rapid quench and subsequent fuel-lean catalytic reaction of carbon monoxide, and, fuel-lean thermal reaction of some fuel in a continuously operating pilot combustor with fuel-lean catalytic reaction of remaining fuel in a radially-staged main combustor.

  11. Recent Advances in Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission NSEE Investigations at HAARP and EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Wayne

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of stimulated radiation, commonly known as Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE), produced by the interaction of high-power, High Frequency HF radiowaves with the ionospheric plasma has been a vibrant area of research since the early 1980's. Substantial diagnostic information about ionospheric plasma characteristics, dynamics, and turbulence can be obtained from the frequency spectrum of the stimulated radiation. During the past several decades, so-called wideband SEE (WSEE) which exists in a frequency band of ±100 KHz or so of the transmit wave frequency (which is several MHz) has been investigated relatively thoroughly. Upgrades both in transmitter power and diagnostic receiver frequency sensitivity at major ionosphere interaction facilities (i.e. HAARP and EISCAT) have allowed new breakthroughs in the ability to study a plethora of processes associated with the ionospheric plasma during these active experiments. A primary advance is in observations of so-called narrowband SEE (NSEE) which exists roughly within ±1 kHz of the transmit wave frequency. NSEE investigation has opened the door for a potentially powerful tool for aeronomy investigations as well. An overview of several important new results associated with NSEE are discussed in this presentation, including observations, theory, computational modeling, as well as implications to new diagnostics of space plasma physics occurring during ionospheric interaction experiments.

  12. Imaging Multimodalities for Dissecting Alzheimer's Disease: Advanced Technologies of Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, Masafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Sahara, Naruhiko

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our toolbox for monitoring a variety of biological aspects in living subjects including human. In vivo radiological imaging using small chemical tracers, such as with positron emission tomography, represents an especially vital breakthrough in the efforts to improve our understanding of the complicated cascade of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has provided the most reliable visible biomarkers for enabling clinical diagnosis. At the same time, in combination with genetically modified animal model systems, the most recent innovation of fluorescence imaging is helping establish diverse applications in basic neuroscience research, from single-molecule analysis to animal behavior manipulation, suggesting the potential utility of fluorescence technology for dissecting the detailed molecular-based consequence of AD pathophysiology. In this review, our primary focus is on a current update of PET radiotracers and fluorescence indicators beneficial for understanding the AD cascade, and discussion of the utility and pitfalls of those imaging modalities for future translational research applications. We will also highlight current cutting-edge genetic approaches and discuss how to integrate individual technologies for further potential innovations. PMID:26733795

  13. 78 FR 5303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Control of Sulfur Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Sulfur Emissions From Stationary Boilers AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... ) emissions (a precursor pollutant to PM 2.5 ), from industrial boilers. EPA is approving this revision... 10 CSR 10- 5.570 Control of Sulfur Emissions from Stationary Boilers to the SIP. This rule...

  14. Geomorphic and hydrologic controls of dust emissions during drought from Yellow Lake playa, West Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the factors that control dust emissions from playas has revealed a number of complex geomorphic and hydrologic factors, yet there are few measurements of dust emissions from playas during drought or low-emission seasons. Deflation of Yellow Lake, a saline playa in West Texas, produces sa...

  15. Fine particle (2.5 microns) emissions: regulations, measurement, and control

    SciTech Connect

    John D. McKenna; James H. Turner; James P. McKenna, Jr.

    2008-09-15

    Contents: Introduction; Health effects; Air monitoring; Emission control methods - fabric filter/baghouses, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers; Environmental technology verification and baghouse filtration products; Cost considerations; and Nanoparticulates.

  16. Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wugalter, S.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.

  17. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  18. Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath; Polagye, Brian; Fabien, Brian; Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Marnagh, Cian; Donegan, James

    2016-03-31

    The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at

  19. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  20. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  1. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  2. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  3. Advanced methods of microscope control using μManager software

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Arthur D.; Tsuchida, Mark A.; Amodaj, Nenad; Pinkard, Henry; Vale, Ronald D.; Stuurman, Nico

    2014-01-01

    μManager is an open-source, cross-platform desktop application, to control a wide variety of motorized microscopes, scientific cameras, stages, illuminators, and other microscope accessories. Since its inception in 2005, μManager has grown to support a wide range of microscopy hardware and is now used by thousands of researchers around the world. The application provides a mature graphical user interface and offers open programming interfaces to facilitate plugins and scripts. Here, we present a guide to using some of the recently added advanced μManager features, including hardware synchronization, simultaneous use of multiple cameras, projection of patterned light onto a specimen, live slide mapping, imaging with multi-well plates, particle localization and tracking, and high-speed imaging. PMID:25606571

  4. Off-cycle exhaust emissions from modern passenger cars with properly-functioning emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.W.; Ross, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    Real-world tailpipe emissions from properly-functioning, model year 1991--94 conventional gasoline-fueled cars associated with vehicle operations not emphasized in the FTP are analyzed. Tailpipe emissions are expressed as the product of three factors: fuel rate, engine-out emissions index, and catalyst pass fraction, which are modeled using empirical data from the FTP-Revision Project and applied to in-use driving survey data to estimate real-world emissions. Average tailpipe emissions due to fuel enrichment in warmed-up vehicles are estimated to be 8 g/mile for CO, and 0.3 g/mile for HC. For NO{sub x}, the contribution due to incremental loads on the engine (i.e. air conditioner, grade, high acceleration, and high speed) that are not accounted for in the FTP but are encountered in real-world driving are estimated to be roughly 0.3 g/mile.

  5. Advanced launch system trajectory optimization using suboptimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, Douglas A.; Hull, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum-final mass trajectory of a proposed configuration of the Advanced Launch System is presented. A model for the two-stage rocket is given; the optimal control problem is formulated as a parameter optimization problem; and the optimal trajectory is computed using a nonlinear programming code called VF02AD. Numerical results are presented for the controls (angle of attack and velocity roll angle) and the states. After the initial rotation, the angle of attack goes to a positive value to keep the trajectory as high as possible, returns to near zero to pass through the transonic regime and satisfy the dynamic pressure constraint, returns to a positive value to keep the trajectory high and to take advantage of minimum drag at positive angle of attack due to aerodynamic shading of the booster, and then rolls off to negative values to satisfy the constraints. Because the engines cannot be throttled, the maximum dynamic pressure occurs at a single point; there is no maximum dynamic pressure subarc. To test approximations for obtaining analytical solutions for guidance, two additional optimal trajectories are computed: one using untrimmed aerodynamics and one using no atmospheric effects except for the dynamic pressure constraint. It is concluded that untrimmed aerodynamics has a negligible effect on the optimal trajectory and that approximate optimal controls should be able to be obtained by treating atmospheric effects as perturbations.

  6. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Furstenau, R.V.; Ingrahm, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA and is owned and regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The ATR is operated for the US DOE by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies. In recent years, prime irradiation space in the ATR has been made available for use by customers having irradiation service needs in addition to the reactor`s principal user, the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. To enhance the reactor`s capabilities, the US DOE has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and temperature control for up to 28 experiments. The ATR-ITV will have the flexibility to simultaneously support a variety of experiments requiring fast, thermal or mixed spectrum neutron environments. Temperature control is accomplished by varying the thermal conductivity across a gas gap established between the experiment specimen capsule wall and the experiment `in-pile tube (IPT)` inside diameter. Thermal conductivity is adjusted by alternating the control gas mixture ratio of two gases with different thermal conductivities.

  7. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  8. 40 CFR 63.985 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vapors, the type of condenser, and the design flow rate of the emission stream. (ii) Performance test. A... control device as described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section if a performance test will be performed... Compliance Status whenever emissions of regulated material are routed to the control device except...

  9. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who becomes the...

  10. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions Payment Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity...

  11. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who becomes the...

  12. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  13. Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, J. P.; Confer, K.

    2012-09-11

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to advance the commercialization potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) advanced combustion strategy for gasoline engine platforms. HCCI combustion has been shown by others to produce high diesel-like efficiency on a gasoline engine platform while simultaneously producing low NOX and particulate matter emissions. However, the commercialization barriers that face HCCI combustion are significant, with requirements for a more active engine control system, likely with next-cycle closed-loop feedback control, and with advanced valve train technologies to enable negative valve overlap conditions. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has made a number of breakthroughs with production-intent valve train technologies and controls in recent years to make a part time production-intent HCCI engine plausible. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise with HCCI combustion, and also has a versatile research engine with hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) that is useful for guiding production of a cam-based HCCI system. Partnering these knowledge bases and capabilities was essential towards making progress to better understand HCCI combustion and the commercialization barriers that it faces. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided guidance to ORNL regarding operational strategies to investigate on their single-cylinder research engine with HVA and data from their experimental multi-cylinder engine for modeling. ORNL provided single-cylinder engine data and modeling results.

  14. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Mark A. Musich

    2007-02-01

    Three potential additives for controlling mercury emissions from syngas at temperatures ranging from 350 to 500 F (177 to 260 C) were developed. Current efforts are being directed at increasing the effective working temperature for these sorbents and also being able to either eliminate any potential mercury desorption or trying to engineer a trace metal removal system that can utilize the observed desorption process to repeatedly regenerate the same sorbent monolith for extended use. Project results also indicate that one of these same sorbents can also successfully be utilized for arsenic removal. Capture of the hydrogen selenide in the passivated tubing at elevated temperatures has resulted in limited results on the effective control of hydrogen selenide with these current sorbents, although lower-temperature results are promising. Preliminary economic analysis suggests that these Corning monoliths potentially could be more cost-effective than the conventional cold-gas (presulfided activated carbon beds) technology currently being utilized. Recent Hg-loading results might suggest that the annualized costs might be as high as 2.5 times the cost of the conventional technology. However, this annualized cost does not take into account the significantly improved thermal efficiency of any plant utilizing the warm-gas monolith technology currently being developed.

  15. Control of odour emission in wastewater treatment plants by direct and undirected measurement of odour emission capacity.

    PubMed

    Zarra, T; Giuliani, S; Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

    2012-01-01

    Odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be the main causes of disturbance noticed by the exposed population and have relevant impacts on both tourism economy and land costs. Odour impact from WWTPs is generated by primary and secondary odour emissions. Primary odour emissions are related especially to the wastewater type and variability discharged into the sewer and directed to the WWTP, and to the wastewater collection and sewage system. Secondary odours are related to the treatment units of the plant. Several studies describe the key role of primary odour emissions and how they are strongly related to odour impacts of WWTPs. In this way, a opportune characterization of the emission capacity of primary odour could be an effective way to control odour emission in the WWTPs. In this study the odour emission capacity (OEC) of different domestic sewers was described and investigated; a correlation between the OEC and the main physical-chemical parameters of wastewater quality was also carried out. Results of this study identify the optimum conditions for sampling and measuring OEC in wastewaters and define its dependence by wastewater quality. These results can contribute to setting the standards for the maximum odourant content of wastewater that are discharged into the publicly owned sewage system.

  16. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  17. Vehicular Diesel control emissions benefit assessment in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Reynoso, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Ruiz-Suarez, L.; Cruz-Nuñez, X.; Rojas, A. R.; Tripp, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel vehicles contribute in an important proportion to the particle and black carbon (BC) ambient concentrations in urban areas. These pollutants can effect the climate and health. The average age of the Diesel fleet in Mexico is 15 year-old. An introduction of new technologies and retrofit systems can reduce emissions from this type of vehicles. A set of policies were selected and applied in order to identify their economic benefits in health. An air quality model was used to obtain ambient concentrations from the emissions and specific methodology for emissions inventory adjustment was developed for this project. Preliminary results show an important benefit due to the improvement of the emissions reduction from the Diesel fleet. PM2.5 differences for reduction scenario case 1 and base case. Output from WRF-chem using 2005 Naional Emissions Inventory Reductions obtained using data from the initial fleet, fleet temporal variation and substitution policies.

  18. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  19. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen

    PubMed Central

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol–1 or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol–1. The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  20. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  1. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  2. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  3. Dynamic control of light emission faster than the lifetime limit using VO2 phase-change

    PubMed Central

    Cueff, Sébastien; Li, Dongfang; Zhou, You; Wong, Franklin J.; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Ramanathan, Shriram; Zia, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Modulation is a cornerstone of optical communication, and as such, governs the overall speed of data transmission. Currently, the two main strategies for modulating light are direct modulation of the excited emitter population (for example, using semiconductor lasers) and external optical modulation (for example, using Mach–Zehnder interferometers or ring resonators). However, recent advances in nanophotonics offer an alternative approach to control spontaneous emission through modifications to the local density of optical states. Here, by leveraging the phase-change of a vanadium dioxide nanolayer, we demonstrate broadband all-optical direct modulation of 1.5 μm emission from trivalent erbium ions more than three orders of magnitude faster than their excited state lifetime. This proof-of-concept demonstration shows how integration with phase-change materials can transform widespread phosphorescent materials into high-speed optical sources that can be integrated in monolithic nanoscale devices for both free-space and on-chip communication. PMID:26489436

  4. Economic implications of incorporating emission controls to mitigate air pollutants emitted from a modeled hydrocarbon-fuel biorefinery in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Davis, Ryan; ...

    2016-07-15

    The implementation of the US Renewable Fuel Standard is expected to increase the construction and operation of new biofuel facilities. Allowing this industry to grow without adversely affecting air quality is an important sustainability goal sought by multiple stakeholders. However, little is known about how the emission controls potentially required to comply with air quality regulations might impact biorefinery cost and deployment strategies such as siting and sizing. In this study, we use a baseline design for a lignocellulosic hydrocarbon biofuel production process to assess how the integration of emission controls impacts the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of themore » biofuel produced. We evaluate the change in MFSP for two cases as compared to the baseline design by incorporating (i) emission controls that ensure compliance with applicable federal air regulations and (ii) advanced control options that could be used to achieve potential best available control technology (BACT) emission limits. Our results indicate that compliance with federal air regulations can be achieved with minimal impact on biofuel cost (~$0.02 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) higher than the baseline price of $5.10 GGE-1). However, if air emissions must be further reduced to meet potential BACT emission limits, the cost could increase nontrivially. For example, the MFSP could increase to $5.50 GGE-1 by adopting advanced emission controls to meet potential boiler BACT limits. Finally, given tradeoffs among emission control costs, permitting requirements, and economies of scale, these results could help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing and mitigate risks associated with air permitting.« less

  5. Economic implications of incorporating emission controls to mitigate air pollutants emitted from a modeled hydrocarbon-fuel biorefinery in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Davis, Ryan; Eberle, Annika; Heath, Garvin

    2016-07-15

    The implementation of the US Renewable Fuel Standard is expected to increase the construction and operation of new biofuel facilities. Allowing this industry to grow without adversely affecting air quality is an important sustainability goal sought by multiple stakeholders. However, little is known about how the emission controls potentially required to comply with air quality regulations might impact biorefinery cost and deployment strategies such as siting and sizing. In this study, we use a baseline design for a lignocellulosic hydrocarbon biofuel production process to assess how the integration of emission controls impacts the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of the biofuel produced. We evaluate the change in MFSP for two cases as compared to the baseline design by incorporating (i) emission controls that ensure compliance with applicable federal air regulations and (ii) advanced control options that could be used to achieve potential best available control technology (BACT) emission limits. Our results indicate that compliance with federal air regulations can be achieved with minimal impact on biofuel cost (~$0.02 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) higher than the baseline price of $5.10 GGE-1). However, if air emissions must be further reduced to meet potential BACT emission limits, the cost could increase nontrivially. For example, the MFSP could increase to $5.50 GGE-1 by adopting advanced emission controls to meet potential boiler BACT limits. Finally, given tradeoffs among emission control costs, permitting requirements, and economies of scale, these results could help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing and mitigate risks associated with air permitting.

  6. Speech recognition in advanced rotorcraft - Using speech controls to reduce manual control overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Bortolussi, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment has been conducted to ascertain the usefulness of helicopter pilot speech controls and their effect on time-sharing performance, under the impetus of multiple-resource theories of attention which predict that time-sharing should be more efficient with mixed manual and speech controls than with all-manual ones. The test simulation involved an advanced, single-pilot scout/attack helicopter. Performance and subjective workload levels obtained supported the claimed utility of speech recognition-based controls; specifically, time-sharing performance was improved while preparing a data-burst transmission of information during helicopter hover.

  7. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Steven Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  8. User type certification for advanced flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, Richard D.; Abbott, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced avionics through flight management systems (FMS) coupled with autopilots can now precisely control aircraft from takeoff to landing. Clearly, this has been the most important improvement in aircraft since the jet engine. Regardless of the eventual capabilities of this technology, it is doubtful that society will soon accept pilotless airliners with the same aplomb they accept driverless passenger trains. Flight crews are still needed to deal with inputing clearances, taxiing, in-flight rerouting, unexpected weather decisions, and emergencies; yet it is well known that the contribution of human errors far exceed those of current hardware or software systems. Thus human errors remain, and are even increasing in percentage as the largest contributor to total system error. Currently, the flight crew is regulated by a layered system of certification: by operation, e.g., airline transport pilot versus private pilot; by category, e.g., airplane versus helicopter; by class, e.g., single engine land versus multi-engine land; and by type (for larger aircraft and jet powered aircraft), e.g., Boeing 767 or Airbus A320. Nothing in the certification process now requires an in-depth proficiency with specific types of avionics systems despite their prominent role in aircraft control and guidance.

  9. Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2015-05-01

    CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  10. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control.

  11. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, F. W.; Palmer, A. J.; Stites, D. J.

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) for fusion materials irradiation at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA. The ITV is capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and individual temperature control for up to 15 experiment capsules simultaneously. The test vehicle consists of three In-Pile Tubes (IPTs) running the length of the reactor vessel. These IPTs are kept dry and test trains with integral instrumentation are inserted and removed through a transfer shield plate above the reactor vessel head. The test vehicle is designed to irradiate specimens as large as 2.2 cm in diameter, at temperatures of 250-800°C, achieving neutron damage rates as high as 10 displacements per atom per year. The high fast to thermal neutron flux ratio required for fusion materials testing is accomplished by using an aluminum filler to displace as much water as possible from the flux trap and surrounding the filler piece with a ring of replaceable neutron absorbing material. The gas blend temperature control system remains in place from test to test, thus hardware costs for new tests are limited to the experiment capsule train and integral instrumentation.

  12. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  13. Environmental Consequences of Invasive Species: Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Insecticide Use and the Role of Biological Control in Reducing Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Heimpel, George E.; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D.; Ragsdale, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23977273

  14. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    PubMed

    Heimpel, George E; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D; Ragsdale, David W

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  16. STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CA-BASED SORBENTS USED FOR SO2 EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses structural transformations in Ca-based sorbents used for SO2 emission control. conomizer temperature injection of Ca-based sorbents is an option for dry control of SO2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. heir reactivity with SO2 was found to be a function of th...

  17. Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

    2012-04-30

    This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

  18. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  19. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  20. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM RCRA Standardized Permits for Storage and Treatment Units Information That Must Be Kept at Your Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control...

  1. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAM RCRA Standardized Permits for Storage and Treatment Units Information That Must Be Kept at Your Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What air emissions control...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  5. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  6. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction...

  7. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  8. Control of NOx Emissions from Stationary Combustion Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary control technologies or secondary control technologies. Primary control technologies reduce the formation of NOx in the primary combustion zone. In contrast, secondary control technologies destroy the NO...

  9. Evidence for solar wind control of Saturn radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Using data collected by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in 1980 and 1981, strong evidence is presented for a direct correlation between variations in the solar wind at Saturn and the level of activity of Saturn's nonthermal radio emission. Correlation coefficients of 57 to 58% are reached at lag times of 0 to 1 days between the arrival at Saturn of high pressure solar wind streams and the onset of increased radio emission. The radio emission exhibits a long-term periodicity of 25 days, identical to the periodicity seen in the solar wind at this time and consistent with the solar rotation period. The energy coupling efficiency between the solar wind with the Saturn radio emission is estimated and compared with that for Earth.

  10. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  11. Steelmaking process control using remote ultraviolet atomic emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Samuel

    Steelmaking in North America is a multi-billion dollar industry that has faced tremendous economic and environmental pressure over the past few decades. Fierce competition has driven steel manufacturers to improve process efficiency through the development of real-time sensors to reduce operating costs. In particular, much attention has been focused on end point detection through furnace off gas analysis. Typically, off-gas analysis is done with extractive sampling and gas analyzers such as Non-dispersive Infrared Sensors (NDIR). Passive emission spectroscopy offers a more attractive approach to end point detection as the equipment can be setup remotely. Using high resolution UV spectroscopy and applying sophisticated emission line detection software, a correlation was observed between metal emissions and the process end point during field trials. This correlation indicates a relationship between the metal emissions and the status of a steelmaking melt which can be used to improve overall process efficiency.

  12. The potential role of nuclear power in controlling CO sub 2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E.; Delene, J.G.; Perry, A.M.; Cantor, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power currently reduces CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning worldwide by about 8% (0.4 Gt(C)/yr). It can continue to play an important role only if it can grow substantially in the next 50 years. For such growth to occur public confidence will need to improve throughout the world. That might happen if (a) other non-fossil alternatives are inadequate to meet electricity demand growth, (b) the risks to society from global warming are perceived to be very high, (c) nuclear technology improves substantially, and (d) an international institutional setting is devised to manage the nuclear enterprise so that the technology is available to all nations while catastrophic accidents and proliferation of nuclear weapon capabilities are avoided. It seems feasible that the necessary technological and institutional advances can be devised and tested over the next 20 years. It is also plausible that the direct costs of electricity produced by the system would be in the range of 50-100 mills/kWhr (1990 dollars) delivered to the grid. In other words, the direct costs of nuclear power should not be greater than they are today. Achieving such an outcome will require aggressive technical and institutional RD D performed in a cooperative international setting. If rapid growth of nuclear power can begin again in 15-20 years it could supply 30-50% of world electricity in 50 years and cut CO{sub 2} emission rates by up to 2.5 Gt(C)/yr. This would be a substantial contribution to controlling greenhouse gases, but it is not sufficient. Improved efficiency and various renewable energy sources must also grow rapidly if CO{sub 2} emission rates from electricity generation are to be reduced from the current value of about 2 Gt(C)/yr. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  14. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  15. Factors controlling emissions of dimethylsulphide from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; King, Gary M.

    1987-01-01

    Salt marshes are presently identified as systems exhibiting high area-specific sulfur emission in the form of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and H2S, with the former predominating in vegetated areas of the marshes. Attention is presently given to the distribution of DMS in salt marshes; it is found that this compound primarily arises from physiological processes in the leaves of higher plants, especially the grass species Spartina alterniflora. Uncertainties associated with DMS emission measurements are considered.

  16. Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

  17. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  18. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  19. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  20. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills.