Science.gov

Sample records for advanced engine systems

  1. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  2. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  3. Engine health monitoring: An advanced system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, R. J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.

  4. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2015-08-19

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  5. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  6. Systems engineering and integration: Advanced avionics laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop the new generation of avionics which will be necessary for upcoming programs such as the Lunar/Mars Initiative, Advanced Launch System, and the National Aerospace Plane, new Advanced Avionics Laboratories are required. To minimize costs and maximize benefits, these laboratories should be capable of supporting multiple avionics development efforts at a single location, and should be of a common design to support and encourage data sharing. Recent technological advances provide the capability of letting the designer or analyst perform simulations and testing in an environment similar to his engineering environment and these features should be incorporated into the new laboratories. Existing and emerging hardware and software standards must be incorporated wherever possible to provide additional cost savings and compatibility. Special care must be taken to design the laboratories such that real-time hardware-in-the-loop performance is not sacrificed in the pursuit of these goals. A special program-independent funding source should be identified for the development of Advanced Avionics Laboratories as resources supporting a wide range of upcoming NASA programs.

  7. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  8. Advancing the Practice of Systems Engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross; Jansma, Patti A.; Derro, Mary Ellen; Burns, Margaret J.; Blom, Kris

    2007-01-01

    Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) practices at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. The topics include: 1) SEA background; 2) Three Key Components of change; and 3) Three Support Components of Change.

  9. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  10. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  11. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  12. Advancing the practice of systems engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, Patti A.; Jones, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    In FY 2004, JPL launched an initiative to improve the way it practices systems engineering. The Lab's senior management formed the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project in order to "significantly advance the practice and organizational capabilities of systems engineering at JPL on flight projects and ground support tasks." The scope of the SEA Project includes the systems engineering work performed in all three dimensions of a program, project, or task: 1. the full life-cycle, i.e., concept through end of operations 2. the full depth, i.e., Program, Project, System, Subsystem, Element (SE Levels 1 to 5) 3. the full technical scope, e.g., the flight, ground and launch systems, avionics, power, propulsion, telecommunications, thermal, etc. The initial focus of their efforts defined the following basic systems engineering functions at JPL: systems architecture, requirements management, interface definition, technical resource management, system design and analysis, system verification and validation, risk management, technical peer reviews, design process management and systems engineering task management, They also developed a list of highly valued personal behaviors of systems engineers, and are working to inculcate those behaviors into members of their systems engineering community. The SEA Project is developing products, services, and training to support managers and practitioners throughout the entire system lifecycle. As these are developed, each one needs to be systematically deployed. Hence, the SEA Project developed a deployment process that includes four aspects: infrastructure and operations, communication and outreach, education and training, and consulting support. In addition, the SEA Project has taken a proactive approach to organizational change management and customer relationship management - both concepts and approaches not usually invoked in an engineering environment. This paper'3 describes JPL's approach to advancing the practice of

  13. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further.

  14. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

    2004-01-01

    Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

  15. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  16. Applying Technology Ranking and Systems Engineering in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    According to the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program Plan, the Systems Modeling and Analysis Project (SMAP) has two important tasks: 1) prioritizing investments in ALS Research and Technology Development (R&TD), and 2) guiding the evolution of ALS systems. Investments could be prioritized simply by independently ranking different technologies, but we should also consider a technology's impact on system design. Guiding future ALS systems will require SMAP to consider many aspects of systems engineering. R&TD investments can be prioritized using familiar methods for ranking technology. The first step is gathering data on technology performance, safety, readiness level, and cost. Then the technologies are ranked using metrics or by decision analysis using net present economic value. The R&TD portfolio can be optimized to provide the maximum expected payoff in the face of uncertain future events. But more is needed. The optimum ALS system can not be designed simply by selecting the best technology for each predefined subsystem. Incorporating a new technology, such as food plants, can change the specifications of other subsystems, such as air regeneration. Systems must be designed top-down starting from system objectives, not bottom-up from selected technologies. The familiar top-down systems engineering process includes defining mission objectives, mission design, system specification, technology analysis, preliminary design, and detail design. Technology selection is only one part of systems analysis and engineering, and it is strongly related to the subsystem definitions. ALS systems should be designed using top-down systems engineering. R&TD technology selection should consider how the technology affects ALS system design. Technology ranking is useful but it is only a small part of systems engineering.

  17. Advances in polymeric systems for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-03-01

    The characteristics of tissue engineered scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The polymer scaffolds employed for tissue engineering applications should possess multifunctional properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and favorable mechanical properties as it comes in direct contact with the body fluids in vivo. Additionally, the polymer system should also possess biomimetic architecture and should support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. As the progress in polymer technology continues, polymeric biomaterials have taken characteristics more closely related to that desired for tissue engineering and clinical needs. Stimuli responsive polymers also termed as smart biomaterials respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzyme, antigen, glucose and electrical stimuli that are inherently present in living systems. This review highlights the exciting advancements in these polymeric systems that relate to biological and tissue engineering applications. Additionally, several aspects of technology namely scaffold fabrication methods and surface modifications to confer biological functionality to the polymers have also been discussed. The ultimate objective is to emphasize on these underutilized adaptive behaviors of the polymers so that novel applications and new generations of smart polymeric materials can be realized for biomedical and tissue engineering applications.

  18. Space Shuttle Main Engine: Advanced Health Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Chirs

    1999-01-01

    The main gola of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Advanced Health Management system is to improve flight safety. To this end the new SSME has robust new components to improve the operating margen and operability. The features of the current SSME health monitoring system, include automated checkouts, closed loop redundant control system, catastropic failure mitigation, fail operational/ fail-safe algorithms, and post flight data and inspection trend analysis. The features of the advanced health monitoring system include: a real time vibration monitor system, a linear engine model, and an optical plume anomaly detection system. Since vibration is a fundamental measure of SSME turbopump health, it stands to reason that monitoring the vibration, will give some idea of the health of the turbopumps. However, how is it possible to avoid shutdown, when it is not necessary. A sensor algorithm has been developed which has been exposed to over 400 test cases in order to evaluate the logic. The optical plume anomaly detection (OPAD) has been developed to be a sensitive monitor of engine wear, erosion, and breakage.

  19. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  20. Advancement of online systems in engineering by Expert TA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jeremy

    This dissertation introduces a new online system called Expert TA. The system was developed based on the hypothesis that expressions are key elements in engineering problems and that the treatment of expressions is critical to the advancement of online systems. This dissertation identifies ergonomic problems with expression entry that Expert TA overcomes through the use of a problem-customize integrated expression editor, called a palate. Then the dissertation shows, using an expression analyzer that operates in the background of Expert TA, that specific mathematical mistakes within an entered expression can now be located. Emulating standard instructional practices, detailed feedback pertaining to specific mistakes and grading on the basis of specific mistakes is now possible.

  1. Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence: The Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As NASA undertakes increasingly complex projects, the need for expert systems engineers and leaders in systems engineering is becoming more pronounced. As a result of this issue, the Agency has undertaken an initiative to develop more systems engineering leaders through its Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program; however, the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer has also called on the field Centers to develop mechanisms to strengthen their expertise in systems engineering locally. In response to this call, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a comprehensive development program for aspiring systems engineers and systems engineering leaders. This presentation will summarize the two-level program, which consists of a combination of training courses and on-the-job, developmental training assignments at the Center to help develop stronger expertise in systems engineering and technical leadership. In addition, it will focus on the success the program has had in its pilot year. The program hosted a formal kickoff event for Level I on October 13, 2009. The first class includes 42 participants from across MSFC and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). A formal call for Level II is forthcoming. With the new Agency focus on research and development of new technologies, having a strong pool of well-trained systems engineers is becoming increasingly more critical. Programs such as the Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, as well as those developed at other Centers, help ensure that there is an upcoming generation of trained systems engineers and systems engineering leaders to meet future design challenges.

  2. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  3. Engineering derivatives from biological systems for advanced aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfield, Daniel L.; Hering, Dean H.; Cole, David

    1991-01-01

    The present study consisted of a literature survey, a survey of researchers, and a workshop on bionics. These tasks produced an extensive annotated bibliography of bionics research (282 citations), a directory of bionics researchers, and a workshop report on specific bionics research topics applicable to space technology. These deliverables are included as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Section 5.0, respectively. To provide organization to this highly interdisciplinary field and to serve as a guide for interested researchers, we have also prepared a taxonomy or classification of the various subelements of natural engineering systems. Finally, we have synthesized the results of the various components of this study into a discussion of the most promising opportunities for accelerated research, seeking solutions which apply engineering principles from natural systems to advanced aerospace problems. A discussion of opportunities within the areas of materials, structures, sensors, information processing, robotics, autonomous systems, life support systems, and aeronautics is given. Following the conclusions are six discipline summaries that highlight the potential benefits of research in these areas for NASA's space technology programs.

  4. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  5. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to provide turbine-cooling technologies to meet Propulsion 21 goals related to engine fuel burn, emissions, safety, and reliability. Specifically, the GE Aviation (GEA) Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program seeks to develop advanced cooling and flow distribution methods for HP turbines, while achieving a substantial reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. Enhanced cooling techniques, such as fluidic devices, controlled-vortex cooling, and directed impingement jets, offer the opportunity to incorporate both active and passive schemes. Coolant heat transfer enhancement also can be achieved from advanced designs that incorporate multi-disciplinary optimization of external film and internal cooling passage geometry.

  6. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

  7. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  8. Progress toward an advanced condition monitoring system for reusable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, J.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of advanced sensor technologies will allow the direct measurement of critical/degradable rocket engine components' health and the detection of degraded conditions before component deterioration affects engine performance, leading to substantial improvements in reusable engines' operation and maintenance. When combined with a computer-based engine condition-monitoring system, these sensors can furnish a continuously updated data base for the prediction of engine availability and advanced warning of emergent maintenance requirements. Attention is given to the case of a practical turbopump and combustion device diagnostic/prognostic health-monitoring system.

  9. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial engines. 3: Propulsion system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 3 effort cover the requirements and objectives for future aircraft propulsion systems. These requirements reflect the results of the Task 1 and 2 efforts and serve as a baseline for future evaluations, specification development efforts, contract/purchase agreements, and operational plans for future subsonic commercial engines. This report is divided into five major sections: (1) management objectives for commercial propulsion systems, (2) performance requirements for commercial transport propulsion systems, (3) design criteria for future transport engines, (4) design requirements for powerplant packages, and (5) testing.

  10. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  11. Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, J.; West, B.; Toops, T.; Adelman, B.; Derybowski, E.

    2011-09-30

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT, also known as NOx adsorber catalyst) regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  12. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  13. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  14. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  15. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  16. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  17. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  18. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnzen, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  19. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  20. Advances in Engineering Software for Lift Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakoff, Alexander Borisoff

    2012-03-01

    In this paper an attempt is performed at computer modelling of ropeway ski lift systems. The logic in these systems is based on a travel form between the two terminals, which operates with high capacity cabins, chairs, gondolas or draw-bars. Computer codes AUTOCAD, MATLAB and Compaq-Visual Fortran - version 6.6 are used in the computer modelling. The rope systems computer modelling is organized in two stages in this paper. The first stage is organization of the ground relief profile and a design of the lift system as a whole, according to the terrain profile and the climatic and atmospheric conditions. The ground profile is prepared by the geodesists and is presented in an AUTOCAD view. The next step is the design of the lift itself which is performed by programmes using the computer code MATLAB. The second stage of the computer modelling is performed after the optimization of the co-ordinates and the lift profile using the computer code MATLAB. Then the co-ordinates and the parameters are inserted into a program written in Compaq Visual Fortran - version 6.6., which calculates 171 lift parameters, organized in 42 tables. The objective of the work presented in this paper is an attempt at computer modelling of the design and parameters derivation of the rope way systems and their computer variation and optimization.

  1. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  2. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  3. Biomimetic tissue-engineered systems for advancing cancer research: NCI Strategic Workshop report.

    PubMed

    Schuessler, Teresa K; Chan, Xin Yi; Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Ji, Kyungmin; Park, Kyung Min; Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Sethi, Pallavi; Thakur, Archana; Tian, Xi; Villasante, Aranzazu; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Moore, Nicole M; Nagahara, Larry A; Kuhn, Nastaran Z

    2014-10-01

    Advanced technologies and biomaterials developed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine present tractable biomimetic systems with potential applications for cancer research. Recently, the National Cancer Institute convened a Strategic Workshop to explore the use of tissue biomanufacturing for development of dynamic, physiologically relevant in vitro and ex vivo biomimetic systems to study cancer biology and drug efficacy. The workshop provided a forum to identify current progress, research gaps, and necessary steps to advance the field. Opportunities discussed included development of tumor biomimetic systems with an emphasis on reproducibility and validation of new biomimetic tumor models, as described in this report.

  4. System engineering of aerospace and advanced technology programs at an astronautics company (record of study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Mike O.

    An internship with the Martin Marietta Astronautics Group that was performed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Engineering degree is documented. The internship included assignments with two Martin Marietta companies, on three different programs and in four areas of engineering. A first-hand look is taken at system engineering, SDI and advanced program management, and the way Martin Marietta conducts business. The five internship objectives were related to assignments in system modeling, system integration, engineering analysis and technical management: (1) The effects of thermally and mechanically induced mirror surface distortions upon the wavefront intensity field of a high energy laser beam passing through the optical train of a space-based laser system were modeled. (2) The restrictive as opposed to the broad interpretation of the 1972 ABM Treaty, and the capability of the Strategic Defense Initiative Zenith Star Program to comply with the Treaty were evaluated. (3) The capability of Martin Marietta to develop an automated analysis system to integrate and analyze Superconducting Super Collider detector designs was investigated. (4) The thermal models that were developed in support of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile flight tests were described. (5) The technical management role of the Product Integrity Engineer assigned to the Zenith Star spacecraft's Beam Control and Transfer Subsystem was discussed. The relationships between the engineering, business, security and social concerns associated with the practice of engineering and the management of programs by a major defense contractor are explored.

  5. Advanced Engine Health Management Applications of the SSME Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorucci, Tony R.; Lakin, David R., II; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is a 32-channel high speed vibration data acquisition and processing system developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It Delivers sample rates as high as 51,200 samples/second per channel and performs Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing via on-board digital signal processing (DSP) chips in a real-time format. Advanced engine health assessment is achieved by utilizing the vibration spectra to provide accurate sensor validation and enhanced engine vibration redlines. Discrete spectral signatures (such as synchronous) that are indicators of imminent failure can be assessed and utilized to mitigate catastrophic engine failures- a first in rocket engine health assessment. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  6. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  7. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-06-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  8. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  9. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  10. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  11. System Engineering of Aerospace and Advanced Technology Programs at AN Astronautics Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Mike O.

    The purpose of this Record of Study is to document an internship with the Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado that was performed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Engineering degree at Texas A&M University, and to demonstrate that the internship objectives have been met. The internship included assignments with two Martin Marietta companies, on three different programs and in four areas of engineering. The Record of Study takes a first-hand look at system engineering, SDI and advanced program management, and the way Martin Marietta conducts business. The five internship objectives were related to assignments in system modeling, system integration, engineering analysis and technical management. In support of the first objective, the effects of thermally and mechanically induced mirror surface distortions upon the wavefront intensity field of a high energy laser beam passing through the optical train of a space-based laser system were modeled. To satisfy the second objective, the restrictive as opposed to the broad interpretation of the 1972 ABM Treaty, and the capability of the Strategic Defense Initiative Zenith Star Program to comply with the Treaty were evaluated. For the third objective, the capability of Martin Marietta to develop an automated analysis system to integrate and analyze Superconducting Super Collider detector designs was investigated. For the fourth objective, the thermal models that were developed in support of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile flight tests were described. And in response to the fifth objective, the technical management role of the Product Integrity Engineer assigned to the Zenith Star spacecraft's Beam Control and Transfer Subsystem was discussed. This Record of Study explores the relationships between the engineering, business, security and social concerns associated with the practice of engineering and the management of programs by a major defense contractor.

  12. Space Launch System NASA Research Announcement Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Craig, Kellie D.

    2011-01-01

    The intent of the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort is to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Key Concepts (1) Offerors must propose an Advanced Booster concept that meets SLS Program requirements (2) Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction must relate to the Offeror s Advanced Booster concept (3) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) will not be prescriptive in defining Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

  13. The Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, J. L.; Werner, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  15. Systems analysis and engineering of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.

    1998-10-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source, which will produce {approximately} 16 MJ in x-rays, represents the next step in providing US Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray sources needed for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation (RES), Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and Weapon Physics (WP) Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories` Z Accelerator in 1997 provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. This paper will introduce the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source Facility Project, describe the systems analysis and engineering approach being used, and identify critical technology areas being researched.

  16. Advanced Combustion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Calvin H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center (ACERC), which is a cooperative project of Brigham Young University, the University of Utah, and 25 governmental and industrial research laboratories. Discusses the research objectives, the academic program, the industrial relations and technology transfer program,…

  17. Advances in Engine Test Capabilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter M.; Panek, Joseph W.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Piendl, Barry R.; Lizanich, Paul J.; Klann, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center is one of the premier U.S. facilities for research on advanced aeropropulsion systems. The facility can simulate a wide range of altitude and Mach number conditions while supplying the aeropropulsion system with all the support services necessary to operate at those conditions. Test data are recorded on a combination of steady-state and highspeed data-acquisition systems. Recently a number of upgrades were made to the facility to meet demanding new requirements for the latest aeropropulsion concepts and to improve operational efficiency. Improvements were made to data-acquisition systems, facility and engine-control systems, test-condition simulation systems, video capture and display capabilities, and personnel training procedures. This paper discusses the facility s capabilities, recent upgrades, and planned future improvements.

  18. Advanced life support systems in lunar and Martian environments utilizing a higher plant based engineering paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a higher-plant-based engineering paradigm for advanced life support in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) on the surface of the moon or Mars, called the CELSS Breadboard Project, designed at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Such a higher-plant-based system would use the plants for a direct food source, gas exchange, water reclamation, and plant residuals in a complex biological resource recovery scheme. The CELSS Breadboard Project utilizes a 'breadboard' approach of developing independent systems that are evaluated autonomously and are later interconnected. Such a scheme will enable evaluation of life support system methodologies tested for their efficiency in a life support system for habitats on the moon or Mars.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the advanced boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO), opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable advanced booster that meets the SLS performance requirements

  20. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, and its stated intent was to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the Advanced Boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the Advanced Boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit, opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and

  1. Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

  2. Multi-Disciplinary Analysis for Future Launch Systems Using NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald; Mathias, Donovan; Reuther, James; Garn, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    A new engineering environment constructed for the purposes of analyzing and designing Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) is presented. The new environment has been developed to allow NASA to perform independent analysis and design of emerging RLV architectures and technologies. The new Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is both collaborative and distributed. It facilitates integration of the analyses by both vehicle performance disciplines and life-cycle disciplines. Current performance disciplines supported include: weights and sizing, aerodynamics, trajectories, propulsion, structural loads, and CAD-based geometries. Current life-cycle disciplines supported include: DDT&E cost, production costs, operations costs, flight rates, safety and reliability, and system economics. Involving six NASA centers (ARC, LaRC, MSFC, KSC, GRC and JSC), AEE has been tailored to serve as a web-accessed agency-wide source for all of NASA's future launch vehicle systems engineering functions. Thus, it is configured to facilitate (a) data management, (b) automated tool/process integration and execution, and (c) data visualization and presentation. The core components of the integrated framework are a customized PTC Windchill product data management server, a set of RLV analysis and design tools integrated using Phoenix Integration's Model Center, and an XML-based data capture and transfer protocol. The AEE system has seen production use during the Initial Architecture and Technology Review for the NASA 2nd Generation RLV program, and it continues to undergo development and enhancements in support of its current main customer, the NASA Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program.

  3. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  4. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  5. Advanced Technology for Engineering Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Technology for Engineering Education, held at the Peninsula Graduate Engineering Center, Hampton, Virginia, February 24-25, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced technologies for engineering education and to explore the possibility of forming a consortium of interested individuals/universities for curriculum reform and development using advanced technologies. The presentations covered novel delivery systems and several implementations of new technologies for engineering education. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  6. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Fourth quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The goal of the NO{sub x} Subsystem is to achieve continuous operation of the Low Emissions Boiler System (LEBS) at NO{sub x} emissions at or below 0. 20 lb/MBtu through combustion techniques only, with a further target of 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu using supplementary advanced flue gas cleanup technologies if necessary. These goals places practical constraints that must be considered on the NO{sub x} Subsystem design. Not only must the boiler be designed to achieve time temperature mixing histories that minimize NO{sub x}, but it must also be designed to operate that way throughout its working lifetime. Therefore, NO{sub x} minimization strategies must be integrated into the control systems for every boiler component from the pulverizers to the stack. Furthermore, these goals must be met without increases in carbon loss and CO emissions from the levels achieved with current low-NO{sub x} combustion systems. Therefore, the NO{sub x} Subsystem requires not only sound mechanical designs of burners, furnace surface, and staging air/fuel injectors, but also sensors and software to allow control of their operation. Through engineering analysis, experimental testing, and numerical modeling in Phase 2, an advanced low NO{sub x} control system is being developed. The progress of these activities is presented in this report.

  7. A study of engine variable geometry systems for an advanced high subsonic long range commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compagnon, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Several variable geometry high Mach inlet concepts, aimed at meeting a system noise objective of 15 EPNdB below FAR part 36, for a long range, Mach 0.9 advanced commercial transport are assessed and compared to a fixed geometry inlet with multiple splitters. The effects of a variable exhaust nozzle (mixed exhaust engine) on noise, inlet geometry requirements, and economics are also presented. The best variable geometry inlet configuration identified is a variable cowl design which relies on a high throat Mach number for additional inlet noise suppression only at takeoff, and depends entirely on inlet wall treatment for noise suppression at approach power. Relative economic penalties as a function of noise level are also presented.

  8. Propulsion technology needs for advanced space transportation systems. [orbit maneuvering engine (space shuttle), space shuttle boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans are formulated for chemical propulsion technology programs to meet the needs of advanced space transportation systems from 1980 to the year 2000. The many possible vehicle applications are reviewed and cataloged to isolate the common threads of primary propulsion technology that satisfies near term requirements in the first decade and at the same time establish the technology groundwork for various potential far term applications in the second decade. Thrust classes of primary propulsion engines that are apparent include: (1) 5,000 to 30,000 pounds thrust for upper stages and space maneuvering; and (2) large booster engines of over 250,000 pounds thrust. Major classes of propulsion systems and the important subdivisions of each class are identified. The relative importance of each class is discussed in terms of the number of potential applications, the likelihood of that application materializing, and the criticality of the technology needed. Specific technology programs are described and scheduled to fulfill the anticipated primary propulsion technology requirements.

  9. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  10. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-11-15

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources.

  11. Advanced photonic, electronic, and web engineering systems: WILGA Symposium, January 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The cycle of WILGA Symposia [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of SPIE, IEEE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Multi-Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The January conference was attended by around 100 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical photonics, electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced photonic, electronic circuits and systems. The 32 nd WILGA Symposium took place on 27 May - 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. These two editions of WILGA Conferences - January and May have generated more than 250 articles, from which around 100 were chosen by the Symposium and Conference Committees to be published in this volume of Proc.SPIE. WILGA Symposium papers are traditionally submitted via the WILGA web page [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] to the SPIE Proceedings publishing system [spie.org]. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. All Wilga papers are published in journals Elektronika, IJET-PAN and in Proc.SPIE. Topical tracks of the symposium usually embrace, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium In its two editions a year is a summary of the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country and this geographical region in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also

  12. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  13. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  14. Advanced engineering environment collaboration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Pomplun, Alan R.; Kiba, Grant W.; Dutra, Edward G.; Dankiewicz, Robert J.; Marburger, Scot J.

    2008-12-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a model for an engineering design and communications system that will enhance project collaboration throughout the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) worked together on a prototype project to evaluate the suitability of a portion of PTC's Windchill 9.0 suite of data management, design and collaboration tools as the basis for an AEE. The AEE project team implemented Windchill 9.0 development servers in both classified and unclassified domains and used them to test and evaluate the Windchill tool suite relative to the needs of the NWC using weapons project use cases. A primary deliverable was the development of a new real time collaborative desktop design and engineering process using PDMLink (data management tool), Pro/Engineer (mechanical computer aided design tool) and ProductView Lite (visualization tool). Additional project activities included evaluations of PTC's electrical computer aided design, visualization, and engineering calculations applications. This report documents the AEE project work to share information and lessons learned with other NWC sites. It also provides PTC with recommendations for improving their products for NWC applications.

  15. Advanced Computing Technologies for Rocket Engine Propulsion Systems: Object-Oriented Design with C++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekele, Gete

    2002-01-01

    This document explores the use of advanced computer technologies with an emphasis on object-oriented design to be applied in the development of software for a rocket engine to improve vehicle safety and reliability. The primary focus is on phase one of this project, the smart start sequence module. The objectives are: 1) To use current sound software engineering practices, object-orientation; 2) To improve on software development time, maintenance, execution and management; 3) To provide an alternate design choice for control, implementation, and performance.

  16. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  17. Advanced rotary engine studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  18. JPL space station telerobotic engineering prototype development: Advanced telerobotics system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Telerobotics System Technology Task is to develop/prototype advanced telerobotics supervisory and shared control to enhance Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) teleoperation in the Space Station. The technology provides enhanced telerobotics capabilities while operating within the expected constraints of computation limitations, time delay, and bus bandwidth. A local site operator interface has also been developed for specifying teleoperation and shared control modes as well as supervised autonomous macros for execution at the remote site. The primary objective of the task is to transfer the advanced technology to appropriate flight centers to enhance the baseline Station capabilities.

  19. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  20. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  1. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  2. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  3. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  4. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  5. Advances in engineering plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, L.

    1997-12-01

    New polymers are being commercialized in record numbers, offering the product designer a new realm of possibilities, and promising tough competition to the traditional engineering resins. Most of the growth is in single-site catalyzed resins. Metallocene (and non-metallocene) single-site catalysts enhance polymer architecture to generate highly uniform molecules, and even permit tailoring new categories of polymers. These new materials include the truly unique aliphatic polyketone, syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS); polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) resins; and novel variations of established polymers. This article provides a closer look at these newcomers to the plastics marketplace, with an emphasis on their properties and potential applications.

  6. Advances in water engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Tebbutt, T.H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Water is the world's most important natural resource and its efficient utilization requires a proper understanding of the multifunctional role of water in modern society. The philosophy of integrating both quality and quantity considerations of water engineering is an essential aspect of optimal use of resources and this book provides a collection of 41 papers to emphasize this philosophy. Each section of the contents includes a state-of-the art review followed by specialist contributions on a specific topic so that the reader can gain an overview of the area as well as being informed about the latest developments in particular aspects of the subject.

  7. Advanced nozzle and engine components test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.; Delroso, Richard L.; Delrosario, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    A test facility for conducting scaled advanced nozzle and engine component research is described. The CE-22 test facility, located in the Engine Research Building of the NASA Lewis Research Center, contains many systems for the economical testing of advanced scale-model nozzles and engine components. The combustion air and altitude exhaust systems are described. Combustion air can be supplied to a model up to 40 psig for primary air flow, and 40, 125, and 450 psig for secondary air flow. Altitude exhaust can be simulated up to 48,000 ft, or the exhaust can be atmospheric. Descriptions of the multiaxis thrust stand, a color schlieren flow visualization system used for qualitative flow analysis, a labyrinth flow measurement system, a data acquisition system, and auxiliary systems are discussed. Model recommended design information and temperature and pressure instrumentation recommendations are included.

  8. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for four of the five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight

  9. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  10. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  11. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  12. Development and testing of dry chemicals in advanced extinguishing systems for jet engine nacelle fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Ling, A. C. (Editor); Mayer, L. A.; Myronik, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of dry chemical in extinguishing and delaying reignition of fires resulting from hydrocarbon fuel leaking onto heated surfaces such as can occur in jet engine nacelles is studied. The commercial fire extinguishant dry chemical tried are sodium and potassium bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, carbamate (Monnex), metal halogen, and metal hydroxycarbonate compounds. Synthetic and preparative procedures for new materials developed, a new concept of fire control by dry chemical agents, descriptions of experiment assemblages to test dry chemical fire extinguishant efficiencies in controlling fuel fires initiated by hot surfaces, comparative testing data for more than 25 chemical systems in a 'static' assemblage with no air flow across the heated surface, and similar comparative data for more than ten compounds in a dynamic system with air flows up to 350 ft/sec are presented.

  13. System-Level Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wiser, Jack; Brown, Greg; Florin, Dominic; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    To support future NASA deep space missions, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology was under development. This development effort was performed under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, until its termination at the end of 2013 due to budget constraints. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in Pu-238 fuel, thereby extending its limited domestic supply. As part of closeout activities, system-level testing of flight-like Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with a flight-like ASC Controller Unit (ACU) was performed in February 2014. This hardware is the most representative of the flight design tested to date. The test fully demonstrates the following ACU and system functionality: system startup; ASC control and operation at nominal and worst-case operating conditions; power rectification; DC output power management throughout nominal and out-of-range host voltage levels; ACU fault management, and system command / telemetry via MIL-STD 1553 bus. This testing shows the viability of such a system for future deep space missions and bolsters confidence in the maturity of the flight design.

  14. Advanced engineering environment pilot project.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwegel, Jill; Pomplun, Alan R.; Abernathy, Rusty

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a concurrent engineering concept that enables real-time process tooling design and analysis, collaborative process flow development, automated document creation, and full process traceability throughout a product's life cycle. The AEE will enable NNSA's Design and Production Agencies to collaborate through a singular integrated process. Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) are working together on a prototype AEE pilot project to evaluate PTC's product collaboration tools relative to the needs of the NWC. The primary deliverable for the project is a set of validated criteria for defining a complete commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solution to deploy the AEE across the NWC.

  15. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary identification and evaluation of promising liquid oxygen/ hydrocarbon (LO2/HC) rocket engine cycles is reported. A consistent and reliable data base for vehicle optimization and design studies, to demonstrate the significance of propulsion system improvements, and to select the critical technology areas necessary to realize such advances is presented.

  16. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  17. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    van Hassel, Bart A.

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  18. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  19. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets.

  20. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets. PMID:27444945

  1. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M. Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets. PMID:27444945

  2. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  3. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) Research at Argonne National Laboratory. A Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sreenath; Biruduganti, Muni; Bihari, Bipin; Sekar, Raj

    2014-08-01

    The goals of these experiments were to determine the potential of employing spectral measurements to deduce combustion metrics such as HRR, combustion temperatures, and equivalence ratios in a natural gas-fired reciprocating engine. A laser-ignited, natural gas-fired single-cylinder research engine was operated at various equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 1.0, while varying the EGR levels between 0% and maximum to thereby ensure steady combustion. Crank angle-resolved spectral signatures were collected over 266-795 nm, encompassing chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, and predominantly by CO2* species. Further, laser-induced gas breakdown spectra were recorded under various engine operating conditions.

  4. A preliminary design and analysis of an advanced heat-rejection system for an extreme altitude advanced variable cycle diesel engine installed in a high-altitude advanced research platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite surveillance in such areas as the Antarctic indicates that from time to time concentration of ozone grows and shrinks. An effort to obtain useful atmospheric data for determining the causes of ozone depletion would require a flight capable of reaching altitudes of at least 100,000 ft and flying subsonically during the sampling portion of the mission. A study of a heat rejection system for an advanced variable cycle diesel (AVCD) engine was conducted. The engine was installed in an extreme altitude, high altitude advanced research platform. Results indicate that the waste heat from an AVCD engine propulsion system can be rejected at the maximum cruise altitude of 120,000 ft. Fifteen performance points, reflecting the behavior of the engine as the vehicle proceeded through the mission, were used to characterize the heat exchanger operation. That portion of the study is described in a appendix titled, 'A Detailed Study of the Heat Rejection System for an Extreme Altitude Atmospheric Sampling Aircraft,' by a consultant, Mr. James Bourne, Lytron, Incorporated.

  5. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  6. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Ewen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates promising LO2/HC rocket engine cycles, produces a consistent and reliable data base for vehicle optimization and design studies, demonstrates the significance of propulsion system improvements, and selects the critical technology areas necessary to realize an improved surface to orbit transportation system. Parametric LO2/HC engine data were generated over a range of thrust levels from 890 to 6672 kN (200K to 1.5M 1bF) and chamber pressures from 6890 to 34500 kN (1000 to 5000 psia). Engine coolants included RP-1, refined RP-1, LCH4, LC3H8, LO2, and LH2. LO2/RP-1 G.G. cycles were found to be not acceptable for advanced engines. The highest performing LO2/RP-1 staged combustion engine cycle utilizes LO2 as the coolant and incorporates an oxidizer rich preburner. The highest performing cycle for LO2/LCH4 and LO2/LC3H8 utilizes fuel cooling and incorporates both fuel and oxidizer rich preburners. LO2/HC engine cycles permitting the use of a third fluid LH2 coolant and an LH2 rich gas generator provide higher performance at significantly lower pump discharge pressures. The LO2/HC dual throat engine, because of its high altitude performance, delivers the highest payload for the vehicle configuration that was investigated.

  7. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  8. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  9. Engineering scalable biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

  10. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Benstein, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The small engine technology requirements suitable for general aviation service in the 1987 to 1988 time frame were defined. The market analysis showed potential United States engines sales of 31,500 per year providing that the turbine engine sales price approaches current reciprocating engine prices. An optimum engine design was prepared for four categories of fixed wing aircraft and for rotary wing applications. A common core approach was derived from the optimum engines that maximizes engine commonality over the power spectrum with a projected price competitive with reciprocating piston engines. The advanced technology features reduced engine cost, approximately 50 percent compared with current technology.

  11. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  12. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  13. Advanced dive monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Sternberger, W I; Goemmer, S A

    1999-01-01

    The US Navy supports deep diving operations with a variety of mixed-gas life support systems. A systems engineering study was conducted for the Naval Experimental Dive Unit (Panama City, FL) to develop a concept design for an advanced dive monitoring system. The monitoring system is intended primarily to enhance diver safety and secondarily to support diving medicine research. Distinct monitoring categories of diver physiology, life support system, and environment are integrated in the monitoring system. A system concept is proposed that accommodates real-time and quantitative measurements, noninvasive physiological monitoring, and a flexible and expandable implementation architecture. Human factors and ergonomic design considerations have been emphasized to assure that there is no impact on the diver's primary mission. The Navy has accepted the resultant system requirements and the basic design concept. A number of monitoring components have been implemented and successfully support deep diving operations.

  14. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  15. Ignition angle advancer for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, T.

    1986-08-19

    This patent describes a throttle and spark advance control system for an internal combustion engine having a spark advance mechanism and a throttle valve comprising an operator controlled element, a throttle control lever supported for pivotal movement about an axis and directly connected to the operator controlled element for rotation under operator control. It also includes means for positively connecting the throttle control lever to the throttle valve for positioning the throttle valve in response to movement of the throttle control lever. A spark advance control lever supported for pivotal movement about an axis is included as well as motion transmitting means for operatively connecting the spark advance control lever to the throttle control lever for pivotal movement of the spark advance control lever about its axis in response to pivotal movement of the throttle control lever about its axis and the spark control lever to the spark advance mechanism for controlling the position of the spark advance mechanism in response to the position of the throttle control lever.

  16. Programmed electronic advance for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dogadko, P.

    1987-03-03

    An ignition advance control is described for an internal combustion engine including a crankshaft, a throttle control, and at least one cylinder, the ignition advance control comprising a spark ignition circuit associated with the cylinder and including trigger means operative to cause an ignition spark, means for generating a control pulse associated with the cylinder, latch means for enabling the trigger means in response to generation of the control pulse, means for generating a constant plurality of sequentially occurring electrical reference pulses during each revolution of the crankshaft, means for counting the reference pulses developed during each revolution of the crankshaft, means for firing the enabled trigger means in response to the counting means counting a predetermined number of the reference pulses to cause the ignition spark at a predetermined ignition point in each revolution of the crankshaft, means for sensing the position of the throttle control, and means responsive to the throttle sensing means for varying the predetermined number of reference pulses solely in accordance with the position of the throttle control to vary the predetermined ignition point as appropriate for the position of the throttle control.

  17. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Warren R.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced LOX/LH2 engine study for the use of NASA and vehicle prime contractors in developing concepts for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and Phobos is documented. Parametric design data was obtained at five engine thrusts from 7.5K lbf to 50K lbf. Also, a separate task evaluated engine throttling over a 20:1 range and operation at a mixture ratio of 12 plus or minus 1 versus the 6 plus or minus 1 nominal. Cost data was also generated for DDT&E, first unit production, and factors in other life cycle costs. The major limitation of the study was lack of contact with vehicle prime contractors to resolve the issues in vehicle/engine interfaces. The baseline Aerojet dual propellant expander cycle was shown capable of meeting all performance requirements with an expected long operational life due to the high thermal margins. The basic engine design readily accommodated the 20:1 throttling requirement and operation up to a mixture ratio of 10 without change. By using platinum for baffled injector construction the increased thermal margin allowed operation up to mixture ratio 13. An initial engine modeling with an Aerojet transient simulation code (named MLETS) indicates stable engine operation with the baseline control system. A throttle ratio of 4 to 5 seconds from 10 percent to 100 percent thrust is also predicted. Performance predictions are 483.1 sec at 7.5K lbf, 487.3 sec at 20K lbf, and 485.2 sec at 50K lbf with a mixture ratio of 6 and an area ratio of 1200. Engine envelopes varied from 120 in. length/53 in. exit diameter at 7.5K lbf to 305 in. length/136 in. exit diameter at 50 K lbf. Packaging will be an important consideration. Continued work is recommended to include more vehicle prime contractor/engine contractor joint assessment of the interface issues.

  18. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  19. Engineering Review Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  20. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  1. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  2. An Engineering Approach to Biomedical Sciences: Advanced Strategies in Drug Delivery Systems Production

    PubMed Central

    Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d’Amore, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Development and optimization of novel production techniques for drug delivery systems are fundamental steps in the “from the bench to the bedside” process which is the base of translational medicine. In particular, in the current scenery where the need for reducing energy consumption, emissions, wastes and risks drives the development of sustainable processes, new pharmaceutical manufacturing does not constitute an exception. In this paper, concepts of process intensification are presented and their transposition in drug delivery systems production is discussed. Moreover, some examples on intensified techniques, for drug microencapsulation and granules drying, are reported. PMID:23905058

  3. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Task 7: Engine data summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    A performance optimized engine system design for a man-rated advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine was investigated. The data are presented in tables, figures, and drawings. The following categories of data for the advanced expander cycle engine are presented: engine operating specification and pressure schedule; engine system layout drawing; major component layout drawings, including thrust chamber and nozzle, extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal, LOX turbopump, LOX boost pump, hydrogen turbopump, hydrogen boost pump, and propellant control valves; engine performance and service life prediction; engine weight; and engine envelope. The data represent updates based upon current results from the design and analyses tasks performed under contract. Futher iterations in the designs and data can be expected as the advanced expander cycle engine design matures.

  4. Advanced component technologies for energy-efficient turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Project which was initiated to provide the advanced technology base for a new generation of fuel-conservative engines for introduction into airline service by the late 1980s. Efforts in this project are directed at advancing engine component and systems technologies to a point of demonstrating technology-readiness by 1984. Early results indicate high promise in achieving most of the goals established in the project.

  5. Physiological and engineering study of advanced thermoregulatory systems for extravehicular space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of thermal control for extravehicular space suits are reported. The characteristics of independent cooling of temperature and removal of excess heat from separate regions of the body, and the applications of heat pipes in protective suits are discussed along with modeling of the human thermal system.

  6. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Laura

    2005-04-29

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.

  7. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  8. Engineering the earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The post-war growth of the earth sciences has been fueled, in part, by a drive to quantify environmental insults in order to support arguments for their reduction, yet paradoxically the knowledge gained is grants us ever greater capability to deliberately engineer environmental processes on a planetary scale. Increased capability can arises though seemingly unconnected scientific advances. Improvements in numerical weather prediction such as the use of adjoint models in analysis/forecast systems, for example, means that weather modification can be accomplished with smaller control inputs. Purely technological constraints on our ability to engineer earth systems arise from our limited ability to measure and predict system responses and from limits on our ability to manage large engineering projects. Trends in all three constraints suggest a rapid growth in our ability to engineer the planet. What are the implications of our growing ability to geoengineer? Will we see a reemergence of proposals to engineer our way out of the climate problem? How can we avoid the moral hazard posed by the knowledge that geoengineering might provide a backstop to climate damages? I will speculate about these issues, and suggest some institutional factors that may provide a stronger constraint on the use of geoengineering than is provided by any purely technological limit.

  9. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  10. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-03-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  11. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  12. Recent CESAR (Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research) research activities in sensor based reasoning for autonomous machines

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent research activities at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) in the area of sensor based reasoning, with emphasis being given to their application and implementation on our HERMIES-IIB autonomous mobile vehicle. These activities, including navigation and exploration in a-priori unknown and dynamic environments, goal recognition, vision-guided manipulation and sensor-driven machine learning, are discussed within the framework of a scenario in which an autonomous robot is asked to navigate through an unknown dynamic environment, explore, find and dock at the panel, read and understand the status of the panel's meters and dials, learn the functioning of a process control panel, and successfully manipulate the control devices of the panel to solve a maintenance emergency problems. A demonstration of the successful implementation of the algorithms on our HERMIES-IIB autonomous robot for resolution of this scenario is presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the methodologies to more general classes of problems and implications for future work on sensor-driven reasoning for autonomous robots are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  13. A Neural Network Aero Design System for Advanced Turbo-Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse design method calculates the blade shape that produces a prescribed input pressure distribution. By controlling this input pressure distribution the aerodynamic design objectives can easily be met. Because of the intrinsic relationship between pressure distribution and airfoil physical properties, a Neural Network can be trained to choose the optimal pressure distribution that would meet a set of physical requirements. Neural network systems have been attempted in the context of direct design methods. From properties ascribed to a set of blades the neural network is trained to infer the properties of an 'interpolated' blade shape. The problem is that, especially in transonic regimes where we deal with intrinsically non linear and ill posed problems, small perturbations of the blade shape can produce very large variations of the flow parameters. It is very unlikely that, under these circumstances, a neural network will be able to find the proper solution. The unique situation in the present method is that the neural network can be trained to extract the required input pressure distribution from a database of pressure distributions while the inverse method will still compute the exact blade shape that corresponds to this 'interpolated' input pressure distribution. In other words, the interpolation process is transferred to a smoother problem, namely, finding what pressure distribution would produce the required flow conditions and, once this is done, the inverse method will compute the exact solution for this problem. The use of neural network is, in this context, highly related to the use of proper optimization techniques. The optimization is used essentially as an automation procedure to force the input pressure distributions to achieve the required aero and structural design parameters. A multilayered feed forward network with back-propagation is used to train the system for pattern association and classification.

  14. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Salkeld, R.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages, system performance and operating limits, engine parametric data, and technology requirements for candidate high pressure LO2/Hydrocarbon engine systems are summarized. These summaries of parametric analysis and design provide a consistent engine system data base. Power balance data were generated for the eleven engine cycles. Engine cycle rating parameters were established and the desired condition and the effect of the parameter on the engine and/or vehicle are described.

  15. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Bacskay, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Use of heritage and new technology is necessary/enabling to implementing small, low cost missions, yet overruns decrease the ability to sustain future mission flight rates The majority of the cost growth drivers seen in the D&NF study were embedded early during formulation phase and later realized during the development and I&T phases Cost drivers can be avoided or significantly decreased by project management and SE emphasis on early identification of risks and realistic analyses SE processes that emphasize an assessment of technology within the mission system to identify technical issues in the design or operational use of the technology. Realistic assessment of new and heritage spacecraft technology assumptions , identification of risks and mitigation strategies. Realistic estimates of effort required to inherit existing or qualify new technology, identification of risks to estimates and develop mitigation strategies. Allocation of project reserves for risk-based mitigation strategies of each individual area of heritage or new technology. Careful tailoring of inheritance processes to ensure due diligence.

  16. Variable cycle engines for advanced supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.; Kozlowski, H.

    1975-01-01

    Variable Cycle Engines being studied for advanced commercial supersonic transports show potential for significant environmental and economic improvements relative to 1st generation SST engines. The two most promising concepts are: a Variable Stream Control Engine and a Variable Cycle Engine with a rear flow-control valve. Each concept utilizes variable components and separate burners to provide independent temperature and velocity control for two coannular flow streams. Unique fuel control techniques are combined with cycle characteristics that provide low fuel consumption, similar to a turbojet engine, for supersonic operation. This is accomplished while retaining the good subsonic performance features of a turbofan engine. A two-stream coannular nozzle shows potential to reduce jet noise to below FAR Part 36 without suppressors. Advanced burner concepts have the potential for significant reductions in exhaust emissions. In total, these unique engine concepts have the potential for significant overall improvements to the environmental and economic characteristics of advanced supersonic transports.

  17. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  18. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  19. Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

  20. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  1. Advances in engineering science, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Proceedings from a conference on engineering advances are presented, including materials science, fracture mechanics, and impact and vibration testing. The tensile strength and moisture transport of laminates are also discussed.

  2. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system. Technical progress report No. 1, August--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  3. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide general guidance and information on systems engineering that will be useful to the NASA community. It provides a generic description of Systems Engineering (SE) as it should be applied throughout NASA. A goal of the handbook is to increase awareness and consistency across the Agency and advance the practice of SE. This handbook provides perspectives relevant to NASA and data particular to NASA. The coverage in this handbook is limited to general concepts and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides information on systems engineering best practices and pitfalls to avoid. There are many Center-specific handbooks and directives as well as textbooks that can be consulted for in-depth tutorials. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development and implementation of large and small NASA programs and projects. NASA has defined different life cycles that specifically address the major project categories, or product lines, which are: Flight Systems and Ground Support (FS&GS), Research and Technology (R&T), Construction of Facilities (CoF), and Environmental Compliance and Restoration (ECR). The technical content of the handbook provides systems engineering best practices that should be incorporated into all NASA product lines. (Check the NASA On-Line Directives Information System (NODIS) electronic document library for applicable NASA directives on topics such as product lines.) For simplicity this handbook uses the FS&GS product line as an example. The specifics of FS&GS can be seen in the description of the life cycle and the details of the milestone reviews. Each product line will vary in these two areas; therefore, the reader should refer to the applicable NASA procedural requirements for the specific requirements for their life cycle and reviews. The engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and

  4. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  5. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  6. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  7. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  8. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  9. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This progress report is on the project by Babcock and Wilcox Company to develop an advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. The topics of the report include project management, the NO{sub x} subsystem, the SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem, boiler subsystem, balance of plant subsystem, and controls and sensors subsystems.

  10. EGR Distribution in Engine Cylinders Using Advanced Virtual Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xuetong

    2000-08-20

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a well-known technology for reduction of NOx in diesel engines. With the demand for extremely low engine out NOx emissions, it is important to have a consistently balanced EGR flow to individual engine cylinders. Otherwise, the variation in the cylinders' NOx contribution to the overall engine emissions will produce unacceptable variability. This presentation will demonstrate the effective use of advanced virtual simulation in the development of a balanced EGR distribution in engine cylinders. An initial design is analyzed reflecting the variance in the EGR distribution, quantitatively and visually. Iterative virtual lab tests result in an optimized system.

  11. Smart Engines Via Advanced Model Based Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Marc

    2000-08-20

    A ''new'' process for developing control systems - Less engine testing - More robust control system - Shorter development cycle time - ''Smarter'' approach to engine control - On-board models describe engine behavior - Shorter, systematic calibration process - Customer and legislative requirements designed-in.

  12. IECEC '84: Advanced energy systems - Their role in our future; Proceedings of the Nineteenth Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, August 19-24, 1984. Volumes 1, 2, 3, & 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Among the topics discussed are: advanced energy conversion concepts, power sources for aircraft and spacecraft, alternate fuels for industrial and vehicular applications, biomass-derived fuels, electric vehicle design and development status, electrochemical energy conversion systems, electric power generation cycles, energy-efficient industrial processes, and energy policy and system analysis. Also discussed are advanced methods for energy storage and transport, fossil fuel conversion systems, geothermal energy system development and performance, novel and advanced heat engines, hydrogen fuel-based energy systems, MHD technology development status, nuclear energy systems, solar energy conversion methods, advanced heating and cooling systems, Stirling cycle device development, terrestrial photovoltaic systems, and thermoelectric and thermionic systems.

  13. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  14. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  15. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Terrance

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  16. Advances in meniscal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Eli, Nnaemeka; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim

    2011-01-01

    Injuries and lesions to the meniscal cartilage of the knee joint are common. As a result of its limited regenerative capacity, early degenerative changes to the articular surface frequently occur, resulting in pain and poor function. Currently available surgical interventions include repair of tears, and partial and total meniscectomy but the results are inconsistent and often poor. Interest in the field of meniscal tissue engineering with the possibilities of better treatment outcomes has grown in recent times. Current research has focused on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, fibrochondrocytes, meniscal derived cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes in tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that have been identified in a number of tissues including bone marrow and synovium. Current research is aimed at defining the correct combination of cytokines and growth factors necessary to induce specific tissue formation and includes transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2). Scaffolds provide mechanical stability and integrity, and supply a template for three-dimensional organization of the developing tissue. A number of experimental and animal models have been used to investigate the ideal scaffolds for meniscal tissue engineering. The ideal scaffold for meniscal tissue engineering has not been identified but biodegradable scaffolds have shown the most promising results. In addition to poly-glycolic acid (PGA) and poly-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds, new synthetic hydrogels and collagen sponges are also being explored. There are two synthetic meniscal implants currently in clinical use and there are a number of clinical trials in the literature with good short- and medium-term results. Both products are indicated for segmental tissue loss and not for complete meniscal replacement. The long-term results of these implants are unknown and we wait to see whether they will be

  17. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  18. Preparing systems engineering and computing science students in disciplined methods, quantitative, and advanced statistical techniques to improve process performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.

    The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization

  19. Advanced Development of a Compact 5-15 lbf Lox/Methane Thruster for an Integrated Reaction Control and Main Engine Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; McManamen, John Patrick; Sooknanen, Josh; Studak, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the advanced development and testing of a compact 5 to 15 lbf LOX/LCH4 thruster for a pressure-fed integrated main engine and RCS propulsion system to be used on a spacecraft "vertical" test bed (VTB). The ability of the RCS thruster and the main engine to operate off the same propellant supply in zero-g reduces mass and improves mission flexibility. This compact RCS engine incorporates several features to dramatically reduce mass and parts count, to ease manufacturing, and to maintain acceptable performance given that specific impulse (Isp) is not the driver. For example, radial injection holes placed on the chamber body for easier drilling, and high temperature Haynes 230 were selected for the chamber over other more expensive options. The valve inlets are rotatable before welding allowing different orientations for vehicle integration. In addition, the engine design effort selected a coil-on-plug ignition system which integrates a relay and coil with the plug electrode, and moves some exciter electronics to avionics driver board. The engine injector design has small dribble volumes to target minimum pulse widths of 20 msec. and an efficient minimum impulse bit of less than 0.05 lbf-sec. The propellants, oxygen and methane, were chosen because together they are a non-toxic, Mars-forward, high density, space storable, and high performance propellant combination that is capable of pressure-fed and pump-fed configurations and integration with life support and power subsystems. This paper will present the results of the advanced development testing to date of the RCS thruster and the integration with a vehicle propulsion system.

  20. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. As part of the NASA Technical Standards Program activities, engineering lessons learned datasets have been identified from a number of sources. These are being searched and screened for those having a relation to Technical Standards. This paper will address some of these Systems Engineering Lessons Learned and how they are being related to Technical Standards within the NASA Technical Standards Program, including linking to the Agency's Interactive Engineering Discipline Training Courses and the life cycle for a flight vehicle development program.

  1. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  2. Research on advanced transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  3. Advancements in engineering turbulence modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    Some new developments in two-equation models and second order closure models are presented. Two-equation models (k-epsilon models) have been widely used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for engineering problems. Most of low-Reynolds number two-equation models contain some wall-distance damping functions to account for the effect of wall on turbulence. However, this often causes the confusion and difficulties in computing flows with complex geometry and also needs an ad hoc treatment near the separation and reattachment points. A set of modified two-equation models is proposed to remove the aforementioned shortcomings. The calculations using various two-equation models are compared with direct numerical simulations of channel flow and flat boundary layers. Development of a second order closure model is also discussed with emphasis on the modeling of pressure related correlation terms and dissipation rates in the second moment equations. All the existing models poorly predict the normal stresses near the wall and fail to predict the 3-D effect of mean flow on the turbulence (e.g. decrease in the shear stress caused by the cross flow in the boundary layer). The newly developed second order near-wall turbulence model is described and is capable of capturing the near-wall behavior of turbulence as well as the effect of 3-D mean flow on the turbulence.

  4. Engine Structures Modeling Software System (ESMOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Engine Structures Modeling Software System (ESMOSS) is the development of a specialized software system for the construction of geometric descriptive and discrete analytical models of engine parts, components, and substructures which can be transferred to finite element analysis programs such as NASTRAN. The NASA Lewis Engine Structures Program is concerned with the development of technology for the rational structural design and analysis of advanced gas turbine engines with emphasis on advanced structural analysis, structural dynamics, structural aspects of aeroelasticity, and life prediction. Fundamental and common to all of these developments is the need for geometric and analytical model descriptions at various engine assembly levels which are generated using ESMOSS.

  5. Advanced component technologies for energy-efficient turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    A cooperative government-industry effort, the Energy Efficient Engine Project, to develop the advanced technology base for future commercial development of a new generation of more fuel conservative turbofan engines for airline use is described. Engine configurations that are dependent upon technology advances in each major engine component are defined and current design and development of the advanced components are included.

  6. Advanced Wastewater Treatment Engineering-Investigating Membrane Fouling in both Rotational and Static Membrane Bioreactor Systems Using Empirical Modelling.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parneet; Jones, Franck Anderson

    2016-01-05

    Advanced wastewater treatment using membranes are popular environmental system processes since they allow reuse and recycling. However, fouling is a key limiting factor and so proprietary systems such as Avanti's RPU-185 Flexidisks membrane bioreactor (MBR) use novel rotating membranes to assist in ameliorating it. In earlier research, this rotating process was studied by creating a simulation model based on first principles and traditional fouling mechanisms. In order to directly compare the potential benefits of this rotational system, this follow-up study was carried out using Avanti's newly developed static (non-rotating) Flexidisks MBR system. The results from operating the static pilot unit were simulated and modelled using the rotational fouling model developed earlier however with rotational switching functions turned off and rotational parameters set to a static mode. The study concluded that a rotating MBR system could increase flux throughput when compared against a similar static system. It is thought that although the slowly rotating spindle induces a weak crossflow shear, it is still able to even out cake build up across the membrane surface, thus reducing the likelihood of localised critical flux being exceeded at the micro level and lessening the potential of rapid trans-membrane pressure increases at the macro level.

  7. Advanced Wastewater Treatment Engineering-Investigating Membrane Fouling in both Rotational and Static Membrane Bioreactor Systems Using Empirical Modelling.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parneet; Jones, Franck Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Advanced wastewater treatment using membranes are popular environmental system processes since they allow reuse and recycling. However, fouling is a key limiting factor and so proprietary systems such as Avanti's RPU-185 Flexidisks membrane bioreactor (MBR) use novel rotating membranes to assist in ameliorating it. In earlier research, this rotating process was studied by creating a simulation model based on first principles and traditional fouling mechanisms. In order to directly compare the potential benefits of this rotational system, this follow-up study was carried out using Avanti's newly developed static (non-rotating) Flexidisks MBR system. The results from operating the static pilot unit were simulated and modelled using the rotational fouling model developed earlier however with rotational switching functions turned off and rotational parameters set to a static mode. The study concluded that a rotating MBR system could increase flux throughput when compared against a similar static system. It is thought that although the slowly rotating spindle induces a weak crossflow shear, it is still able to even out cake build up across the membrane surface, thus reducing the likelihood of localised critical flux being exceeded at the micro level and lessening the potential of rapid trans-membrane pressure increases at the macro level. PMID:26742053

  8. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  9. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Bender, D.J.; Clark, J.P.; Wesnor, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work performed between October 1 and December 31, 1996 by the ABB team on U.S. Department of Energy project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` (LEBS), which is part of the DOE`s Combustion 2000 Program. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future coal-fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that are partially developed, will be used to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emission to one-sixth current NSPS limits and particulates to one- third current NSPS limits.

  10. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  11. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL00-0605: Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, Josh A; West, Brian H; Toops, Todd J; Adelman, Brad; Derybowski, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT), also known as NOx adsorber catalyst regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Under full-load, rated speed conditions, injection of fuel upstream of the DOC reduced the fuel penalty for a given level of NOx reduction by 10-20%. GC-MS showed that fuel compounds were 'cracked' into smaller hydrocarbon species over the DOC, particularly light alkenes. GC-MS analysis of HC species entering and exiting the LNT showed high utilization of light alkenes, followed by mono-aromatics; branched alkanes passed through the LNT largely unreacted. Follow-on experiments at a 'road load' condition were conducted, revealing that the NOx reduction was better without the DOC at lower temperatures. The improved performance was attributed to the large swings in the NOx adsorber core temperature. Split-injection experiments were conducted with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and three pure HC compounds: 1-pentene, toluene, and iso-octane. The pure compound experiments

  12. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The proof of concept, feasibility, and verification of the advanced prop fan and of the integrated advanced prop fan aircraft are established. The use of existing hardware is compatible with having a successfully expedited testbed ready for flight. A prop fan testbed aircraft is definitely feasible and necessary for verification of prop fan/prop fan aircraft integrity. The Allison T701 is most suitable as a propulsor and modification of existing engine and propeller controls are adequate for the testbed. The airframer is considered the logical overall systems integrator of the testbed program.

  13. Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program: Advanced engine study, task D.1/D.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, A.; Erickson, C.; Hines, B.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts for space maintainability of OTV engines were examined. An engine design was developed which was driven by space maintenance requirements and by a failure mode and effects (FME) analysis. Modularity within the engine was shown to offer cost benefits and improved space maintenance capabilities. Space operable disconnects were conceptualized for both engine change-out and for module replacement. Through FME mitigation the modules were conceptualized to contain the least reliable and most often replaced engine components. A preliminary space maintenance plan was developed around a controls and condition monitoring system using advanced sensors, controls, and condition monitoring concepts. A complete engine layout was prepared satisfying current vehicle requirements and utilizing projected component advanced technologies. A technology plan for developing the required technology was assembled.

  14. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents.

  15. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  16. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  17. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  19. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  20. Systems engineering management plans.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Tamara S.

    2009-10-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each section must be tailored to the specific effort. A model outline and example SEMP are provided. The target audience is those who are familiar with the systems engineering approach and who have an interest in employing the SEMP as a tool for systems management. The goal of this document is to provide the reader with an appreciation for the use and importance of the SEMP, as well as provide a framework that can be used to create the management plan.

  1. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E.; Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  2. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  3. Development of an image converter of radical design. [employing solid state electronics towards the production of an advanced engineering model camera system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, E. L.; Farnsworth, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    A long term investigation of thin film sensors, monolithic photo-field effect transistors, and epitaxially diffused phototransistors and photodiodes to meet requirements to produce acceptable all solid state, electronically scanned imaging system, led to the production of an advanced engineering model camera which employs a 200,000 element phototransistor array (organized in a matrix of 400 rows by 500 columns) to secure resolution comparable to commercial television. The full investigation is described for the period July 1962 through July 1972, and covers the following broad topics in detail: (1) sensor monoliths; (2) fabrication technology; (3) functional theory; (4) system methodology; and (5) deployment profile. A summary of the work and conclusions are given, along with extensive schematic diagrams of the final solid state imaging system product.

  4. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering : LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-08-01

    Constitutive modeling is an important aspect of computational solid mechanics. Sandia National Laboratories has always had a considerable effort in the development of constitutive models for complex material behavior. However, for this development to be of use the models need to be implemented in our solid mechanics application codes. In support of this important role, the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) has been developed in Engineering Sciences. The library allows for simple implementation of constitutive models by model developers and access to these models by application codes. The library is written in C++ and has a very simple object oriented programming structure. This report summarizes the current status of LAME.

  5. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  6. Caterpillar`s advanced reciprocating engine for distributed generation markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, G.; Brandes, D.; Reinhart, M.; Nagel, G.; Wong, E.

    1999-11-01

    Competition in energy markets and federal and state policy advocating clean, advanced technologies as means to achieve environmental and global climate change goals are clear drivers to original equipment manufacturers of prime movers. Underpinning competition are the principle of consumer choice to facilitate retail competition, and the desire to improve system and grid reliability. Caterpillar`s Gas Engine Division is responding to the market`s demand for a more efficient, lower lifecycle cost engine with reduced emissions. Cat`s first generation TARGET engine will be positioned to effectively serve distributed generation and combined heat and power (CHP) applications. TARGET (The Advanced Reciprocating Gas Engine Technology) will embody Cat`s product attributes: durability, reliability, and competitively priced life cycle cost products. Further, Caterpillar`s nationwide, fully established dealer sales and service ensure continued product support subsequent to the sale and installation of the product.

  7. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  8. Evaluation of advanced displays for engine monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of two advanced display concepts for monitoring engine performance for commercial transport aircraft was studied. The concepts were the Engine Monitoring and Control System (EMACS) display developed by NASA Langley and a display by exception design. Both of these concepts were based on the philosophy of providing information that is directly related to the pilot's task. Both concepts used a normalized thrust display. In addition, EMACS used column deviation indicators; i.e., the difference between the actual parameter value and the value predicted by an engine model, for engine health monitoring; while the Display by Exception displayed the engine parameters if the automated system detected a difference between the actual and the predicted values. The results showed that the advanced display concepts had shorter detection and response times. There were no differences in any of the results between manual and auto throttles. There were no effects upon perceived workload or performance on the primary flight task. The majority of pilots preferred the advanced displays and thought they were operationally acceptable. Certification of these concepts depends on the validation of the engine model. Recommendations are made to improve both the EMACS and the display by exception display formats.

  9. Technology readiness for advanced ducted engines

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, D.; Brines, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Ducted Engines (ADEs) currently undergoing development for next-generation passenger aircraft typically possess bypass ratios of the order of 12-25 and specific fuel consumption figures 12-17 percent lower than current advanced turbofans. An extensive technology-readiness program has been mounted on behalf of ADE design definition over the last two years, encompassing among its concerns aircraft/engine-installation interference, low pressure-ratio fan aerodynamics, fan/nacelle interactions (including windmilling and thrust-reversal), acoustic characteristics, transonic-drive turbines, and slender nacelle aerodynamic and mechanical design. Both turbine-driven and geared ADE fans, which may be of single-rotating or contrarotating type, are discussed. 5 refs.

  10. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Brenda M; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles E; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-06-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of a healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or "big questions" were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state of the art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. PMID:27280684

  11. Bone tissue engineering: recent advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ami R; Laurencin, Cato T; Nukavarapu, Syam P

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field.

  12. Bone Tissue Engineering: Recent Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ami R.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field. PMID:23339648

  13. Using Multi-Robot Systems for Engineering Education: Teaching and Outreach with Large Numbers of an Advanced, Low-Cost Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLurkin, J.; Rykowski, J.; John, M.; Kaseman, Q.; Lynch, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of using an advanced, low-cost robot in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. It presents three innovations: It is a powerful, cheap, robust, and small advanced personal robot; it forms the foundation of a problem-based learning curriculum; and it enables a novel multi-robot…

  14. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  15. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  16. What is systems engineering?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary process that ensures that the customers` needs are satisfied throughout a system`s entire life cycle. This process includes: understanding customer needs; stating the problem; specifying requirements; defining performance and cost measures, prescribing tests, validating requirements, conducting design reviews, exploring alternative concepts, sensitivity analyses, functional decomposition, system design, designing and managing interfaces, system integration, total system test, configuration management, risk management, reliability analysis; total quality management; project management; and documentation. Material for this paper was gathered from senior Systems Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories.

  17. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  18. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  19. A one- and two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path of the AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) modular code system

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    AARE, a code package to perform Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering, is a linked modular system for fission reactor core and shielding, as well as fusion blanket, analysis. Its cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path presently includes the cross-section processing and reformatting code TRAMIX, cross-section homogenization and library reformatting code MIXIT, the 1-dimensional transport code ONEDANT, the 2-dimensional transport code TRISM, and the 1- and 2- dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty code SENSIBL. IN the present work, a short description of the whole AARE system is given, followed by a detailed description of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Rotary engine cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  1. Advanced general aviation engine/airframe integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmroczek, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the in-airframe performance and efficiency of the advanced engine concepts is presented. The results indicate that the proposed advanced engines can significantly improve the performance and economy of general aviation airplanes. The engine found to be most promising is the highly advanced version of a rotary combustion (Wankel) engine. The low weight and fuel consumption of this engine, as well as its small size, make it suited for aircraft use.

  2. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  3. Performance and Weight Estimates for an Advanced Open Rotor Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Subsonic Fixed Wing Project are focused on developing concepts and technologies which may enable dramatic reductions to the environmental impact of future generation subsonic aircraft. The open rotor concept (also historically referred to an unducted fan or advanced turboprop) may allow for the achievement of this objective by reducing engine fuel consumption. To evaluate the potential impact of open rotor engines, cycle modeling and engine weight estimation capabilities have been developed. The initial development of the cycle modeling capabilities in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) tool was presented in a previous paper. Following that initial development, further advancements have been made to the cycle modeling and weight estimation capabilities for open rotor engines and are presented in this paper. The developed modeling capabilities are used to predict the performance of an advanced open rotor concept using modern counter-rotating propeller designs. Finally, performance and weight estimates for this engine are presented and compared to results from a previous NASA study of advanced geared and direct-drive turbofans.

  4. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  5. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  6. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  7. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned and technical standards. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. Systems Engineering has been defined (EINIS-632) as "an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs". Designing reliable space-based systems has always been a goal for NASA, and many painful lessons have been learned along the way. One of the continuing functions of a system engineer is to compile development and operations "lessons learned" documents and ensure their integration into future systems development activities. They can produce insights and information for risk identification identification and characterization. on a new project. Lessons learned files from previous projects are especially valuable in risk

  8. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  9. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 11, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quotes} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: (1) NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (2) SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (3) Particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: (1) Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation. (2) Reduced air toxics emissions. (3) Increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24-month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36-month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

  10. Computer systems and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Charles W.

    1988-01-01

    The High Technologies Laboratory (HTL) was established in the fall of 1982 at the University of Houston Clear Lake. Research conducted at the High Tech Lab is focused upon computer systems and software engineering. There is a strong emphasis on the interrelationship of these areas of technology and the United States' space program. In Jan. of 1987, NASA Headquarters announced the formation of its first research center dedicated to software engineering. Operated by the High Tech Lab, the Software Engineering Research Center (SERC) was formed at the University of Houston Clear Lake. The High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center promotes cooperative research among government, industry, and academia to advance the edge-of-knowledge and the state-of-the-practice in key topics of computer systems and software engineering which are critical to NASA. The center also recommends appropriate actions, guidelines, standards, and policies to NASA in matters pertinent to the center's research. Results of the research conducted at the High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center have given direction to many decisions made by NASA concerning the Space Station Program.

  11. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  12. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a performance optimized engine system design for an advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine is reported. Analysis of the components and engine and the resulting drawings is discussed. The status of the orbit transfer vehicle liquid engine transient simulation computer model is given.

  13. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  14. CONDOR Advanced Visionics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

    1996-06-01

    The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

  15. Recent Advances in Engineering Polyvalent Biological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyvalent interactions, where multiple ligands and receptors interact simultaneously, are ubiquitous in nature. Synthetic polyvalent molecules, therefore, have the ability to affect biological processes ranging from protein–ligand binding to cellular signaling. In this review, we discuss recent advances in polyvalent scaffold design and applications. First, we will describe recent developments in the engineering of polyvalent scaffolds based on biomolecules and novel materials. Then, we will illustrate how polyvalent molecules are finding applications as toxin and pathogen inhibitors, targeting molecules, immune response modulators, and cellular effectors. PMID:25426695

  16. Advanced Engineering Technology for Measuring Performance.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Drew N; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Law, Katherine E; Pugh, Carla M

    2015-08-01

    The demand for competency-based assessments in surgical training is growing. Use of advanced engineering technology for clinical skills assessment allows for objective measures of hands-on performance. Clinical performance can be assessed in several ways via quantification of an assessee's hand movements (motion tracking), direction of visual attention (eye tracking), levels of stress (physiologic marker measurements), and location and pressure of palpation (force measurements). Innovations in video recording technology and qualitative analysis tools allow for a combination of observer- and technology-based assessments. Overall the goal is to create better assessments of surgical performance with robust validity evidence.

  17. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved. PMID:22939815

  18. Advanced concurrent-engineering environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    Sandia demonstrated large-scale visualization in a conference room environment. Project focused in the installation of hardware for visualization and display, and the integration of software tools for design and animation of 3-dimensional parts. Using a high-end visualization server, 3-dimensional modeling and animation software, and leading edge World Wide Web technology, an advanced concurrent engineering environment was simulated where a design team was able to work collectively, rather than as solely disjoint individual efforts. Finally, a successful animation of a Sandia part was demonstrated, and a computer video generated. This video is now accessible on a Sandia internal web server.

  19. Advanced concurrent engineering environment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia demonstrated large-scale visualization in a conference room environment. Project focused on the installation of hardware for visualization and display, and the integration of software tools for design and animation of 3-dimensional parts. Using a high-end visualization server, 3-dimensional modeling and animation software, and leading edge World Wide Web technology, and advanced concurrent engineering environment was simulated where a design team was able to work collectively, rather than as solely disjoint individual efforts. Finally, a successful animation of a Sandia part was demonstrated, and a computer video generated. This video is now accessible on a Sandia internal web server.

  20. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Brenda M.; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or “big questions” were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state-of-the-art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. PMID:27280684

  1. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  2. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  3. Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, David C.; Wynosky, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced, low drag, nacelle configurations were defined for some of the more promising propulsion systems identified in the earlier Benefit/Cost Study, to assess the benefits associated with these advanced technology nacelles and formulate programs for developing these nacelles and low volume thrust reversers/spoilers to a state of technology readiness in the early 1990's. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. Design feasibility was also established for two low volume thrust reverse/spoiler concepts that meet or exceed the required effectiveness for these engines. These nacelle and thrust reverse/spoiler designs were shown to be applicable in engines with takeoff thrust sizes ranging from 24,000 to 60,000 pounds. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 percent and direct operating cost plus interest improvements from 1.6 to 2.2 percent.

  4. Advances in knowledge-based software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this work is that a rigorous and comprehensive software reuse methodology can bring about a more effective and efficient utilization of constrained resources in the development of large-scale software systems by both government and industry. It is also believed that correct use of this type of software engineering methodology can significantly contribute to the higher levels of reliability that will be required of future operational systems. An overview and discussion of current research in the development and application of two systems that support a rigorous reuse paradigm are presented: the Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Environment (KBSEE) and the Knowledge Acquisition fo the Preservation of Tradeoffs and Underlying Rationales (KAPTUR) systems. Emphasis is on a presentation of operational scenarios which highlight the major functional capabilities of the two systems.

  5. Advanced gas engine cogeneration technology for special applications

    SciTech Connect

    Plohberger, D.C.; Fessl, T.; Gruber, F.; Herdin, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    In recent years gas Otto-cycle engines have become common for various applications in the field of power and heat generation. Gas engines are chosen sometimes even to replace diesel engines, because of their clean exhaust emission characteristics and the ample availability of natural gas in the world. The Austrian Jenbacher Energie Systeme AG has been producing gas engines in the range of 300 to 1,600 kW since 1960. The product program covers state-of-the-art natural gas engines as well as advanced applications for a wide range of alterative gas fuels with emission levels comparable to Low Emission (LEV) and Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards. In recent times the demand for special cogeneration applications is rising. For example, a turnkey cogeneration power plant for a total 14.4 MW electric power and heat output consisting of four JMS616-GSNLC/B spark-fired gas engines specially tuned for high altitude operation has been delivered to the well-known European ski resort of Sestriere. Sestriere is situated in the Italian Alps at an altitude of more than 2,000 m above sea level. The engines feature a turbocharging system tuned to an ambient air pressure of only 80 kPa to provide an output and efficiency of each 1.6 MW and up to 40% {at} 1,500 rpm, respectively. The ever-increasing demand for lower pollutant emissions in the US and some European countries initiates developments in new exhaust aftertreatment technologies. Thermal reactor and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems are used to reduce tailpipe CO and NO{sub x} emissions of engines. Both SCR and thermal reactor technology will shift the engine tuning to achieve maximum efficiency and power output. Development results are presented, featuring the ultra low emission potential of biogas and natural gas engines with exhaust aftertreatment.

  6. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the third annual technical report for the program entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, for the period February 16, 1987 to February 15, 1988. The objective of the original program was the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. Injection molding is the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals of the revised program are to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in 4-point loading. Two tasks are discussed: Task 1 which involves materials and process improvements, and Task 2 which is a MOR bar matrix to improve strength and reliability. Many statistically designed experiments were completed under task 1 which improved the composition of the batches, the mixing of the powders, the sinter and anneal cycles. The best results were obtained by an attritor mixing process which yielded strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and an individual Weibull modulus of 16.8 for a 9-sample group. Strengths measured at 1200 and 1400 C were equal to the room temperature strength. Annealing of machined test bars significantly improved the strength. Molding yields were measured and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. The second iteration of the Task 2 matrix experiment is described.

  7. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second annual technical report entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, and includes work performed during the period February 16, 1986 to February 15, 1987. The program is conducted for NASA under contract NAS3-24384. The objective is the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. The fabrication methods used are to be adaptable for mass production of such parts on an economically sound basis. Injection molding is the forming method selected. This objective is to be accomplished in a two-phase program: (1) to achieve a 20 percent improvement in strength and a 100 percent increase in Weibull modulus of the baseline material; and (2) to produce a complex shaped part, a gas turbine rotor, for example, with the improved mechanical properties attained in the first phase. Eight tasks are included in the first phase covering the characterization of the properties of a baseline material, the improvement of those properties and the fabrication of complex shaped parts. Activities during the first contract year concentrated on two of these areas: fabrication and characterization of the baseline material (Task 1) and improvement of material and processes (Task 7). Activities during the second contract year included an MOR bar matrix study to improve mechanical properties (Task 2), materials and process improvements (Task 7), and a Ford-funded task to mold a turbocharger rotor with an improved material (Task 8).

  8. Requirements Development for the NASA Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Eric; Hale, Joseph P.; Zook, Keith; Gowda, Sanjay; Salas, Andrea O.

    2003-01-01

    The requirements development process for the Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is presented. This environment has been developed to allow NASA to perform independent analysis and design of space transportation architectures and technologies. Given the highly collaborative and distributed nature of AEE, a variety of organizations are involved in the development, operations and management of the system. Furthermore, there are additional organizations involved representing external customers and stakeholders. Thorough coordination and effective communication is essential to translate desired expectations of the system into requirements. Functional, verifiable requirements for this (and indeed any) system are necessary to fulfill several roles. Requirements serve as a contractual tool, configuration management tool, and as an engineering tool, sometimes simultaneously. The role of requirements as an engineering tool is particularly important because a stable set of requirements for a system provides a common framework of system scope and characterization among team members. Furthermore, the requirements provide the basis for checking completion of system elements and form the basis for system verification. Requirements are at the core of systems engineering. The AEE Project has undertaken a thorough process to translate the desires and expectations of external customers and stakeholders into functional system-level requirements that are captured with sufficient rigor to allow development planning, resource allocation and system-level design, development, implementation and verification. These requirements are maintained in an integrated, relational database that provides traceability to governing Program requirements and also to verification methods and subsystem-level requirements.

  9. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program. Phase 2: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C.; Martinez, A.; Hines, B.

    1987-01-01

    In Phase 2 of the Advanced Engine Study, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) maintenance-driven engine design, preliminary maintenance plan, and concept for space operable disconnects generated in Phase 1 were further developed. Based on the results of the vehicle contractors Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) Concept Definition and System Analysis Phase A studies, minor revisions to the engine design were made. Additional refinements in the engine design were identified through further engine concept studies. These included an updated engine balance incorporating experimental heat transfer data from the Enhanced Heat Load Thrust Chamber Study and a Rao optimum nozzle contour. The preliminary maintenance plan of Phase 1 was further developed through additional studies. These included a compilation of critical component lives and life limiters and a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operations and maintenance manual in order to begin outlining the overall maintenance procedures for the Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine and identifying technology requirements for streamlining space-based operations. Phase 2 efforts also provided further definition to the advanced fluid coupling devices including the selection and preliminary design of a preferred concept and a preliminary test plan for its further development.

  10. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  11. Readings in Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This present collection was inspired by seven papers prepared by the NASA Alumni League, illustrating the members' systems engineering experience. These papers make up the heart of this collection. We have supplemented them with papers describing industry processes and other governmental practices to illustrate the diversity of systems engineering as it is formulated and practiced. This is one discipline that clearly benefits from cross-fertilization and infusion of new ideas. There is also a wide variety of tools and techniques described herein, some standard and some unique.

  12. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  13. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  14. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  15. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  16. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  17. Using Simulated Debates to Teach History of Engineering Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Terry S.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a technique for utilizing debates of past engineering controversies in the classroom as a means of teaching the history of engineering advances. Included is a bibliography for three debate topics relating to important controversies. (SL)

  18. Power Systems Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    California Institute of Technology

    2007-03-31

    In the 17 quarters of the project, we have accomplished the following milestones - first, construction of the three multiwavelength laser scattering machines for different light scattering study purposes; second, build up of simulation software package for simulation of field and laboratory particulates matters data; third, carried out field online test on exhaust from combustion engines with our laser scatter system. This report gives a summary of the results and achievements during the project's 16 quarters period. During the 16 quarters of this project, we constructed three multiwavelength scattering instruments for PM2.5 particulates. We build up a simulation software package that could automate the simulation of light scattering for different combinations of particulate matters. At the field test site with our partner, Alturdyne, Inc., we collected light scattering data for a small gas turbine engine. We also included the experimental data feedback function to the simulation software to match simulation with real field data. The PM scattering instruments developed in this project involve the development of some core hardware technologies, including fast gated CCD system, accurately triggered Passively Q-Switched diode pumped lasers, and multiwavelength beam combination system. To calibrate the scattering results for liquid samples, we also developed the calibration system which includes liquid PM generator and size sorting instrument, i.e. MOUDI. In this report, we give the concise summary report on each of these subsystems development results.

  19. Variable stream control engine for advanced supersonic aircraft design update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. B.; Howlett, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The updating of the engine concept for a second-generation supersonic transport, the variable stream control engine (VSCE), in terms of mechanical design definition and estimated performance is discussed. The design definition reflects technology advancements that improve system efficiency, durability and environments were established. The components unique to the VSCE concept, a high performance duct burner and a low noise coannular nozzle, and the high temperature components are identified as critical technologies. Technology advances for the high temperature components (main combustor and turbines) are also discussed. To address the requirements in this area, the technical approach for undertaking a high temperature validation program is defined. The multi-phased effort would include assorted rig and laboratory tests, then culminate with the demonstration of a flight-type main combustor and single-stage high pressure turbine at operating conditions envisioned for a VSCE.

  20. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  1. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  2. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  3. SAPLE: Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Procopio, Michael J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.

  4. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  5. Variable stream control engine concept for advanced supersonic aircraft: Features and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Variable Stream Control Engine is studied for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. Significant environmental and performance improvements relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines are cited. Two separate flow streams, each with independent burner and nozzle systems are incorporated within the engine. By unique control of the exhaust temperatures and velocities in two coannular streams, significant reduction in jet noise is obtained.

  6. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical Need Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars. Tachycardia may be asymptomatic, or it may adversely affect quality of life owing to symptoms such as palpitations, headaches, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and syncope. Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia, affects about 99,000 people in Ontario. It is associated with higher morbidity and mortality because of increased risk of stroke, embolism, and congestive heart failure. In atrial fibrillation, most of the abnormal arrhythmogenic foci are located inside the pulmonary veins, although the atrium may also be responsible for triggering or perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia, often found in patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, is often life-threatening; it accounts for about 50% of sudden deaths. Treatment of Tachycardia The first line of treatment for tachycardia is antiarrhythmic drugs; for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation drugs are also used to prevent stroke. For patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation of the arrhythmogenic heart tissues is the only option. Surgical ablation such as the Cox-Maze procedure is more invasive. Catheter ablation, involving the delivery of energy (most commonly radiofrequency) via a percutaneous catheter system guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, has been used in place of surgical ablation for many patients. However, this conventional approach in catheter ablation

  7. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The ideal cycle, its application to a practical machine, and the specific advantages of high efficiency, low emissions, multi-fuel capability, and low noise of the stirling engine are discussed. Certain portions of the Stirling engine must operate continuously at high temperature. Ceramics offer the potential of cost reduction and efficiency improvement for advanced engine applications. Potential applications for ceramics in Stirling engines, and some of the special problems pertinent to using ceramics in the Stirling engine are described. The research and technology program in ceramics which is planned to support the development of advanced Stirling engines is outlined.

  8. Microfog lubricant application system for advanced turbine engine components, phase 3. [wetting characteristics and deposit forming tendencies of lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrucco, R. J.; Leonardi, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The wetting characteristics and deposit forming tendencies of a series of lubricants were evaluated using a microfog jet delivery system to wet a flat heated rotating disc. The performances of the nine lubricants are discussed in terms of the various testing parameters which include temperature, disc speed and lubricant gas flow rates. Also discussed are the heat transfer characteristics of two of the lubricants on that same plane disc specimen. The wetting characteristics and heat transfer characteristics of one of the lubricants on a complex disc simulating bearing geometry are also discussed.

  9. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  10. Advanced diagnostic system for piston slap faults in IC engines, based on the non-stationary characteristics of the vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Randall, Robert Bond; Peeters, Bart

    2016-06-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have the potential to solve the problem of automated diagnostics of piston slap faults, but the critical issue for the successful application of ANN is the training of the network by a large amount of data in various engine conditions (different speed/load conditions in normal condition, and with different locations/levels of faults). On the other hand, the latest simulation technology provides a useful alternative in that the effect of clearance changes may readily be explored without recourse to cutting metal, in order to create enough training data for the ANNs. In this paper, based on some existing simplified models of piston slap, an advanced multi-body dynamic simulation software was used to simulate piston slap faults with different speeds/loads and clearance conditions. Meanwhile, the simulation models were validated and updated by a series of experiments. Three-stage network systems are proposed to diagnose piston faults: fault detection, fault localisation and fault severity identification. Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) networks were used in the detection stage and severity/prognosis stage and a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) was used to identify which cylinder has faults. Finally, it was demonstrated that the networks trained purely on simulated data can efficiently detect piston slap faults in real tests and identify the location and severity of the faults as well.

  11. Engine lubricating system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurio, N.; Yoshimi, H.; Shigemura, T.; Shono, Y.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes engine lubricating system comprising a lubricating oil supply means having a plunger member adapted to be reciprocated in the axial direction in response to an engine output shaft to discharge lubricating oil, a control pin which is adapted to abut against the plunger member and is movable to change the stroke of the plunger member, thereby changing the amount of the lubricating oil to be discharged in each stroke of the plunger member, and an electric actuator which moves the control pin to change the stroke of the plunger member; a control means which receives the electric signal from the operating condition detecting means and outputs an electric control signal for controlling the electric actuator; the actuator comprising a stepping motor and the control means outputting an electric control signal representing the number of steps by which the stepping motor is to be operated; the operating condition detecting means comprising an intake volume detecting means which detects the amount of intake air introduced into the cylinder of the engine per one engine revolution, and the control means outputs and electric signal to the stepping motor which controls the stepping motor to drive the control pin to increase the amount of the lubricating oil to be discharged in each stroke of the plunger member as the amount of intake air increases.

  12. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

    2003-08-28

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

  13. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  14. Advanced supersonic technology propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szeliga, R.; Allan, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    This study had the objectives of determining the most promising conventional and variable cycle engine types; the effect of design cruise Mach number (2.2, 2.7 and 3.2) on a commercial supersonic transport; effect of advanced engine technology on the choice of engine cycle; and effect of utilizing hydrogen as the engine fuel. The technology required for the engines was defined, and the levels of development to ensure availability of this technology in advanced aircraft propulsion systems were assessed. No clearcut best conventional or variable cycle engine was identified. The dry bypass turbojet and the duct burning turbofans were initially selected as the best conventional engines, but later results, utilizing augmentation at takeoff, added the mixed-flow augmented turbofan as a promising contender. The modulating air flow, three-rotor variable cycle engine identified the performance features desired from VCE concepts (elimination of inlet drag and reduction in afterbody drag), but was a very heavy and complex engine.

  15. FY2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  16. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  17. The General Electric Advanced Course in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Donald R.

    A three-year, in-house engineering course offered to selected General Electric Company engineers is discussed. It is designed to develop the ability to identify and solve real engineering problems. The course may be taken concurrently with college courses in a cooperative program that can result in a graduate degree in engineering. (MLH)

  18. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  19. The Advanced Launch System (ALS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is an unmanned vehicle that will achieve low hardware cost by using a reusable booster stage which flies back to the launch site, and a core stage in which the rocket engines and redundant avionics are in a module that is returned to earth and recovered for reuse. The booster's utilization of liquid propellant instead of solid propellant will help lower the consumable costs. The ALS also includes launch processing and flight control facilities, necessary support equipment, and ground- and flight-operations infrastructure. The ALS program studies show that, through the ALS, the United States can launch a major Mars initiative economically and with confidence. It is estimated that the objective ALS can be operational in the late 1990s.

  20. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hun C.; Fang, Ho T.

    1987-01-01

    The technology base required to fabricate silicon nitride components with the strength, reliability, and reproducibility necessary for actual heat engine applications is presented. Task 2 was set up to develop test bars with high Weibull slope and greater high temperature strength, and to conduct an initial net shape component fabrication evaluation. Screening experiments were performed in Task 7 on advanced materials and processing for input to Task 2. The technical efforts performed in the second year of a 5-yr program are covered. The first iteration of Task 2 was completed as planned. Two half-replicated, fractional factorial (2 sup 5), statistically designed matrix experiments were conducted. These experiments have identified Denka 9FW Si3N4 as an alternate raw material to GTE SN502 Si3N4 for subsequent process evaluation. A detailed statistical analysis was conducted to correlate processing conditions with as-processed test bar properties. One processing condition produced a material with a 97 ksi average room temperature MOR (100 percent of goal) with 13.2 Weibull slope (83 percent of goal); another condition produced 86 ksi (6 percent over baseline) room temperature strength with a Weibull slope of 20 (125 percent of goal).

  1. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines is studied. Injection molding was the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals were to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in four-point loading. Statistically designed experiments were performed throughout the program and a fluid mixing process employing an attritor mixer was developed. Compositional improvements in the amounts and sources of boron and carbon used and a pressureless sintering cycle were developed which provided samples of about 99 percent of theoretical density. Strengths were found to improve significantly by annealing in air. Strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) with Weibull modulus of about 9 were obtained. Further improvements in Weibull modulus to about 16 were realized by proof testing. This is an increase of 86 percent in strength and 100 percent in Weibull modulus over the baseline data generated at the beginning of the program. Molding yields were improved and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were found to be useful in characterizing the SiC powder and the sintered samples. Turbocharger rotors were molded and examined as an indication of the moldability of the mixes which were developed in this program.

  2. Boiler control systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.

    2005-07-01

    The book provides in-depth coverage on how to safely and reliably control the firing of a boiler. Regardless of the capacity or fuel, certain fundamental control systems are required for boiler control. Large utility systems are more complex due to the number of burners and the overall capacity and equipment. This book covers engineering details on control systems and provides specific examples of boiler control including configuration and tuning. References to requirements are based on the 2004 NFPA 85 along with other ISA standards. Detailed chapters cover: Boiler fundamentals including piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and a design basis checklist; Control of boilers, from strategies and bumpless transfer to interlock circuitry and final control elements; Furnace draft; Feedwater; Coal-fired boilers; Fuel and air control; Steam temperature; Burner management systems; Environment; and Control valve sizing. 2 apps.

  3. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  4. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  5. Advanced Engineering Environment FY09/10 pilot project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Kiba, Grant W.; Pomplun, Alan R.; Dutra, Edward G.; Sego, Abraham L.

    2010-06-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) project identifies emerging engineering environment tools and assesses their value to Sandia National Laboratories and our partners in the Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) by testing them in our design environment. This project accomplished several pilot activities, including: the preliminary definition of an engineering bill of materials (BOM) based product structure in the Windchill PDMLink 9.0 application; an evaluation of Mentor Graphics Data Management System (DMS) application for electrical computer-aided design (ECAD) library administration; and implementation and documentation of a Windchill 9.1 application upgrade. The project also supported the migration of legacy data from existing corporate product lifecycle management systems into new classified and unclassified Windchill PDMLink 9.0 systems. The project included two infrastructure modernization efforts: the replacement of two aging AEE development servers for reliable platforms for ongoing AEE project work; and the replacement of four critical application and license servers that support design and engineering work at the Sandia National Laboratories/California site.

  6. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  7. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  8. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  9. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  10. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been themore » most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).« less

  11. Advanced Operating System Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cittolin, Sergio; Riccardi, Fabio; Vascotto, Sandro

    In this paper we describe an R&D effort to define an OS architecture suitable for the requirements of the Data Acquisition and Control of an LHC experiment. Large distributed computing systems are foreseen to be the core part of the DAQ and Control system of the future LHC experiments. Neworks of thousands of processors, handling dataflows of several gigaBytes per second, with very strict timing constraints (microseconds), will become a common experience in the following years. Problems like distributyed scheduling, real-time communication protocols, failure-tolerance, distributed monitoring and debugging will have to be faced. A solid software infrastructure will be required to manage this very complicared environment, and at this moment neither CERN has the necessary expertise to build it, nor any similar commercial implementation exists. Fortunately these problems are not unique to the particle and high energy physics experiments, and the current research work in the distributed systems field, especially in the distributed operating systems area, is trying to address many of the above mentioned issues. The world that we are going to face in the next ten years will be quite different and surely much more interconnected than the one we see now. Very ambitious projects exist, planning to link towns, nations and the world in a single "Data Highway". Teleconferencing, Video on Demend, Distributed Multimedia Applications are just a few examples of the very demanding tasks to which the computer industry is committing itself. This projects are triggering a great research effort in the distributed, real-time micro-kernel based operating systems field and in the software enginering areas. The purpose of our group is to collect the outcame of these different research efforts, and to establish a working environment where the different ideas and techniques can be tested, evaluated and possibly extended, to address the requirements of a DAQ and Control System suitable for LHC

  12. Looking ahead in systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Donald S.

    1966-01-01

    Five areas that are discussed in this paper are: (1) the technological characteristics of systems engineering; (2) the analytical techniques that are giving modern systems work its capability and power; (3) the management, economics, and effectiveness dimensions that now frame the modern systems field; (4) systems engineering's future impact upon automation, computerization and managerial decision-making in industry - and upon aerospace and weapons systems in government and the military; and (5) modern systems engineering's partnership with modern quality control and reliability.

  13. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lays, E. J.; Murray, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Concepts are discussed that project turbine engine cost savings through use of geometrically constrained components designed for low rotational speeds and low stress to permit manufacturing economies. Aerodynamic development of geometrically constrained components is recommended to maximize component efficiency. Conceptual engines, airplane applications, airplane performance, engine cost, and engine-related life cycle costs are presented. The powerplants proposed offer encouragement with respect to fuel efficiency and life cycle costs, and make possible remarkable airplane performance gains.

  14. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  15. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  16. Model-Based Systems Engineering in Concurrent Engineering Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Curtis; Infeld, Samatha; Bracken, Jennifer Medlin; McGuire, Melissa; McQuirk, Christina; Kisdi, Aron; Murphy, Jonathan; Cole, Bjorn; Zarifian, Pezhman

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering Centers (CECs) are specialized facilities with a goal of generating and maturing engineering designs by enabling rapid design iterations. This is accomplished by co-locating a team of experts (either physically or virtually) in a room with a narrow design goal and a limited timeline of a week or less. The systems engineer uses a model of the system to capture the relevant interfaces and manage the overall architecture. A single model that integrates other design information and modeling allows the entire team to visualize the concurrent activity and identify conflicts more efficiently, potentially resulting in a systems model that will continue to be used throughout the project lifecycle. Performing systems engineering using such a system model is the definition of model-based systems engineering (MBSE); therefore, CECs evolving their approach to incorporate advances in MBSE are more successful in reducing time and cost needed to meet study goals. This paper surveys space mission CECs that are in the middle of this evolution, and the authors share their experiences in order to promote discussion within the community.

  17. Model-Based Systems Engineering in Concurrent Engineering Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Curtis; Infeld, Samantha; Bracken, Jennifer Medlin; McGuire; McQuirk, Christina; Kisdi, Aron; Murphy, Jonathan; Cole, Bjorn; Zarifian, Pezhman

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering Centers (CECs) are specialized facilities with a goal of generating and maturing engineering designs by enabling rapid design iterations. This is accomplished by co-locating a team of experts (either physically or virtually) in a room with a focused design goal and a limited timeline of a week or less. The systems engineer uses a model of the system to capture the relevant interfaces and manage the overall architecture. A single model that integrates other design information and modeling allows the entire team to visualize the concurrent activity and identify conflicts more efficiently, potentially resulting in a systems model that will continue to be used throughout the project lifecycle. Performing systems engineering using such a system model is the definition of model-based systems engineering (MBSE); therefore, CECs evolving their approach to incorporate advances in MBSE are more successful in reducing time and cost needed to meet study goals. This paper surveys space mission CECs that are in the middle of this evolution, and the authors share their experiences in order to promote discussion within the community.

  18. Advanced hydrologic prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Brian A.; Braatz, Dean T.; Halquist, John B.; Deweese, Michael M.; Larson, Lee; Ingram, John J.

    1999-08-01

    As our Nation's population and infrastructure grow, natural disasters are becoming a greater threat to our society's stability. In an average year, inland flooding claims 133 lives and resulting property losses exceed 4.0 billion. Last year, 1997, these losses totaled 8.7 billion. Because of this blossoming threat, the National Weather Service (NWS) has requested funding within its 2000 budget to begin national implementation of the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction System (AHPS). With this system in place the NWS will be able to utilize precipitation and climate predictions to provide extended probabilistic river forecasts for risk-based decisions. In addition to flood and drought mitigation benefits, extended river forecasts will benefit water resource managers in decision making regarding water supply, agriculture, navigation, hydropower, and ecosystems. It's estimated that AHPS, if implemented nationwide, would save lives and provide $677 million per year in economic benefits. AHPS is used currently on the Des Moines River basin in Iowa and will be implemented soon on the Minnesota River basin in Minnesota. Experience gained from user interaction is leading to refined and enhanced product formats and displays. This discussion will elaborate on the technical requirements associated with AHPS implementation, its enhanced products and informational displays, and further refinements based on customer feedback.

  19. FY 2007 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    Advanced combustion engines have great potential for achieving dramatic energy efficiency improvements in light-duty vehicle applications, where it is suited to both conventional and hybrid- electric powertrain configurations. Light-duty vehicles with advanced combustion engines can compete directly with gasoline engine hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel economy and consumer-friendly driving characteristics; also, they are projected to have energy efficiencies that are competitive with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles when used in hybrid applications.Advanced engine technologies being researched and developed by the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program will also allow the use of hydrogen as a fuel in ICEs and will provide an energy-efficient interim hydrogen-based powertrain technology during the transition to hydrogen/fuelcell-powered transportation vehicles.

  20. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity.

  1. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  2. Magnetic bearings: A key technology for advanced rocket engines?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girault, J. PH.

    1992-01-01

    For several years, active magnetic bearings (AMB) have demonstrated their capabilities in many fields, from industrial compressors to control wheel suspension for spacecraft. Despite this broad area, no significant advance has been observed in rocket propulsion turbomachinery, where size, efficiency, and cost are crucial design criteria. To this respect, Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) had funded for several years significant efforts to delineate the advantages and drawbacks of AMB applied to rocket propulsion systems. Objectives of this work, relative technological basis, and improvements are described and illustrated by advanced turbopump layouts. Profiting from the advantages of compact design in cryogenic environments, the designs show considerable improvements in engine life, performances, and reliability. However, these conclusions should still be tempered by high recurrent costs, mainly due to the space-rated electronics. Development work focused on this point and evolution of electronics show the possibility to decrease production costs by an order of magnitude.

  3. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 1: Pratt and Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 1 of these reports describes the studies performed by Pratt & Whitney.

  4. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  5. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites--PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites--MMC's and IMC's) and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites--CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed by in-house researchers and on grants and contracts. NASA considers this program to be a focused materials and structures research effort that builds on our base research programs and supports component-development projects. HITEMP is coordinated with the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program and the Department of Defense/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program. Advanced materials and structures technologies from HITEMP may be used in these future applications. Recent technical accomplishments have not only improved the state-of-the-art but have wideranging applications to industry. A high-temperature thin-film strain gage was developed to measure both dynamic and static strain up to 1100 C (2000 F). The gage's unique feature is that it is minimally intrusive. This technology, which received a 1995 R&D 100 Award, has been transferred to AlliedSignal Engines, General Electric Company, and Ford Motor Company. Analytical models developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center were used to study Textron Specialty Materials' manufacturing process for titanium-matrix composite rings. Implementation of our recommendations on tooling and processing conditions resulted in the production of defect free rings. In the Lincoln Composites/AlliedSignal/Lewis cooperative program, a composite compressor case is being manufactured with a Lewis

  6. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  7. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  8. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2004-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology

  9. Advanced integrated enhanced vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. R.; Luk, Chiu H.; Hammerstrom, Dan; Pavel, Misha

    2003-09-01

    In anticipation of its ultimate role in transport, business and rotary wing aircraft, we clarify the role of Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS): how the output data will be utilized, appropriate architecture for total avionics integration, pilot and control interfaces, and operational utilization. Ground-map (database) correlation is critical, and we suggest that "synthetic vision" is simply a subset of the monitor/guidance interface issue. The core of integrated EVS is its sensor processor. In order to approximate optimal, Bayesian multi-sensor fusion and ground correlation functionality in real time, we are developing a neural net approach utilizing human visual pathway and self-organizing, associative-engine processing. In addition to EVS/SVS imagery, outputs will include sensor-based navigation and attitude signals as well as hazard detection. A system architecture is described, encompassing an all-weather sensor suite; advanced processing technology; intertial, GPS and other avionics inputs; and pilot and machine interfaces. Issues of total-system accuracy and integrity are addressed, as well as flight operational aspects relating to both civil certification and military applications in IMC.

  10. Advancing Intercultural Competency: Canadian Engineering Employers' Experiences with Immigrant Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally…

  11. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  12. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  13. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  14. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology

  15. Advanced optical fiber communication simulations in electrotechnical engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervaeke, Michael; Nguyen Thi, Cac; Thienpont, Hugo

    2004-10-01

    We present our efforts in education to apply advanced optical communication simulation software into our Electrical Engineering curriculum by implementing examples from theoretical courses with commercially available simulation software. Photonic design software is an interesting tool for the education of Engineers: these tools are able to simulate a huge variety of photonic components without major investments in student lab hardware. Moreover: some exotic phenomena ,which would usually involve specialty hardware, can be taught. We chose to implement VPItransmissionMaker from VPIsystems in the lab exercises for graduating Electrotechnical Engineers with majors in Photonics. The guideline we develop starts with basic examples provided by VPIsystems. The simplified simulation schemes serve as an introduction to the simulation techniques. Next, we highlight examples from the theoretical courses on Optical Telecommunications. A last part is an assignment where students have to design and simulate a system using real life component datasheets. The aim is to train them to interpret datasheets, to make design choices for their optical fiber system and to enhance their management skills. We detail our approach, highlight the educational aspects, the insight gained by the students, and illustrate our method with different examples.

  16. Feasibility of magnetic bearings for advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, David; Rosado, Lewis

    1992-01-01

    The application of active magnetic bearings to advanced gas turbine engines will provide a product with major improvements compared to current oil lubricated bearing designs. A rethinking of the engine rotating and static structure design is necessary and will provide the designer with significantly more freedom to meet the demanding goals of improved performance, increased durability, higher reliability, and increased thrust to weight ratio via engine weight reduction. The product specific technology necessary for this high speed, high temperature, dynamically complex application has been defined. The resulting benefits from this approach to aircraft engine rotor support and the complementary engine changes and improvements have been assessed.

  17. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  18. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  19. Systems Engineering Management Education in Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masahiro

    Engineers with system architecture design and project management abilities are required in the field of embedded system development. In university, however, educations are mainly focused on computer science and programming; systems engineering and project management education have been disregard. We implemented educational curriculum of systems engineering and project management in embedded system for graduate program. In this paper the course design, execution and evaluation are described.

  20. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  1. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Arnant P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  2. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  3. Supercharging system for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Yabuhara, H.; Takimoto, F.

    1988-03-15

    A supercharging system for an automotive engine is described comprising: a turbocharger driven by exhaust-gas of the engine; a supercharger; an intake passage connecting the turbocharger and the supercharger in series, for supplying air to the engine; driving means for driving the supercharger by the engine; clutch means provided in the driving means; a first bypass provided around the supercharger; a control valve provided in the first bypass; a second bypass provided around the turbine of the turbocharger; a waste gate valve provided in the second bypass; a first actuator for operating the control valve; a second actuator for operating the waste gate valve; first means for operating the second actuator to open the waste gate valve when supercharging pressure exceeds a predetermined value; an engine speed sensor for detecting speed of the engine; an engine load sensor for detecting load on the engine; and a control unit.

  4. Systems engineering technology for networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The report summarizes research pursued within the Systems Engineering Design Laboratory at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University between May 16, 1993 and January 31, 1994. The project was proposed in cooperation with the Computational Science and Engineering Research Center at Howard University. Its purpose was to investigate emerging systems engineering tools and their applicability in analyzing the NASA Network Control Center (NCC) on the basis of metrics and measures.

  5. NASA systems engineering handbook. Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Aster, Robert; Bilardo, Vincent; Forsberg, Kevin; Hammond, Walter E.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou; Wade, Ron; Cassingham, Randy (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide information on systems engineering that will be useful to NASA system engineers, especially new ones. Its primary objective is to provide a generic description of systems engineering as it should be applied throughout NASA. Field Center Handbooks are encouraged to provide center-specific details of implementation. For NASA system engineers to choose to keep a copy of this handbook at their elbows, it must provide answers that cannot be easily found elsewhere. Consequently, it provides NASA-relevant perspectives and NASA-particular data. NASA management instructions (NMI's) are referenced when applicable. This handbook's secondary objective is to serve as a useful companion to all of the various courses in systems engineering that are being offered under NASA's auspices. The coverage of systems engineering is general to techniques, concepts, and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides good systems engineering practices, and pitfalls to avoid. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development of major NASA product and producing systems.

  6. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  7. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  8. Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a common understanding. Systems engineering work to be performed and the products of that work are identified. The relation to the current planning process and integration with the sitewide systems engineering effort is described.

  9. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  10. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  11. Earth Systems Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D A

    2006-02-21

    Providing the essential energy and water systems to support human needs while understanding and addressing their environmental consequences is a watershed problem for the 21st century. The LLNL Earth System Science and Engineering Program seeks to provide the scientific understanding and technological expertise to help provide solutions at both global and regional scales. Our work is highly collaborative with universities, laboratories and industrial partners across the world and involves observational data, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years have resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially abrupt, even catastrophic global climate change. The climate and energy problem is perhaps the greatest challenge ever faced by mankind. Fossil fuel remains the least expensive and most available source of energy and the basis of our economy. The use of fossil fuels, especially over the last 100 years has led to a 30% increase in CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The problem is growing. The population of the Earth will increase by several billion people in the next 50 years. If economic growth is to continue, the demand for energy is estimated to approximately double in the next 50 years so that we will need approximately 10 TW more energy than the 15 TW we use now. Much of this demand will come from the developing world where most of the population growth will occur and where advanced energy technology is not generally used. The problem affects and is affected by a complex system of systems. The climate and energy problem will affect resources, social structure and the probability of increased conflict. No one person, no one nation, no one technology can solve the problem. There is no

  12. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  13. Advanced general aviation comparative engine/airframe integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, G. L.; Ellis, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Aviation Comparative Engine/Airframe Integration Study was initiated to help determine which of four promising concepts for new general aviation engines for the 1990's should be considered for further research funding. The engine concepts included rotary, diesel, spark ignition, and turboprop powerplants; a conventional state-of-the-art piston engine was used as a baseline for the comparison. Computer simulations of the performance of single and twin engine pressurized aircraft designs were used to determine how the various characteristics of each engine interacted in the design process. Comparisons were made of how each engine performed relative to the others when integrated into an airframe and required to fly a transportation mission.

  14. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzts, Peter J.; Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Accordingly, the NASA Lewis Research Center has conducted screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines to determine their potential impact on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed concepts was formulated by NASA and industry. These concepts were evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation, three target aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a military high performance fighter mission, a high speed civil transport mission, and a civil tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study were defined and described. The concept's potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts were also determined. Finally, the concepts were ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions.

  15. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzts, Peter J.; Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Accordingly, the NASA Lewis Research Center has conducted screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines to determine their potential impact on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed concepts was formulated by NASA and industry. These concepts were evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation, three target aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a military high performance fighter mission, a high speed civil transport mission, and a civil tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study were defined and described. The concept's potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts were also determined. Finally, the concepts were ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions.

  16. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Salkeid, R.; Mueggenburg, H.; Ewen, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary identification and evaluation of promising LO2/Hydrocarbon rocket engine cycles were used to produce a consistent and reliable data base for vehicle optimization and design studies. cycles G and C were chosen for design analysis. Preliminary design analysis of the heat transfer subsystem was performed to establish major technology requirements.

  17. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 1: Engineering studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. R.; Smith, K. E.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Dixon, P. G.; Mcmanus, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Composite structures technology is applied in a preliminary design study of advanced technology blades and hubs for the XV-15 tilt rotor research demonstrator aircraft. Significant improvements in XV-15 hover and cruise performance are available using blades designed for compatibility with the existing aircraft, i.e., blade installation would not require modification of the airframe, hub or upper controls. Provision of a low risk nonmechanical control system was also studied, and a development specification is given.

  18. Advanced Seal Technology Role in Meeting Next Generation Turbine Engine Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Munson, John

    1999-01-01

    Cycle studies have shown the benefits of increasing engine pressure ratios and cycle temperatures to decrease engine weight and improve performance in next generation turbine engines. Advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight, emissions, durability and operating costs. NASA and the industry are identifying and developing engine and sealing technologies that will result in dramatic improvements and address the goals for engines entering service in the 2005-2007 time frame. This paper provides an overview of advanced seal technology requirements and highlights the results of a preliminary design effort to implement advanced seals into a regional aircraft turbine engine. This study examines in great detail the benefits of applying advanced seals in the high pressure turbine region of the engine. Low leakage film-riding seals can cut in half the estimated 4% cycle air currently used to purge the high pressure turbine cavities. These savings can be applied in one of several ways. Holding rotor inlet temperature (RIT) constant the engine specific fuel consumption can be reduced 0.9%, or thrust could be increased 2.5%, or mission fuel burn could be reduced 1.3%. Alternatively, RIT could be lowered 20 'F resulting in a 50% increase in turbine blade life reducing overall regional aircraft maintenance and fuel bum direct operating costs by nearly 1%. Thermal, structural, secondary-air systems, safety (seal failure and effect), and emissions analyses have shown the proposed design is feasible.

  19. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  20. Testing to Characterize the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated an engineering unit (EU), the ASRG EU, under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently undergoing extended operation testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. It has also undergone performance tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs. This paper summarizes and explains test results in the context of designing operating strategies for the generator during a space mission and notes expected differences between the EU performance and future generators.

  1. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  2. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Macri

    2003-10-01

    Rolls-Royce Corporation has completed a cooperative agreement under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FC21-96MC33066 in support of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program to stimulate industrial power generation markets. This DOE contract was performed during the period of October 1995 to December 2002. This final technical report, which is a program deliverable, describes all associated results obtained during Phases 3A and 3B of the contract. Rolls-Royce Corporation (formerly Allison Engine Company) initially focused on the design and development of a 10-megawatt (MW) high-efficiency industrial gas turbine engine/package concept (termed the 701-K) to meet the specific goals of the ATS program, which included single digit NOx emissions, increased plant efficiency, fuel flexibility, and reduced cost of power (i.e., $/kW). While a detailed design effort and associated component development were successfully accomplished for the 701-K engine, capable of achieving the stated ATS program goals, in 1999 Rolls-Royce changed its focus to developing advanced component technologies for product insertion that would modernize the current fleet of 501-K and 601-K industrial gas turbines. This effort would also help to establish commercial venues for suppliers and designers and assist in involving future advanced technologies in the field of gas turbine engine development. This strategy change was partly driven by the market requirements that suggested a low demand for a 10-MW aeroderivative industrial gas turbine, a change in corporate strategy for aeroderivative gas turbine engine development initiatives, and a consensus that a better return on investment (ROI) could be achieved under the ATS contract by focusing on product improvements and technology insertion for the existing Rolls-Royce small engine industrial gas turbine fleet.

  3. Electronic spark advance-type ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, H.

    1986-12-09

    An electronic spark advance-type ignition system is described for an internal combustion engine comprising: an ignition coil; a magnetic pickup for generating a pair of pulse signals with a time interval therebetween substantially corresponding to a maximum advance angle in terms of crankshaft rotation degrees for each rotation of a crankshaft of the engine; signal generating means responsive to the pair of pulse signals for the pickup for generating a pair of comparison signals of different levels within each of the crankshaft rotation degrees of the maximum advance angle and the other crankshaft rotation degrees; and control means for comparing the signal levels of each of the pairs of comparison signals to generate an energization starting position signal and an ignition timing determining ignition position signal for the ignition coil, the signal generating means including means for controlling the waveform of one of the pair of comparison signals so that the ignition position signal is advanced in angle with respect to the energization starting position signal. The energization starting position signal is generated under all conditions prior to the timing of generation of the earlier one of the next pair of pulse signals generated from the pickup. The ignition position signal is generated within the maximum advance angle at a point in time following generation of the earlier one of the next pair of pulse signals by at least a predetermined amount.

  4. Reusable rocket engine intelligent control system framework design, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ron; Ols, Joe; Olsasky, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Elements of an advanced functional framework for reusable rocket engine propulsion system control are presented for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) demonstration case. Functional elements of the baseline functional framework are defined in detail. The SSME failure modes are evaluated and specific failure modes identified for inclusion in the advanced functional framework diagnostic system. Active control of the SSME start transient is investigated, leading to the identification of a promising approach to mitigating start transient excursions. Key elements of the functional framework are simulated and demonstration cases are provided. Finally, the advanced function framework for control of reusable rocket engines is presented.

  5. Intelligent Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Ming

    2008-01-01

    A high bypass jet engine fan case represents one of the largest, heaviest single components in an engine. In addition to supporting the inlet and providing the fan flowpath, the most critical function is the containment of a failed fan blade. In this development program, a lightweight, low-cost composite containment case with diagnostic capabilities was developed, fabricated, and tested. The fan case design, containment methods, and diagnostic concepts evaluated in the initial Propulsion 21 program were improved and scaled up to a full case design.

  6. Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    United Technologies Research Center, Pratt Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

  7. Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiencke, Uwe; Nielsen, Lars

    Advances in automotive control systems continue to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Reflecting the trend to optimization through integrative approaches for engine, driveline, and vehicle control, this valuable book enables control engineers to understand engine and vehicle models necessary for controller design, and also introduces mechanical engineers to vehicle-specific signal processing and automatic control. The emphasis on measurement, comparisons between performance and modeling, and realistic examples derive from the authors' unique industrial experience

  8. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems: Technical progress report No. 16, July-September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Barcikowski, G.F.; Borio, R.W.; Bozzuto, C.R.; Burr, D.H.; Cellilli, L.; Fox, J.D.; Gibbons, T.B.; Hargrove, M.J.; Jukkola, G.D.; King, A.M.

    1996-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Under Task 7--Component development and optimization, the CeraMem filter testing was completed. Due to an unacceptably high flue gas draft loss, which will not be resolved in the POCTF timeframe, a decision was made to change the design of the flue gas cleaning system from Hot SNO{sub x}{sup {trademark}} to an advanced dry scrubber called New Integrated Desulfurization (NID). However, it is recognized that the CeraMem filter still has the potential to be viable in pulverized coal systems. In Task 8-- Preliminary POCTF design, integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle as well as the balance of plant design were completed. Licensing activities continued. A NID system was substituted for the SNO{sub x} Hot Process.

  9. Roles for learning sciences and learning technologies in biomedical engineering education: a review of recent advances.

    PubMed

    Harris, Thomas R; Bransford, John D; Brophy, Sean P

    2002-01-01

    Education in biomedical engineering offers a number of challenges to all constituents of the educational process-faculty, students, and employers of graduates. Although biomedical engineering educational systems have been under development for 40 years, interest in and the pace of development of these programs has accelerated in recent years. New advances in the learning sciences have provided a framework for the reexamination of instructional paradigms in biomedical engineering. This work shows that learning environments should be learner centered, knowledge centered, assessment centered, and community centered. In addition, learning technologies offer the potential to achieve this environment with efficiency. Biomedical engineering educators are in a position to design and implement new learning systems that can take advantage of advances in learning science, learning technology, and reform in engineering education.

  10. Advanced training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1990-01-01

    Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.

  11. Engine Data Interpretation System (EDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cost, Thomas L.; Hofmann, Martin O.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype of an expert system was developed which applies qualitative or model-based reasoning to the task of post-test analysis and diagnosis of data resulting from a rocket engine firing. A combined component-based and process theory approach is adopted as the basis for system modeling. Such an approach provides a framework for explaining both normal and deviant system behavior in terms of individual component functionality. The diagnosis function is applied to digitized sensor time-histories generated during engine firings. The generic system is applicable to any liquid rocket engine but was adapted specifically in this work to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The system is applied to idealized data resulting from turbomachinery malfunction in the SSME.

  12. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. Free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for the space application are being conducted. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear powered. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Also, an overview is presented of proposed conceptual designs for the Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) using a free-piston Stirling engine and a liquid metal heat pipe receiver. Power extraction includes both a linear alternator and hydraulic output capable of delivering approximately 25 kW of electrical power to the electric utility grid. Target cost of the engine/alternator is 300 dollars per kilowatt at a manufacturing rate of 10,000 units per year. The design life of the ASCS is 60,000 h (30 y) with an engine overhaul at 40,000 h (20 y). Also discussed are the key features and characteristics of the ASCS conceptual designs.

  13. Internal combustion engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.E.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine control system apparatus. It comprises: carburetor venturi means flowing basic combustion air and having a induced fuel flow in the basic combustion air; carburetor by pass throttle valve means having a biased open position and causing and trimming the flow of supplementary combustion air parallel to and then into the basic combustion air for mixing; engine throttle valve means regulating the flow of a mixture of the supplementary combustion air and the basic combustion air with induced fuel flow for engine combustion; Separate electrical step motor means connected to the carburetor by-pass throttle valve means and to the engine throttle valve means; and pre-programmed microprocessor means connected to each of the electrical stepmotor means. The microprocessor means controlling one of the electrical stepmotor means and the trim positioning of the carburetor by-pass throttle valve means in response to sensed engine speed and sensed engine manifold pressure or throttle position conditions.

  14. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  15. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  16. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms.

  17. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition.

  18. System definition and analysis gas-fired industrial advanced turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    The objective is to define and analyze an engine system based on the gas fuel Advanced Turbine from Task 3. Using the cycle results of Task 3, a technical effort was started for Task 6 which would establish the definition of the engine flowpath and the key engine component systems. The key engine systems are: gas turbine engine overall flowpath; booster (low pressure compressor); intercooler; high pressure compressor; combustor; high pressure turbine; low pressure turbine and materials; engine system packaging; and power plant configurations. The design objective is to use the GE90 engine as the platform for the GE Industrial Advanced Turbine System. This objective sets the bounds for the engine flowpath and component systems.

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 4, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-29

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NOx emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SOx emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; and increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  20. Microbial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; Zhang, Fuzhong; del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-08-16

    Advanced biofuels produced by microorganisms have similar properties to petroleum-based fuels, and can 'drop in' to the existing transportation infrastructure. However, producing these biofuels in yields high enough to be useful requires the engineering of the microorganism's metabolism. Such engineering is not based on just one specific feedstock or host organism. Data-driven and synthetic-biology approaches can be used to optimize both the host and pathways to maximize fuel production. Despite some success, challenges still need to be met to move advanced biofuels towards commercialization, and to compete with more conventional fuels.

  1. Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.

  2. Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both

  3. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  4. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  5. Advanced tendencies in development of photovoltaic cells for power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strebkov, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Development of solar power engineering must be based on original innovative Russian and world technologies. It is necessary to develop promising Russian technologies of manufacturing of photovoltaic cells and semiconductor materials: chlorine-free technology for obtaining solar silicon; matrix solar cell technology with an efficiency of 25-30% upon the conversion of concentrated solar, thermal, and laser radiation; encapsulation technology for high-voltage silicon solar modules with a voltage up to 1000 V and a service life up to 50 years; new methods of concentration of solar radiation with the balancing illumination of photovoltaic cells at 50-100-fold concentration; and solar power systems with round-the-clock production of electrical energy that do not require energy storage devices and reserve sources of energy. The advanced tendency in silicon power engineering is the use of high-temperature reactions in heterogeneous modular silicate solutions for long-term (over one year) production of heat and electricity in the autonomous mode.

  6. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.; Wimmer, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Silicon nitride is a high temperature material currently under consideration for heat engine and other applications. The objective is to improve the net shape fabrication technology of Si3N4 by injection molding. This is to be accomplished by optimizing the process through a series of statistically designed matrix experiments. To provide input to the matrix experiments, a wide range of alternate materials and processing parameters was investigated throughout the whole program. The improvement in the processing is to be demonstrated by a 20 percent increase in strength and a 100 percent increase in the Weibull modulus over that of the baseline material. A full characterization of the baseline process was completed. Material properties were found to be highly dependent on each step of the process. Several important parameters identified thus far are the starting raw materials, sinter/hot isostatic pressing cycle, powder bed, mixing methods, and sintering aid levels.

  7. Advanced timeline systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulfin, R. L.; Perdue, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Planning Division of the Mission Operations Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for scheduling experiment activities for space missions controlled at MSFC. In order to draw statistically relevant conclusions, all experiments must be scheduled at least once and may have repeated performances during the mission. An experiment consists of a series of steps which, when performed, provide results pertinent to the experiment's functional objective. Since these experiments require a set of resources such as crew and power, the task of creating a timeline of experiment activities for the mission is one of resource constrained scheduling. For each experiment, a computer model with detailed information of the steps involved in running the experiment, including crew requirements, processing times, and resource requirements is created. These models are then loaded into the Experiment Scheduling Program (ESP) which attempts to create a schedule which satisfies all resource constraints. ESP uses a depth-first search technique to place each experiment into a time interval, and a scoring function to evaluate the schedule. The mission planners generate several schedules and choose one with a high value of the scoring function to send through the approval process. The process of approving a mission timeline can take several months. Each timeline must meet the requirements of the scientists, the crew, and various engineering departments as well as enforce all resource restrictions. No single objective is considered in creating a timeline. The experiment scheduling problem is: given a set of experiments, place each experiment along the mission timeline so that all resource requirements and temporal constraints are met and the timeline is acceptable to all who must approve it. Much work has been done on multicriteria decision making (MCDM). When there are two criteria, schedules which perform well with respect to one criterion will often perform

  8. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1997-02-04

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition. 14 figs.

  9. Advanced imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Key elements of system are imaging and nonimaging sensors, data compressor/decompressor, interleaved Reed-Solomon block coder, convolutional-encoded/Viterbi-decoded telemetry channel, and Reed-Solomon decoding. Data compression provides efficient representation of sensor data, and channel coding improves reliability of data transmission.

  10. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.

  11. Data management system advanced architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevers, ED

    1991-01-01

    The topics relating to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are presented in view graph form and include: (1) the data management system (DMS) concept; (2) DMS evolution rationale; (3) the DMS advance architecture task; (4) DMS group support for Ames payloads; (5) DMS testbed development; (6) the DMS architecture task status; (7) real time multiprocessor testbed; (8) networked processor performance; (9) and the DMS advance architecture task 1992 goals.

  12. Systems Engineering, Quality and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    AS9100 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to aerospace test programs. There is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination or some type of lab or bench testing. If one examines how the systems engineering processes are implemented throughout a test program; and how these processes can be mapped to AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed.

  13. Why systems engineering on telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Meiring, Jacobus G.

    2003-02-01

    Although Systems Engineering has been widely applied to the defence industry, many other projects are unaware of its potential benefits when correctly applied, assuming that it is an expensive luxury. It seems that except in a few instances, telescope projects are no exception, prompting the writing of this paper. The authors postulate that classical Systems Engineering can and should be tailored, and then applied to telescope projects, leading to cost, schedule and technical benefits. This paper explores the essence of Systems Engineering and how it can be applied to any complex development project. The authors cite real-world Systems Engineering examples from the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The SALT project is the development and construction of a 10m-class telescope at the price of a 4m telescope. Although SALT resembles the groundbreaking Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in Texas, the project team are attempting several challenging changes to the original design, requiring a focussed engineering approach and discernment in the definition of the telescope requirements. Following a tailored Systems Engineering approach on this project has already enhanced the quality of decisions made, improved the fidelity of contractual specifications for subsystems, and established criteria testing their performance. Systems Engineering, as applied on SALT, is a structured development process, where requirements are formally defined before the award of subsystem developmental contracts. During this process conceptual design, modeling and prototyping are performed to ensure that the requirements were realistic and accurate. Design reviews are held where the designs are checked for compliance with the requirements. Supplier factory and on-site testing are followed by integrated telescope testing, to verify system performance against the specifications. Although the SALT project is still far from completion, the authors are confident that the present benefits from

  14. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  15. Recent advances in nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bill G X; Quigley, Anita F; Myers, Damian E; Wallace, Gordon G; Kapsa, Robert M I; Choong, Peter F M

    2014-04-01

    Nerve injury secondary to trauma, neurological disease or tumor excision presents a challenge for surgical reconstruction. Current practice for nerve repair involves autologous nerve transplantation, which is associated with significant donor-site morbidity and other complications. Previously artificial nerve conduits made from polycaprolactone, polyglycolic acid and collagen were approved by the FDA (USA) for nerve repair. More recently, there have been significant advances in nerve conduit design that better address the requirements of nerve regrowth. Innovations in materials science, nanotechnology, and biology open the way for the synthesis of new generation nerve repair conduits that address issues currently faced in nerve repair and regeneration. This review discusses recent innovations in this area, including the use of nanotechnology to improve the design of nerve conduits and to enhance nerve regeneration.

  16. Advanced turbine blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced blade/shroud system designed to maintain close clearance between blade tips and turbine shrouds and at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling is described. Increased efficiency and increased blade life are attained by using the advanced blade tip seal system. Features of the system include improved clearance control when blade tips preferentially wear the shrouds and a superior single crystal superalloy tip. The tip design, joint location, characterization of the single crystal tip alloy, the abrasive tip treatment, and the component and engine test are among the factors addressed. Results of wear testing, quality control plans, and the total manufacturing cycle required to fully process the blades are also discussed.

  17. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  18. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements of the ideal Stirling cycle, as well as basic types of practical engines are described. Advantages, disadvantages, and problem areas of these Stirling engines are discussed. The potential for ceramic components is also considered. Currently ceramics are used in only two areas, the air preheater and insulating tiles between the burner and the heater head. For the advanced Stirling engine to achieve high efficiency and low cost, the principal components are expected to be made from ceramic materials, including the heater head, air preheater, regenerator, the burner and the power piston. Supporting research and technology programs for ceramic component development are briefly described.

  19. Advanced space transportation systems, BARGOUZIN booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Marco; Louaas, Eric; Prel, Yves; Kostromin, Sergey; Panichkin, Nickolay; Sumin, Yuriy; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Rigault, Michel; Beaurain, André; Couteau, Jean-Noël

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of Advanced Space Transportation Systems Studies sponsored by CNES in 2006, a study called "BARGOUZIN" was performed by a joint team led by ASTRIUM ST and TSNIIMASH. Beyond these leaders, the team comprised MOLNIYA, DASSAULT AVIATION and SNECMA as subcontractors. The "BARGOUZIN" concept is a liquid fuelled fly-back booster (LFBB), mounted on the ARIANE 5 central core stage in place of the current solid rocket booster. The main originality of the concept lies in the fact that the "BARGOUZIN" features a cluster of VULCAIN II engines, similar to the one mounted on the central core stage of ARIANE 5. An astute permutation strategy, between the booster engines and central core engine is expected to lead to significant cost reductions. The following aspects were addressed during the preliminary system study: engine number per booster trade-off/abort scenario analysis, aerodynamic consolidation, engine reliability, ascent controllability, ground interfaces separation sequence analysis, programmatics. These topics will be briefly presented and synthesized in this paper, giving an overview of the credibility of the concept.

  20. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  1. Simulation Of Advanced Train Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Paul; Oman, Paul

    This paper describes an Advanced Train Control System (ATCS) simulation environment created using the Network Simulator 2 (ns-2) discrete event network simulation system. The ATCS model is verified using ATCS monitoring software, laboratory results and a comparison with a mathematical model of ATCS communications. The simulation results are useful in understanding ATCS communication characteristics and identifying protocol strengths, weaknesses, vulnerabilities and mitigation techniques. By setting up a suite of ns-2 scripts, an engineer can simulate hundreds of possible scenarios in the space of a few seconds to investigate failure modes and consequences.

  2. Advanced Digital Avionics System for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, R. K.; Hoh, R. H.; Teper, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives and functions of the Advanced Digital Avionics System (ADAS) for general aviation are outlined with particular reference to navigation, flight control, engine management, ATC surveillance, flight management, communications, and the pilot controls and displays. The resulting ADAS design comprises the selection of off-the-shelf avionics to be integrated with ADAS-unique elements including new pilot displays and controls along with a microcomputer control complex (MCC). Reasons for which the ADAS achieves increased avionics capability are mentioned, including overall system integration through the MCC and pilot orientation from navigation map display.

  3. ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, R.; Bolton, B; Oladipo, A; Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z; Radwan, A

    2003-08-24

    Advanced diesel engine and aftertreatment technologies have been developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines. The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies (CLEAN Combustion{copyright}) with prototype aftertreatment systems. CLEAN Combustion{copyright} allows partial control of exhaust species for aftertreatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and aftertreatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and transient dynamometer test-beds to simulate chassis dynamometer test cycles.

  4. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. These are characterized by specific impulse, overall efficiency, input power, average thrust, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. Several important physical characteristics such as dry system mass, accelerator length, bore size and current pulse requirement are also evaluated in appropriate cases. Only the ion engine can operate at a specific impulse beyond 2000 sec. Rail gun, MPD thruster and free radical thruster are currently characterized by low efficiencies. Mass drivers have the best performance characteristics in terms of overall efficiency, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. But, they can only operate at low specific impulses due to large power requirements and are extremely long due to limitations of driving current. Mercury ion engines have the next best performance characteristics while operating at higher specific impulses. It is concluded that, overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  5. System Engineering Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.; Bauer, Jonathan; Beougher, Nathan G.; Boe, Caleb; Canahui, Ricardo; Charles, John P.; Cooper, Zachary Davis Job; DeShaw, Mark A.; Fontanella, Luan Gasparetto; Friel, Mark; Goebel, Katie; Grant, Alex Martinsdacosta; Graves, Matt; Harms, Ryan Andrew; Hill, Aren; Lsely, Kevin Lee; Jose, Sonia; Klein, Andrew; Kolstad, Lauren Wickham; Lamp, Daniel A.; Lindquist, Mariangela Martin; Lopes, Daniel da Paula; Lourens, Rob; Matthews, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa State University team, Team LunaCY, is composed of the following sub-teams: the main student organization, the Lunabotics Club; a senior mechanical engineering design course, ME 415; a senior multidisciplinary design course, ENGR 466; and a senior design course from Wartburg College in Waverly, Iowa. Team LunaCY designed and fabricated ART-E III, Astra Robotic Tractor- Excavator the Third, for the team's third appearance in the NASA Lunabotic Mining competition. While designing ART-E III, the team had four main goals for this year's competition:to reduce the total weight of the robot, to increase the amount of regolith simulant mined, to reduce dust, and to make ART-E III autonomous. After many designs and research, a final robot design was chosen that obtained all four goals of Team LunaCY. A few changes Team LunaCY made this year was to go to the electrical, computer, and software engineering club fest at Iowa State University to recruit engineering students to accomplish the task of making ART-E III autonomous. Team LunaCY chose to use LabView to program the robot and various sensors were installed to measure the distance between the robot and the surroundings to allow ART-E III to maneuver autonomously. Team LunaCY also built a testing arena to test prototypes and ART-E III in. To best replicate the competition arena at the Kennedy Space Center, a regolith simulant was made from sand, QuickCrete, and fly ash to cover the floor of the arena. Team LunaCY also installed fans to allow ventilation in the arena and used proper safety attire when working in the arena . With the additional practice in the testing arena and innovative robot design, Team LunaCY expects to make a strong appearance at the 2012 NASA Lunabotic Mining Competition. .

  6. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  7. Advanced fabrication techniques for cooled engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved design for regeneratively cooled engine structures was identified. This design uses photochemically machined (PCM) coolant passages. It permits the braze joint to be placed in a relatively cool area, remote from the critical hot face sheet. The geometry of the passages at the face sheet also minimizes stress concentration and, therefore, enhances the low cycle fatigue performance. The two most promising alloys identified for this application are Inconel 617 and Nickel 201. Inconel 617 was selected because it has excellent creep rupture properties, while Nickel 201 was selected because of its predicted good performance under low cycle fatigue loading. The fabrication of the PCM coolant passages in both Inconel 617 and Nickel 201 was successfully developed. During fabrication of Inconel 617, undesirable characteristics were observed in the braze joints. A development program to resolve this condition was undertaken and led to definition of an isothermal solidification process for joining Inconel 617 panels. This process produced joints which approach parent metal strength and homogeneity.

  8. Polymer, metal and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Serafini, T. T.; Dicarlo, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis is being focused on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  9. Polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Daniels, D.L.; Serafini, T.T.; Di Carlo, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis focuses on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  10. CMC Technology Advancements for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    CMC research at NASA Glenn is focused on aircraft propulsion applications. The objective is to enable reduced engine emissions and fuel consumption for more environmentally friendly aircraft. Engine system studies show that incorporation of ceramic composites into turbine engines will enable significant reductions in emissions and fuel burn due to increased engine efficiency resulting from reduced cooling requirements for hot section components. This presentation will describe recent progress and challenges in developing fiber and matrix constituents for 2700 F CMC turbine applications. In addition, ongoing research in the development of durable environmental barrier coatings, ceramic joining integration technologies and life prediction methods for CMC engine components will be reviewed.

  11. Stem and progenitor cells: advancing bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tevlin, R; Walmsley, G G; Marecic, O; Hu, Michael S; Wan, D C; Longaker, M T

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many other postnatal tissues, bone can regenerate and repair itself; nevertheless, this capacity can be overcome. Traditionally, surgical reconstructive strategies have implemented autologous, allogeneic, and prosthetic materials. Autologous bone--the best option--is limited in supply and also mandates an additional surgical procedure. In regenerative tissue engineering, there are myriad issues to consider in the creation of a functional, implantable replacement tissue. Importantly, there must exist an easily accessible, abundant cell source with the capacity to express the phenotype of the desired tissue, and a biocompatible scaffold to deliver the cells to the damaged region. A literature review was performed using PubMed; peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance in order to identify key advances in stem and progenitor cell contribution to the field of bone tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce various adult stem cells implemented in bone tissue engineering such as mesenchymal stem cells (including bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells), endothelial progenitor cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. We then discuss numerous advances associated with their application and subsequently focus on technological advances in the field, before addressing key regenerative strategies currently used in clinical practice. Stem and progenitor cell implementation in bone tissue engineering strategies have the ability to make a major impact on regenerative medicine and reduce patient morbidity. As the field of regenerative medicine endeavors to harness the body's own cells for treatment, scientific innovation has led to great advances in stem cell-based therapies in the past decade.

  12. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  13. Cylinder Pressure-Based Spark Advance Control for SI Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seungbum; Yoon, Paljoo; Sunwoo, Myoungho

    The introduction of inexpensive cylinder pressure sensors provides new opportunities for precise engine control. This paper presents a spark advance control strategy based upon cylinder pressure in spark ignition engines. It is well known that the location of peak pressure(LPP) reflects combustion phasing and can be used for controlling the spark advance. The well-known problems of the LPP-based spark advance control method are that many samples of data are required and there is loss of combustion phasing detection capability due to hook-back at late burn conditions. To solve these problems, a multi-layer feedforward neural network is employed. The LPP and hook-back are estimated, using the neural network, which needs only five output voltage samples from the pressure sensor. The neural network plays an important role in mitigating the A/D conversion load of an electronic engine controller by increasing the sampling interval from 1° crank angle (CA) to 20° CA. A proposed control algorithm does not need a sensor calibration and pegging (bias calculation) procedure because the neural network estimates the LPP from the raw sensor output voltage. The estimated LPP can be regarded as a good index for combustion phasing, and can also be used as an MBT control parameter. The feasibility of this methodology is closely examined through steady and transient engine operations to control individual cylinder spark advances. The experimental results have revealed a favorable agreement of optimal combustion phasing in each cylinder.

  14. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  15. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  16. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  17. Advancing your career in clinical engineering or biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Brush, L C

    1991-01-01

    Career advancement options available to the aspiring biomedical technician, clinical engineer or supervisor are described. "Paths" to professional development include: obtaining additional education, getting certified, joining professional associations, finding a mentor, on-the-job training and improving working style. Suggestions are offered on how to start this process in one's own career. PMID:10115432

  18. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  19. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical

  20. History of visual systems in the Systems Engineering Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christianson, David C.

    1989-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) houses a variety of real-time computer generated visual systems. The earliest machine dates from the mid-1960's and is one of the first real-time graphics systems in the world. The latest acquisition is the state-of-the-art Evans and Sutherland CT6. Between the span of time from the mid-1960's to the late 1980's, tremendous strides have been made in the real-time graphics world. These strides include advances in both software and hardware engineering. The purpose is to explore the history of the development of these real-time computer generated image systems from the first machine to the present. Hardware advances as well as software algorithm changes are presented. This history is not only quite interesting but also provides us with a perspective with which we can look backward and forward.

  1. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  2. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-06-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  3. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  4. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  5. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  6. Advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems are discussed. The system is designed to operate on low pressure, propulsion grade hydrogen and oxygen. The specific goals are 10,000 hours of operation with refurbishment, 20 pounds per kilowatt at a sustained power of 7 KW, and 21 KW peaking capability for durations of two hours. The system rejects waste heat to the spacecraft cooling system at power levels up to 7 KW. At higher powers, the system automatically transfers to open cycle operation with overboard steam venting.

  7. Engine NOx reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Berriman, L.P.; Zabsky, J.M.; Davis, J.W.; Hylton, W.H.

    1993-07-06

    Apparatus for use with an engine having a power-generating portion that burns a hydrocarbon fuel and air and produces hot exhaust gases is described, having a catalytic converter device that includes a catalyst for enhancing reactions of components of said exhaust gases, and having a conduit that couples said power-generating portion to said catalytic converter device, for reducing pollution in the exhaust, wherein said power-generating portion comprises a plurality of cylinders in which said fuel and air are burned, a mechanism for applying fuel and air to said cylinders, and a plurality of exhaust valves through which burned fuel and air is exhausted and which are connected to said upstream end of said conduit, said conduit including a manifold which is connected to a plurality of said exhaust valves and a downstream conduit portion which connects said manifold to said catalytic converter device, comprising: a device coupled to said conduit, which stores ammonia and injects it into said conduit at a location where the exhaust gases have a substantially maximum temperature, but which is devoid of open flames, to mix with said hot exhaust gases and pass with them along said conduit and then through said catalyst, said location being closer to said power-generating portion than to said catalytic converter and lying in said manifold.

  8. Neural systems engineering.

    PubMed

    Furber, Steve; Temple, Steve

    2007-04-22

    The quest to build an electronic computer based on the operational principles of biological brains has attracted attention over many years. The hope is that, by emulating the brain, it will be possible to capture some of its capabilities and thereby bridge the very large gulf that separates mankind from machines. At present, however, knowledge about the operational principles of the brain is far from complete, so attempts at emulation must employ a great deal of assumption and guesswork to fill the gaps in the experimental evidence. The sheer scale and complexity of the human brain still defies attempts to model it in its entirety at the neuronal level, but Moore's Law is closing this gap and machines with the potential to emulate the brain (so far as we can estimate the computing power required) are no more than a decade or so away. Do computer engineers have something to contribute, alongside neuroscientists, psychologists, mathematicians and others, to the understanding of brain and mind, which remains as one of the great frontiers of science?

  9. Intelligent Engine Systems: Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojno, John; Martens, Steve; Simpson, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive study of new fan exhaust nozzle technologies was performed. Three new uniform chevron nozzles were designed, based on extensive CFD analysis. Two new azimuthally varying variants were defined. All five were tested, along with two existing nozzles, on a representative model-scale, medium BPR exhaust nozzle. Substantial acoustic benefits were obtained from the uniform chevron nozzle designs, the best benefit being provided by an existing design. However, one of the azimuthally varying nozzle designs exhibited even better performance than any of the uniform chevron nozzles. In addition to the fan chevron nozzles, a new technology was demonstrated, using devices that enhance mixing when applied to an exhaust nozzle. The acoustic benefits from these devices applied to medium BPR nozzles were similar, and in some cases superior to, those obtained from conventional uniform chevron nozzles. However, none of the low noise technologies provided equivalent acoustic benefits on a model-scale high BPR exhaust nozzle, similar to current large commercial applications. New technologies must be identified to improve the acoustics of state-of-the-art high BPR jet engines.

  10. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  11. Advances in percutaneous electrode systems.

    PubMed

    Mooney, V; Roth, A M

    1976-01-01

    In the past eight years, developing a percutaneous electrode system has advanced to a successful, yet simple, method to transmit electrical signals, overcoming the serious problems of excessive mechanical irritation at the skin interface. Experience with over 50-74% in the clinical applications of 1) chronic pain relief; 2) contracture correction; and 3) sensory feedback.

  12. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  13. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  14. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  15. Advanced launch system. Advanced development oxidizer turbopump program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    On May 19, 1989, Pratt & Whitney was awarded contract NAS8-37595 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville Alabama for an Advanced Development Program (ADP) to design, develop and demonstrate a highly reliable low cost, liquid oxygen turbopump for the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The ALS had an overall goal of reducing the cost of placing payloads in orbit by an order of magnitude. This goal would require a substantial reduction in life cycle costs, with emphasis on recurring costs, compared to current launch vehicles. Engine studies supporting these efforts were made for the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The emphasis on low cost required design simplification of components and subsystems such that the ground maintenance and test operations was minimized. The results of the Oxygen Turbopump ADP technology effort would provide data to be used in the STME. Initially the STME baseline was a gas generator cycle engine with a vacuum thrust level of 580,000 lbf. This was later increased to 650,000 lbf and the oxygen turbopump design approach was changed to reflect the new thrust level. It was intended that this ADP program be conducted in two phases. Phase 1, a basic phase, would encompass the preliminary design effort, and Phase II, an optional contract phase to cover design, fabrication and test evaluation of an oxygen turbopump at a component test facility at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The basic phase included preliminary design and analysis, evaluation of low cost concepts, and evaluation of fabrication techniques. The option phase included design of the pump and support hardware, analysis of the final configuration to ensure design integrity, fabrication of hardware to demonstrate low cost, DVS Testing of hardware to verify the design, assembly of the turbopump and full scale turbopump testing. In December 1990, the intent of this ADP to support the design and development was

  16. Advanced launch system. Advanced development oxidizer turbopump program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    On May 19, 1989, Pratt & Whitney was awarded contract NAS8-37595 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville Alabama for an Advanced Development Program (ADP) to design, develop and demonstrate a highly reliable low cost, liquid oxygen turbopump for the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The ALS had an overall goal of reducing the cost of placing payloads in orbit by an order of magnitude. This goal would require a substantial reduction in life cycle costs, with emphasis on recurring costs, compared to current launch vehicles. Engine studies supporting these efforts were made for the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The emphasis on low cost required design simplification of components and subsystems such that the ground maintenance and test operations was minimized. The results of the Oxygen Turbopump ADP technology effort would provide data to be used in the STME. Initially the STME baseline was a gas generator cycle engine with a vacuum thrust level of 580,000 lbf. This was later increased to 650,000 lbf and the oxygen turbopump design approach was changed to reflect the new thrust level. It was intended that this ADP program be conducted in two phases. Phase 1, a basic phase, would encompass the preliminary design effort, and Phase II, an optional contract phase to cover design, fabrication and test evaluation of an oxygen turbopump at a component test facility at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The basic phase included preliminary design and analysis, evaluation of low cost concepts, and evaluation of fabrication techniques. The option phase included design of the pump and support hardware, analysis of the final configuration to ensure design integrity, fabrication of hardware to demonstrate low cost, DVS Testing of hardware to verify the design, assembly of the turbopump and full scale turbopump testing. In December 1990, the intent of this ADP to support the design and development was

  17. An advanced intelligent control system framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ronald R.; Maram, Jon; Norman, Arnie; Merrill, Walt

    1992-01-01

    A reusable rocket-engine intelligent control system (RREICS) framework was developed to a define a control framework for rocket-engine systems that reduces the required engine maintenance, extends the useful operating life, and maximizes the probability of mission success. The RREICS framework defines a controller that handles a rocket engine cluster as a single system rather than as a collection of individual engines. This enables the controller to alter individual engine operations in response to engine performance or integrity degradations while maintaining the propulsion subsystem external parameters at the levels required for mission success. A simplified model of a three engine cluster and the associated propulsion subsystem controller is also described.

  18. Investigation of Exoskeletal Engine Propulsion System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Palac, Donald T.; Hunter, James E.; Myers, David E.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; McCurdy, David R.; Dougherty, Kevin T.

    2005-01-01

    An innovative approach to gas turbine design involves mounting compressor and turbine blades to an outer rotating shell. Designated the exoskeletal engine, compression (preferable to tension for high-temperature ceramic materials, generally) becomes the dominant blade force. Exoskeletal engine feasibility lies in the structural and mechanical design (as opposed to cycle or aerothermodynamic design), so this study focused on the development and assessment of a structural-mechanical exoskeletal concept using the Rolls-Royce AE3007 regional airliner all-axial turbofan as a baseline. The effort was further limited to the definition of an exoskeletal high-pressure spool concept, where the major structural and thermal challenges are represented. The mass of the high-pressure spool was calculated and compared with the mass of AE3007 engine components. It was found that the exoskeletal engine rotating components can be significantly lighter than the rotating components of a conventional engine. However, bearing technology development is required, since the mass of existing bearing systems would exceed rotating machinery mass savings. It is recommended that once bearing technology is sufficiently advanced, a "clean sheet" preliminary design of an exoskeletal system be accomplished to better quantify the potential for the exoskeletal concept to deliver benefits in mass, structural efficiency, and cycle design flexibility.

  19. Software Engineering and Swarm-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Pena, Joaquin; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss two software engineering aspects in the development of complex swarm-based systems. NASA researchers have been investigating various possible concept missions that would greatly advance future space exploration capabilities. The concept mission that we have focused on exploits the principles of autonomic computing as well as being based on the use of intelligent swarms, whereby a (potentially large) number of similar spacecraft collaborate to achieve mission goals. The intent is that such systems not only can be sent to explore remote and harsh environments but also are endowed with greater degrees of protection and longevity to achieve mission goals.

  20. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.; Wimmer, J. M.; Huang, H. H.; Rorabaugh, M. E.; Schienle, J.; Styhr, K. H.

    1985-01-01

    The AiResearch Casting Company baseline silicon nitride (92 percent GTE SN-502 Si sub 3 N sub 4 plus 6 percent Y sub 2 O sub 3 plus 2 percent Al sub 2 O sub 3) was characterized with methods that included chemical analysis, oxygen content determination, electrophoresis, particle size distribution analysis, surface area determination, and analysis of the degree of agglomeration and maximum particle size of elutriated powder. Test bars were injection molded and processed through sintering at 0.68 MPa (100 psi) of nitrogen. The as-sintered test bars were evaluated by X-ray phase analysis, room and elevated temperature modulus of rupture strength, Weibull modulus, stress rupture, strength after oxidation, fracture origins, microstructure, and density from quantities of samples sufficiently large to generate statistically valid results. A series of small test matrices were conducted to study the effects and interactions of processing parameters which included raw materials, binder systems, binder removal cycles, injection molding temperatures, particle size distribution, sintering additives, and sintering cycle parameters.

  1. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.; Mangels, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of silicon carbide materials of high strength was initiated and components of complex shape and high reliability were formed. The approach was to adapt a beta-SiC powder and binder system to the injection molding process and to develop procedures and process parameters capable of providing a sintered silicon carbide material with improved properties. The initial effort was to characterize the baseline precursor materials, develop mixing and injection molding procedures for fabricating test bars, and characterize the properties of the sintered materials. Parallel studies of various mixing, dewaxing, and sintering procedures were performed in order to distinguish process routes for improving material properties. A total of 276 modulus-of-rupture (MOR) bars of the baseline material was molded, and 122 bars were fully processed to a sinter density of approximately 95 percent. Fluid mixing techniques were developed which significantly reduced flaw size and improved the strength of the material. Initial MOR tests indicated that strength of the fluid-mixed material exceeds the baseline property by more than 33 percent. the baseline property by more than 33 percent.

  2. The Role of Intelligent Agents in Advanced Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerschberg, Larry

    1999-01-01

    In this presentation we review the current ongoing research within George Mason University's (GMU) Center for Information Systems Integration and Evolution (CISE). We define characteristics of advanced information systems, discuss a family of agents for such systems, and show how GMU's Domain modeling tools and techniques can be used to define a product line Architecture for configuring NASA missions. These concepts can be used to define Advanced Engineering Environments such as those envisioned for NASA's new initiative for intelligent design and synthesis environments.

  3. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The goals for emissions and plant efficiency are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; particulate emissions not greater than 0.01 lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency (HHV basis) not less than 42%. Other goals include: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives, and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24- month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36- month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  5. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, T. J.; Winterbottom, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Work performed to develop silicon carbide materials of high strength and to form components of complex shape and high reliability is described. A beta-SiC powder and binder system was adapted to the injection molding process and procedures and process parameters developed capable of providing a sintered silicon carbide material with improved properties. The initial effort has been to characterize the baseline precursor materials (beta silicon carbide powder and boron and carbon sintering aids), develop mixing and injection molding procedures for fabricating test bars, and characterize the properties of the sintered materials. Parallel studies of various mixing, dewaxing, and sintering procedures have been carried out in order to distinguish process routes for improving material properties. A total of 276 MOR bars of the baseline material have been molded, and 122 bars have been fully processed to a sinter density of approximately 95 percent. The material has a mean MOR room temperature strength of 43.31 ksi (299 MPa), a Weibull characteristic strength of 45.8 ksi (315 MPa), and a Weibull modulus of 8.0. Mean values of the MOR strengths at 1000, 1200, and 14000 C are 41.4, 43.2, and 47.2 ksi, respectively. Strength controlling flaws in this material were found to consist of regions of high porosity and were attributed to agglomerates originating in the initial mixing procedures. The mean stress rupture lift at 1400 C of five samples tested at 172 MPa (25 ksi) stress was 62 hours and at 207 MPa (30 ksi) stress was 14 hours. New fluid mixing techniques have been developed which significantly reduce flaw size and improve the strength of the material. Initial MOR tests indicate the strength of the fluid-mixed material exceeds the baseline property by more than 33 percent.

  6. (Development of advanced models of the MCC full expansion (quiet) engine): First quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report to the Department of Energy on the progress associated with the development of advanced models of the MCC full expansion (quiet) engine. These models will be evaluated in successive steps and eventually incorporated into a lawn mower for the purpose of commercializing the engine for small wheeled lawn and garden applications. During the first three months of the program (July 1 thru Sept 30), the Phase I design was basically completed with the exception of some engine/lawn mower interface hardware which will be completed during the final stages of the development program after we have selected a lawn mower deck. Rick Erickson, the design engineer for the program, completed the initial parts drawings utilizing the computer drafting system together with guidance from Fredrick Erickson, the program principal engineer and Jeff Erickson, who is in charge of manufacturing the engines. A miniature copy of these drawings is included in the appendix for your review.

  7. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  8. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  9. Bearings and gears for advanced turbine engines and transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The improved technology is discussed of engine main-shaft ball bearings, and spur gears in power transmission drive trains. Much of the technology can be applied to other ball and roller bearings, and to other spur and bevel gears throughout the engine, drive train, and accessory systems.

  10. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  11. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an integrated avionics system suitable for general aviation was determined. A design of reliable integrated avionics which provides expanded functional capability that significantly enhances the utility and safety of general aviation at a cost commensurate with the general aviation market was developed. The use of a data bus, microprocessors, electronic displays and data entry devices, and improved function capabilities were emphasized. An avionics system capable of evaluating the most critical and promising elements of an integrated system was designed, built and flight tested in a twin engine general aviation aircraft.

  12. Security systems engineering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.).

  13. Security systems engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  14. Metabolic engineering of microbial pathways for advanced biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuzhong; Rodriguez, Sarah; Keasling, Jay D

    2011-12-01

    Production of biofuels from renewable resources such as cellulosic biomass provides a source of liquid transportation fuel to replace petroleum-based fuels. This endeavor requires the conversion of cellulosic biomass into simple sugars, and the conversion of simple sugars into biofuels. Recently, microorganisms have been engineered to convert simple sugars into several types of biofuels, such as alcohols, fatty acid alkyl esters, alkanes, and terpenes, with high titers and yields. Here, we review recently engineered biosynthetic pathways from the well-characterized microorganisms Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of several advanced biofuels.

  15. Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    A progress report on the Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project being performed under contract from NASA Lewis is presented. The goals and objectives of the project are described noting that funds from the DOE, Office of Transportation Programs are used to sponsor the project. Among the demonstration objectives are attaining a fuel economy of 42.5 miles per gallon in a 1985 Pontiac Phoenix, multifuel capability, and emission levels within the federal standards. Design objectives examined include competitive reliability and life as well as competitive initial and life cycle costs. Finally, it is stressed that high risk and key elements in this advanced powertrain project are the development of ceramic turbine engine components and the aerodynamic development of small size turbine components.

  16. Advances in Thin Film Sensor Technologies for Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Martin, Lisa C.; Will, Herbert A.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced thin film sensor techniques that can provide accurate surface strain and temperature measurements are being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. These sensors are needed to provide minimally intrusive characterization of advanced materials (such as ceramics and composites) and structures (such as components for Space Shuttle Main Engine, High Speed Civil Transport, Advanced Subsonic Transports and General Aviation Aircraft) in hostile, high-temperature environments and for validation of design codes. This paper presents two advanced thin film sensor technologies: strain gauges and thermocouples. These sensors are sputter deposited directly onto the test articles and are only a few micrometers thick; the surface of the test article is not structurally altered and there is minimal disturbance of the gas flow over the surface. The strain gauges are palladium-13% chromium based and the thermocouples are platinum-13% rhodium vs. platinum. The fabrication techniques of these thin film sensors in a class 1000 cleanroom at the NASA Lewis Research Center are described. Their demonstration on a variety of engine materials, including superalloys, ceramics and advanced ceramic matrix composites, in several hostile, high-temperature test environments are discussed.

  17. Computer Jet-Engine-Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1992-01-01

    "Intelligent Computer Assistant for Engine Monitoring" (ICAEM), computer-based monitoring system intended to distill and display data on conditions of operation of two turbofan engines of F-18, is in preliminary state of development. System reduces burden on propulsion engineer by providing single display of summary information on statuses of engines and alerting engineer to anomalous conditions. Effective use of prior engine-monitoring system requires continuous attention to multiple displays.

  18. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  19. Cam Design Projects in an Advanced CAD Course for Mechanical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present applications of solid modeling aimed at modeling of complex geometries such as splines and blended surfaces in advanced CAD courses. These projects, in CAD-based Mechanical Engineering courses, are focused on the use of the CAD system to solve design problems for applications in machine design, namely the…

  20. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  1. The Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability Roadmap Vision for Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas; Lieber, Mike; Norton, Charles; Fucik, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes a subset of the Advanced Modeling Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap that was developed for NASA in 2005. The AMSA Capability Roadmap Team was chartered to "To identify what is needed to enhance NASA's capabilities to produce leading-edge exploration and science missions by improving engineering system development, operations, and science understanding through broad application of advanced modeling, simulation and analysis techniques." The AMSA roadmap stressed the need for integration, not just within the science, engineering and operations domains themselves, but also across these domains. Here we discuss the roadmap element pertaining to integration within the engineering domain, with a particular focus on implications for future observatory missions. The AMSA products supporting the system engineering function are mission information, bounds on information quality, and system validation guidance. The Engineering roadmap element contains 5 sub-elements: (1) Large-Scale Systems Models, (2) Anomalous Behavior Models, (3) advanced Uncertainty Models, (4) Virtual Testing Models, and (5) space-based Robotics Manufacture and Servicing Models.

  2. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  3. Recent advances in the evolutionary engineering of industrial biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Winkler, James D; Kao, Katy C

    2014-12-01

    Evolutionary engineering has been used to improve key industrial strain traits, such as carbon source utilization, tolerance to adverse environmental conditions, and resistance to chemical inhibitors, for many decades due to its technical simplicity and effectiveness. The lack of need for prior genetic knowledge underlying the phenotypes of interest makes this a powerful approach for strain development for even species with minimal genotypic information. While the basic experimental procedure for laboratory adaptive evolution has remained broadly similar for many years, a range of recent advances show promise for improving the experimental workflows for evolutionary engineering by accelerating the pace of evolution, simplifying the analysis of evolved mutants, and providing new ways of linking desirable phenotypes to selectable characteristics. This review aims to highlight some of these recent advances and discuss how they may be used to improve industrially relevant microbial phenotypes.

  4. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  5. Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Vrieling, P. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    SNL/CA proposes the Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) facility to support customer-driven national security mission requirements while demonstrating a fiscally responsible approach to cost-control. SNL/CA realizes that due to the current backlog of capital projects in NNSA that following the normal Line Item process to procure capital funding is unlikely and therefore SNL/CA will be looking at all options including Alternative Financing.

  6. Recent advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of some advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering, exploring typical applications of these emerging technologies. The mechanical properties of such small structures determine their utility and are therefore of considerable interest. Based on nanometer scale tests, a theoretical model to predict the bending strength of a nanobeam is proposed. A fracture approach which takes into account imperfections on the beam surface and crack growth is employed.

  7. Building America Systems Engineering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building America Research Teams use a systems engineering approach to achieve higher quality and energy savings in homes. Using these techniques, the energy consumption of new houses can be reduced by 40% or more with little or no impact on the cost of ownership.

  8. Advanced detection, isolation, and accommodation of sensor failures in turbofan engines: Real-time microcomputer implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaat, John C.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation Program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines. For this purpose, an algorithm was developed which detects, isolates, and accommodates sensor failures by using analytical redundancy. The performance of this algorithm was evaluated on a real time engine simulation and was demonstrated on a full scale F100 turbofan engine. The real time implementation of the algorithm is described. The implementation used state-of-the-art microprocessor hardware and software, including parallel processing and high order language programming.

  9. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  10. HPT Clearance Control: Intelligent Engine Systems-Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The following work has been completed to satisfy the Phase I Deliverables for the "HPT Clearance Control" project under NASA GRC's "Intelligent Engine Systems" program: (1) Need for the development of an advanced HPT ACC system has been very clearly laid out, (2) Several existing and potential clearance control systems have been reviewed, (3) A scorecard has been developed to document the system, performance (fuel burn, range, payload, etc.), thermal, and mechanical characteristics of the existing clearance control systems, (4) Engine size and flight cycle selection for the advanced HPT ACC system has been reviewed with "large engine"/"long range mission" combination showing the most benefit, (5) A scoring criteria has been developed to tie together performance parameters for an objective, data driven comparison of competing systems, and (6) The existing HPT ACC systems have been scored based on this scoring system.

  11. Recent advances in tissue engineering: an invited review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R G; Bhandari, R; Quirk, R A; Shakesheff, K M

    2002-01-01

    Tissue formation within the body, as part of a development or repair process, is a complex event in which cell populations self-assemble into functional units. There is intense academic, medical, and commercial interest in finding methods of replicating these events outside the body. This interest has accelerated with the demonstration of the engineering of skin and cartilage tissue in the laboratory and there is now worldwide activity in the in vitro regeneration of tissues including nerve, liver, bone, heart valves, blood vessels, bladder, and kidney. Approaches to tissue engineering center on the need to provide signals to cell populations to promote cell proliferation and differentiation. This review considers recent advances in methods of providing these signals to cells using examples of progress in the engineering of complex tissues.

  12. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.

  13. Development of advanced lightweight containment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric type data were obtained on advanced lightweight containment systems. These data were used to generate design methods and procedures necessary for the successful development of such systems. The methods were then demonstrated through the design of a lightweight containment system for a CF6 size engine. The containment concept evaluated consisted basically of a lightweight structural sandwich shell wrapped with dry Kevlar cloth. The initial testing was directed towards the determination of the amount of Kevlar required to result in threshold containment for a specific set of test conditions. A relationship was then developed between the thickness required and the energy of the released blade so that the data could be used to design for conditions other than those tested.

  14. Management issues in systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Aster, Robert; Bilardo, Vincent; Forsberg, Kevin; Mooz, Hal; Polaski, Lou; Wade, Ron

    1993-01-01

    When applied to a system, the doctrine of successive refinement is a divide-and-conquer strategy. Complex systems are sucessively divided into pieces that are less complex, until they are simple enough to be conquered. This decomposition results in several structures for describing the product system and the producing system. These structures play important roles in systems engineering and project management. Many of the remaining sections in this chapter are devoted to describing some of these key structures. Structures that describe the product system include, but are not limited to, the requirements tree, system architecture and certain symbolic information such as system drawings, schematics, and data bases. The structures that describe the producing system include the project's work breakdown, schedules, cost accounts and organization.

  15. Management System for Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Tomonari

    In the context of independent profession based societies, ethics charter/codes of professional bodies have significant influence on the conduct of engineers. Contrarily in Japan, most of active engineers are in-house and feel immediate identity as the member of firm or institution, rather than professional bodies. Therefore, establishment and operation of engineering ethics management system (E2ms) is essential for incentive to make innovative and ethical decision with confidence. The paper introduces the outline of the educational kit for E2ms developed by the author. The kit aims to enhance ability of management relevant to E2ms. The kit also involves ten cases for case method teaching. The test use of the kit indicates the potential to create satisfactory educational achievement.

  16. Internal combustion engine ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    McDougal, J.A.; Lennington, J.W.

    1988-01-12

    In an engine having a predetermined operating cycle and including wall means defining at least one combustion chamber and igniting means associated with the combustion chamber for igniting a charge of fuel and air in the combustion chamber when energized, the fuel having a predeterminable octane rating, an ignition system for controlling the timing of the ignition of the charge for the combustion chambers, is described comprising; energizing means adapted to be connected to the igniting means for energizing the igniting means in response to a timing signal, means for generating a timing signal operatively connected to the energizing means, the timing signal being adjustable with respect to the mechanical cycle of the engine in response to an engine speed parameter and a charge density parameter, a manually adjustable octane selector and, function generator means responsive to manual actuation of the octane selector and operatively connected to the timing signal for selecting a predefined range of ignition timing relationships.

  17. FY2013 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-12-01

    Annual progress report on the work of the the Advanced Combustion Engine Program. The Advanced Combustion Engine Program supports the Vehicle Technologies Office mission by addressing critical technical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions, advanced combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  18. FY2012 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Annual report on the work of the the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the Vehicle Technologies Office mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  19. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) Phase I. The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3081 unclassified computer. This is the first phase in the implementation of EDIS, which is an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy. This manual presents on overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. This manual describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), and Soft Master viewing features employed by this system. Appendix A contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix B provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix C contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  20. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  1. The engineering of cybernetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This tutorial develops a logical basis for the engineering of systems that operate cybernetically. The term cybernetic system has a clear quantitative definition. It is a system that dynamically matches acquired information to selected actions relative to a computational issue that defines the essential purpose of the system or machine. This notion requires that information and control be further quantified. The logic of questions and assertions as developed by Cox provides one means of doing this. The design and operation of cybernetic systems can be understood by contrasting these kinds of systems with communication systems and information theory as developed by Shannon. The joint logic of questions and assertions can be seen to underlie and be common to both information theory as applied to the design of discrete communication systems and to a theory of discrete general systems. The joint logic captures a natural complementarity between systems that transmit and receive information and those that acquire and act on it. Specific comparisons and contrasts are made between the source rate and channel capacity of a communication system and the acquisition rate and control capacity of a general system. An overview is provided of the joint logic of questions and assertions and the ties that this logic has to both conventional information theory and to a general theory of systems. I-diagrams, the interrogative complement of Venn diagrams, are described as providing valuable reasoning tools. An initial framework is suggested for the design of cybernetic systems. Two examples are given to illustrate this framework as applied to discrete cybernetic systems. These examples include a predator-prey problem as illustrated through "The Dog Chrysippus Pursuing its Prey," and the derivation of a single-neuron system that operates cybernetically and is biologically plausible. Future areas of research are highlighted which require development for a mature engineering framework.

  2. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  3. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary layouts were made for the exhaust system, air induction system, and battery installation. Points of interference were identified and resolved by altering either the vehicle or engine designs. An engine general arrangement evolved to meet the vehicle engine compartment constraints while minimizing the duct pressure losses and the heat rejection. A power transfer system (between gasifier and power turbines) was developed to maintain nearly constant temperatures throughout the entire range of engine operation. An advanced four speed automatic transmission was selected to be used with the engine. Performance calculations show improvements in component efficiencies and an increase in fuel economy. A single stage centrifugal compressor design was completed and released for procurement. Gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, generator, secondary systems, materials, controls, and transmission development are reported.

  4. Space Launch System (SLS) Program Overview NASA Research Announcement (NRA) Advanced Booster (AB) Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction (EDRR) Industry Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    SLS is a national capability that empowers entirely new exploration for missions of national importance. Program key tenets are safety, affordability, and sustainability. SLS builds on a solid foundation of experience and current capacities to enable a timely initial capability and evolve to a flexible heavy-lift capability through competitive opportunities: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability and performance The road ahead promises to be an exciting journey for present and future generations, and we look forward to working with you to continue America fs space exploration.

  5. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  6. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA'S Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several aluminum and copper based Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The presentation's goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's planned and on-going activities in MMC for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike and X-34 Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's reusable launch vehicle systems and space access vehicles. Advanced MMC processing techniques such as plasma spray, centrifugal casting, pressure infiltration casting will be discussed. Development of a novel 3D printing method for low cost production of composite preform, and functional gradient MMC to enhanced rocket engine's dimensional stability will be presented.

  7. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability and Systems Engineering Capability Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  8. Mathematical Model of the Jet Engine Fuel System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimko, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The paper discusses the design of a simplified mathematical model of the jet (turbo-compressor) engine fuel system. The solution will be based on the regulation law, where the control parameter is a fuel mass flow rate and the regulated parameter is the rotational speed. A differential equation of the jet engine and also differential equations of other fuel system components (fuel pump, throttle valve, pressure regulator) will be described, with respect to advanced predetermined simplifications.

  9. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  10. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS), Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstration advanced anionics system (DAAS) function description, hardware description, operational evaluation, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) are provided. Projected advanced avionics system (PAAS) description, reliability analysis, cost analysis, maintainability analysis, and modularity analysis are discussed.

  11. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, K.; Gorti, B.V.; McMullen, S.R.; Raibert, R.J.

    1998-05-12

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power. 8 figs.

  12. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, Kaushik; Gorti, Bhanuprasad Venkata; McMullen, Steven Robert; Raibert, Robert Joseph

    1998-01-01

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power.

  13. Drug releasing systems in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects and/or diseased tissues. In an attempt to surmount the shortcomings of artificial grafts, tissue-engineered cardiovascular graft (TECVG), constructs obtained using cultured autologous vascular cells seeded onto a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold, have been developed. Autologous TECVGs have the potential advantages of growth, durability, resistance to infection, and freedom from problems of rejection, thrombogenicity and donor scarcity. Moreover polymers engrafted with growth factors, cytokines, drugs have been developed allowing drug-releasing systems capable of focused and localized delivery of molecules depending on the environmental requirements and the milieu in which the scaffold is placed. A broad range of applications for compound-releasing, tissue-engineered grafts have been suggested ranging from drug delivery to gene therapy. This review will describe advances in the development of drug-delivery systems for cardiovascular applications focusing on the manufacturing techniques and on the compounds delivered by these systems to date. PMID:19379142

  14. Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Krishnasamy; Ra, youngchul; Reitz, Rolf; Bunting, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

  15. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  16. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System, which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5 micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  17. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5-micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  18. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  19. Systems engineering: A problem of perception

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1995-08-01

    The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.

  20. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Philips, A.; Polsgrove, T.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Basic operation of an MTF propulsion system is introduced. Structural, thermal, radiation-management and electrical design details are presented. The propellant storage and supply system design is also presented. A propulsion system mass estimate and associated performance figures are given. The advantages of helium-3 as a fusion fuel for an advanced MTF system are discussed.

  1. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  2. Internal combustion engine ignition system and cleaning device

    SciTech Connect

    McDougal, J.A.; Lennington, J.W.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a method of causing a vehicle having an internal combustion engine to operate continuously with near optimum torque output of the engine with differing grades of fuel having range of octane ratings automatically without requiring intervention of the operator. It comprises providing the fuel system with a first grade of fuel having a predetermined low octane rating; burning the fuel having the predetermined low octane rating in the combustion chambers of the internal combustion engine; operating the engine using the predetermined nominal spark advance; detecting the occurrence of detonation and providing the detonation detector output signal to the ignition system; without requiring intervention of the vehicle operator, automatically adjusting the spark advance control signal to retard the spark advance in increments with respect to the nominal value upon the occurrence of a detector output signal indicative of detonation; without requiring intervention of the vehicle operator, automatically adjusting the spark advance control signal continuously repeating the detecting and adjusting steps while the fuel having the predetermined low octane rating is burned in the combustion chamber, detecting the occurrence of detonation and providing the detonation detector output signal to the ignition system; without requiring intervention of the vehicle operator, automatically adjusting the spark advance control signal; without requiring intervention of the vehicle operator, automatically adjusting the spark advance control signal; continuously repeating the detecting and adjusting steps while the fuel having the predetermined high octane rating is burned in the combustion chamber.

  3. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar Distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is conducting free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for space applications. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed by LeRC for DOE/ORNL for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Since 1983, the SP-100 Program (DOD/NASA/DOE) is developing dynamic power sources for space. Although both applications (heat pump and space power) appear to be quite different, their requirements complement each other. A cooperative Interagency Agreement (IAA) was signed in 1985 with NASA Lewis to provide technical management for an Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) for SNLA. Conceptual design(s) using a free-piston Stirling (FPSE), and a heat pipe will be discussed. The ASCS will be designed using technology which can reasonably be expected to be available in the 1980's.

  4. The MSFC Systems Engineering Guide: An Overview and Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelby, Jerry A.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2007-01-01

    As systems and subsystems requirements become more complex in the pursuit of the exploration of space, advanced technology will demand and require an integrated approach to the design and development of safe and successful space vehicles and there products. System engineers play a vital and key role in transforming mission needs into vehicle requirements that can be verified and validated. This will result in a safe and cost effective design that will satisfy the mission schedule. A key to successful vehicle design within systems engineering is communication. Communication, through a systems engineering infrastructure, will not only ensure that customers and stakeholders are satisfied but will also assist in identifying vehicle requirements; i.e. identification, integration and management. This vehicle design will produce a system that is verifiable, traceable, and effectively satisfies cost, schedule, performance, and risk throughout the life-cycle of the product. A communication infrastructure will bring about the integration of different engineering disciplines within vehicle design. A system utilizing these aspects will enhance system engineering performance and improve upon required activities such as Development of Requirements, Requirements Management, Functional Analysis, Test, Synthesis, Trade Studies, Documentation, and Lessons Learned to produce a successful final product. This paper will describe the guiding vision, progress to date and the plan forward for development of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Systems Engineering Guide (SEG), a virtual systems engineering handbook and archive that will describe the system engineering processes that are used by MSFC in the development of complex systems such as the Ares launch vehicle. It is the intent of this website to be a "One Stop Shop" for our systems engineers that will provide tutorial information, an overview of processes and procedures and links to assist system engineering with guidance and

  5. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  6. An engineering data management system for IPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.; Comfort, D. L.; Shull, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities and software architecture of the IPAD information processor (IPIP) is presented. IPIP is a state-of-the-art data base management system that satisfies engineering requirements not addressed by present day commercial systems. It also significantly advances a number of capabilities that are offered commercially. IPIP capabilities range from support for multiple schemas and data models to support for distributed processing, configuration control, and data inventory management. IPIP exploits semantic commonality in features offered in various forms at different user interfaces in today's commercial systems. An integrated software architecture supports all user interfaces: programming languages, interactive data manipulation, and schema languages. This approach promotes simplicity and compactness in software and permits features to be offered symmetrically across all appropriate user interfaces.

  7. Development of advanced fuel cell system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, L. M.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. Development and characterization of a very stable gold alloy catalyst was continued from Phase I of the program. A polymer material for fabrication of cell structural components was identified and its long term compatibility with the fuel cell environment was demonstrated in cell tests. Full scale partial cell stacks, with advanced design closed cycle evaporative coolers, were tested. The characteristics demonstrated in these tests verified the feasibility of developing the engineering model system concept into an advanced lightweight long life powerplant.

  8. Aircraft Engine-Monitoring System And Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed Engine Health Monitoring System and Display (EHMSD) provides enhanced means for pilot to control and monitor performances of engines. Processes raw sensor data into information meaningful to pilot. Provides graphical information about performance capabilities, current performance, and operational conditions in components or subsystems of engines. Provides means to control engine thrust directly and innovative means to monitor performance of engine system rapidly and reliably. Features reduce pilot workload and increase operational safety.

  9. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  10. Nanoscale biomaterial interface modification for advanced tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Smolik, J.; Rogovska, R.; Donkov, N.; Goltsev, A.; Dubrava, T.; Rassokha, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, various stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been found to have considerable potential for application in tissue engineering and future advanced therapies due to their biological capability to differentiate into specific lineages. Modified surface properties, such as composition, nano-roughness and wettability, affect the most important processes at the biomaterial interface. The aim of the present is work is to study the stem cells' (MSCs) adhesive potential, morphology, phenotypical characteristics in in vitro tests, and to distinguish betwen the different factors influencing the cell/biomaterial interaction, such as nano-topography, surface chemistry and surface free energy.

  11. Advanced Docking Berthing System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James

    2006-01-01

    In FY05 the Exploration Systems Technology Maturation Program selected the JSC advanced mating systems development to continue as an in-house project. In FY06, as a result of ESAS Study (60 Day Study) the CEV Project (within the Constellation Program) has chosen to continue the project as a GFE Flight Hardware development effort. New requirement for CEV to travel and dock with the ISS in 2011/12 in support of retiring the Shuttle and reducing the gap of time where US does not have any US based crew launch capability. As before, long-duration compatible seal-on-seal technology (seal-on-seal to support androgynous interface) has been identified as a risk mitigation item.

  12. Multimedia Feedback Systems for Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwell, S.; Gottlieb, E.J.; McDonald, M.J.; Slutter, C.L.

    1998-12-15

    The World Wide Web has become a key tool for information sharing. Engineers and scientists are finding that the web is especially suited to publishing the graphical, multi-layered information that is typical of their work. Web pages are easier to distribute than hardcopy. Web movies have become more accessible, in many offices, than videos. Good VRML viewing software, bundled with most new PCs, has sufficient power to support many engineering needs. In addition to publishing information science and engineering has an important tradition of peer and customer review. Reports, drawings and graphs are typically printed, distributed, reviewed, marked up, and returned to the author. Adding review comments to paper is easy. When, however, the information is in electronic form, this ease of review goes away. It's hard to write on videos. It's even harder to write comments on animated 3D models. These feedback limitations reduce the value of the information overall. Fortunately, the web can also be a useful tool for collecting peer and customer review information. When properly formed, web reports, movies, and 3D animations can be readily linked to review notes. This paper describes three multimedia feed-back systems that Sandia National Laboratories has developed to tap that potential. Each system allows people to make context-sensitive comments about specific web content and electronically ties the comments back to the web content being referenced. The fuel system ties comments to specific web pages, the second system ties the comments to specific frames of digital movies, and the third ties the comments to specific times and viewpoints within 3D animations. In addition to the technologies, this paper describes how they are being used to support intelligent machine systems design at Sandia.

  13. Energy Efficient Engine: Flight propulsion system final design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y.; Stearns, E. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to create fuel saving technology for future transport engines. The Flight Propulsion System (FPS) is the engine designed to achieve E3 goals. Achieving these goals required aerodynamic, mechanical and system technologies advanced beyond that of current production engines. These technologies were successfully demonstrated in component rigs, a core engine and a turbofan ground test engine. The design and benefits of the FPS are presented. All goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economic payoff were met. The FPS has, at maximum cruise, 10.67 km (35,000 ft), M0.8, standard day, a 16.9 percent lower installed specific fuel consumption than a CF6-50C. It provides an 8.6 percent reduction in direct operating cost for a short haul domestic transport and a 16.2 percent reduction for an international long distance transport.

  14. Seal Technology Development for Advanced Component for Airbreathing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Key aspects of the design of sealing systems for On Rotor Combustion/Wave Rotor (ORC/WR) systems were addressed. ORC/WR systems generally fit within a broad class of pressure gain Constant Volume Combustors (CVCs) or Pulse Detonation Combustors (PDCs) which are currently being considered for use in many classes of turbine engines for dramatic efficiency improvement. Technology readiness level of this ORC/WR approaches are presently at 2.0. The results of detailed modeling of an ORC/WR system as applied to a regional jet engine application were shown to capture a high degree of pressure gain capabilities. The results of engine cycle analysis indicated the level of specific fuel consumption (SFC) benefits to be 17 percent. The potential losses in pressure gain due to leakage were found to be closely coupled to the wave processes at the rotor endpoints of the ORC/WR system. Extensive investigation into the sealing approaches is reported. Sensitivity studies show that SFC gains of 10 percent remain available even when pressure gain levels are highly penalized. This indicates ORC/WR systems to have a high degree of tolerance to rotor leakage effects but also emphasizes their importance. An engine demonstration of an ORC/WR system is seen as key to progressing the TRL of this technology. An industrial engine was judged to be a highly advantageous platform for demonstration of a first generation ORC/WR system. Prior to such a demonstration, the existing NASA pressure exchanger wave rotor rig was identified as an opportunity to apply both expanded analytical modeling capabilities developed within this program and to identify and fix identified leakage issues existing within this rig. Extensive leakage analysis of the rig was performed and a detailed design of additional sealing strategies for this rig was generated.

  15. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-06

    Work continued as planned and scheduled. Total expenditures are below budget. Task 2 is complete. Task 3 is complete except for R, D & T Plan -- Phase II. Task 4 is currently slightly behind schedule but is projected to finish on or ahead of schedule. Task 5 was started early. The following major deliverables were issued: (1) Technical Paper for `93 International Joint Power Generation Conference. (2) Technical Paper for IEA Second International Conference, and (3) Topical Report by EAR on Air Toxics. Subtask 4.1 -- Engineering Analysis in support of the CGU design is nearly complete and partial design specifications are being employed in Task 5. Subtask 4.2 -- Experimental Research efforts consisted of the first series of Drop Tube Furnace tests. Data is being analyzed. Subtask 4.3 -- Modeling work to data resulted in input files for Boiler Simulation Facility and flow pattern convergence was attained. Particle combustion is the next step. This work will be reported on at the next Quarterly Project Review meeting. Task 5 was started early to facilitate Task 6 schedule and quality. Integration of the SNO{sub x} Hot Scheme into the boiler and turbine/feedwater train was optimized and design work on the boiler and ``backend`` is underway. Cost estimating assumptions and methodology were discussed at length and finalized. The RAM analysis is nearly complete. BOP engineering is in progress. No changes to the Work Plan are anticipated for the next quarter.

  16. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  17. Applications and advances of metabolite biosensors for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Evans, Trent; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2015-09-01

    Quantification and regulation of pathway metabolites is crucial for optimization of microbial production bioprocesses. Genetically encoded biosensors provide the means to couple metabolite sensing to several outputs invaluable for metabolic engineering. These include semi-quantification of metabolite concentrations to screen or select strains with desirable metabolite characteristics, and construction of dynamic metabolite-regulated pathways to enhance production. Taking inspiration from naturally occurring systems, biosensor functions are based on highly diverse mechanisms including metabolite responsive transcription factors, two component systems, cellular stress responses, regulatory RNAs, and protein activities. We review recent developments in biosensors in each of these mechanistic classes, with considerations towards how these sensors are engineered, how new sensing mechanisms have led to improved function, and the advantages and disadvantages of each of these sensing mechanisms in relevant applications. We particularly highlight recent examples directly using biosensors to improve microbial production, and the great potential for biosensors to further inform metabolic engineering practices.

  18. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  19. New Frontiers AO: Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) Engine Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Material Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine is a high performance (I(sub sp)), higher thrust, radiation cooled, storable bi-propellant space engine of the same physical envelope as the High Performance Apogee Thruster (HiPAT(TradeMark)). To provide further information about the AMBR engine, this document provides details on performance, development, mission implementation, key spacecraft integration considerations, project participants and approach, contact information, system specifications, and a list of references. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) leads the technology development of the AMBR engine. Their NASA partners were Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Aerojet leads the industrial partners selected competitively for the technology development via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process.

  20. Exploring Advanced Technology Gas Turbine Engine Design and Performance for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nautical miles at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper explores gas turbine component performance and cycle parameters to quantify performance gains possible for additional improvements in component and material performance beyond those identified in previous LCTR2 propulsion studies and to identify additional research areas. The vehicle-level characteristics from this advanced technology generation 2 propulsion architecture will help set performance levels as additional propulsion and power systems are conceived to meet ever-increasing requirements for mobility and comfort, while reducing energy use, cost, noise and emissions. The Large Civil Tiltrotor vehicle and mission will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. A few, relevant engine and component technology studies, including previous LCTR2 engine study results will be summarized to help orient the reader on gas turbine engine architecture, performance and limitations. Study assumptions and methodology used to explore engine design and performance, as well as assess vehicle sizing and mission performance will then be discussed. Individual performance for present and advanced engines, as well as engine performance effects on overall vehicle size and mission fuel usage, will be given. All results will be summarized to facilitate understanding the importance and interaction of various component and system performance on overall vehicle characteristics.

  1. Microfluidic systems for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Mirshekari, Hamed; Basri, Seyed Masoud Moosavi; Nik, Amirala Bakhshian; Aref, Amir R; Akbari, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Neural tissue engineering aims at developing novel approaches for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, by providing a permissive environment for the growth and differentiation of neural cells. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a closer biomimetic environment, and promote better cell differentiation and improved cell function, than could be achieved by conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. With the recent advances in the discovery and introduction of different types of stem cells for tissue engineering, microfluidic platforms have provided an improved microenvironment for the 3D-culture of stem cells. Microfluidic systems can provide more precise control over the spatiotemporal distribution of chemical and physical cues at the cellular level compared to traditional systems. Various microsystems have been designed and fabricated for the purpose of neural tissue engineering. Enhanced neural migration and differentiation, and monitoring of these processes, as well as understanding the behavior of stem cells and their microenvironment have been obtained through application of different microfluidic-based stem cell culture and tissue engineering techniques. As the technology advances it may be possible to construct a "brain-on-a-chip". In this review, we describe the basics of stem cells and tissue engineering as well as microfluidics-based tissue engineering approaches. We review recent testing of various microfluidic approaches for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

  2. Using Advanced Search Operators on Web Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    Studies show that the majority of Web searchers enter extremely simple queries, so a reasonable system design approach would be to build search engines to compensate for this user characteristic. One hundred representative queries were selected from the transaction log of a major Web search service. These 100 queries were then modified using the…

  3. Systems Engineering and Reusable Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, James M.; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    One concept for future space flights is to construct building blocks for a wide variety of avionics systems. Once a unit has served its original purpose, it can be removed from the original vehicle and reused in a similar or dissimilar function, depending on the function blocks the unit contains. For example: Once a lunar lander has reached the moon's surface, an engine controller for the Lunar Decent Module would be removed and used for a lunar rover motor control unit or for a Environmental Control Unit for a Lunar Habitat. This senior design project included the investigation of a wide range of functions of space vehicles and possible uses. Specifically, this includes: (1) Determining and specifying the basic functioning blocks of space vehicles. (2) Building and demonstrating a concept model. (3) Showing high reliability is maintained. The specific implementation of this senior design project included a large project team made up of Systems, Electrical, Computer, and Mechanical Engineers/Technologists. The efforts were made up of several sub-groups that each worked on a part of the entire project. The large size and complexity made this project one of the more difficult to manage and advise. Typical projects only have 3-4 students, but this project had 10 students from five different disciplines. This paper describes the difference of this large project compared to typical projects, and the challenges encountered. It also describes how the systems engineering approach was successfully implemented so that the students were able to meet nearly all of the project requirements.

  4. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  5. The engineered Salmonella typhimurium inhibits tumorigenesis in advanced glioma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-qiang; Zhan, Yue-fu; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Sheng-nan; Li, Xiang-ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the antitumor role of the attenuated Salmonella typhimurium ΔppGpp with inducible cytolysin A (ClyA) in advanced stage of glioma. Materials and methods The C6 rat glioma cells were orthotopically implanted by surgery into the caudate nucleus of rat brains. The rats were then randomly divided into the treatment group (SL + ClyA) (n=12), negative control group (SL) (n=12), and control group (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) (n=12). In the treatment group, the attenuated S. typhimurium were transformed with the plasmid-encoded antitumor gene ClyA. The expression of ClyA was controlled by the TetR-regulated promoter in response to extracellular doxycycline. The plasmid also contained an imaging gene lux to allow illumination of the tumor infected by the bacteria. The rat glioma C6 cells were implanted into the caudate nucleus of all rats. The engineered S. typhimurium and respective controls were injected intravenously into the rats 21 days after initial tumor implantation. The pathological analysis of the glioma tumor was performed at 21 days and 28 days (7 days after doxycycline treatment) postimplantation. All rats underwent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and bioluminescence study at 21 days and 28 days postimplantation to detect tumor volume. The differences between the three groups in tumor volume and survival time were analyzed. Results Advanced stage glioma was detected at 21 days postimplantation. Bioluminescence showed that the engineered S. typhimurium accumulated in glioma tumors and disappeared in the normal reticuloendothelial tissues 3 days after intravenous injection. MRI showed that the tumor volume in the S. typhimurium with ClyA group were significantly reduced compared to the bacteria alone and no bacteria groups 7 days post-doxycycline treatment (P<0.05), while the necrotic tumor volume in the S. typhimurium with ClyA group and S. typhimurium alone group increased significantly compared to the control group (P<0.01). In

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; M.A. Alvin; G.J. Bruck; T.E. Lippert; E.E. Smeltzer; M.E. Stampahar

    2002-06-30

    Two advanced, hot gas, barrier filter system concepts have been proposed by the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation to improve the reliability and availability of barrier filter systems in applications such as PFBC and IGCC power generation. The two hot gas, barrier filter system concepts, the inverted candle filter system and the sheet filter system, were the focus of bench-scale testing, data evaluations, and commercial cost evaluations to assess their feasibility as viable barrier filter systems. The program results show that the inverted candle filter system has high potential to be a highly reliable, commercially successful, hot gas, barrier filter system. Some types of thin-walled, standard candle filter elements can be used directly as inverted candle filter elements, and the development of a new type of filter element is not a requirement of this technology. Six types of inverted candle filter elements were procured and assessed in the program in cold flow and high-temperature test campaigns. The thin-walled McDermott 610 CFCC inverted candle filter elements, and the thin-walled Pall iron aluminide inverted candle filter elements are the best candidates for demonstration of the technology. Although the capital cost of the inverted candle filter system is estimated to range from about 0 to 15% greater than the capital cost of the standard candle filter system, the operating cost and life-cycle cost of the inverted candle filter system is expected to be superior to that of the standard candle filter system. Improved hot gas, barrier filter system availability will result in improved overall power plant economics. The inverted candle filter system is recommended for continued development through larger-scale testing in a coal-fueled test facility, and inverted candle containment equipment has been fabricated and shipped to a gasifier development site for potential future testing. Two types of sheet filter elements were procured and assessed in the program

  7. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  8. Advances and computational tools towards predictable design in biological engineering.

    PubMed

    Pasotti, Lorenzo; Zucca, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids) when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated.

  9. Engine systems analysis results of the Space Shuttle Main Engine redesigned powerhead initial engine level testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, Erik J.; Gosdin, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers regularly analyze SSME ground test and flight data with respect to engine systems performance. Recently, a redesigned SSME powerhead was introduced to engine-level testing in part to increase engine operational margins through optimization of the engine internal environment. This paper presents an overview of the MSFC personnel engine systems analysis results and conclusions reached from initial engine level testing of the redesigned powerhead, and further redesigns incorporated to eliminate accelerated main injector baffle and main combustion chamber hot gas wall degradation. The conclusions are drawn from instrumented engine ground test data and hardware integrity analysis reports and address initial engine test results with respect to the apparent design change effects on engine system and component operation.

  10. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  11. Recent advances in application of biosensors in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Anwarul; Nurunnabi, Md; Morshed, Mahboob; Paul, Arghya; Polini, Alessandro; Kuila, Tapas; Al Hariri, Moustafa; Lee, Yong-kyu; Jaffa, Ayad A

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25165697

  12. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arghya; Lee, Yong-kyu; Jaffa, Ayad A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25165697

  13. Recent advances in application of biosensors in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Anwarul; Nurunnabi, Md; Morshed, Mahboob; Paul, Arghya; Polini, Alessandro; Kuila, Tapas; Al Hariri, Moustafa; Lee, Yong-kyu; Jaffa, Ayad A

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications.

  14. Developing Systems Engineering Skills Through NASA Summer Intern Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barritt, Brian; Golden, Bert; Knoblock, Eric; Matthews, Seth; Warner, Joe

    2010-01-01

    During the Formulation phases of the NASA Project Life Cycle, communication systems engineers are responsible for designing space communication links and analyzing their performance to ensure that the proposed communication architecture is capable of satisfying high-level mission requirements. Senior engineers with extensive experience in communications systems perform these activities. However, the increasing complexity of space systems coupled with the current shortage of communications systems engineers has led to an urgent need for expedited training of new systems engineers. A pilot program, in which college-bound high school and undergraduate students studying various engineering disciplines are immersed in NASA s systems engineering practices, was conceived out of this need. This rapid summerlong training approach is feasible because of the availability of advanced software and technology tools and the students inherent ability to operate such tools. During this pilot internship program, a team of college-level and recently-hired engineers configured and utilized various software applications in the design and analysis of communication links for a plausible lunar sortie mission. The approach taken was to first design the direct-to-Earth communication links for the lunar mission elements, then to design the links between lunar surface and lunar orbital elements. Based on the data obtained from these software applications, an integrated communication system design was realized and the students gained valuable systems engineering knowledge. This paper describes this approach to rapidly training college-bound high school and undergraduate engineering students from various disciplines in NASA s systems engineering practices and tools. A summary of the potential use of NASA s emerging systems engineering internship program in broader applications is also described.

  15. Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter System

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the development and status of testing of the Westinghouse Advanced Hot Gas Particle Filter (W-APF) including: W-APF integrated operation with the American Electric Power, 70 MW PFBC clean coal facility--approximately 6000 test hours completed; approximately 2500 hours of testing at the Hans Ahlstrom 10 MW PCFB facility located in Karhula, Finland; over 700 hours of operation at the Foster Wheeler 2 MW 2nd generation PFBC facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; status of Westinghouse HGF supply for the DOE Southern Company Services Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; the status of the Westinghouse development and testing of HGF`s for Biomass Power Generation; and the status of the design and supply of the HGF unit for the 95 MW Pinon Pine IGCC Clean Coal Demonstration.

  16. Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Systems Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Shin, Jae Ho; Cho, Jae Sung; Yang, Dongsoo; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-05-01

    Systems metabolic engineering, which recently emerged as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, allows engineering of microorganisms on a systemic level for the production of valuable chemicals far beyond its native capabilities. Here, we review the strategies for systems metabolic engineering and particularly its applications in Escherichia coli. First, we cover the various tools developed for genetic manipulation in E. coli to increase the production titers of desired chemicals. Next, we detail the strategies for systems metabolic engineering in E. coli, covering the engineering of the native metabolism, the expansion of metabolism with synthetic pathways, and the process engineering aspects undertaken to achieve higher production titers of desired chemicals. Finally, we examine a couple of notable products as case studies produced in E. coli strains developed by systems metabolic engineering. The large portfolio of chemical products successfully produced by engineered E. coli listed here demonstrates the sheer capacity of what can be envisioned and achieved with respect to microbial production of chemicals. Systems metabolic engineering is no longer in its infancy; it is now widely employed and is also positioned to further embrace next-generation interdisciplinary principles and innovation for its upgrade. Systems metabolic engineering will play increasingly important roles in developing industrial strains including E. coli that are capable of efficiently producing natural and nonnatural chemicals and materials from renewable nonfood biomass. PMID:27223822

  19. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  20. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.