Science.gov

Sample records for advanced ergonomic design

  1. The ergonomics of computer aided design within advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    John, P A

    1988-03-01

    Many manufacturing companies have now awakened to the significance of computer aided design (CAD), although the majority of them have only been able to purchase computerised draughting systems of which only a subset produce direct manufacturing data. Such companies are moving steadily towards the concept of computer integrated manufacture (CIM), and this demands CAD to address more than draughting. CAD architects are thus having to rethink the basic specification of such systems, although they typically suffer from an insufficient understanding of the design task and have consequently been working with inadequate specifications. It is at this fundamental level that ergonomics has much to offer, making its contribution by encouraging user-centred design. The discussion considers the relationships between CAD and: the design task; the organisation and people; creativity; and artificial intelligence. It finishes with a summary of the contribution of ergonomics.

  2. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    PubMed

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  3. Control centers design for ergonomics and safety.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Leonardo; Lizarazo, Cesar; Bernal, Oscar; Cordoba, Jorge; Arias, Claudia; Monroy, Magda; Cotrino, Carlos; Montoya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the general design conditions about ergonomics and safety for control centers in the petrochemical process industry. Some of the topics include guidelines for the optimized workstation design, control room layout, building layout, and lighting, acoustical and environmental design. Also takes into account the safety parameters in the control rooms and centers design. The conditions and parameters shown in this paper come from the standards and global advances on this topic on the most recent publications. And also the work was supplemented by field visits of our team to the control center operations in a petrochemical company, and technical literature search efforts. This guideline will be useful to increase the productivity and improve the working conditions at the control rooms. PMID:22317199

  4. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested. PMID:17599795

  5. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested.

  6. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  7. Design and ergonomics. Methods for integrating ergonomics at hand tool design stage.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Jacques; Claudon, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    As a marked increase in the number of musculoskeletal disorders was noted in many industrialized countries and more specifically in companies that require the use of hand tools, the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) launched in 1999 a research project on the topic of integrating ergonomics into hand tool design, and more particularly to a design of a boning knife. After a brief recall of the difficulties of integrating ergonomics at the design stage, the present paper shows how 3 design methodological tools--Functional Analysis, Quality Function Deployment and TRIZ--have been applied to the design of a boning knife. Implementation of these tools enabled us to demonstrate the extent to which they are capable of responding to the difficulties of integrating ergonomics into product design. PMID:15028190

  8. A brief essay on ergonomics in graphic design.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, André N F; van der Linden, Júlio C S; Fonseca, Tania M G

    2012-01-01

    Through Brazilian publication revision on the relations amongst Ergonomics and Design, we observed the tendency towards an approach focusing on product design. However, it is our duty to question which would be the influences of ergonomics in the graphic design. As a methodology, we considered the identification that the practices derived from ergonomics as epistemic system found in the main bibliography related to graphic design.

  9. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.

  10. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones. PMID:22317532

  11. Implementation of ergonomics in a service unit: challenges and advances.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Eliane Villas Bôas de Freitas; de França, Maria Goretti; Ramalhoto, Ana Maria de Brito; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Machado, Bruno Rangel Cortoppassi; Genipapeiro, Joana Angélica Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the implementation of ergonomics in a service unit of a major company in the energy sector. From the perspective of management, it analyses the process of implementation of ergonomics programmes in four operational areas. The objective was to diagnose the level of implementation of ergonomics. The study is descriptive, undertaken through the interaction with the technical staff of the operational areas involved, incorporating the perception of these role players concerning their work routines. The results indicated significant differences in the level of implementation of the programmes, especially those concerning structural conditions. Important conquests were registered, such as the investment in the training of specialists, the establishment of a facilitator network and the improvement of the standard for the directioning and alignment of the execution of initiatives. The linking in of the programmes with those of occupational health management emphasises its contribution to the safety and well-being of the workforce through interventions aimed mainly at eliminating and reducing ergonomic biomechanical risks. However, the need to broaden and deepen the ergonomic approach regarding organizational and cognitive aspects, as well as the insertion of ergonomics in project design of new work spaces and processes were also identified. PMID:22317118

  12. Implementation of ergonomics in a service unit: challenges and advances.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Eliane Villas Bôas de Freitas; de França, Maria Goretti; Ramalhoto, Ana Maria de Brito; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Machado, Bruno Rangel Cortoppassi; Genipapeiro, Joana Angélica Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the implementation of ergonomics in a service unit of a major company in the energy sector. From the perspective of management, it analyses the process of implementation of ergonomics programmes in four operational areas. The objective was to diagnose the level of implementation of ergonomics. The study is descriptive, undertaken through the interaction with the technical staff of the operational areas involved, incorporating the perception of these role players concerning their work routines. The results indicated significant differences in the level of implementation of the programmes, especially those concerning structural conditions. Important conquests were registered, such as the investment in the training of specialists, the establishment of a facilitator network and the improvement of the standard for the directioning and alignment of the execution of initiatives. The linking in of the programmes with those of occupational health management emphasises its contribution to the safety and well-being of the workforce through interventions aimed mainly at eliminating and reducing ergonomic biomechanical risks. However, the need to broaden and deepen the ergonomic approach regarding organizational and cognitive aspects, as well as the insertion of ergonomics in project design of new work spaces and processes were also identified.

  13. New procedures of ergonomics design in a large oil company.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes. PMID:22316810

  14. New procedures of ergonomics design in a large oil company.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes.

  15. Ergonomics and sustainability in the design of everyday use products.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness. PMID:22317314

  16. The ergonomics of learning: educational design and learning performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J

    2007-10-01

    The application of ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) principles and practices, and the implementation of ergonomics programmes, have achieved proven success in improving performance, productivity, competitiveness, and safety and health in most occupational sectors. However, the benefits that the application of E/HF science might bring to promoting student learning have yet to be widely recognized. This paper deals with the fundamental purpose of education - student learning - and with the question of how the ergonomic design of the learning environment influences learning performance. The underlying premise, embodied in the quote below, is that student learning performance to a substantial degree is context specific - influenced and specialized in relation to specific design factors in the learning environment. The basic scientific question confronting learning ergonomics is which design characteristics in the learning environment have the greatest influence on variability in learning performance. Practically, the basic challenge is to apply this scientific understanding to ergonomic interventions directed at design improvements of learning environments to benefit learning. This paper expands upon these themes by addressing the origins and scope of learning ergonomics, differing perspectives on the nature of learning, evidence for context specificity in learning and conclusions and research implications regarding an ergonomics perspective on learning.

  17. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro

    2005-08-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  18. Mass of materials: the impact of designers on construction ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, John

    2012-01-01

    Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.

  19. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: the role of objects.

    PubMed

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included.

  20. An ergonomic garment design for elderly Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Civitci, S Sule

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents an ergonomic garment design for elderly Turkish men. The purpose of this study was to determine elderly men's demands, needs and problems in regard to clothing and to design an ergonomic garment in the light of this knowledge. The sample consisted of 120 elderly men living in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, and its province. A questionnaire was prepared and given to these people in order to determine their clothing demands and needs. It was established that most of our subjects need functional garments. An ergonomic garment has been designed using the obtained data. It was found that the design of clothing for the elderly requires attention to bodily changes from aging in order to facilitate and raise the quality of life. Specific suggestions are made to elderly people and to the ready-to-wear sector.

  1. Ergonomic Based Design and Survey of Elementary School Furniture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheshwar; Jawalkar, Chandrashekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ergonomic aspects in designing and prototyping of desks cum chairs used in elementary schools. The procedures adopted for the assessment included: the study of existing school furniture, design analysis and development of prototypes. The design approach proposed a series of adjustable desks and chairs developed in terms of…

  2. Designing an Ergonomically Correct CNC Workstation on a Shoe String Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightner, Stan

    2001-01-01

    Describes research to design and construct ergonomically correct work stations for Computer Numerical Control machine tools. By designing ergonomically correct work stations, industrial technology teachers help protect students from repetitive motion injuries. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  3. Ergonomics and design: its principles applied in the industry.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ademario Santos; Silva, Francisco Nilson da

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Design encompasses both product development and optimization of production process. In this sense, Ergonomics plays a fundamental role, because its principles, methods and techniques can help operators to carry out their tasks most successfully. A case study carried out in an industry shows that the interaction among Design, Production Engineering and Materials Engineering departments may improve some aspects concerned security, comfort, efficiency and performance. In this process, Ergonomics had shown to be of essential importance to strategic decision making to the improvement of production section.

  4. Ergonomics capability in product design and development: an organizational analysis.

    PubMed

    Slappendel, C

    1994-10-01

    This paper suggests that the emergence and development of ergonomics capability in product design and development can be understood as a dynamic process of innovation, which is shaped by a combination of forces both internal and external to an organization. The comparative case study method was used to focus on six organizations (three pairs) operating from a manufacturing base in New Zealand. Data were collected from in-depth interviews, documents, archival sources and through observation. A framework for understanding the emergence and development of ergonomics capability in product design and development is presented. While ergonomics capability is a core concept in the model, four other major elements are identified. These are staffing routines, top management orientation, organizational configuration, and the external environment.

  5. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  6. Ergonomics Considerations in Microcomputing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torok, Andrew G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses evolution of ergonomics and development of computer ergonomics with its sub-fields of hardware ergonomics (user-equipment-related problems including workstation design); software ergonomics (problems in communication with computers); and peopleware ergonomics (psychological impact). Ergonomic features of VDTs, keyboards, and printers are…

  7. Improving digital human modelling for proactive ergonomics in design.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, D B

    2005-04-15

    This paper presents the need to improve existing digital human models (DHMs) so they are better able to serve as effective ergonomics analysis and design tools. Existing DHMs are meant to be used by a designer early in a product development process when attempting to improve the physical design of vehicle interiors and manufacturing workplaces. The emphasis in this paper is placed on developing future DHMs that include valid posture and motion prediction models for various populations. It is argued that existing posture and motion prediction models now used in DHMs must be changed to become based on real motion data to assure validity for complex dynamic task simulations. It is further speculated that if valid human posture and motion prediction models are developed and used, these can be combined with psychophysical and biomechanical models to provide a much greater understanding of dynamic human performance and population specific limitations and that these new DHM models will ultimately provide a powerful ergonomics design tool.

  8. Colossal Tooling Design: 3D Simulation for Ergonomic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Thomas, Robert E.; Babai, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The application of high-level 3D simulation software to the design phase of colossal mandrel tooling for composite aerospace fuel tanks was accomplished to discover and resolve safety and human engineering problems. The analyses were conducted to determine safety, ergonomic and human engineering aspects of the disassembly process of the fuel tank composite shell mandrel. Three-dimensional graphics high-level software, incorporating various ergonomic analysis algorithms, was utilized to determine if the process was within safety and health boundaries for the workers carrying out these tasks. In addition, the graphical software was extremely helpful in the identification of material handling equipment and devices for the mandrel tooling assembly/disassembly process.

  9. Ergonomic approach for pillow concept design.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dengchuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is an essential factor to human beings for health. The current paper conducted four studies to provide a suitable pillow for promoting sleep quality. Study 1 investigated the natural positions of 40 subjects during sleep to derive key-points for a pillow design. The results suggested that the supine and lateral positions were alternatively 24 times a night, and the current pillows were too high for the supine position and too low for lateral positions. Study 2 measured body dimensions related to pillow design of 40 subjects to determine pillow sizes. The results suggested that the pillow height were quite different in supine position and lateral position and needed to take into consideration for a pillow design. Study 3 created a pillow design based on the results of above studies. The pillow was a U-form in the front of view in which the pillow height in the middle area was lower for the supine position, and both sides were higher for the lateral positions. Study 4 assessed sleep quality of 6 subjects by using the proposed pillows and the current pillows. The results showed that the newly designed pillow led to significantly higher sleep quality, and the new design received an innovation patent. PMID:26360205

  10. Ergonomic approach for pillow concept design.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dengchuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is an essential factor to human beings for health. The current paper conducted four studies to provide a suitable pillow for promoting sleep quality. Study 1 investigated the natural positions of 40 subjects during sleep to derive key-points for a pillow design. The results suggested that the supine and lateral positions were alternatively 24 times a night, and the current pillows were too high for the supine position and too low for lateral positions. Study 2 measured body dimensions related to pillow design of 40 subjects to determine pillow sizes. The results suggested that the pillow height were quite different in supine position and lateral position and needed to take into consideration for a pillow design. Study 3 created a pillow design based on the results of above studies. The pillow was a U-form in the front of view in which the pillow height in the middle area was lower for the supine position, and both sides were higher for the lateral positions. Study 4 assessed sleep quality of 6 subjects by using the proposed pillows and the current pillows. The results showed that the newly designed pillow led to significantly higher sleep quality, and the new design received an innovation patent.

  11. Marketing ergonomics. Industrial design and engineering. Comfort and appearance.

    PubMed

    Oldenkamp, I

    1990-04-01

    A project is being carried out with the aim to develop an individual, engine-driven, covered vehicle for handicapped people. The prime object is that this vehicle should meet the requirements of the handicapped. Nevertheless, choices had to be made by the parties concerned that could have violated this goal. In particular, this was experienced when designing the interior to accommodate large persons on the one hand and meeting the aesthetic requirements of the exterior, which called for a smaller height, on the other. Marketing ergonomics was used to deal with this problem.

  12. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company. PMID:22317394

  13. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.

  14. Developing human factors/ergonomics as a design discipline.

    PubMed

    Norros, Leena

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with internal challenges that the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) research faces when wishing to strengthen its contribution to development of work systems. Three established characteristics of high-quality HFE, i.e., HFE takes a systems approach, HFE is design-driven, and HFE focuses on two closely related outcomes, performance and well-being, are taken as a starting point of a methodological discussion, in which conceptual innovations, e.g. adopting the technology-in-use perspective, are proposed to support development of HFE towards the high-quality aims. The feasibility of the proposed conceptual choices is demonstrated by introducing a naturalistic HFE analysis approach including four HFE functions. The gained experience of the use of this approach in a number of complex work domains allows the conclusion that becoming design-driven appears as that most difficult quality target for HFE to reach. Creating an own design discipline identity in a multi-voiced collaboration is the key internal challenge for human factors/ergonomics.

  15. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  16. An ergonomic approach to design hand tool for agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Khidiya, Mahendra Singh; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh

    2012-01-01

    Hand tool mechanisms designed to reduce the risk factors have rarely been studied. In this paper it is analyze trowel firstly designing in CATIA and then its Finite Element Analysis has been carried out by ABAQUS. The main emphasis is on finding stresses by using this software, then removing them by suitable mechanical working on tool & ergonomic change in the design of handle to make it more comfortable. Body part discomfort score and overall discomfort rating experienced by the subjects had also been estimated. During the muscular activity workers physiological responses i.e. energy expenditure rate, oxygen consumption rate and heart rate increases. This increase in physiological responses is related to the type, intensity and duration of work and thus sets limits to the performance of heavy work. In this paper oxygen consumption rate and heart rate was used for physiological cost estimation. These parameters were measured by Computerized Ambulatory Metabolic Measurement System K4b2.

  17. Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment Method (NERPA) Using Product-Process Computer Aided Engineering for Ergonomic Workplace Design

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340

  18. Ergonomic Guidelines for Designing Effective and Healthy Learning Environments for Interactive Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Michael

    Many of the findings from ergonomics research on visual display workstations are relevant to the design of interactive learning stations. This 1993 paper briefly reviews ergonomics research on visual display workstations; specifically, (1) potential health hazards from electromagnetic radiation; (2) musculoskeletal disorders; (3)vision complaints;…

  19. QFD: a methodological tool for integration of ergonomics at the design stage.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Jacques

    2005-03-01

    As a marked increase in the number of musculoskeletal disorders was noted in many industrialized countries and more specifically in companies that require the use of hand tools, the French National Research and Safety Institute launched in 1999 a research program on the topic of integrating ergonomics into hand tool design. After a brief review of the problems of integrating ergonomics at the design stage, the paper shows how the "Quality Function Deployment" method has been applied to the design of a boning knife and it highlights the difficulties encountered. Then, it demonstrates how this method can be a methodological tool geared to greater ergonomics consideration in product design. PMID:15694072

  20. Analysis of the implementation of ergonomic design at the new units of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Ogasawara, Erika Lye; Baú, Lucy Mara Silva; Buso, Sandro Artur; Bianchi, Marcos Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomic design is the adaptation of working conditions to human limitations and skills in the physical design phase of a new installation, a new working system, or new products or tools. Based on this concept, the purpose of this work was to analyze the implementation of ergonomic design at the new industrial units of an oil refinery, using the method of Ergonomic Workplace Assessment. This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team composed of operation, maintenance and industrial safety technicians, ergonomists, designers and engineers. The analysis involved 6 production units, 1 industrial wastewater treatment unit, and 3 utilities units, all in the design detailing phase, for which 455 ergonomic requirements were identified. An analysis and characterization of the requirements identified for 5 of the production units, involving a total of 246 items, indicated that 62% were related to difficult access and blockage operations, while 15% were related to difficulties in the circulation of employees inside the units. Based on these data, it was found that the ergonomic requirements identified in the design detailing phase of an industrial unit involve physical ergonomics, and that it is very difficult to identify requirements related to organizational or cognitive ergonomics.

  1. Ergonomics technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  2. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao

    2005-08-05

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  3. From ergonomics to design specifications: contributions to the design of a processing machine in a tire company.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A S P; Arezes, P M; Vasconcelos, R

    2012-01-01

    The development of ergonomics' recommendations, guidelines and standards are attempts to promote the integration of ergonomics into industrial contexts. Such developments result from several sources and professionals and represent the effort that has been done to develop healthier and safer work environments. However, the availability of large amount of data and documents regarding ergonomics does not guarantee their applicability. The main goal of this paper is to use a specific case to demonstrate how ergonomics criteria were developed in order to contribute to the design of workplaces. Based on the obtained results from research undertaken in a tire company, it was observed that the ergonomics criteria should be presented as design specifications in order to be used by engineers and designers. In conclusion, it is observed that the multiple constraint environment impeded the appliance of the ergonomics criteria. It was also observed that the knowledge on technical design and the acquaintance with ergonomic standards, the level of integration in the design team, and the ability to communicate with workers and other technical staff have paramount importance in integrating ergonomics criteria into the design process.

  4. Emotion and interior space design: an ergonomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Swathi Matta; Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Karmakar, Sougata

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between the users and their environment is spontaneous and unavoidable. This interaction can be positive or negative. A good interior space is about considering all the physical, environmental and cognitive elements and harmonizing them to make it a space that feels right, functionally and emotionally. The important element that has to be considered the most in an interior space is the "user". Balancing all these elements is a challenging job and results in a perfect interior space design. This paper intends to bring to light the necessity of designing an optimum interior space, which is a balance of the user's choice and the mandatory standards that ought to be followed for user safety and convenience. There has to be an intervening domain of ergonomics which will guide to bring out a balance between the personal choice of the user and the usual standards followed. It should also provide a step-by-step information, guidance and direction to act to the specifications and standards systematically to adapt an integrated approach of handling all the elements holistically which will indeed result in a good interior space.

  5. Ergonomics: The Forgotten Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)

  6. Designing an ergonomics backpack for student aged 7-9 with user centred design approach.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mahdie; Dezfooli, Mohsen Safar; Mortezaei, Seyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    Researches explored that backpacks are the most common means of carrying school supplies for students. Carrying heavy backpacks causes a wide range of disorders such as musculoskeletal disorders and postural malfunction. User Centered Design has proven its suitability to produce high efficient products with the most adaptability to consumer demands. This approach combined with consideration of normal standards and ergonomics features, with the recognition of children's needs and requirements, has been used in this research to prepare an initial design of a backpack. After that, its prototype was manufactured. The backpack was tested by 120 elementary students in three steps of form, ergonomics and load sense. A redesign was performed that has applied the results of the test run. Results showed that this new backpack can considerably reduce the effective loads on the shoulders, back and neck. PMID:22316882

  7. Cognitive ergonomics and production information systems under the gaze of interdisciplinary design or industrial design.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Luciene Bulhões

    2012-01-01

    The core of this work involves the study of cognitive ergonomics and production of Information Systems under the interdisciplinary of the Design or Industrial Design. It is assumed that in the dynamics of human and the systems, mediated by systematic technology, there are constant changes in social perceptions, that alter the shape of the subject dealing with the real world, concrete, adopting a pseudo-idea of the evolutionary process. Attentive to the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary groups as agents of this process, points to the danger of the emergence of the myth of innovation as a solver of social problems and suggests new ergonomics as a contributor in a different way of thinking the humanization beyond of the XXI century. PMID:22317625

  8. Informational ergonomics and design: signage design for Monte Sião Camp.

    PubMed

    Marques, Luiz Guilherme Oliveira; Cardoso, Vânia Maria Batalha

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to the development of a signage system, driven by the vector of Signage Design and Informational Ergonomics associated with Regulatory Standards. The methodology of the Ergonomic Intervention of Moraes and Mont'Alvão (2003), in its early stages, and the Method of the Signage Pyramid of Calori (2007) were used to develop the research, data collection and analysis and to guide the design by a signaling system. The system contemplated by this job is called Mount Zion, a site of 19 hectares, which has signs of disturbance. As a result, we obtained a signaling system, with graphic features that refer to formal-site, capable of meeting the needs of orientation and displacement inherent to the site.

  9. Cognitive ergonomics and production information systems under the gaze of interdisciplinary design or industrial design.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Luciene Bulhões

    2012-01-01

    The core of this work involves the study of cognitive ergonomics and production of Information Systems under the interdisciplinary of the Design or Industrial Design. It is assumed that in the dynamics of human and the systems, mediated by systematic technology, there are constant changes in social perceptions, that alter the shape of the subject dealing with the real world, concrete, adopting a pseudo-idea of the evolutionary process. Attentive to the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary groups as agents of this process, points to the danger of the emergence of the myth of innovation as a solver of social problems and suggests new ergonomics as a contributor in a different way of thinking the humanization beyond of the XXI century.

  10. Integrating ergonomics in design processes: a case study within an engineering consultancy firm.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study within an engineering consultancy firm, where engineering designers and ergonomists were working together on the design of a new hospital sterile processing plant. The objective of the paper is to gain a better understanding of the premises for integrating ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics into design processes is presented along with the model.

  11. Design and implementation of ergonomic performance measurement system at a steel plant in India.

    PubMed

    Ray, Pradip Kumar; Tewari, V K

    2012-01-01

    Management of Tata Steel, the largest steel making company of India in the private sector, felt the need to develop a framework to determine the levels of ergonomic performance at its different workplaces. The objectives of the study are manifold: to identify and characterize the ergonomic variables for a given worksystem with regard to work efficiency, operator safety, and working conditions, to design a comprehensive Ergonomic Performance Indicator (EPI) for quantitative determination of the ergonomic status and maturity of a given worksystem. The study team of IIT Kharagpur consists of three faculty members and the management of Tata Steel formed a team of eleven members for implementation of EPI model. In order to design and develop the EPI model with total participation and understanding of the concerned personnel of Tata Steel, a three-phase action plan for the project was prepared. The project consists of three phases: preparation and data collection, detailed structuring and validation of EPI model. Identification of ergonomic performance factors, development of interaction matrix, design of assessment tool, and testing and validation of assessment tool (EPI) in varied situations are the major steps in these phases. The case study discusses in detail the EPI model and its applications.

  12. Cultural ergonomics in interactional and experiential design: conceptual framework and case study of the Taiwanese twin cup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Long; Chen, Si-Jing; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Rungtai

    2016-01-01

    Cultural ergonomics is an approach that considers interaction- and experience-based variations among cultures. Designers need to develop a better understanding of cultural ergonomics not just to participate in cultural contexts but also to develop interactive experiences for users. Cultural ergonomics extends our understanding of cultural meaning and our ability to utilize such understanding for design and evaluate everyday products. This study aims to combine cultural ergonomics and interactive design to explore human-culture interaction in user experiences. The linnak is a typical Taiwanese aboriginal cultural object. This study examined the cultural meaning and operational interface of the linnak, as well as the scenarios in which it is used in interaction and user experiences. The results produced a cultural ergonomics interface for examining the manner in which designers communicate across cultures as well as the interweaving of design and culture in the design process.

  13. Cultural ergonomics in interactional and experiential design: conceptual framework and case study of the Taiwanese twin cup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Long; Chen, Si-Jing; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Rungtai

    2016-01-01

    Cultural ergonomics is an approach that considers interaction- and experience-based variations among cultures. Designers need to develop a better understanding of cultural ergonomics not just to participate in cultural contexts but also to develop interactive experiences for users. Cultural ergonomics extends our understanding of cultural meaning and our ability to utilize such understanding for design and evaluate everyday products. This study aims to combine cultural ergonomics and interactive design to explore human-culture interaction in user experiences. The linnak is a typical Taiwanese aboriginal cultural object. This study examined the cultural meaning and operational interface of the linnak, as well as the scenarios in which it is used in interaction and user experiences. The results produced a cultural ergonomics interface for examining the manner in which designers communicate across cultures as well as the interweaving of design and culture in the design process. PMID:26360216

  14. [Geometrical dummy used for ergonomic evaluation on early stage cockpit conceptual design].

    PubMed

    Wang, L J; Yuan, X G

    2001-12-01

    Objective. Basing on the need of cockpit ergonomic design, to set up a geometrical dummy. Method. Surface partition of the dummy, source of the curved face data, express of the curved face, degree of freedom of the human joint, coordinate system of the parts, position of the human segment centroid and weight of the human segment were cleared up first, then geometrical dummy was displayed with three-dimensional software. Result. The geometrical dummy could simulate some basic body movements and postures for ergonomic analysis. Conclusion. The geometrical dummy was suitable for present study and engineering design.

  15. Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.

    PubMed

    Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

    2012-01-01

    This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics.

  16. Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.

    PubMed

    Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

    2012-01-01

    This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics. PMID:22316864

  17. Conceptual design of semi-automatic wheelbarrow to overcome ergonomics problems among palm oil plantation workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawik, N. S. M.; Deros, B. M.; Rahman, M. N. A.; Sukadarin, E. H.; Nordin, N.; Tamrin, S. B. M.; Bakar, S. A.; Norzan, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    An ergonomics problem is one of the main issues faced by palm oil plantation workers especially during harvesting and collecting of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). Intensive manual handling and labor activities involved have been associated with high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among palm oil plantation workers. New and safe technology on machines and equipment in palm oil plantation are very important in order to help workers reduce risks and injuries while working. The aim of this research is to improve the design of a wheelbarrow, which is suitable for workers and a small size oil palm plantation. The wheelbarrow design was drawn using CATIA ergonomic features. The characteristic of ergonomics assessment is performed by comparing the existing design of wheelbarrow. Conceptual design was developed based on the problems that have been reported by workers. From the analysis of the problem, finally have resulting concept design the ergonomic quality of semi-automatic wheelbarrow with safe and suitable used for palm oil plantation workers.

  18. Ergonomics and workplace design: application of Ergo-UAS System in Fiat Group Automobiles.

    PubMed

    Vitello, M; Galante, L G; Capoccia, M; Caragnano, G

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 Fiat Group Automobiles has introduced Ergo-UAS system for the balancing of production lines and to detect ergonomic issues. Ergo-UAS system integrates 2 specific methods: MTM-UAS for time measurement and EAWS as ergonomic method to evaluate biomechanical effort for each workstation. Fiat is using a software system to manage time evaluation and ergo characterization of production cycle (UAS) to perform line balancing and obtain allowance factor in all Italian car manufacturing plant. For new car models, starting from New Panda, FGA is applying Ergo-UAS for workplace design since the earliest phase of product development. This means that workplace design is based on information about new product, new layout, new work organization and is performed by a multidisciplinary team (Work Place Integration Team), focusing on several aspects of product and process: safety, quality and productivity. This allows to find and solve ergonomic threats before the start of production, by means of a strict cooperation between product development, engineering and design, manufacturing. Three examples of workstation design are presented in which application of Ergo-UAS was determinant to find out initial excessive levels of biomechanical load and helped the process designer to improve the workstations and define limits of acceptability. Technical activities (on product or on process), or organizational changes, that have been implemented in order to solve the problems are presented. A comparison between "before" and "new" ergonomic scores necessary to bring workstations in acceptable conditions were made.

  19. Ergonomics and workplace design: application of Ergo-UAS System in Fiat Group Automobiles.

    PubMed

    Vitello, M; Galante, L G; Capoccia, M; Caragnano, G

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 Fiat Group Automobiles has introduced Ergo-UAS system for the balancing of production lines and to detect ergonomic issues. Ergo-UAS system integrates 2 specific methods: MTM-UAS for time measurement and EAWS as ergonomic method to evaluate biomechanical effort for each workstation. Fiat is using a software system to manage time evaluation and ergo characterization of production cycle (UAS) to perform line balancing and obtain allowance factor in all Italian car manufacturing plant. For new car models, starting from New Panda, FGA is applying Ergo-UAS for workplace design since the earliest phase of product development. This means that workplace design is based on information about new product, new layout, new work organization and is performed by a multidisciplinary team (Work Place Integration Team), focusing on several aspects of product and process: safety, quality and productivity. This allows to find and solve ergonomic threats before the start of production, by means of a strict cooperation between product development, engineering and design, manufacturing. Three examples of workstation design are presented in which application of Ergo-UAS was determinant to find out initial excessive levels of biomechanical load and helped the process designer to improve the workstations and define limits of acceptability. Technical activities (on product or on process), or organizational changes, that have been implemented in order to solve the problems are presented. A comparison between "before" and "new" ergonomic scores necessary to bring workstations in acceptable conditions were made. PMID:22317404

  20. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  1. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential. PMID:24405167

  2. Ergonomics and design in the Brazilian agricultural sector: a proposal to build matrix of contradictions.

    PubMed

    Tosetto, Thaís; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a correlation between the parameters of classical TRIZ and variables of analysis of the EWA to construct a matrix of contradictions in ergonomics, with the objective of assisting the designing processes in the Brazilian agricultural sector. Given the representativeness of the sector in the economy, the boundary conditions in which the activities are developed and their impact on the health of workers, this proposal should contribute to the development of adaptable solutions and the promotion of Decent Work. PMID:22317547

  3. New ergonomic and functional design of digital conferencing rooms in a clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Amato, Carlos L.; McGill, D. Ric; Liu, Brent J.; Balbona, Joseph A.; McCoy, J. Michael

    2003-05-01

    Clinical conferences and multidisciplinary medical rounds play a major role in patient management and decision-making relying on presentation of variety of documents: films, charts, videotapes, graphs etc. These conferences and clinical rounds are often carried out in conferencing rooms or department libraries that are usually not suitable for presentation of the data in electronic format. In most instances digital projection equipment is added to existing rooms without proper consideration to functional, ergonomic, acoustical, spatial and environmental requirements. Also, in large academic institutions, the conference rooms serve multiple purposes including as classrooms for teaching and education of students and for administrative meetings among managers and staff. In the migration toward a fully digital hospital we elected to analyze the functional requirements and optimize the ergonomic design of conferencing rooms that can accommodate clinical rounds, multidisciplinary reviews, seminars, formal lectures and department meetings. 3D computer simulation was used for better evaluation and analysis of spatial and ergonomic parameters and for gathering opinions and input from users on different design options. A critical component of the design is the understanding of the different workflow and requirements of different types of conferences and presentations that can be carried out in these conference rooms.

  4. The Impact of Ergonomically Designed Workstations on Shoulder EMG Activity during Carpet Weaving

    PubMed Central

    Motamedzade, Majid; Afshari, Davood; Soltanian, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical exposure to the trapezius muscle activity in female weavers for a prolonged period in the workstation A (suggested by previous studies) and workstation B (proposed by the present study). Methods: Electromyography data were collected from nine females during four hours for each ergonomically designed workstation at the Ergonomics Laboratory, Hamadan, Iran. The design criteria for ergonomically designed workstations were: 1) weaving height (20 and 3 cm above elbow height for workstations A and B, respectively), and 2) seat type (10° and 0° forwardsloping seat for workstations A and B, respectively). Results: The amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) analysis showed that the left and right upper trapezius muscle activity was almost similar at each workstation. Trapezius muscle activity in the workstation A was signifi­cantly greater than workstations B (P<0.001). Conclusion: In general, use of workstation B leads to significantly reduced muscle activity levels in the upper trapezius as compared to workstation A in weavers. Despite the positive impact of workstation B in reducing trapezius muscle activity, it seems that constrained postures of the upper arm during weaving may be associated with musculoskeletal symptoms. PMID:25650180

  5. Action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints for healthy work design in different settings.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2007-12-01

    Recent experiences in the action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints in different work settings are reviewed. The purpose is to know what features are useful for healthy work design adjusted to each local situation. Based on the review results, common features of ergonomic checkpoints used in participatory training programs for improving workplace conditions in small enterprises, construction sites, home work and agriculture in industrially developing countries in Asia are discussed. These checkpoints generally compile practical improvement options in a broad range of technical areas, such as materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Usually, "action checklists" comprising the tiles of the checkpoints are used together. A clear focus is placed on readily applicable low-cost options. Three common features of these various checkpoints appear to be important. First, the checkpoints represent typical good practices in multiple areas. Second, each how-to section of these checkpoints presents simple improvements reflecting basic ergonomic principles. Examples of these principles include easy reach, fewer and faster transport, elbow-level work, coded displays, isolated or screened hazards and shared teamwork. Third, the illustrated checkpoints accompanied by corresponding checklists are used as group work tools in short-term training courses. Many practical improvements achieved are displayed in websites for inter-country work improvement networks. It is suggested to promote the use of locally adjusted checkpoints in various forms of participatory action-oriented training in small-scale workplaces and in agriculture particularly in industrially developing countries.

  6. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. Methods/Design The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance

  7. Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation of Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Scott; Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the latest human spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype architectures for a new launch and reentry spacesuit that would be suited to the new mission goals. Four prototype suits were evaluated to compare their performance and enable the selection of the preferred suit components and designs. A consolidated approach to testing was taken: concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances, and qualitative assessments of suit performance within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. It was necessary to maintain high fidelity in a mockup and use advanced motion-capture technologies in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The construction of the mockup was such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motioncapture system. This paper describes the method used to create a space vehicle mockup compatible with use of an optical motion-capture system, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, and a way to use the complex data set resulting from a limited number of test subjects to generate hardware requirements for an entire population. Kinematics, hardware clearance, anthropometry (suited and unsuited), and subjective feedback data were recorded on 15 unsuited and 5 suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly based on their anthropometry in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male, and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited medium male subjects and were tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. The prototype spacesuits were each fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average-sized male, so select findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes

  8. Scenario building as an ergonomics method in consumer product design.

    PubMed

    Suri, J F; Marsh, M

    2000-04-01

    The role of human factors in design appears to have broadened from data analysis and interpretation into application of discovery and "user experience" design. The human factors practitioner is continually in search of ways to enhance and to better communicate their contributions, as well as to raise the prominence of the user at all stages of the design process. In work with design teams on the development of many consumer products, scenario building has proved to be a valuable addition to the repertoire of more traditional human factors methods. It is a powerful exploration, prototyping and communication tool, and is particularly useful early on in the product design process. This paper describes some advantages and potential pitfalls in using scenarios, and provides examples of how and where they can be usefully applied.

  9. Ergonomic design of an EEG headset using 3D anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Lacko, Daniël; Vleugels, Jochen; Fransen, Erik; Huysmans, Toon; De Bruyne, Guido; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan; Verwulgen, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Although EEG experiments over the past decades have shown numerous applications for brain-computer interfacing (BCI), there is a need for user-friendly BCI devices that can be used in real-world situations. 3D anthropometry and statistical shape modeling have been shown to improve the fit of devices such as helmets and respirators, and thus they might also be suitable to design BCI headgear that better fits the size and shape variation of the human head. In this paper, a new design method for BCI devices is proposed and evaluated. A one-size-fits-all BCI headset frame is designed on the basis of three digital mannequins derived from a shape model of the human head. To verify the design, the geometric fit, stability and repeatability of the prototype were compared to an EEG cap and a commercial BCI headset in a preliminary experiment. Most design specifications were met, and all the results were found to be similar to those of the commercial headset. Therefore, the suggested design method is a feasible alternative to traditional anthropometric design for BCI headsets and similar headgear.

  10. Ergonomic design of an EEG headset using 3D anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Lacko, Daniël; Vleugels, Jochen; Fransen, Erik; Huysmans, Toon; De Bruyne, Guido; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan; Verwulgen, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Although EEG experiments over the past decades have shown numerous applications for brain-computer interfacing (BCI), there is a need for user-friendly BCI devices that can be used in real-world situations. 3D anthropometry and statistical shape modeling have been shown to improve the fit of devices such as helmets and respirators, and thus they might also be suitable to design BCI headgear that better fits the size and shape variation of the human head. In this paper, a new design method for BCI devices is proposed and evaluated. A one-size-fits-all BCI headset frame is designed on the basis of three digital mannequins derived from a shape model of the human head. To verify the design, the geometric fit, stability and repeatability of the prototype were compared to an EEG cap and a commercial BCI headset in a preliminary experiment. Most design specifications were met, and all the results were found to be similar to those of the commercial headset. Therefore, the suggested design method is a feasible alternative to traditional anthropometric design for BCI headsets and similar headgear. PMID:27633205

  11. Ergonomic basket design to reduce cumulative trauma disorders in tea leaf plucking operation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, N; Chakrabarti, D

    2012-01-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders are seen as an indicating parameter of occupational stress among the women workers engaged in tea leaf plucking operation. The hand plucking (no mechanized plucking is practiced in Assam) being a highly repetitive task requires forceful exertions to reach to the distant periphery of the tea bushes and mechanical compression (pressing against hard surfaces). Specifically it aggravates with awkward positions adopted. The current research addresses to minimize the risk factors associated with CTDs and to ascertain the role of ergonomic design development in improving the situation. Women workforce engaged in tea industry in Assam suffer from back, shoulder, arm and finger pains. Workers perform the activity for 440 minutes in the entire shift with one hour lunch break in between in the garden itself. An ergonomic investigation aiming at studying the strain index of plucking operation in tea industry was conducted. While performing the operation workers were found to assume unnatural posture which is static as well as highly dynamic with a load (tea leaf collecting basket up to weight of 30 kg when filled with plucked leaves) at back. With gradual increment of load and pain though the load is released intermittently the strain level found to remain at a high level. The total QEC scores found for plucking activity was 110 out of 138. To improve the situation and to reduce the work related upper limb disorder (WRULD) an ergonomically designed basket was conceived and trial results showed improvements. The newly designed plucking basket fits the back curvature of the workers well, which keeps the basket in place unlike the existing round basket. The new basket is light in weight having more leaf capacity. Significant reduction in energy expenditure and MSDs suffered was observed while using improved basket over existing basket. PMID:22316888

  12. End users "Feedback" to improve ergonomic design of machinery.

    PubMed

    Strambi, F; Bartalini, M; Boy, S; Gauthy, R; Landozzi, R; Novelli, D; Stanzani, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the Feedback method designed to collect the contribution of users for the reconstruction and comprehension of the actual work and real activity for the improvement of the technical standards, design, manufacturing and use of machinery. The Feedback method has since now been applied successfully - in collaboration with public authorities, market surveillance bodies, social partners organization and technical institutes - to five different types of machines: woodworking machinery, forklift trucks, angle grinder and combine harvester. After ten years of experimentation in seven European countries Feedback has proved to be trans-nationally comparable and has attracted the interest of as much as 250 expert users - mostly workers, but also employers and technicians - who have shared their knowledge and experience by taking part in almost 30 working groups. The information collected with the Feedback method can be used by: -CEN and ISO standardization committees and working groups to become aware of the problems relating to the real use of specific machines in different work contexts, and thus to be able to draw up new or to revise existing standards accordingly; - Designers and manufacturers to produce better, more comfortable and safer machines and to provide precise instructions for use; - Employers, users and workers for training purposes and for defining appropriate work procedures; - Inspection bodies to enhance their knowledge and improve the efficiency of their interventions and advice. PMID:22316885

  13. Ergonomic evaluation of interior design of Shoka vehicle and proposing recommendations for improvement.

    PubMed

    Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammadreze, Fallah

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications of ergonomics disciplinary is designing driver workstation compatible to users' characteristics. The aim of this study was evaluation of interior design of Shoka vehicle with respect to the accommodation for Iranian population and proposing suggestions for customizing design of this vehicle. This study was a descriptive-analytical study conducted among thirty men from Iranian drivers population in 5, 50, 95 percentiles of the stature variable. Objective variables related to the occupant packaging and vehicle visual aspects including anthropometric variables, frontal, lateral, and side view and so on were investigated first. Then, subjective variables related to the driver mental workload and body comfort discomfort were studied using BMDMW and comfort questionnaires during 2-hour driving trial sessions. Occupant packaging variables and hand-arm angle showed the least accommodation percent (%53). Seating angles showed low accommodation as well (%73). Among three percentile groups there were no significant differences between the mean values of mental workload during two hours driving task. And, the mean value related to the comfort discomfort was 3.9 during driving sessions. Considering the findings in this study, it can be conclude that seating angles need correction and optimization. Taking mental workload results into account, it can be concluded that the interior design of the studied car had no influence on drivers' mental workload. From the aspect of comfort discomfort, Shoka vehicle showed neutral state among drivers. Optimizing seating angles, decreasing vibration, correcting stiffness of seating pan are suggested for customization of the ergonomics aspect of this vehicle.

  14. Design considerations to improve cognitive ergonomic issues of unmanned vehicle interfaces utilizing video game controllers.

    PubMed

    Oppold, P; Rupp, M; Mouloua, M; Hancock, P A; Martin, J

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned (UAVs, UCAVs, and UGVs) systems still have major human factors and ergonomic challenges related to the effective design of their control interface systems, crucial to their efficient operation, maintenance, and safety. Unmanned system interfaces with a human centered approach promote intuitive interfaces that are easier to learn, and reduce human errors and other cognitive ergonomic issues with interface design. Automation has shifted workload from physical to cognitive, thus control interfaces for unmanned systems need to reduce mental workload on the operators and facilitate the interaction between vehicle and operator. Two-handed video game controllers provide wide usability within the overall population, prior exposure for new operators, and a variety of interface complexity levels to match the complexity level of the task and reduce cognitive load. This paper categorizes and provides taxonomy for 121 haptic interfaces from the entertainment industry that can be utilized as control interfaces for unmanned systems. Five categories of controllers were based on the complexity of the buttons, control pads, joysticks, and switches on the controller. This allows the selection of the level of complexity needed for a specific task without creating an entirely new design or utilizing an overly complex design. PMID:22317628

  15. Design considerations to improve cognitive ergonomic issues of unmanned vehicle interfaces utilizing video game controllers.

    PubMed

    Oppold, P; Rupp, M; Mouloua, M; Hancock, P A; Martin, J

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned (UAVs, UCAVs, and UGVs) systems still have major human factors and ergonomic challenges related to the effective design of their control interface systems, crucial to their efficient operation, maintenance, and safety. Unmanned system interfaces with a human centered approach promote intuitive interfaces that are easier to learn, and reduce human errors and other cognitive ergonomic issues with interface design. Automation has shifted workload from physical to cognitive, thus control interfaces for unmanned systems need to reduce mental workload on the operators and facilitate the interaction between vehicle and operator. Two-handed video game controllers provide wide usability within the overall population, prior exposure for new operators, and a variety of interface complexity levels to match the complexity level of the task and reduce cognitive load. This paper categorizes and provides taxonomy for 121 haptic interfaces from the entertainment industry that can be utilized as control interfaces for unmanned systems. Five categories of controllers were based on the complexity of the buttons, control pads, joysticks, and switches on the controller. This allows the selection of the level of complexity needed for a specific task without creating an entirely new design or utilizing an overly complex design.

  16. Ergonomics and human factors: the paradigms for science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems.

    PubMed

    Karwowski, W

    2005-04-15

    This paper provides a theoretical perspective on human factors and ergonomics (HFE), defined as a unique and independent discipline that focuses on the nature of human-artefact interactions, viewed from the unified perspective of the science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems. Such systems include a variety of natural and artificial products, processes and living environments. The distinguishing features of the contemporary HFE discipline and profession are discussed and a concept of ergonomics literacy is proposed. An axiomatic approach to ergonomics design and a universal measure of system-human incompatibility are also introduced. It is concluded that the main focus of the HFE discipline in the 21st century will be the design and management of systems that satisfy human compatibility requirements.

  17. Ergonomic design of crane cabins: a case study from a steel plant in India.

    PubMed

    Ray, Pradip Kumar; Tewari, V K

    2012-01-01

    The study, carried out at the Batch Annealing Furnace (BAF) shop of Cold Rolling Mill (CRM) at an integrated steel plant of India, concerns ergonomic evaluation and redesign of a manually-operated Electrical Overhead Travelling (EOT) crane cabin. The crane cabin is a complex worksystem consisting of the crane operator and twelve specific machine components embedded in a closed workspace. A crane operator has to perform various activities, such as loading and unloading of coils, setting and removal of convector plates, and routine maintenance work. Initially, an operator had to work in standing posture with bent back most of the time. Ergonomically poor design of the chair and the controls, awkward work postures, and insufficient vision angle resulting in musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are some of the critical problems observed.. The study, conceived as an industry-academia joint initiative, was undertaken by a design team, the members of which were drawn from both the company concerned and the institute. With the project executed successfully, a number of lessons, such as how to minimize the anthropometric mismatch, how to improve the layout of the components and controls within enclosed workspace, and how to improve work posture minimizing risk of MSDs have been learned.

  18. Indonesia ergonomics roadmap: where we are going?

    PubMed

    Wignjosoebroto, Sritomo

    2007-12-01

    There are so many definitions for ergonomics terms such as human factors, human factors engineering, human engineering, human factors psychology, engineering psychology, applied ergonomics, occupational ergonomics, industrial ergonomics and industrial engineering. The most inclusive terms are ergonomics and human factors. Both represent the study of work and the interaction between people and their work environmental systems. The main objective is especially fitting with the need to design, develop, implement and evaluate human-machine and environment systems that are productive, comfortable, safe and satisfying to use. The work of the ergonomists in Indonesia--most of them are academicians--have one thing in common, i.e. with the appropriate type of ergonomic approaches to interventions; there would be improvements in productivity, quality of working conditions, occupational safety and health (OSH), costs reduction, better environment, and increase in profits. So many researches, training, seminars and socialization about ergonomics and OSH have been done concerning micro-to-macro themes; but it seems that we are practically still running at the same place up to now. In facts, workers are still working using their traditional or obsolete methods in poor working conditions. Accidents are still happening inside and outside industry with the main root-cause being human "unsafe behavior" and errors. Industrial products cannot compete in the global market, and so many manufacturing industries collapsed or relocated to foreign countries. This paper discusses such a roadmap and review what we ergonomists in Indonesia have done and where we are going to? This review will be treated in the field of ergonomics and OSH to take care the future Indonesia challenges. Some of the challenges faced are care for the workers, care for the people, care for the quality and productivity of work, care for the new advanced technologies, care for the environment, and last but not least

  19. Realization of the ergonomics design and automatic control of the fundus cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chi-liang; Xiao, Ze-xin; Deng, Shi-chao; Yu, Xin-ye

    2012-12-01

    The principles of ergonomics design in fundus cameras should be extending the agreeableness by automatic control. Firstly, a 3D positional numerical control system is designed for positioning the eye pupils of the patients who are doing fundus examinations. This system consists of a electronically controlled chin bracket for moving up and down, a lateral movement of binocular with the detector and the automatic refocusing of the edges of the eye pupils. Secondly, an auto-focusing device for the object plane of patient's fundus is designed, which collects the patient's fundus images automatically whether their eyes is ametropic or not. Finally, a moving visual target is developed for expanding the fields of the fundus images.

  20. Ergonomics principles to design clothing work for electrical workers in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan; Cubillos, A

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of the Colombian legislation, have been identified the need to develop protective clothing to work according to specifications from the work done and in compliance with international standards. These involve the development and design of new strategies and measures for work clothing design. In this study we analyzes the activities of the workers in the electrical sector, the method analyzes the risks activity data in various activities, that activities include power generation plants, local facilities, industrial facilities and maintenance of urban and rural networks. The analyses method is focused on ergonomic approach, risk analysis is done, we evaluate the role of security expert and we use a design algorithm developed for this purpose. The result of this study is the identification of constraints and variables that contribute to the development of a model of analysis that leads to the development the work protective clothes.

  1. Adding a strategic edge to human factors/ergonomics: principles for the management of uncertainty as cornerstones for system design.

    PubMed

    Grote, Gudela

    2014-01-01

    It is frequently lamented that human factors and ergonomics knowledge does not receive the attention and consideration that it deserves. In this paper I argue that in order to change this situation human factors/ergonomics based system design needs to be positioned as a strategic task within a conceptual framework that incorporates both business and design concerns. The management of uncertainty is presented as a viable candidate for such a framework. A case is described where human factors/ergonomics experts in a railway company have used the management of uncertainty perspective to address strategic concerns at firm level. Furthermore, system design is discussed in view of the relationship between organization and technology more broadly. System designers need to be supported in better understanding this relationship in order to cope with the uncertainties this relationship brings to the design process itself. Finally, the emphasis on uncertainty embedded in the recent surge of introducing risk management across all business sectors is suggested as another opportunity for bringing human factors and ergonomics expertise to the fore.

  2. Forget about ergonomics in chair design? Focus on aesthetics and comfort!

    PubMed

    Helander, Martin

    Chair users have difficulties distinguishing between chairs of different ergonomics quality. Many ergonomics features that are supposed to relieve discomfort in sitting are indistinguishable because they cannot be perceived. This is due to poor proprioceptive feedback from ligaments, joints and the spine. The joints are relatively insensitive to small changes in angle, and the spine cannot sense differences in pressure due to different body postures. Aesthetics features on the other hand, and features related to comfort and relaxation, are easier to perceive and differentiate. A study of ergonomics chairs verified that users could distinguish between parameters that relate to aesthetics and comfort, but had difficulty in distinguishing between ergonomics features. In the end aesthetics may be more important than ergonomics--at least to the customer who will be guided more by aesthetics than longer-term ergonomic factors.

  3. Suitability of virtual prototypes to support human factors/ergonomics evaluation during the design.

    PubMed

    Aromaa, Susanna; Väänänen, Kaisa

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the use of virtual prototyping has increased in product development processes, especially in the assessment of complex systems targeted at end-users. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of virtual prototyping to support human factors/ergonomics evaluation (HFE) during the design phase. Two different virtual prototypes were used: augmented reality (AR) and virtual environment (VE) prototypes of a maintenance platform of a rock crushing machine. Nineteen designers and other stakeholders were asked to assess the suitability of the prototype for HFE evaluation. Results indicate that the system model characteristics and user interface affect the experienced suitability. The VE system was valued as being more suitable to support the assessment of visibility, reach, and the use of tools than the AR system. The findings of this study can be used as a guidance for the implementing virtual prototypes in the product development process. PMID:27184306

  4. Ergonomics and VDT Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Provides recommendations prepared by the Library of Congress for prevention of repetitive strain injuries in VDT (video display terminal) operators. Chair design, keyboard height and distance, screen placement and viewing specifications, and ergonomic pauses are discussed. (five references) (EA)

  5. Ergonomics in designing process: dialogue between designers, executors and users in the maintenance activity of radars in an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Menegon, Fabrício Augusto; Rodrigues, Daniela da Silva; Fontes, Andréa Regina Martins; Menegon, Nilton Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the role of ergonomics in design process using the dialogue developed by designers, implementers and users in an oil refinery. It was possible to identify the need of minimizing the postural constraints, risk of accidents, mechanical shocks and to enlarge safety perception in the access and permanency of the users at the workspace. It has been determined and validated by workers and managers to implement different deadlines depending on programming, viability and execution time for the improvements proposed. In a long-term: it was proposed the substitution of the ladders with time planning according to the maintenance program of the tanks; in a short-time: it was suggested the expansion of the existing platforms, implementation of a walkway connection provided with guardrails between the upper access of the side ladder and the repositioning of radar set and aerial aiming at the usage by workers at the workstation of the new platform. It was also elaborated eight typologies of intervention, according to the request, type of tank, material stored, and its setting place. The design process arises from ergonomics workplace analysis that presents concepts for solutions which was a mediator tool to be settled between users and implementers.

  6. Ergonomics, education and children: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, A

    2007-10-01

    Educational ergonomics - the teaching of ergonomics and the design of environments where ergonomics teaching and learning might occur - has received little attention from ergonomists. This paper first describes the roots of the author's interest and research in educational ergonomics; second it provides a personal view of the opportunities and challenges posed by the two streams of educational ergonomics; and lastly it considers the implications of teaching ergonomics to children in terms of their personal development, the design of schools and the impact such initiatives might have on wider societal problems.

  7. Advancing Ergonomic Expertise in Occupational Therapists: Using an Online Course to Facilitate Knowledge Acquisition and Application of Ergonomics in Daily Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion, prevention of disease and disability, and enhancing participation in meaningful life activities are areas that occupational therapists (OT) can contribute to at the individual, organizational and population levels (AOTA, 2008; Scaffa, Van Slyke & Brownson, 2008). OTs that are skilled in ergonomic assessment and evidence-based…

  8. Ergonomics and design for sustainability in healthcare: ambient assisted living and the social-environmental impact of patients lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Arslan, Pelin; Costa, Fiammetta; Muschiato, Sabrina; Romero, Maximiliano

    2012-01-01

    This work presents considerations on Ergonomics and Design for Sustainability in the healthcare field based on research experiences of the Technology and Design for Healthcare (TeDH) research group of INDACO (Industrial design, communication, arts and fashion) department of Politecnico di Milano. In order to develop a multidisciplinary approach to design able to answer to specific user needs such as elderly in an environmental sustainable way (1) this paper shows the results we achieved concerning ergonomics and environmental impact in product development (2), the extension of this approach to interior and home design and the advantage of the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT can help people with special needs to make their everyday life easier and more safe, at the same time, ICT can make social-environmental impact of everyday behavior evident and can be applied to manage sustainability. The specific theme is thus to integrate ergonomics and sustainability competences in the development of Ambient Assisted Living through a Product- Service System approach. The concept of product service system has the potential to improve product performances and services, establish new relations and networks with different actors in order to satisfy user needs and apply a systems approach considering environmental, social and economic factors in the users' environment.

  9. The deaf and the classroom design: a contribution of the built environmental ergonomics for the accessibility.

    PubMed

    Martins, Laura Bezerra; Gaudiot, Denise Mariasimões Freire

    2012-01-01

    In any concept of school design, classroom occupies the central place. Dimensions, lighting, the equipment needed, ventilation are old questions already answered, even in form of laws and standards adopted. However, the best use of available materials and physical conditions of comfort is not sufficient for a classroom design guaranteed success. The classroom should provide deaf students elements to facilitate the learning process, eliminating as much as possible the obstacles created by lack of hearing and allowing them to have the same access to learning as a listener student. As users of a school building, teachers, students, parents and staff are the best evaluators of the physical environment of schools. The environmental comfort is a largest ally of pedagogy. The learning comes from the perception and the concentration of students in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to detect the role of direct perception (physical) and indirect (intangible) elements that informs and have symbolic value, and propose layouts for accessible classrooms to deaf students. The ergonomics of the built environment evaluation methods could use the participatory design method tools as basis to assessing how users perceive and use the school environment.

  10. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    PubMed

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers.

  11. Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

    2012-01-01

    Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect. PMID:22316902

  12. Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

    2012-01-01

    Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect.

  13. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    PubMed

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. PMID:26154208

  14. Design and ergonomics of package inserts of drugs in Brazil: a reality in construction.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Charles Ricardo Leite; Soares, Marcelo Marcio

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the design of leaflets of medicines, evidencing the problems resulting from the lack of Brazilian normalization to promote the use of the graphical representation of instructional texts warnings. It approaches studies related to the effectiveness and efficiency of information systems, highlighting the semiotics and the cultural and informational ergonomics. The analysis of the context uses as method, an analytical study on selected warnings of thirty leaflets of medicines, followed by interviews lead with the public managers involved with the regulation of the pharmaceutical companies, and two experiments with users performed in city of Recife, in State of Pernambuco: one aiming at to identify how they interact with the leaflets of medicines, and the second one testing their understanding concerning standardized illustrations in the United States and the South Africa. The results show the need for improvements in presentation and graphic representation of leaflets of medicines, powering them to the role of communication, to ensure the consumption of medicine safely by its users. The conclusion congregates parameters and recommendations for the graphic representation of warnings in leaflets of medicines in Brazil.

  15. Ergonomics: The Forgotten Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper describes ergonomics and the need to adapt worksites and technologies for individuals with physical or sensory disabilities. It provides suggestions for how to design an appropriate setup, design considerations, environmental considerations, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise, light, and electricity. Recommendations include: (1)…

  16. [Ergonomics and occupational therapy].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M

    2010-01-01

    Occupational ergonomics mostly deals with risk assessment and design/redesign of the work layout, oriented to enhance the worker's safety and wellbeing and the system's efficiency. Risk assessment is the fundamental phase, conducted through international standards and guidelines, according to the different areas. Then the risk level is connected with preventive or corrective measures. This second phase is direct to organizational, ergonomic, engeneering interventions but it behaves in essential way the employer participation. At this scope, educational, training and technological tools are available. Ergonomics configure itself as a valid complement in the return-to-work phase, providing for workstation adjustment or job modification, contributing to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce the risk of injury and disability in the worker.

  17. Ergonomics for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Carol; Friend, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors to be considered in the design of ergonomically correct workstations for online searchers. Topics discussed include visual factors, including lighting; acoustical factors; radiation and visual display terminals (VDTs); screen image characteristics; static electricity; hardware and equipment; workstation configuration; chairs;…

  18. Cognitive models applied to human effectiveness in national security environments (ergonomics of augmented cognition system design and application).

    SciTech Connect

    Ntuen, Celestine; Winchester, Woodrow III

    2004-06-01

    In complex simulation systems where humans interact with computer-generated agents, information display and the interplay of virtual agents have become dominant media and modalities of interface design. This design strategy is reflected in augmented reality (AR), an environment where humans interact with computer-generated agents in real-time. AR systems can generate large amount of information, multiple solutions in less time, and perform far better in time-constrained problem solving. The capabilities of AR have been leveraged to augment cognition in human information processing. In this sort of augmented cognition (AC) work system, while technology has become the main source for information acquisition from the environment, the human sensory and memory capacities have failed to cope with the magnitude and scale of information they encounter. This situation generates opportunity for excessive cognitive workloads, a major factor in degraded human performance. From the human effectiveness point of view, research is needed to develop, model, and validate simulation tools that can measure the effectiveness of an AR technology used to support the amplification of human cognition. These tools will allow us to predict human performance for tasks executed under an AC tool construct. This paper presents an exploration of ergonomics issues relevant to AR and AC systems design. Additionally, proposed research to investigate those ergonomic issues is discussed.

  19. The inclusion of ergonomic tools in the informational, conceptual and preliminary phases of the product design methodology.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ivan Luiz de; Batiz, Eduardo Concepción

    2012-01-01

    The process of product development has received special attention as it is being recognized as a source of competitive gain. Through its systematic use companies reduce costs, increase quality and decrease development time. However, one can find products being launched on the market that cause dissatisfaction to its users, and in consequence if the customer feels harmed or injured he will no longer purchase a product from the same brand. This in regard only to the commercial aspect; usually the danger of an accident or injury is not even thought about. This paper is the basis of the dissertation master's degree and used a literature research to build the repertoire, analyzing the methodologies applied by product design engineers, designers and ergonomists. The analysis results demonstrate the inefficiency of the design methodologies ergonomic issues. The contribution of this work lies in the suggestion to include ergonomic tools in all phases of product development and the presentation of a table with the tools that points out its most suitable time of application and results.

  20. Advances in Antibody Design.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Kathryn E; Tessier, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics requires optimizing several of their key attributes. These include binding affinity and specificity, folding stability, solubility, pharmacokinetics, effector functions, and compatibility with the attachment of additional antibody domains (bispecific antibodies) and cytotoxic drugs (antibody-drug conjugates). Addressing these and other challenges requires the use of systematic design methods that complement powerful immunization and in vitro screening methods. We review advances in designing the binding loops, scaffolds, domain interfaces, constant regions, post-translational and chemical modifications, and bispecific architectures of antibodies and fragments thereof to improve their bioactivity. We also highlight unmet challenges in antibody design that must be overcome to generate potent antibody therapeutics. PMID:26274600

  1. Elementary Ergonomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    What's the number 1 threat to young students using computers today? According to Dan Odell, Microsoft's in-house ergonomist, when he asked parents this very question, "the things they were most concerned about were online predators and people taking advantage of their kids. Ergonomics was fairly far down the list." Unfortunately, that same lack of…

  2. Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Manuaba, A

    2001-12-01

    Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns. PMID:14564879

  3. Stereoscopic displays for virtual reality in the car manufacturing industry: application to design review and ergonomic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Guillaume; Fuchs, Philippe

    2002-05-01

    In the car manufacturing industry the trend is to drastically reduce the time-to-market by increasing the use of the Digital Mock-up instead of physical prototypes. Design review and ergonomic studies are specific tasks because they involve qualitative or even subjective judgements. In this paper, we present IMAVE (IMmersion Adapted to a VEhicle) designed for immersive styling review, gaps visualization and simple ergonomic studies. We show that stereoscopic displays are necessary and must fulfill several constraints due to the proximity and size of the car dashboard. The duration fo the work sessions forces us to eliminate all vertical parallax, and 1:1 scale is obviously required for a valid immersion. Two demonstrators were realized allowing us to have a large set of testers (over 100). More than 80% of the testers saw an immediate use of the IMAVE system. We discuss the good and bad marks awarded to the system. Future work include being able to use several rear-projected stereo screens for doors and central console visualization, but without the parallax presently visible in some CAVE-like environments.

  4. Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Manuaba, A

    2001-12-01

    Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns.

  5. Preventing Workplace Injuries and Illnesses through Ergonomics. Listening to Our Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosskam, Ellen; Baichoo, Pavan

    1997-01-01

    Ergonomics focuses on the prevention of injuries through proper design of equipment, workstations, and products. The adoption of an ergonomic philosophy in the workplace has demonstrable benefits. (JOW)

  6. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  7. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  8. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  9. Integrating ergonomics into the petroleum business

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, M.S.

    1996-11-01

    Integrating Health Safety and Environmental issues of the workplace into the design of new installations has always been a continuous challenge facing design engineers. Ergonomics is a proven link for achieving this connection between HSE and design due to its multi-disciplined approach. Often engineers try to incorporate ergonomic issues into the design of an installation only after the detailed design has been completed. The consequence of using ergonomics as an afterthought in design can result in an installation with the high potential of human/machine mismatches which may result in poor system performance and hazardous working conditions, including emergency response. The message is clear: Ergonomics needs to be incorporated in the front end design of all new projects. However in practice, this is not occurring. Two questions emerge: (1) What kind of company strategy needs to exist to ensure its success? and (2) How will this strategy be implemented within the operating companies? This paper presents an ergonomics strategy and implementation plan used within a global oil company. In the past, ergonomics has been undertaken on a project by project basis, if the resources permitted. If ergonomics was utilized in the detailed design, it ranged from citing international standards about population anthropometric to lighting and noise levels in the workplace. While these standards are important, they are only a small part of using ergonomics in the detailed design. The most relevant component of ergonomics involves analyzing the task and then designing the installation that best accommodates the operator. The only way that designers are able to build well-designed installations is by understanding the task environment and the strengths and limitations of human operators. This principle of designing installations around the human operator`s task is the primary drive behind an ergonomics strategy and implementation plan.

  10. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26884745

  12. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26884745

  13. Occupational ergonomics in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  14. Ergonomic tridimensional analysis: critical ergonomic factors identification in a commercial environmental.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, I F; Leão, C P; Arezes, P M

    2012-01-01

    The Ergonomic tridimensional analysis (ETdA) was developed to be used as an auxiliary tool on the ergonomic intervention. It was specially designed for commercial areas with free circulation of people. Due to that, the client, the third ETdA dimension, becomes an important element and their opinions relevant in the ergonomic analysis. The remains two ETdA dimensions, professionals and analyst, play an identical role as in the traditional occupational ergonomic analysis. For each of these dimensions, specific observation tools were assembled: an ETdA questionnaire, an evaluation form and a checklist for direct and indirect observations. The variables that allow the ETdA operability are identified as Ergonomic Factors (EFs). A case study is presented identifying, for each dimension, the critical EFs. This will allow the design of the weighting table, where the influence of each dimensions results is measured, stressing the important role of clients on ergonomic issues. PMID:22316794

  15. Ergonomic Chairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Findings published in the NASA Anthropometric Source Book by Johnson Space Center helped BodyBilt, Inc. to fashion controlled comfort chairs that lessen the harmful effects of gravity on seated workers. Crew members living aboard NASA's Skylab noted that in space the human posture differs from the normal posture caused by the tug of one gravity. There has been an alarming increase in back pain and muscle fatigue in workers, along with a dramatic escalation in repetitive stress injuries. BodyBilt's ergonomically-correct line of office chairs are targeted for the average worker that sits for prolonged periods, be it in the classroom or boardroom. Their roster of national clients lists such organizations as IBM, Microsoft, Texas Instruments, Hewlett-Packard, Eastman-Kodak, Boeing, Motorola, and Walt Disney Studios.

  16. MEGARA cryostat advanced design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar; Velázquez, M.; Gil de Paz, A.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Cedazo, R.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2014-08-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit and Multi-Object Spectrograph designed for the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias) 10.4m telescope in La Palma. MEGARA project has already passed preliminary design review and the optics critical design review, first-light it is expected to take place at the end of 2016. MEGARA is a development under a GRANTECAN contract. In this paper we summarize the current status of the LN2 open-cycle cryostat which has been designed by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and emphasize the key parts of the system that have updated since the Preliminary Design, the main activities related to acceptance, integration, fabrication and maintenance plans which fit into the overall structure of the management plan of MEGARA are also described. The cryogenic work package of MEGARA has completed all the design stages and is ready for its Critical Design Review and then proceed to fabrication.

  17. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  18. Ergonomics in the electronic library.

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, P L; Melamut, S J

    1995-01-01

    New technologies are changing the face of information services and how those services are delivered. Libraries spend a great deal of time planning the hardware and software implementations of electronic information services, but the human factors are often overlooked. Computers and electronic tools have changed the nature of many librarians' daily work, creating new problems, including stress, fatigue, and cumulative trauma disorders. Ergonomic issues need to be considered when designing or redesigning facilities for electronic resources and services. Libraries can prevent some of the common problems that appear in the digital workplace by paying attention to basic ergonomic issues when designing workstations and work areas. Proper monitor placement, lighting, workstation setup, and seating prevent many of the common occupational problems associated with computers. Staff training will further reduce the likelihood of ergonomic problems in the electronic workplace. PMID:7581189

  19. Ergonomics in the electronic library.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, P L; Melamut, S J

    1995-07-01

    New technologies are changing the face of information services and how those services are delivered. Libraries spend a great deal of time planning the hardware and software implementations of electronic information services, but the human factors are often overlooked. Computers and electronic tools have changed the nature of many librarians' daily work, creating new problems, including stress, fatigue, and cumulative trauma disorders. Ergonomic issues need to be considered when designing or redesigning facilities for electronic resources and services. Libraries can prevent some of the common problems that appear in the digital workplace by paying attention to basic ergonomic issues when designing workstations and work areas. Proper monitor placement, lighting, workstation setup, and seating prevent many of the common occupational problems associated with computers. Staff training will further reduce the likelihood of ergonomic problems in the electronic workplace. PMID:7581189

  20. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48983-49619.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    THE LITERATURE OF ERGONOMICS, OR BIOTECHNOLOGY, IS CLASSIFIED INTO 15 AREAS--METHODS, SYSTEMS OF MEN AND MACHINES, VISUAL AND AUDITORY AND OTHER INPUTS AND PROCESSES, INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS, DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND INTEGRATION WITH DISPLAYS, LAYOUT OF PANELS AND CONSOLES, DESIGN OF WORK SPACE, CLOTHING AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT, SPECIAL…

  1. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Mallory

    2014-01-01

    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.

  2. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Mallory

    2014-01-01

    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design. PMID:24858518

  3. Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1997-04-03

    This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

  4. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  5. Prospective ergonomics: origin, goal, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jean-Marc; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    So far ergonomics has been concerned with two categories of activities: correction and design. We propose to add a third category: prospection, and by so doing, we introduce a new series of activities that opens up the future of ergonomics. Corrective ergonomics relates to the past and comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the correction of existing situations and aims to reduce or eliminate problems. Here, after delimiting and defining the problem, the challenge is to find the best solution. Ergonomics for design relates to the present and also comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the design of new artefacts that have already been identified by a client, and that will allow users to do some activity and attain their goals. Here, after defining the scope of the project and the functional requirements, the challenge is to do the best design. Finally, prospective ergonomics relates to the future and does not come with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the creation of future things that have not been identified yet. Here the challenge is to detect existing user needs or anticipate future ones, and imagine solutions. These three categories of activities overlap and are not exclusive of each other. In this paper we define prospective ergonomics and compare it with corrective ergonomics and ergonomics for design. We describe its origin, goal, and prospects, we analyze its impacts on education and practice, and we emphasize the need of new collaboration between ergonomics and other disciplines.

  6. Ergonomic redesign of the electric guitar.

    PubMed

    Marmaras, N; Zarboutis, N

    1997-02-01

    The present study deals with the redesign of the electric guitar, considering ergonomic criteria. Difficulties met by novice musicians, neuro-muscular fatigue caused by guitar playing and occupational diseases occurring to professional guitarists, justify this study. Characteristics of existing electric guitar models which add to musician's fatigue or difficulty, were identified. A number of ergonomic requirements were then derived. The redesign process tried to satisfy these requirements, considering at the same time musical requirements and technical constraints. A comparative evaluation of the designed ergonomic guitar with three existing electric guitar models, showed that although the designed electric guitar preserves the main features of the instrument, it achieves better user fit.

  7. Design and implementation of a multitask radiology workstation ergonomically tailored for fully digital reading rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Amato, Carlos L.; Balbona, Joseph A.; Boots, Kevin; McCoy, J. Michael

    2001-08-01

    For its new hospital, UCLA is redesigning the radiologist workplace based on new working paradigm and new technological advances that are becoming available. Given that serious space limitations are being imposed, the challenge is to provide more optimal working environment for radiologists in a crowded and busy working environment.

  8. Taking ergonomics to the bedside--a multi-disciplinary approach to designing safer healthcare.

    PubMed

    Norris, Beverley; West, Jonathan; Anderson, Oliver; Davey, Grace; Brodie, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A multi-disciplinary approach to designing safer healthcare was utilised to investigate risks in the bed-space in elective surgical wards. The Designing Out Medical Error (DOME) project brought together clinicians, designers, psychologists, human factors and business expertise to develop solutions for the highest risk healthcare processes. System mapping and risk assessment techniques identified nearly 200 potential failure modes in hand hygiene, isolation of infection, vital signs monitoring, medication delivery and handover of information. Solutions addressed issues such as the design of equipment, reminders, monitoring, feedback and standardisation. Some of the solutions, such as the CareCentre™, which brings many of the processes and equipment together into one easy to access workstation at the foot of the bed, have been taken forward to clinical trials and manufacture. The project showed the value of the multi-disciplinary and formal human factors approaches to healthcare design for patient safety. In particular, it demonstrates the application of human factors to a complete design cycle and provides a case study for the activities required to reach a safe, marketable product. PMID:24135560

  9. Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers: concept generation of patient-handling devices.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Karen M; Reichelt, Paul A; Lavender, Steven A; Gacki-Smith, Jessica; Hattle, Sally

    2008-11-01

    Fire service personnel and private ambulance paramedics suffer musculoskeletal injuries as they lift and carry patients while performing emergency medical services (EMS). Engineering changes, such as the design of new EMS patient-handling devices, offer a potential intervention opportunity for combating this problem. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to generate beginning ideas for the design of new EMS patient-handling devices that were framed within the contextual reality of the end user firefighter/paramedics. Guided by an ecological model of musculoskeletal injuries in the fire service, focus groups were conducted with 25 firefighter/paramedics from 13 suburban fire departments. Based on their availability, participants were assigned to one of three groups with each group focusing on a different EMS patient-handling scenario. Each group participated in two focus group sessions: one session to brainstorm ideas for devices and a second session to validate sketches of their design ideas. The sketches were professionally drawn by an industrial designer who attended all focus group sessions. Sketches, photos, videotapes, and written transcripts were content analyzed to describe the phenomena of interest. The ideas centered on EMS devices for lateral transfers, bed-to-stairchair transfers, and stair descent transport, and served as the starting point for the development of EMS devices in subsequent phases of a mixed method research study. The outcomes of this study were an improved understanding of the contextual issues that need to be considered in designing EMS patient handling devices and a set of industrial design sketches that served as a starting point for subsequent development of the devices. End user acceptance criteria for the devices included: affordability, portability/compactness, durability, operability including being quickly ready for use, and cleanability.

  10. Numerical Ergonomics Analysis in Operation Environment of CNC Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. F.; Yang, Z. X.

    2010-05-01

    The performance of operator will be affected by different operation environments [1]. Moreover, poor operation environment may cause health problems of the operator [2]. Physical and psychological considerations are two main factors that will affect the performance of operator under different conditions of operation environment. In this paper, applying scientific and systematic methods find out the pivot elements in the field of physical and psychological factors. There are five main factors including light, temperature, noise, air flow and space that are analyzed. A numerical ergonomics model has been built up regarding the analysis results which can support to advance the design of operation environment. Moreover, the output of numerical ergonomic model can provide the safe, comfortable, more productive conditions for the operator.

  11. Ergonomic approaches to designing educational materials for immersive multi-projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Lee, JaeLin; Inoue, Tetsuri

    2014-02-01

    Rapid advances in computer and display technologies have made it possible to present high quality virtual reality (VR) environment. To use such virtual environments effectively, research should be performed into how users perceive and react to virtual environment in view of particular human factors. We created a VR simulation of sea fish for science education, and we conducted an experiment to examine how observers perceive the size and depth of an object within their reach and evaluated their visual fatigue. We chose a multi-projection system for presenting the educational VR simulation, because this system can provide actual-size objects and produce stereo images located close to the observer. The results of the experiment show that estimation of size and depth was relatively accurate when subjects used physical actions to assess them. Presenting images within the observer's reach is suggested to be useful for education in VR environment. Evaluation of visual fatigue shows that the level of symptoms from viewing stereo images with a large disparity in VR environment was low in a short time.

  12. Ergonomic design of beverage can lift tabs based on numerical evaluations of fingertip discomfort.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Nishiyama, Sadao; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Itoh, Ryouiti

    2008-03-01

    This paper introduces finite element analyses to evaluate numerically and objectively the feelings in the fingertip when opening aluminum beverage cans, in order to design the shape of the tab. Experiments of indenting vertically the fingertip pulp by a probe and by tabs of aluminum beverage can ends have allowed us to observe force responses and feelings in the fingertip. It was found that a typical force-displacement curve may be simplified as a combination of three curves with different gradients. Participants feel a touch at Curve 1 of the force-displacement curve, then feel a pressure and their pulse at Curve 2, finally feel discomfort followed by a pain in the fingertip at Curve 3. Finite element analyses have been performed to simulate indenting the tab with the fingertip vertically to confirm that the simulation results agree well with the experimental observations. Finally, numerical simulations of the finger pulling up the tab of the can end has also been performed and discomfort in the fingertip has been related to the maximum value of the contact stress of the finger model. Comparisons of three designs of tab ring shape showed that the tab with a larger contact area with finger is better.

  13. Fundamentals of ergonomics in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J R

    2000-12-01

    In this paper ergonomics is defined as a discipline in its own right, as the theoretical and fundamental understanding of human behaviour and performance in purposeful interacting socio-technical systems, and the application of that understanding to design of interactions in the context of real settings. This definition is justified in the financial, technicat, legal, organisational, social, political and professional contexts in which ergonomists work. On the basis of the history of ergonomics and contemporary contributions, it is proposed that it is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of an art and a craft as well. Justification for the new definition is provided by examining the interacting systems which are prevalent in the modern world and which are the domain best understood through the holistic approach of ergonomics. Finally a number of challenges for ergonomics are identified. PMID:11132041

  14. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  15. Action in Ergonomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training Officer, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A discussion with James Crowley of British Steel Corporation on the changing face of ergonomics in practice today and yesterday examines the influence of experimental psychology on the method of study and data collection. The broadening scope of ergonomics from only safety concerns to cost effectiveness and the computer are analyzed. (Author/JB)

  16. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  17. Virtual reality as a human factors design analysis tool: Macro-ergonomic application validation and assessment of the Space Station Freedom payload control area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1994-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) Applications Program has been under development at MSFC since 1989. Its objectives are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, missions operations training, and science training. A variety of activities are under way within many of these areas. One ongoing macro-ergonomic application of VR relates to the design of the Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA), the control room from which onboard payload operations are managed. Several preliminary conceptual PCA layouts have been developed and modeled in VR. Various managers and potential end users have virtually 'entered' these rooms and provided valuable feedback. Before VR can be used with confidence in a particular application, it must be validated, or calibrated, for that class of applications. Two associated validation studies for macro-ergonomic applications are under way to help characterize possible distortions of filtering of relevant perceptions in a virtual world. In both studies, existing control rooms and their 'virtual counterparts will be empirically compared using distance and heading estimations to objects and subjective assessments. Approaches and findings of the PCA activities and details of the studies are presented.

  18. Ergonomics Education, Awareness System Evaluation and Recording

    1997-09-04

    ErgoEASER is a computer based program that provides training and analysis tools on potential ergonomic hazards in the workplace. This version incorporates training on ergonomic issues in office environments and those associated with hand tool design and use. These training modules complement the ergonomic analysis tools (for lifting tasks and Video Display Terminal workstations comprising Version 1 (copyrighted under the name, ErgoAnalyze) ErgoEASER2.0 includes the entire analysis tool/training package. It provides multiple levels of supportmore » through its interactive components. Getting started reviews background information on occupational ergonomics. Awareness and reporting presents examples and photographs of potentially hazardous postures and practices, enabling users to assess their work environments. This component provides a modest level of education and training on occupational ergonomics. Lifting analysis this component enables users to input key dimensions and variables that apply to lifting tasks, then adjust the values and view results in a simulated display depicting the human postures, practices, and associated strains. VDT analysis this component enables users to input key dimensions and variables that apply to video display terminal workstation tasks, then adjust the values and view results in a simulated display depicting the human postures, practices, and associated strains. Ergonomics computer based training this component presents two computer based training lessons, one on office ergonomics and the other on hand tools. Each lesson includes four topics: ergonomics, risk factors, symptoms and signs, and a mastery exercise that assesses the students overall comprehension of the material and preparedness to use ErgoEASER''s analysis components.« less

  19. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

  20. The Physical Demands and Ergonomics of Working with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Claffey, Anne; King, Phyllis; Scheuer, Gina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the physical demands and ergonomic concerns within child care settings. Discusses problem areas and ergonomic recommendations for room design and staff training. Presents important implications for writing job descriptions, determining essential job functions, orienting and training staff, and committing to improving the child care work…

  1. Ergonomics contributions to company strategies.

    PubMed

    Dul, Jan; Neumann, W Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Managers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to strengthen the position of ergonomics and ergonomists in the business and management world, we discuss company strategies and business goals to which ergonomics could contribute. Conceptual models are presented and examples are given to illustrate: (1) the present situation in which ergonomics is not part of regular planning and control cycles in organizations to ensure business performance; and (2) the desired situation in which ergonomics is an integrated part of strategy formulation and implementation. In order to realize the desired situation, considerable changes must take place within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by moving from a health ergonomics paradigm to a business ergonomics paradigm, without losing the health and safety goals.

  2. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  3. Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.

  4. Ergonomics of manual harvesting.

    PubMed

    Prussia, S E

    1985-09-01

    Manual harvesting has many advantages compared with the mechanical harvesting of most fruit crops. The most important advantage is visual image processing ability which enables workers rapidly to detect fruit suitable for harvest and direct their hand to the fruit selected for detachment. Lacking the necessary computer based image processing equipment, designers of mechanical harvesters have settled for mass removal approaches that typically results in more damage than normal when fruit is harvested individually. Although manual harvesting has the disadvantage of low capacity, it is expected that much of the world's fruit will continue to be harvested by hand for the foreseeable future. Several ergonomics principles that relate to manual harvesting are discussed. Methods for improving worker conditions and productivity are presented. Worker positioners increase productivity by 20 to 40% and enable use of sun shades, fans, conveyors and other devices that increase comfort and reduce fatigue. Testing and training can yield substantial benefits from small inputs. Tests for visual acuity, colour sensitivity, strength, etc, can help managers assign tasks to the most suitable workers. Training programmes help workers to have a clear mental picture of acceptable fruit and encourage compliance with handling, safety and other procedures. Satisfaction of human drives such as thirst, hunger, thermal comfort and avoidance of pain results in long-range benefits.

  5. Forensics ergonomics in Spain. Research priorities by the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Alvarez, F J; Rosal Lopez, G; Peña Suarez, Elsa; Rodriguez Suarez, J

    2012-01-01

    Among the many fields of application of Ergonomics, this research deals with the services offered to Justice from the expertise recognized by the Law on prevention of occupational risks within the framework of the Law of Civil Procedure: Ergonomics forensic also called Legal Ergonomics. In Spain there are experiences since 1995 and an important development and this paper is to investigate the actions required for a more widespread use in trials. Consensus methods such as the Delphi survey technique are being employed to help enhance effective decision-making in the future development of Ergonomics Forensics. The Delphi survey is a group facilitation technique, which is an iterative multistage process, designed to transform opinion into group consensus. It is a flexible approach, that is used commonly within the health and social sciences, however, there is little use and practice of ergonomics as a technique to facilitate the participation of all experts involved: judges, lawyers and expert ergonomists.

  6. 30 years of ergonomics at 3M: a case study.

    PubMed

    Larson, N; Wick, H

    2012-01-01

    The added value of the Ergonomics Program at 3M was found to be improved employee safety, compliance with regulations and reduction of work-related illness, increases in productivity, and quality and operating efficiency. This paper describes the thirty years of existence of this program. For the first twenty years, the program objectives were to: respond to requests for assistance related to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) concerns, raise employee awareness of MSDs and ergonomics; educate engineers in ergonomics design; and develop ergonomics teams at manufacturing locations. Since the year 2000, 3M's Ergonomics Program has been in transition from a US-centric and corporate-based technical-expertled program to a global program applying participatory ergonomics strategies within a macroergonomics framework. During that transition, the existing program requirements were revised, new methods and program tools were created, and expectations for implementation at the manufacturing locations clarified. This paper focuses on the company's manufacturing ergonomics program activities during the past ten years and includes specifics of the program's objectives, risk assessment reduction process, and ergonomics technical expertise development. The main benefit achieved throughout the company is reducing employee injury while also increasing productivity and operating efficiency.

  7. [Lavoisier, forerunner of ergonomics].

    PubMed

    Valentin, M

    1996-01-01

    Marcelin Berthelot has written that Lavoisier's physiological revolution has been nearly as important as his chemical one. Moreover he went beyond theoretical researches by a continual approach of labour and human environment, making himself a real precursor of ergonomics. Thus indeed can be considered his works on lighting, room aeration, hospitals reorganization, improvement of jails, transfer of slaughter-houses, watering and water-course, cesspools. Finally and chiefly his experimentation with Seguin on respiration and perspiration, as well as the wording of the program of the Prizes of Insalubrious Arts realize a genius' prospect of labour physiology and medicine already enclosed in what will later be ergonomics.

  8. Learning without Pain: Ergonomics Prevents Injuries. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Ergonomics" is a body of knowledge about human abilities and limitations and how these abilities and limitations should be applied to the design of equipment, machinery, and other devices to ensure safe, comfortable and effective use. Most homes and schools today are equipped with computers for student use. Backpacks have become the most popular…

  9. Ergonomics of Human-Computer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helander, Martin G.; Palanivel, Thiagarajan

    1992-01-01

    Addresses research results and controversies concerning the ergonomic design of computer work stations ranging from the traditional concerns with anthropometric fashions, work posture, and visual performance to the recent considerations about human information processing capacities and awareness of problem-solving strategies. (eight references)…

  10. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  11. Ergonomic Microscope: Need of the Hour

    PubMed Central

    Mhaske, Shubhangi Ashok; Ahmad, Malik Ajaz; Yuwanati, Monal B.; Prabhu, Shweta; Pardhe, Nilesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged use of conventional microscope develops musculo-skeletal injuries like chronic pain syndrome, including shoulder, neck, back aches & fatigue. Since the problems go unnoticed, the injuries can lead to some serious permanent damages. This further leads to a compromise in the health and welfare of the person and the institute. Hence, an understanding about the ergonomics is the need of the hour in this postmodern era. Inspite of few studies and surveys about ergonomics, there is still a steep rise in the musculoskeletal disorders. Aim of the Study The aim of our study was to gauge the general awareness of pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists towards ergonomics in their profession. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey based study was de­signed, which included a questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple choice questions with four alternatives. Professionals (pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists) were included in the survey. Teaching faculty (Professors, Associate Professors and Lecturers) and Post graduate students formed the study group. Results and Observations The response to the questionnaire was 100%. Less than 50% of oral pathologists were aware of the importance of ergonomics in their profession. The most common site affected was neck and back. One of the drastic observations was that, Oral Pathologists suffered from a combination of problems affecting neck, back, eyes, headache, shoulders, arms and wrists. Conclusion Increase in our understanding regarding ergonomic­ally designed microscopes can increase our efficiency and in turn improve our general well-being. With improvements in ergonomics, professionals would be able to modify and optimize their working conditions. Certain guidelines need to be followed by the profes­sionals to reduce chances of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26155565

  12. An ergonomics approach model to prevention of occupational musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Koltan, Altan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prevent occupational musculoskeletal injuries. Our workers stacked boxes of ceramics weighing 10-27 kg, making low back pain common in our enterprise. In all the stacking stations, recommended weight limits (RWL) were separately calculated using the revised National Institute for Occupational Health lifting equation. Since the boxes weighed significantly more than the RWL, we developed a new ergonomic design that completely changed the stacking process. The load put on the workers' waist vertebrae in the new and the old stacking methods was compared to evaluate the success of the new ergonomic design, using Newton's third law of motion. Thanks to the new ergonomic design, the load on the workers' vertebrae decreased by 80%. Due to its simple technology and its very low cost compared to robots, the new ergonomic design can be commonly used in enterprises with repeated and constraining stacking. PMID:19272245

  13. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  14. Advanced beamline design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Christopher R.

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  15. Optimizing Advanced Power System Designs Under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Diwekar; Frey, H.C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes recent developments in ongoing research to develop and demonstrate advanced computer-based methods for dealing with uncertainties that are critical to the design of advanced coal-based power systems. Recent developments include new deterministic and stochastic methods for simulation, optimization, and synthesis of advanced process designs. Results are presented illustrating the use of these new modeling tools for the design and analysis of several advanced systems of current interest to the U.S. Department of Energy, including the technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), advanced pressurized fluid combustion (PFBC), and the externally fired combined cycle (EFCC) process. The new methods developed in this research can be applied generally to any chemical or energy conversion process to reduce the technological risks associated with uncertainties in process performance and cost.

  16. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  17. Ergonomics of VDTs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderhoef, John; Gallina, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the problem of automation in the workplace with references to libraries focuses on the person/machine interface of visual display terminals (VDT). An argument is made for a human systems approach which integrates operator-user, VDT, work environment, work station, and task. Ergonomic recommendations for VDT use are made. (Author/EJS)

  18. The IEA contribution to the transition of Ergonomics from research to practice.

    PubMed

    Caple, David C

    2010-10-01

    The future growth of ergonomics as a scientific discipline will require a greater focus on methods to transition research findings into practice. Whilst the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) and the Federated Ergonomics Societies provide opportunities to promote exchange on ergonomics research and collaboration in research programs, the future sustainability of the domain will be dependent on the provision of ongoing educational opportunities in ergonomics and the transitioning of the research findings into practice. This transition will require greater external focus outside the ergonomics profession in working in collaboration and partnership with other professional associations, governments and international agencies. Practical tools that are targeted towards particular user groups within the community, workplace, and governments will enhance the opportunities for the transition of ergonomics research into practice. Focus on extramural initiatives such as Ergonomics Checkpoints, integration of the ergonomics design process into the International Organisation for Standardization Guidelines, and the incorporation of ergonomics into the World Health Organisation research programs will ensure that the positioning of ergonomics will continue at an international level.

  19. Ergonomic deficiencies: III. Root causes and their correction.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, M A

    1990-05-01

    This is Part III of a three-part series that examines various aspects of ergonomic deficiencies at work. Part I examined pain at work and the association between such pain or discomfort and a poorly designed workplace or poorly structured job. Part II considered causes of ergonomic deficiencies and their identification and assessment through the use of checklists. Part III demonstrates that treating the symptoms or apparent proximate causes does not assure correction of the root causes, and suggests strategies for correcting ergonomic deficiencies.

  20. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  1. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  2. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  3. EPR: an Advanced Evolutionary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Juergen; Bouteille, Francois; Hudson, Greg

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the main features of the EPR, an evolutionary design product that builds on French N4 plants (Chooz and Civaux) and Konvoi, the most recent reactor series built in Germany. This Franco-German project was driven by a common French and German desire to cooperate in several areas. In January 2001, Framatome SA and Siemens AG merged their nuclear activities to form Framatome ANP with three regional entities in France, Germany and the USA. The recent decision of Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) to select the EPR for construction in Olkiluoto of the fifth Nuclear Power Plant in Finland gave a new impetus to the project. Framatome ANP is committed to put the FOAK EPR in commercial operation on May 1, 2009. This challenging time schedule will set a new reference for 'Generation III +' LWR's. (authors)

  4. Ergonomics for the inclusion of older workers in the knowledge workforce and a guidance tool for designers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, I; Morer, P

    2016-03-01

    The ageing of the population and the inverted population pyramid is bringing important changes to society as a whole. These changes are associated with the inclusion of an older workforce in knowledge work and the challenge they represent in adapting the work environment accordingly. In order to approach a more universal design of the work environment, industrial designers need support from user-sensitive inclusive design studies. While there are plenty of guidelines and tools containing relevant information, there is a need to develop more appropriate tools for Industrial Designers that cover the initial phase of the design process. This study provides a review of the available tools and guidelines and proposes a theoretical framework intended for developing a design guidance tool for inclusive workstation design. PMID:26454819

  5. Ergonomics for the inclusion of older workers in the knowledge workforce and a guidance tool for designers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, I; Morer, P

    2016-03-01

    The ageing of the population and the inverted population pyramid is bringing important changes to society as a whole. These changes are associated with the inclusion of an older workforce in knowledge work and the challenge they represent in adapting the work environment accordingly. In order to approach a more universal design of the work environment, industrial designers need support from user-sensitive inclusive design studies. While there are plenty of guidelines and tools containing relevant information, there is a need to develop more appropriate tools for Industrial Designers that cover the initial phase of the design process. This study provides a review of the available tools and guidelines and proposes a theoretical framework intended for developing a design guidance tool for inclusive workstation design.

  6. Developing hands-on ergonomics lessons for youth

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K

    2006-02-22

    By the time students are ready to enter the workforce they have been exposed to up to 20 years of ergonomics risk factors. As technology evolves, it provides more opportunities for intensive repetitive motion and with computers, cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and electronic games. The average student engages in fewer active physical activities, sit stationary in mismatched furniture in schools for hours and carry heavy backpacks. While long-term effects remain to be identified, increasingly ergonomists and others concerned with musculoskeletal health and wellness, see a need for early ergonomics education. This interactive session provides a hands-on approach to introducing ergonomics to students. Although different approaches may effectively introduce ergonomics at even early stages of development, this program was designed for youth at the middle to high school age. Attendees will participate in four activities designed to introduce ergonomics at an experiential level. The modules focus on grip strength, effective breathing, optimizing your chair, and backpack safety. The workshop will include presentation and worksheets designed for use by teachers with minimal ergonomics training. Feedback from the participants will be sought for further refining the usability and safety of the training package.

  7. Time to accelerate integration of human factors and ergonomics in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Ayse P; Ozok, A Ant; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Progress toward improving patient safety has been slow despite engagement of the health care community in improvement efforts. A potential reason for this sluggish pace is the inadequate integration of human factors and ergonomics principles and methods in these efforts. Patient safety problems are complex and rarely caused by one factor or component of a work system. Thus, health care would benefit from human factors and ergonomics evaluations to systematically identify the problems, prioritize the right ones, and develop effective and practical solutions. This paper gives an overview of the discipline of human factors and ergonomics and describes its role in improving patient safety. We provide examples of how human factors and ergonomics principles and methods have improved both care processes and patient outcomes. We provide five major recommendations to better integrate human factors and ergonomics in patient safety improvement efforts: build capacity among health care workers to understand human factors and ergonomics, create market forces that demand the integration of human factors and ergonomics design principles into medical technologies, increase the number of human factors and ergonomic practitioners in health care organizations, expand investments in improvement efforts informed by human factors and ergonomics, and support interdisciplinary research to improve patient safety. In conclusion, human factors and ergonomics must play a more prominent role in health care if we want to increase the pace in improving patient safety.

  8. Ergonomic assessments of three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory cafeterias

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG&G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG&G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.

  9. Ergonomic assessments of three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory cafeterias

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.

  10. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  11. Cognitive ergonomics of operational tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdeke, A.

    2012-10-01

    Control systems have become increasingly more powerful over the past decades. The availability of high data throughput and sophisticated graphical interactions has opened a variety of new possibilities. But has this helped to provide intuitive, easy to use applications to simplify the operation of modern large scale accelerator facilities? We will discuss what makes an application useful to operation and what is necessary to make a tool easy to use. We will show that even the implementation of a small number of simple application design rules can help to create ergonomic operational tools. The author is convinced that such tools do indeed help to achieve higher beam availability and better beam performance at accelerator facilities.

  12. Simulator design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    This simulation design task completion report documents the simulation techniques associated with the network models of both the Interim Service ISDN (integrated services digital network) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures. The ISIS network model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communication satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete events simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  13. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  14. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  15. Ergonomics and sustainable development in the past two decades (1992-2011): Research trends and how ergonomics can contribute to sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Radjiyev, Ayubkhon; Qiu, Hai; Xiong, Shuping; Nam, KyungHyun

    2015-01-01

    The need for sustainable development has been widely recognized and sustainable development has become a hot topic of various disciplines even though the role of ergonomics in it is seldom reported or considered. This study conducts a systematic survey of research publications in the fields of ergonomics and sustainable development over the past two decades (1992-2011), in order to identify their research trends and convergent areas where ergonomics can play an important role in sustainable development. The results show that 'methods and techniques', 'human characteristics', 'work design and organization', 'health and safety' and 'workplace and equipment design' are the top five frequently researched areas in ergonomics. Ergonomics has an opportunity to contribute its knowledge especially to 'industrial and product design', 'architecture', 'health and safety' and 'HCI' (especially for energy reduction issues) categories of sustainable development. Typical methodologies and general guidance on how to contribute the expertise of ergonomist to sustainable development are also discussed.

  16. 50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

  17. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P.; Sherwin, R.

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  18. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P; Sherwin, R

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  19. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  20. Technical Workshop: Advanced Helicopter Cockpit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemingway, J. C. (Editor); Callas, G. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Information processing demands on both civilian and military aircrews have increased enormously as rotorcraft have come to be used for adverse weather, day/night, and remote area missions. Applied psychology, engineering, or operational research for future helicopter cockpit design criteria were identified. Three areas were addressed: (1) operational requirements, (2) advanced avionics, and (3) man-system integration.

  1. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  2. Ergonomic aspects of a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Ahasan, M R; Väyrynen, S

    1999-01-01

    A virtual environment is an interactive graphic system mediated through computer technology that allows a certain level of reality or a sense of presence to access virtual information. To create reality in a virtual environment, ergonomics issues are explored in this paper, aiming to develop the design of presentation formats with related information, that is possible to attain and to maintain user-friendly application. PMID:10602643

  3. Controlling dental hygiene work-related musculoskeletal disorders: the ergonomic process.

    PubMed

    Michalak-Turcotte, C

    2000-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have been reported frequently by dental hygienists. The practice of dental hygiene exposes practitioners to WMSD risk factors of repetitive motion, pinch-grasp, force, vibration, and prolonged awkward positions. The objective of an ergonomic program is to fit the job to the worker, rather than the worker to the work. Principles of the ergonomic process can be applied in private dental practice to design a program that meets the needs of each practitioner. The ergonomic process includes data collection, assessment, the ergonomic plan itself, and evaluation of strategies. The worker (dental hygienist), work processes, and the work environment are integral parts in the ergonomic process. The purpose of this article is to provide basic information on the ergonomic process so that individuals can develop a program that meets their need to reduce WMSDs. PMID:11314116

  4. [Experience in hygienic and ergonomic design of an inter-regional high-speed electric train "Sokol"].

    PubMed

    Shkol'nikov, B I; Boiarchuk, I F; Beresneva, T G; Losavio, N G; Leksin, A G; Ignat'ev, M A; Poliakova, V A; Siriachenko, S S

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental hygienic principles in the design of a high-speed Sokol electric train and its ergonometric approach cause one to anticipate a new rolling stock with high convenience for passengers, which will be an analogue of the world's best ones to appear.

  5. Robotics and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Rattner, David

    2003-12-01

    Industrial robotics have proven the benefit of using an untiring machine to perform precise repetitive tasks in uncomfortable or dangerous for humans environments. Highly skilled surgeons are trained to operate and adapt to difficult conditions. They are even capable of developing intelligent mechanisms to exploit a variety of tactile, visual, and other cues. The robotic systems, however, can enhance the surgeon's capability to perform a wide variety of tasks. They cannot replace the surgeon's problem-solving ability. Instead, they will redefine his role. They will significantly enhance the surgeon's skills and dexterity by providing their complementary capabilities and an ergonomically efficient and more user-friendly working environment.

  6. Exergames: the role of ergonomics and design in helping to control childhood obesity through physical and functional exercise program.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marina; Neves, André; Correia, Walter; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    In the area of the design and physiotherapy, the using of virtual technologies for immersion of users are spreading. And this affirmation extends to several areas of knowledge. In games, the quote is, resources are being used to work cognitive skills, attention, memory, among other factors beside the children. Currently, at the expense of usability, low cost, virtual technologies of perception and interaction, as Nintendo Wii, X-Box 360, among others, arises therefore a new class of games called Exergames, which is the union of physical activity the game. This fact gives users the development of sensory and motor skills through virtual reality mechanisms suitable for certain needs. This literature review aimed to provide an overview of the current context of Exergames, especially in use for controlling childhood obesity, which is growing alarmingly, with some features, applications and possibilities for use at the design and other areas such as physiotherapy.

  7. The methodological involvement of the emotional design and cognitive ergonomics as a tool in the development of children products.

    PubMed

    Correia, Walter; Rodrigues, Laís; Campos, Fábio; Soares, Marcelo; Barros, Marina

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between design and emotional development for kids, this article offers an initial approach about the definition and historical aspects of emotion in product development, citing the main authors of this issue. Based the field research conducted with children from 2 to 6 years of age, was also describes the basic ideas of Piaget in the child psychology and pre-operational stage (age group studied) and the significance of children's toys from the perspective of Vigostsky. Using this theoretical framework and results of field research, we can infer some emotional design as advocated by the producers of positive affect on humans and its relationship with the child's development and choices of their toys. PMID:22316861

  8. Casting an ergonomic eye on university libraries.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Nicole; Villarouco, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Research in the field of Ergonomics of the Built Environment has been developed with a view to consolidating studies in this area, the objective of which is to provide evidence that the joint participation of users and designers on drawing up projects is important. In this context, the theme of this study is to investigate the interactions between users and the environment in a university library. To do so, well-established techniques from Ergonomics, Architecture and Environmental Psychology were used to make a functional and behavioral evaluation to identify the level of user satisfaction in six libraries in the various study centers of the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, northeast Brazil, so as to identify the strengths and also weaknesses in these spatial structures.

  9. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  10. Optimizing the physical ergonomics indices for the use of partial pressure suits.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Li, Xianxue; Hedge, Alan; Hu, Huimin; Feathers, David; Qin, Zhifeng; Xiao, Huajun; Xue, Lihao; Zhou, Qianxiang

    2015-03-01

    This study developed an ergonomic evaluation system for the design of high-altitude partial pressure suits (PPSs). A total of twenty-one Chinese males participated in the experiment which tested three types of ergonomics indices (manipulative mission, operational reach and operational strength) were studied using a three-dimensional video-based motion capture system, a target-pointing board, a hand dynamometer, and a step-tread apparatus. In total, 36 ergonomics indices were evaluated and optimized using regression and fitting analysis. Some indices that were found to be linearly related and redundant were removed from the study. An optimal ergonomics index system was established that can be used to conveniently and quickly evaluate the performance of different pressurized/non-pressurized suit designs. The resulting ergonomics index system will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for mission planners, suit designers and engineers to design equipment for human use, and to aid in assessing partial pressure suits.

  11. Optimizing the physical ergonomics indices for the use of partial pressure suits.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Li, Xianxue; Hedge, Alan; Hu, Huimin; Feathers, David; Qin, Zhifeng; Xiao, Huajun; Xue, Lihao; Zhou, Qianxiang

    2015-03-01

    This study developed an ergonomic evaluation system for the design of high-altitude partial pressure suits (PPSs). A total of twenty-one Chinese males participated in the experiment which tested three types of ergonomics indices (manipulative mission, operational reach and operational strength) were studied using a three-dimensional video-based motion capture system, a target-pointing board, a hand dynamometer, and a step-tread apparatus. In total, 36 ergonomics indices were evaluated and optimized using regression and fitting analysis. Some indices that were found to be linearly related and redundant were removed from the study. An optimal ergonomics index system was established that can be used to conveniently and quickly evaluate the performance of different pressurized/non-pressurized suit designs. The resulting ergonomics index system will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for mission planners, suit designers and engineers to design equipment for human use, and to aid in assessing partial pressure suits. PMID:25479976

  12. Advances in technologies and study design.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Laurence D

    2012-01-01

    The initial draft sequence of the human genome was the proving ground for significant technological advancements, and its completion has ushered in increasingly sophisticated tools and ever-increasing amounts of data. Often, this combination has multiplicative effects such as stimulating research groups to consider subsequent experiments of at least equal if not greater complexity or employ advanced technologies. As applied to the fields of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, these advances in technology and experimental design allow researchers to probe the biological, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms underpinning the response to micro- and macronutrients, along with downstream health effects. It is becoming ever more apparent that effects on gene expression as a consequence of genetic variation and perturbations to cellular and physiological systems are an important cornerstone of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics research. A critical, near-term objective, however, must be to determine where and how nutrients and their metabolites augment or disrupt the genetic variation-gene expression axis. Downstream effects on protein and metabolite measures are also seen with growing regularity as vital components to this research. Thus, this chapter reviews the scope of recent progress and innovation in genomics and associated technologies as well as study designs as applied to nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics research and provides concrete examples of the application of those advancements in genomics-oriented nutrition research.

  13. Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Informatics Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This is a description of the software design for the 2013 edition of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Informatics computer assembly. The Informatics system is an optional part of the space suit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and caution and warning information. In the future it will display maps with GPS position data, and video and still images captured by the astronaut.

  14. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  15. DMAICR in an ergonomic risks analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, E F; Lima, C R C

    2012-01-01

    The DMAICR problem-solving methodology is used throughout this paper to show you how to implement ergonomics recommendations. The DMAICR method consists of the following five six steps by which you can solve ergonomic design problems: The steps of the proposed method, adapting DMAICR, are the following: In the steep D, there is the definition of the project or the situation to be assessed and its guiding objectives, known as demand. In the step M, it relates to the work, tasks and organizational protocols and also includes the need of measuring. In the step A, all concepts are about the analysis itself. The step I is the moment of improving or incrementing. In the step C, control, prevention from prospective troublesome situation and implementation of management are the activities controlling the situation. R is Report. Some relevant technical and conceptual aspects for the comparison of these methodologies are illustrated in this paper. The steps of DMAICR were taken by a multifunctional team (multi-professional and multi-disciplinary) termed as focus group, composed by selected members of the company and supported by experts in ergonomics.

  16. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  17. Probabilistic design of advanced composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, P. M.; Riskalla, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite technology offers potentials for sizable improvements in many areas: weight savings, maintainability, durability, and reliability. However, there are a number of inhibitors to these improvements. One of the biggest inhibitors is the imposition of traditional metallic approaches to design of composite structure. This is especially detrimental in composites because new materials technology demands new design approaches. Of particular importance are the decisions made regarding structural criteria. Significant changes cannot be implemented without careful consideration and exploration. This new approach is to implement changes on a controlled, verifiable basis. Probabilistic design is the methodology and the process to accomplish this. Its foundation is to base design criteria and objectives on reliability targets instead of arbitrary factors carried over from metallic structural history. The background is discussed of probabilistic design and the results are presented of a side-by-side comparison to generic aircraft structure designed the 'old' way and the 'new'. Activities are also defined that need to be undertaken to evolve available approaches to probabilistic design followed by summary and recommendations.

  18. Ergonomics in the office environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtney, Theodore K.

    1993-01-01

    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  19. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, C. F., Jr.; Huettig, F. R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. The reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  20. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Huettig, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  1. Evidence-based ergonomics: a model and conceptual structure proposal.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Dierci Marcio

    2012-01-01

    In Human Factors and Ergonomics Science (HFES), it is difficult to identify what is the best approach to tackle the workplace and systems design problems which needs to be solved, and it has been also advocated as transdisciplinary and multidisciplinary the issue of "How to solve the human factors and ergonomics problems that are identified?". The proposition on this study is to combine the theoretical approach for Sustainability Science, the Taxonomy of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) discipline and the framework for Evidence-Based Medicine in an attempt to be applied in Human Factors and Ergonomics. Applications of ontologies are known in the field of medical research and computer science. By scrutinizing the key requirements for the HFES structuring of knowledge, it was designed a reference model, First, it was identified the important requirements for HFES Concept structuring, as regarded by Meister. Second, it was developed an evidence-based ergonomics framework as a reference model composed of six levels based on these requirements. Third, it was devised a mapping tool using linguistic resources to translate human work, systems environment and the complexities inherent to their hierarchical relationships to support future development at Level 2 of the reference model and for meeting the two major challenges for HFES, namely, identifying what problems should be addressed in HFE as an Autonomous Science itself and proposing solutions by integrating concepts and methods applied in HFES for those problems.

  2. Advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed by GTE Government Systems and the University of Colorado in support of the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program is summarized. Two levels of research were undertaken. The first dealt with providing interim services Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) satellite (ISIS) capabilities that accented basic rate ISDN with a ground control similar to that of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The ISIS Network Model development represents satellite systems like the ACTS orbiting switch. The ultimate aim is to move these ACTS ground control functions on-board the next generation of ISDN communications satellite to provide full-service ISDN satellite (FSIS) capabilities. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design are obtainable from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models of the major subsystems of the ISDN communications satellite architecture. Discrete event simulation experiments would generate data for analysis against NASA SCAR performance measure and the data obtained from the ISDN satellite terminal adapter hardware (ISTA) experiments, also developed in the program. The Basic and Option 1 phases of the program are also described and include the following: literature search, traffic mode, network model, scenario specifications, performance measures definitions, hardware experiment design, hardware experiment development, simulator design, and simulator development.

  3. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  4. Advanced Avionics Breadboard Executive Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The advanced avionics breadboard (AAB) executive evolved from an effort to design and develop an avionics system. This executive is unique in that it supervises a triple redundant avionics computer system. Three IBM System 4 Pi/CP computers, operating synchronously and executing identical software, comprise the central processors which route data to and from a data bus via an input/output controller. The executive's basic function is to provide application programs with an efficient software structure within which to perform specific avionics application tasks. Although implemented in a triplex data management system, the AAB executive contains the flexibility to be adapted to other systems with minimal change.

  5. Advanced surface design for logistics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim R.; Hansen, Scott D.

    The development of anthropometric arm/hand and tool models and their manipulation in a large system model for maintenance simulation are discussed. The use of Advanced Surface Design and s-fig technology in anthropometrics, and three-dimensional graphics simulation tools, are found to achieve a good balance between model manipulation speed and model accuracy. The present second generation models are shown to be twice as fast to manipulate as the first generation b-surf models, to be easier to manipulate into various configurations, and to more closely approximate human contours.

  6. An ergonomic comparison of firearm safety mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Michael A; Khasawneh, Mohammad T

    2008-09-01

    As with most machines, the integral safety mechanism on firearms is vital to injury or fatality free operation. Presently, there is little or no standardisation in the design of these mechanisms. In this investigation, five existing designs found on both military and commercial rifles were evaluated ergonomically to determine the most effective characteristics for incorporation into future designs. The designs were evaluated experimentally on ease of use, visual effectiveness and operational impact. Three groups, representing a total of 30 subjects with widely varying experience, were selected. Results strongly suggest that safeties whose actuators are mounted within easy reach of the trigger finger are preferred and have the least operational impact. Subjects also preferred and were more adept at recognising safety status when the indicator was located on the receiver/barrel along the normal line of sight. Subjects more often correctly identified safety status when the indicator utilised colouring, was clearly marked and/or was in the normal line of sight. The results of this research prove that ergonomics can contribute to the understanding of firearm safety dynamics. The two essential components of safety mechanism design identified in this investigation, unambiguous status visibility and impact-free operation, are also likely to have implications in non-firearm safety mechanism design. This is particularly true for devices whose inadvertent operation can cause injury, as well as systems in which operational effectiveness can be jeopardised when attentiveness or operational control are lost in the process of actuating a poorly designed safety mechanism.

  7. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash.

  8. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash. PMID:24961785

  9. NASA/USRA University advanced design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, Michael F.; Prussing, John

    1989-01-01

    The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program for the 1988 to 1989 academic year is reviewed. The University's design project was the Logistics Resupply and Emergency Crew Return System for Space Station Freedom. Sixty-one students divided into eight groups, participated in the spring 1989 semester. A presentation prepared by three students and a graduate teaching assistant for the program's summer conference summarized the project results. Teamed with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the University received support in the form of remote telecon lectures, reference material, and previously acquired applications software. In addition, a graduate teaching assistant was awarded a summer 1989 internship at MSFC.

  10. Determinants of business sustainability: an ergonomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Sequeira, Reynold; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-03-01

    There is a need to integrate both macro- and micro-ergonomic approaches for the effective implementation of interventions designed to improve the root causes of problems such as work safety, quality and productivity in the enterprise system. The objective of this study was to explore from an ergonomics perspective the concept of business sustainability through optimising the worker-work environment interface. The specific aims were: (a) to assess the working conditions of a production department work process with the goal to jointly optimise work safety, quality and quantity; (b) to evaluate the enterprise-wide work process at the system level as a social entity in an attempt to trace the root causes of ergonomic issues impacting employees throughout the work process. The Work Compatibility Model was deployed to examine the experiences of workers (that is, effort, perceived risk/benefit, performance and satisfaction/dissatisfaction or psychological impact) and their associations with the complex domains of the work environment (task content, physical and non-physical work environment and conditions for learning/growth/development). This was followed by assessment of the enterprise system through detailed interviews with department managers and lead workers. A system diagnostic instrument was also constructed from information derived from the published literature to evaluate the enterprise system performance. The investigation of the production department indicated that the stress and musculoskeletal pain experienced by workers (particularly on the day shift) were derived from sources elsewhere in the work process. The enterprise system evaluation and detailed interviews allowed the research team to chart the feed-forward and feedback stress propagation loops in the work system. System improvement strategies were extracted on the basis of tacit/explicit knowledge obtained from department managers and lead workers. In certain situations concerning workplace human

  11. Ergonomic Evaluations of Microgravity Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.

  12. Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, Ellen

    1998-07-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  13. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  14. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  15. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

  16. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  17. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  18. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  19. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  20. Ergonomics: Injury Protection You Can Afford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the physical health risks attributed to poor furniture and equipment ergonomics and looks at ways to help assure that furniture and equipment purchases and practices are ergonomically sound. Cautions to be wary wary of marketing hype that a company's furniture is ergonomically set, and acquire adjustable furniture and encourage students…

  1. Advanced Technologies for Design Information Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Michael L.; Sheen, David M.; Rose, Joseph L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2009-07-08

    This paper discusses several technologies that have the potential to enhance facilities design verification. These approaches have shown promise in addressing the challenges associated with the verification of sub-component geometry and material composition for structures that are not directly accessible for physical inspection. A simple example is a pipe that extends into or through a wall or foundation. Both advanced electromagnetic and acoustic modalities will be discussed. These include advanced radar imaging, transient thermographic imaging, and guided acoustic wave imaging. Examples of current applications are provided. The basic principles and mechanisms of these inspection techniques are presented along with the salient practical features, advantages, and disadvantages of each technique. Other important considerations, such as component geometries, materials, and degree of access are also treated. The importance of, and strategies for, developing valid inspection models are also discussed. Beyond these basic technology adaptation and evaluation issues, important user interface considerations are outlined, along with approaches to quantify the overall performance reliability of the various inspection methods.

  2. The aerodynamic design of an advanced rotor airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced rotor airfoil, designed utilizing supercritical airfoil technology and advanced design and analysis methodology is described. The airfoil was designed subject to stringent aerodynamic design criteria for improving the performance over the entire rotor operating regime. The design criteria are discussed. The design was accomplished using a physical plane, viscous, transonic inverse design procedure, and a constrained function minimization technique for optimizing the airfoil leading edge shape. The aerodynamic performance objectives of the airfoil are discussed.

  3. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra Rao, RS

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  4. Ergonomic material-handling device

    DOEpatents

    Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.

    2004-08-24

    A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.

  5. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra Rao, R S

    2016-05-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  6. The Need to Reevaluate Nonresponding Ergonomic Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip J.; Field, Steven A.

    1999-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Environmental Health (EH) contractor performs ergonomic evaluations under its Ergonomic Program. Any KSC employee may request one or the reviewing physician may request one for a patient during a visit to an onsite medical facility. As part of the ergonomic evaluation, recommendations are given to the patient to help reduce any ergonomic problems they experience. The recommendations, if implemented, are successful in the majority of KSC patients; however, a group of patients do not seem to improve. Those who don't improve may be identified by reevaluations, which are performed to implement maximum resolution of ergonomic problems.

  7. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  8. Ergonomics in total quality management: how can we sell ergonomics to management?

    PubMed

    Lee, K S

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe how and why ergonomics should be promoted in total quality management (TQM). Ergonomics and TQM activities are compared. An approach is proposed to apply ergonomics in TQM using ergonomics circles. An eight-step approach is introduced for applying ergonomics using ergonomics circles and a study that employed this approach in Korea is discussed. In applying this approach, all processes were first evaluated by workers. Processes that were identified as problematic were analysed by a company-wide committee to set priorities for improvement. An ergonomics improvement team consisting of safety and health personnel, process engineers and management innovation personnel then worked on the processes using a low-cost approach. It was found that applying ergonomics using ergonomics circles as quality circles in TQM was effective in improving workplaces and resulted in increasing productivity, cost saving and improved safety.

  9. Eletrobras management program in ergonomics: the pursuit of excellence through maturity levels.

    PubMed

    Pires, Paulo Roberto de Oliveira Bassil; Rezende, Fagner Fagundes

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics for Eletrobras arose from the need in having an environment more suitable to the characteristics and circumstances of employees, in compliance with Regulation Standard no. 17 - Ergonomics (NR17) of the Ministry of Labor and Employment. Being a mixed economy company with regionalized anthropometric characteristics of its employees, the study of ergonomic adjustments and improvement of the concept of Ergonomics were and have been of great importance to the company's production environment. These advances have contributed to the development of specific technical criteria for the purchase of furniture and work tools (accessories), apart from their possible effects on the user. Ergonomics has been perceived as a technical-scientific tool, aimed to study labor interactions, new technologies and specific characteristics of the activities performed. To meet these demands a multidisciplinary Ergonomics Committee was created in Eletrobras, and effectively established the Ergonomics Management Program in the company; This program is marked by well-defined phases with great success in making use of these studies for other types of corporate activities and also facilitating the program control and its maturity levels, even at a business level.

  10. Eletrobras management program in ergonomics: the pursuit of excellence through maturity levels.

    PubMed

    Pires, Paulo Roberto de Oliveira Bassil; Rezende, Fagner Fagundes

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics for Eletrobras arose from the need in having an environment more suitable to the characteristics and circumstances of employees, in compliance with Regulation Standard no. 17 - Ergonomics (NR17) of the Ministry of Labor and Employment. Being a mixed economy company with regionalized anthropometric characteristics of its employees, the study of ergonomic adjustments and improvement of the concept of Ergonomics were and have been of great importance to the company's production environment. These advances have contributed to the development of specific technical criteria for the purchase of furniture and work tools (accessories), apart from their possible effects on the user. Ergonomics has been perceived as a technical-scientific tool, aimed to study labor interactions, new technologies and specific characteristics of the activities performed. To meet these demands a multidisciplinary Ergonomics Committee was created in Eletrobras, and effectively established the Ergonomics Management Program in the company; This program is marked by well-defined phases with great success in making use of these studies for other types of corporate activities and also facilitating the program control and its maturity levels, even at a business level. PMID:22317734

  11. Ergonomics: A bridge between fundamentals and applied research

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Subrata; Bagchi, Anandi; Sen, Devashish; Bandyopadhyay, Pathikrit

    2011-01-01

    Ergonomics is becoming a subject of applying fundamentals on anthropocentric dimensions for holistic welfare. The so-called conflict between Basic science and Applied research finds one of its edges in Ergonomics. Be it cutting-edge technology or frontiers of scientific innovation–all start from understanding basic scientific aptitude and skill, and the best way to get familiar with the situation is practicing basic science again and again at a regular basis. Ergonomics is diversified in such paradigms that truly set an example of such harmony between two apparently never-ending straight lines. If the spirit of Science is true human welfare, be it in the form of environmental development, machine development, technological advancement, human resource development, or development of consecutive interfaces between these components, Participatory Ergonomics is one of the vivid examples of such conglomeration. Although fundamental science may appear to be of very little practical significance, it turns out that eventually it has far greater impact on human society than much of the so-called “applied research.” PMID:21808495

  12. Developing a Rail Ergonomics Questionnaire (REQUEST).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Brendan; Wilson, John R; Sharples, Sarah; Morrisroe, Ged; Clarke, Theresa

    2009-03-01

    In this first of two papers the development of a shortened version of the Rail Ergonomics Questionnaire (REQUEST) is described. REQUEST has been designed to survey attitudes and opinions of railway workers on a range of human factors issues, with scales based on those used and validated elsewhere or else specially developed on the basis of studies of rail workers. Important characteristics of different roles, especially signallers, are outlined. The longer version of the questionnaire has already been used on a number of occasions for samples of 100-150. The shortened version was developed for the most recent administration of the survey to a large population. An expert group reviewed question wording, and the findings from the principal components analysis and other analyses of data from previous administrations of the survey. Improvements were made to the design and layout of the questionnaire. The effectiveness of the process for the expert review of questions is discussed. The survey was administered to high proportions of the target groups during the company safety briefing programme and achieved a sample size of almost 4000 respondents at an overall response rate of 83%. Findings from the REQUEST national survey are presented in a companion paper [Ryan, B., Wilson, J.R., Sharples, S., Clarke, T., 2008. Attitudes and opinions of railway signallers and related staff, using the Rail Ergonomics Questionnaire (REQUEST). Appl. Ergon., in press. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2008.04.010]. PMID:18555974

  13. Ergonomics research: Impact on injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, A.

    1997-03-01

    No tool has characterized the modern workplace like the personal computer. An estimated 60 million PCs adorn desks in virtually every work environment today, achieving remarkable increases in productivity while virtually transforming entire industries. At the same time, however, an increasing number of employees are heavy computer users who suffer painful and sometimes debilitating (and occasionally career-ending) injuries called work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) involving their hands and arms. Within computer-intensive occupations the incidence of injury has doubled every year for the past four years. These disorders cost the nation over $40 billion per year in medical costs alone. When productivity losses and disability and retraining costs are included, the total bill may top $80 billion per year. A common injury is tendonitis--inflammation of tendons, which connect muscle to bone. Another well-publicized injury, carpal tunnel syndrome, involves damage to the median nerve that travels through a tight space in the wrist called the carpal tunnel. In the past, safety at most work sites, including Lawrence Livermore, traditionally focused on avoiding accidental injuries caused by hazardous materials or industrial equipment. As a result, procedures and instruments were developed that can detect, for example, toxic solvents at extremely low levels. Little is known about the range of WRMSDs which can lend itself to avoiding these problems. In response to the lack of scientific data, Lawrence Livermore`s Interdisciplinary Ergonomics Research Program is addressing comprehensively the problem of WRMSDs plaguing US industry. The program uses a multidisciplinary research team that taps LLNL`s strengths in human factors design and engineering, computational modeling, biomechanical engineering, sensors, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine.

  14. Training in practical ergonomics improvements.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1989-06-01

    Recent ILO experiences show that concrete ergonomics improvements can result from learning-by-doing training in real settings. Particularly important is to build on local practice focusing on good examples already available. Checklist exercise, demonstrating low-cost solutions and group work are effective training tools. Opportunities can be widely created by such enabling training.

  15. Metrology and ergonomic mensuration parameters.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, C; Drucker, L

    2012-01-01

    This poster intends to show how measurement, its concepts and methods are decisive to the ergonomic praxis and why their agents should be aware of how incertainty can be taken in the process in order to increase the accuracy of measurement and findings.

  16. Ergonomics: A Commonsense Activity That Can Save Schools Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Paul; Gauthier-Green, Erin

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of ergonomics to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Describes ergonomics and how to identify ergonomic problems, conduct a job hazard analysis, and develop solutions. Also lists common ergonomic errors in schools. Provides an ergonomic checklist for employees…

  17. Ergonomics standards concerning human-system interaction: visual displays, controls and environmental requirements.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T

    1995-08-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explain one of the most important ergonomics standards for computer equipment (ISO 9241), and help the reader to understand how to use it when selecting or designing visual display unit (VDU) equipment and systems. In this paper, we cover general issues, then consider hardware and environmental issues. The software ergonomics and dialogue design issues and corresponding parts will be addressed by Susan Harker in another paper in this special issue. PMID:15677029

  18. Participatory ergonomics simulation of hospital work systems: The influence of simulation media on simulation outcome.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups' high fidelity of room layout and affordance of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models' high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity organization. Furthermore, the study addresses the form of the identified and evaluated conditions, being either identified challenges or tangible design criteria.

  19. Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-07-01

    Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries.

  20. Advanced technologies impact on compressor design and development: A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  1. Advanced technology's impact on compressor design and development - A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  2. Snap-on-handles for a non-powered hacksaw: an ergonomics evaluation, redesign and testing.

    PubMed

    Das, B; Jongkol, P; Ngui, S

    2005-01-01

    Based on the ergonomics evaluation of existing non-powered hacksaws with original/horizontal and conventional/market handles, ergonomically designed hacksaw handles are proposed. To accommodate the entire male and female populations, the hand dimensions are categorized into three groups: small, medium and large. The proposed handles give special emphasis to hand size, length, cross-section dimension and curvature. The three-sized handles for both the preferred (rear) and non-preferred (front) hands are interchangeable to suit the individual hand size. Thus, the concept of 'snap-on-handles' with a fixed hacksaw (blade) can be promoted. The ergonomically designed hacksaw handles were tested/compared with original/horizontal and conventional/market hacksaw handles, in terms of performance or productivity (depth of cut), muscular effort or strain (EMG) and subjective scores (acceptance/comfort). The experimental results conclusively proved that the ergonomically designed hacksaw handles were significantly better than the other handles in terms of the stated criteria. The performance or productivity improvements of the ergonomically designed handles were about 25 and 148%, when compared with the conventional/market and original/horizontal handles, respectively. Furthermore, when the ergonomically designed handle was not matched with the proper or appropriate hand size, there was a significant reduction in performance or productivity, increase in muscular effort and decrease in subjective scores of acceptance/comfort. PMID:15764308

  3. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  4. Ergonomics in an oral pathology laboratory: Back to basics in microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sundaragiri, Krishna Sireesha; Shrivastava, Shikha; Sankhla, Bharat; Bhargava, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics is simply a science focused on “study of work” to reduce fatigue and discomfort through product design. A comprehensive ergonomics program for the pathology laboratory has become necessary to prevent the occurrence of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and accidents. Most of the literature on ergonomics involve various web links or occasional studies on the effect of laboratory work and associated MSDs. A Google search was carried out corresponding to the terms “ergonomics”, “pathology laboratory”, “microscope”. All the relevant literature from web sources was sorted out and categorized. In this review, we intend to identify basic anthropometric factors, biomechanical risk factors, laboratory design considerations and specific microscopy-related considerations. The ultimate aim of ergonomics is to provide a safe environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work and to allow maximum flexibility for safe research use. PMID:25364157

  5. Advanced Design Mixer Pump Tank 18 Design Modifications Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, B.J.

    2002-12-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is preparing to retrieve high level waste (HLW) from Tank 18 in early FY03 to provide feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and to support tank closure in FY04. As part of the Tank 18 project, WSRC will install a single Advanced Design Mixer Pump (ADMP) in the center riser of Tank 18 to mobilize, suspend, and mix radioactive sludge in preparation for transfer to Tank 7. The use of a single ADMP is a change to the current baseline of four (4) standard slurry pumps used during previous waste retrieval campaigns. The ADMP was originally conceived by Hanford and supported by SRS to provide a more reliable and maintainable mixer pump for use throughout the DOE complex. The ADMP underwent an extensive test program at SRS between 1998 and 2002 to assess reliability and hydraulic performance. The ADMP ran for approximately 4,200 hours over the four-year period. A detailed tear down and inspection of the pump following the 4,2 00-hour run revealed that the gas mechanical seals and anti-friction bearings would need to be refurbished/replaced prior to deployment in Tank 18. Design modifications were also needed to meet current Authorization Basis safety requirements. This report documents the modifications made to the ADMP in support of Tank 18 deployment. This report meets the requirements of Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Milestone 3591.4-1, ''Issue Report on Modifications Made to the ADMP,'' contained in Technical Task Plan (TTP) SR16WT51, ''WSRC Retrieval and Closure.''

  6. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  7. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, 1989 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are to experimentally confirm several advanced design concepts on the Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS). The advanced design concepts were identified as potential improvements by Madison Magnetics, Inc. (MMI) during 1984 and 1985 studies of an MSBS utilizing 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in an airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. This study confirmed several advanced design concepts on magnetic suspension and balance systems. The 1989 MSBS redesign is based on the results of these experiments. Savings of up to 30 percent in supporting magnet ampere meters and 50 percent in energy stored over the 1985 design were achieved.

  8. Design of the advanced regional aircraft, the DART-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Steve; Gislason, Jason; Huffstetler, Mark; Mann, Jon; Withers, Ashley; Zimmerman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    This design analysis is intended to show the capabilities of the DART-75, a 75 passenger medium-range regional transport. Included are the detailed descriptions of the structures, performance, stability and control, weight and balance, and engine design. The design should allow for the DART to become the premier regional aircraft of the future due to some advanced features like the canard, semi-composite construction, and advanced engines.

  9. Advances in technologies and study design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Completion of the initial draft sequence of the human genome was the proving ground for and has ushered in significant advancements in technology of increasing sophistication and ever increasing amounts of data. Often, this combination has a multiplicative effect of stimulating research groups to co...

  10. Ergonomics, quality and continuous improvement--conceptual and empirical relationships in an industrial context.

    PubMed

    Eklund, J

    1997-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature comparing the fields of ergonomics and quality, mainly in an industrial context, including mutual influences, similarities and differences. Relationships between ergonomics and the factors: work conditions, product design, ISO 9000, continuous improvements and TQM are reviewed in relation to the consequence, application, and process domains. The definitions of ergonomics and quality overlap substantially. Quality deficiencies, human errors and ergonomics problems often have the same cause, which in many cases can be traced to the design of work, workplace and environment e.g. noise, light, postures, loads, pace and work content. In addition, the possibility of performing to a high standard at work is an important prerequisite for satisfaction and well-being. Contradictions between the two fields have been identified in the view of concepts such as standardization, reduction of variability and copying of best practice, requiring further research. The field of quality would gain by incorporating ergonomics knowledge, especially in the areas of work design and human capability, since these factors are decisive for human performance and also therefore the performance of the systems involved. The field of ergonomics, on the other hand, would benefit from developing a stronger emphasis on methodologies and structures for improvement processes, including a clearer link with leadership and company strategies. Just as important is a further development of practicable participative ergonomics methods and tools for use at workplaces by the workers themselves, in order to integrate the top-down and the bottom-up processes and achieve better impact. Using participative processes for problem-solving and continuous improvement, focusing ergonomics and quality jointly has a great potential for improving working conditions and quality results simultaneously, and satisfying most of the interested parties.

  11. A checklist for evaluating ergonomic risk factors associated with upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders.

    PubMed

    Keyserling, W M; Stetson, D S; Silverstein, B A; Brouwer, M L

    1993-07-01

    A two-page checklist for determining the presence of ergonomic risk factors associated with the development of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (e.g., repetitiveness, local mechanical contact stresses, forceful manual exertions, awkward postures, and hand tool usage) was developed and evaluated as part of a joint labour-management ergonomics intervention programme. This checklist was used by plant personnel at four work sites to assess the presence of upper extremity risk factors in 335 manufacturing and warehouse jobs. In addition, results generated by the checklist were compared to the results of ergonomic analyses performed by persons with advanced training (Masters degree) in occupational ergonomics for a subset of 51 jobs. Most of the jobs included in the survey were found to have significant exposures to upper extremity risk factors. Awkward work postures were common, with 90% of the jobs requiring wrist deviations outside the neutral range-of-motion. The jobs were also highly repetitive and frequently required workers to exert high hand forces. Results generated by the checklist were generally in agreement with results generated by the ergonomic analysts; however, the checklist was found to be more sensitive in identifying the presence of risk factors. The checklist was found to be an effective rapid-screening instrument for identifying jobs that expose workers to potentially harmful ergonomic stresses. However, the checklist methodology did not include sufficient documentation of work methods to identify specific job attributes associated with these exposures. PMID:8339720

  12. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction: Graphics and Animation Components for Interface Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Richardson, Lucy

    We present an analysis of communicability methodology in graphics and animation components for interface design, called CAN (Communicability, Acceptability and Novelty). This methodology has been under development between 2005 and 2010, obtaining excellent results in cultural heritage, education and microcomputing contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between ergonomics, usability, user-centered design, software quality and the human-computer interaction. We also present the heuristic results about iconography and layout design in blogs and websites of the following countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal and France.

  13. How could you use the ergonomics 'knowhow' transfer management to enhance human working for sustainable improvements in industrially developing countries?

    PubMed

    Helali, Faramarz

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the different strategic understanding from getting ergonomics intervention programmes' conversations to 'Tip', including minimizing strategies; tipping point strategies; and maximizing strategies from building ergonomics intervention techniques. Those have indicated to different recognitions: 1) when amplification of the 'problem' is necessary; 2) when amplification of the 'tipping point' is necessary, and 3) when amplification of the 'success' is necessary. The practical applications and implications of the ergonomics intervention techniques are drawn from the findings of framing positive questions: 1) what is successful ergonomics intervention technique right now (Appreciative)? 2) What do we need to change for a better future (Imagine)? 3) How do we do this (Design)? 4) Who takes action and with what consequences (Act)? This requires re-framing of the ergonomics intervention techniques in an appreciative way, because of, the future action needs to be inspired by those things that participants feel are worth valuing, worth celebrating and sustaining.

  14. Advances in Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) is a core methodology of the Learning Sciences. Historically rooted as a movement away from the methods of experimental psychology, it is a means to develop "humble" theory that takes into account numerous contextual effects for understanding how and why a design supported learning. DBR involves iterative…

  15. Integrating ergonomics into production system development--the Volvo Powertrain case.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W Patrick; Ekman, Marianne; Winkel, Jørgen

    2009-05-01

    Understanding the barriers and assists to integrating ergonomics into production system design remains a research issue. An action research case study at Volvo Powertrain/Sweden was conducted. Researchers worked collaboratively with the firm in efforts to improve the company's ability to handle ergonomics in their daily work of improving and developing production systems. Researchers observed and reflected collectively on the change process using field notes and recordings to support their observations. Observed integration barriers included both individual level issues like life events, and organisational aspects such as communication barriers between groups or assignment of tasks to people not involved in decision-making. Observed assists included the 'political reflective navigation' (c.f. Broberg, O., Hermund, I., 2004. The OHS consultant as a 'political reflective navigator' in technological change processes. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 33 (4), 315-326) by the project owner to find new ways to overcome barriers and anchor ergonomics into the organisation. While special 'ergonomics' groups did not survive long, progress was observed in including ergonomics in regular design groups. A cross-functional workshop that fostered discussion across organisational boundaries helped shift focus from retrofitting systems to future production systems and improve engagement of engineering teams. Progress was marked by both success and setbacks and full integration appears to require more than 2 years time. It is concluded that support by senior managers should include succession planning for personnel that are key to the change effort. PMID:19019347

  16. Real World Projects in an Advanced Instructional Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Chatervert, Lake, Kristy; Wilson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This design case focuses on the redesign of Advanced Instructional Design, a capstone course taught in a Midwestern university's Masters of Training and Development program. The goal of the course was to have students integrate knowledge and skills from previous courses including needs assessment, introduction to instructional design, and program…

  17. An infant surgical table for laser photocoagulation: ergonomic improvement analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryland, K A; Nelson, C A; Hejkal, T W

    2010-02-01

    Current methods of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity, using laser photocoagulation, require surgeons to assume awkward standing positions, which can result in occupational injury. A new infant surgical table was designed for improving this surgical procedure. To quantify its benefits, an ergonomic comparison of the standard and modified procedures was carried out, using specialized checklists, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaires, and analysis of videotaped procedures using an Ovako Working Posture Analysing System method. Analysis of the typical laser photocoagulation procedure revealed a high risk for cumulative trauma disorders. The majority of the risk factors were lowered considerably with use of the new table. Improvement was largely due to the new table allowing seated postures during surgery, relieving muscular stress on the back, shoulders and legs. This study demonstrates risk reduction through engineering design of new medical devices, and illustrates how combining different assessment approaches can help evaluate ergonomic impact of medical technologies.

  18. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  19. Advanced solar concentrator: Preliminary and detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Maraschin, R. A.; Matsushita, M. T.; Erskine, D.; Carlton, R.; Jakovcevic, A.; Yasuda, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    A single reflection point focusing two-axis tracking paraboloidal dish with a reflector aperture diameter of approximately 11 m has a reflective surface made up of 64 independent, optical quality gores. Each gore is a composite of a thin backsilvered mirror glass face sheet continuously bonded to a contoured substrate of lightweight, rigid cellular glass. The use of largely self-supporting gores allows a significant reduction in the weight of the steel support structure as compared to alternate design concepts. Primary emphasis in the preliminary design package for the low-cost, low-weight, mass producible concentrator was placed on the design of the higher cost subsystems. The outer gore element was sufficiently designed to allow fabrication of prototype gores.

  20. NASA/USRA advanced design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes and presents a preliminary design for an experimental hypersonic vehicle. This plane will have a cruise speed of Mach 12 for one minute at an altitude of 120,000 feet. The major design areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and weights are discussed in depth. An elementary analysis of thermal protection, trajectory, and cost is also presented. Finally, a discussion of future plans and recommendations is given, and overall conclusions are drawn.

  1. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  2. C.A.D. and ergonomic workstations conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keravel, Francine

    1986-07-01

    Computer Aided Design is able to perform workstation's conception. An ergonomic data could be complete this view and warrant a coherent fiability conception. Complexe form representation machines, anthropometric data and environment factors are allowed to perceive the limit points between humain and new technology situation. Work ability users, safety, confort and human efficiency could be also included. Such a programm with expert system integration will give a complete listing appreciation about workstation's conception.

  3. Advanced nursing practice: old hat, new design.

    PubMed

    De Grasse, C; Nicklin, W

    2001-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses positively impact the delivery of healthcare and client outcomes. However, in the past these positions have been seen to have variable value and were often vulnerable during budget cuts. Lack of a clear advanced nursing practice (ANP) framework probably contributed to the compromised effectiveness of these roles and evolution of roles with different titles, scopes of practice and reporting structures. To build the foundation for developing an ANP framework, a task force at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) conducted a literature review related to ANP roles and completed a review of all clinical nursing roles at TOH. In addition, focus groups with nurses and other health professionals elicited ANP perceptions. The ANP framework includes a standardized job description that details competencies under five role components: clinical practice; consultation; research; education; and, leadership. Recommendations for assessment, implementation and evaluation of ANP roles are identified. The process undertaken by our ANP task force proved to be thorough and sound in developing a framework within which to move forward with ANP role implementation throughout TOH. This article, describing the process, may assist other organizations in defining ANP roles to better meet patient needs in changing health care environments. PMID:11803945

  4. Corporate ergonomics programme at automobiles Peugeot-Sochaux.

    PubMed

    Moreau, M

    2003-01-01

    An ergonomic assessment tool for design procedures, exclusive to Peugeot-Citroën, called ECM, was developed and applied at the design stage by method technicians in the 1990s. It generates data, which are followed up by the project leader of a new model and ergonomists until two years before each launch. During this time, vehicle design is subject to modification, to adapt to ergonomic demands. Simplified methods (DACORS and METEO) were also developed to assess workstations on the shop floor in trim and final plants. Assessments were used to grade the workstations into four profiles linked to physical and static requirements. Production technicians are responsible for the application of these local methods on the shop floor. The management of these centres aimed to reduce the risks of musculoskeletal disorders by reduced heavy profiles of these stations. New cases of musculoskeletal disorders, surveyed by the company doctor among workers on the assembly lines had decreased since 1996. In 1999, the incidence increased again, despite the pursuit of ergonomic methods. This increase in musculoskeletal disorders was above all linked to a major reorganisation of work conditions, including a reduction in the cycle time on the assembly line, and to a move into a new workshop.

  5. Reconfigurable Advanced Receiver Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jianjing

    2005-01-01

    While the demand for real-time broadband information access has grown and continues to grow at a rapid Pace, the need for a reconfigurable receiver system has increased. To achieve the goal to communicate with multiple shuttles at a time, a filter bank in polyphase structure is introduced. This paper presents the design and implementation for high-speed, high-performance, and fixed-point polyphase filter banks. The polyphase filter structure is designed such that the use of a fixed-point system has minimum impact on the performance of the filter. The final hardware implementation is done on a Xilinx FPGA chip.

  6. Advances in electrometer vacuum tube design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Single-ended, miniature-cathode tube with a relatively low grid current level is constructed. Adequate cathode temperature at relatively low heater power drain is provided by designing the supporting spacers to provide a square cathode hole. Method of assembling the mount and bonding the elements is discussed.

  7. Ergonomic Considerations for the Human Environment: Color Treatment, Lighting, and Furniture Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Michelle M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ergonomic design considerations for library media centers. Specific design variables, including temperature and humidity, noise, illumination, color, and windows are discussed; and computer workstation design requirements are presented that address furniture and keyboard design, monitor and display features, software issues, and…

  8. Ergonomics Climate Assessment: A measure of operational performance and employee well-being.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Krista; Gibbons, Alyssa; Schwatka, Natalie; Rosecrance, John

    2015-09-01

    Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being.

  9. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  10. Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.

  11. Advances in structure-based vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the tremendous successes of current vaccines, infectious diseases still take a heavy toll on the global population, and that provides strong rationale for broadening our vaccine development repertoire. Structural vaccinology, in which protein structure information is utilized to design immunogens, has promise to provide new vaccines against traditionally difficult targets. Crystal structures of antigens containing one or more protection epitopes, especially when in complex with a protective antibody, are the launching point for immunogen design. Integrating structure and sequence information for families of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has recently enabled the creation of germline-targeting immunogens that bind and activate germline B-cells in order to initiate the elicitation of such antibodies. The contacts between antigen and neutralizing antibody define a structural epitope, and methods have been developed to transplant epitopes to scaffold proteins for structural stabilization, and to design minimized antigens that retain one or more key epitopes while eliminating other potentially distracting or unnecessary features. To develop vaccines that protect against antigenically variable pathogens, pioneering structure-based work demonstrated that multiple strain-specific epitopes could be engineered onto a single immunogen. We review these recent structural vaccinology efforts to engineer germline-targeting, epitope-specific, and/or broad coverage immunogens. PMID:23806515

  12. Advances in structure-based vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R

    2013-06-01

    Despite the tremendous successes of current vaccines, infectious diseases still take a heavy toll on the global population, and that provides strong rationale for broadening our vaccine development repertoire. Structural vaccinology, in which protein structure information is utilized to design immunogens, has promise to provide new vaccines against traditionally difficult targets. Crystal structures of antigens containing one or more protection epitopes, especially when in complex with a protective antibody, are the launching point for immunogen design. Integrating structure and sequence information for families of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has recently enabled the creation of germline-targeting immunogens that bind and activate germline B-cells in order to initiate the elicitation of such antibodies. The contacts between antigen and neutralizing antibody define a structural epitope, and methods have been developed to transplant epitopes to scaffold proteins for structural stabilization, and to design minimized antigens that retain one or more key epitopes while eliminating other potentially distracting or unnecessary features. To develop vaccines that protect against antigenically variable pathogens, pioneering structure-based work demonstrated that multiple strain-specific epitopes could be engineered onto a single immunogen. We review these recent structural vaccinology efforts to engineer germline-targeting, epitope-specific, and/or broad coverage immunogens.

  13. The question of the ergonomic use of virtual models.

    PubMed

    Castañon, J A B; Saraiva, T S; Araujo, T T

    2012-01-01

    The comfort and functionality between man and his surroundings are the main goals of ergonomics, making it are increasingly in the production process. Many companies have tried Virtual Reality Center (VRC) to assist the analysis and development of ergonomic products. The use of virtual models brings many benefits to the design of products, including greater flexibility, speed and quality, and facilitates the control and reporting, also integrating all stages of the project. There are still some difficulties for the deployment of these resources, like the need for more powerful computers and specialized professionals. Possibly, the VR will be indispensable to the construction in some years, becoming a tool of fundamental importance to the professionals.

  14. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  15. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    The analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs for the development of photovoltaic modules is presented. Analytical models are developed to test optical, thermal, electrical and structural properties of the various encapsulation systems. Model data is compared to relevant test data to improve model accuracy and develop general principles for the design of photovoltaic modules.

  16. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  17. Advancements in ion diode and triode design

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.

    2014-02-15

    Selfconsistent laminar flow models, which enable to predict the optimal cathode and anode geometry in simple diodes, must be modified to account for the anode aperture and the effect of other electrodes. An equation for charge coupled to arbitrary laminar flows is here first presented and its numerical solutions are obtained with a new method, based on mesh transformations. It is found that a close match to theoretical flows requires an increase of the simple diode voltage v{sub 0} by an amount v{sub δ}, which, for a typical case designed for zero exit angle condition, are v{sub 0} = 0.7465 and v{sub δ} = 0.0294 in adimensional units. States “in” and “out” for the anode lens are also shown, where “out” is a new and nonlinear solution for the beam expansion in a drift tube.

  18. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  19. AEDOT technology. [Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT)

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.

    1993-03-01

    Most commercial buildings designed today will use more energy and cost more to operate and maintain than necessary. If energy performance were considered early in building design, 30% to 60% of the energy now used in new commercial buildings could be saved cost-effectively. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings; the tools for doing so simply do not yet exist. Computer technology can help design teams consider energy performance as an integral part of the design process. This technology could enable designers to produce much more energy-efficient buildings without increasing the costs of building design. Recognizing this, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The aim of the project is to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these potentially large energy savings. The success of the AEDOT project depends largely on the ability to develop energy design-support tools that can be integrated into comprehensive building design environments so that all parts of the design process willbe supported. Energy, just one consideration among many in building design, must be considered in a context that includes visual, acoustic, and structural aspects; accessibility; thermal comfort; indoor air quality; cost; and other factors associated with the quality, acceptability, and performance of a building. Advanced computer-aided design support environments will need to integrate tools from many different domains and provide access to the vast amounts of data that designers need to apply these tools and to make informed decisions.

  20. Advanced Remote Maintenance Design for Pilot-Scale Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Lawrence Macaluso

    2011-02-01

    Advanced designs of used nuclear fuel recycling processes and radioactive waste treatment processes are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Pilot-scale testing will be an integral part of development of many of these processes. An advanced design for remote maintenance of pilot-scale centrifugal contactors has been developed and a prototype module fabricated and tested for a commercially available pilot-scale centrifugal contactor (CINC V-02, 5-cm rotor diameter). Advanced design features include air actuated clamps for holding the motor-rotor assembly in place, an integral electrical connection, upper flange o-rings, a welded bottom plate, a lifting bale, and guide pins. These design features will allow for rapid replacement of the motor rotor assembly, which can be accomplished while maintaining process equilibrium. Hydraulic testing of a three-stage prototype unit was also performed to verify that design changes did not impact performance of the centrifugal contactors. Details of the pilot-scale remote maintenance design, results of testing in a remote mockup test facility, and results of hydraulic testing of the advanced design are provided.

  1. CFD analyses for advanced pump design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, F. J.; Choi, S.-K.; Govindan, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    As one of the activities of the NASA/MSFC Pump Stage Technology Team, the present effort was focused on using CFD in the design and analysis of high performance rocket engine pumps. Under this effort, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was used for various inducer and impeller flow field calculations. An existing algebraic grid generation procedure was-extended to allow for nonzero blade thickness, splitter blades, and hub/shroud cavities upstream or downstream of the (main) blades. This resulted in a fast, robust inducer/impeller geometry/grid generation package. Problems associated with running a compressible flow code to simulate an incompressible flow were resolved; related aspects of the numerical algorithm (viz., the matrix preconditioning, the artificial dissipation, and the treatment of low Mach number flows) were addressed. As shown by the calculations performed under the present effort, the resulting code, in conjunction with the grid generation package, is an effective tool for the rapid solution of three-dimensional viscous inducer and impeller flows.

  2. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  3. Ergonomic initiatives at Inmetro: measuring occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Drucker, L; Amaral, M; Carvalheira, C

    2012-01-01

    This work studies biomechanical hazards to which the workforce of Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Industrial (Inmetro) is exposed. It suggests a model for ergonomic evaluation of work, based on the concepts of resilience engineering which take into consideration the institute's ability to manage risk and deal with its consequences. Methodology includes the stages of identification, inventory, analysis, and risk management. Diagnosis of the workplace uses as parameters the minimal criteria stated in Brazilian legislation. The approach has several prospectives and encompasses the points of view of public management, safety engineering, physical therapy and ergonomics-oriented design. The suggested solution integrates all aspects of the problem: biological, psychological, sociological and organizational. Results obtained from a pilot Project allow to build a significant sample of Inmetro's workforce, identifying problems and validating the methodology employed as a tool to be applied to the whole institution. Finally, this work intends to draw risk maps and support goals and methods based on resiliency engineering to assess environmental and ergonomic risk management.

  4. Ergonomic initiatives at Inmetro: measuring occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Drucker, L; Amaral, M; Carvalheira, C

    2012-01-01

    This work studies biomechanical hazards to which the workforce of Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Industrial (Inmetro) is exposed. It suggests a model for ergonomic evaluation of work, based on the concepts of resilience engineering which take into consideration the institute's ability to manage risk and deal with its consequences. Methodology includes the stages of identification, inventory, analysis, and risk management. Diagnosis of the workplace uses as parameters the minimal criteria stated in Brazilian legislation. The approach has several prospectives and encompasses the points of view of public management, safety engineering, physical therapy and ergonomics-oriented design. The suggested solution integrates all aspects of the problem: biological, psychological, sociological and organizational. Results obtained from a pilot Project allow to build a significant sample of Inmetro's workforce, identifying problems and validating the methodology employed as a tool to be applied to the whole institution. Finally, this work intends to draw risk maps and support goals and methods based on resiliency engineering to assess environmental and ergonomic risk management. PMID:22317693

  5. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Synthetic biology: advancing the design of diverse genetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Hsiang; Wei, Kathy Y.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    A main objective of synthetic biology is to make the process of designing genetically-encoded biological systems more systematic, predictable, robust, scalable, and efficient. The examples of genetic systems in the field vary widely in terms of operating hosts, compositional approaches, and network complexity, ranging from a simple genetic switch to search-and-destroy systems. While significant advances in synthesis capabilities support the potential for the implementation of pathway- and genome-scale programs, several design challenges currently restrict the scale of systems that can be reasonably designed and implemented. Synthetic biology offers much promise in developing systems to address challenges faced in manufacturing, the environment and sustainability, and health and medicine, but the realization of this potential is currently limited by the diversity of available parts and effective design frameworks. As researchers make progress in bridging this design gap, advances in the field hint at ever more diverse applications for biological systems. PMID:23413816

  7. Introducing Ergonomics in Two US Elementary Schools

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C L; Tien, D

    2003-06-25

    The increasing presence of computers and other forms of information and communications technology (ICT) in schools has raised concerns in the United States (US) and elsewhere. Children are using computers more than any other age group in the US. It is not known whether early intensive use of ICT predisposes children to future injury. Ergonomics is not included in state curriculum standards or requirements but can be supported by some of the existing standards. Some who believe that children are better off being educated early about ergonomics are taking action to bring ergonomics into elementary and secondary schools. This paper describes the process used to introduce ergonomics into two elementary schools in two different states by initiators with two different roles.

  8. An Assessment of Student Computer Ergonomic Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melody W.

    1997-01-01

    Business students (n=254) were assessed on their knowledge of computers, health and safety, radiation, workstations, and ergonomic techniques. Overall knowledge was low in all categories. In particular, they had not learned computer-use techniques. (SK)

  9. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  10. WRAP 2A advanced conceptual design report comments

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1994-10-04

    This report contains the compilation of the 393 comments that were submitted during the review of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A. The report was prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Englewood, Colorado for the United States Department of Energy. The review was performed by a variety of organizations identified in the report. The comments were addressed first by the Westinghouse cognizant engineers and then by the Raytheon cognizant engineers, and incorporated into the final issue of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report.

  11. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  12. Ergonomics

    MedlinePlus

    ... the system employers use to track and record workplace injuries and illnesses. Final rule became effective on Jan. ... Notices | International | Contact Us U.S. Department of Labor | Occupational Safety & Health Administration | 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC ...

  13. Ergonomics

    MedlinePlus

    ... work might include Adjusting the position of your computer keyboard to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome Being sure that the height of your desk chair allows your feet to rest flat on floor Learning the right way to lift heavy objects to ...

  14. Ergonomic assessment of porridge roaming sale system.

    PubMed

    Braga, J; Cardoso, V; Abreu, A; Didoné, L; Evangelista, M; Serra, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper makes suggestions for the realization of an ergonomic intervention, guided by the method of Moraes and Mont'Alvão (2009), in the system of street vending of porridge, to improve the working conditions of this sales segment. Specifics are given about this practice and its problems, from ergonomic analysis comes to suggestions for improvements to be applied to a new system.

  15. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  16. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Summer Conference: NASA/USRA University Advanced Aeronautics Design Program and Advanced Space Design Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was established in 1984 as an attempt to add more and better design education to primarily undergraduate engineering programs. The original focus of the pilot program encompassing nine universities and five NASA centers was on space design. Two years later, the program was expanded to include aeronautics design with six universities and three NASA centers participating. This year marks the last of a three-year cycle of participation by forty-one universities, eight NASA centers, and one industry participant. The Advanced Space Design Program offers universities an opportunity to plan and design missions and hardware that would be of usc in the future as NASA enters a new era of exploration and discovery, while the Advanced Aeronautics Design Program generally offers opportunities for study of design problems closer to the present time, ranging from small, slow-speed vehicles to large, supersonic and hypersonic passenger transports. The systems approach to the design problem is emphasized in both the space and aeronautics projects. The student teams pursue the chosen problem during their senior year in a one- or two-semester capstone design course and submit a comprehensive written report at the conclusion of the project. Finally, student representatives from each of the universities summarize their work in oral presentations at the Annual Summer Conference, sponsored by one of the NASA centers and attended by the university faculty, NASA and USRA personnel and aerospace industry representatives. As the Advanced Design Program has grown in size, it has also matured in terms of the quality of the student projects. The present volume represents the student work accomplished during the 1992-1993 academic year reported at the Ninth Annual Summer Conference hosted by NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, June 14-18, 1993.

  17. Aerodynamic Design Study of Advanced Multistage Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Medd, Adam J.; Dang, Thong Q.

    2002-01-01

    As a direct response to the need for further performance gains from current multistage axial compressors, an investigation of advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to compact, high-efficiency, and wide-operability configurations is being pursued. Part I of this report describes the projected level of technical advancement relative to the state of the art and quantifies it in terms of basic aerodynamic technology elements of current design systems. A rational enhancement of these elements is shown to lead to a substantial expansion of the design and operability space. Aerodynamic design considerations for a four-stage core compressor intended to serve as a vehicle to develop, integrate, and demonstrate aerotechnology advancements are discussed. This design is biased toward high efficiency at high loading. Three-dimensional blading and spanwise tailoring of vector diagrams guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to manage the aerodynamics of the high-loaded endwall regions. Certain deleterious flow features, such as leakage-vortex-dominated endwall flow and strong shock-boundary-layer interactions, were identified and targeted for improvement. However, the preliminary results were encouraging and the front two stages were extracted for further aerodynamic trimming using a three-dimensional inverse design method described in part II of this report. The benefits of the inverse design method are illustrated by developing an appropriate pressure-loading strategy for transonic blading and applying it to reblade the rotors in the front two stages of the four-stage configuration. Multistage CFD simulations based on the average passage formulation indicated an overall efficiency potential far exceeding current practice for the front two stages. Results of the CFD simulation at the aerodynamic design point are interrogated to identify areas requiring additional development. In spite of the significantly higher aerodynamic loadings, advanced CFD

  18. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Ergonomics Committee FY 94 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the Committee`s accomplishments for fiscal year 1994. Ergonomic issues are getting increased attention nationwide. This is a result of ergonomic hazards impacting the safety and health of employees, and companies ``bottom line`` via an increase in medical and workers` compensation costs. The Committee reviews injury and illness data, advises management of ergonomic trends at LBL, initiates corrective action to mitigate ergonomic hazards, and sponsors ergonomic awareness activities. Documented evidence supports the claim that implementing cost-effective ergonomic solutions are a good investment.

  19. Ergonomics issues in conceiving an accessible project.

    PubMed

    Costa, A L; Coura, P V; Gomes, M M A; Peregrino, Y R; Sarmento, B R; Sousa, R A

    2012-01-01

    Public space is endowed with undeniable social relevance, thus becoming a defining element of integration and interaction among its users. Aware of this importance the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), linked to the Ministério da Educação e Cultura (MEC), develops the project "UFPB para todos: eliminando barreiras'' (UFPB for all: removing barriers) that aims to conceive an architectural design of an accessible rout to UFPB's campus I, and execute a pilot stretch of this route. This article aims to subsidize the preprojectual phase by understanding the needs of this campus' users, through the concepts of ergonomics and universal design. Was performed out direct observation of the space, and the methods of interviews and observation of user behavior were applied to a group of students with disabilities, through the techniques of assisted walking, photographic and video recording. Based on those, projective guidelines have been defined, which will contribute to the final project's quality, so that this is not a simple application of the rule, but works free of segregating barriers.

  20. Advanced radial inflow turbine rotor program: Design and dynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The advancement of small, cooled, radial inflow turbine technology in the area of operation at higher turbine inlet temperature is discussed. The first step was accomplished by designing, fabricating, and subjecting to limited mechanical testing an advanced gas generator rotating assembly comprising a radial inflow turbine and two-stage centrifugal compressor. The radial inflow turbine and second-stage compressor were designed as an integrally machined monorotor with turbine cooling taking place basically by conduction to the compressor. Design turbine inlet rotor gas temperature, rotational speed, and overall gas generator compressor pressure ratio were 1422 K (2560 R), 71,222 rpm, and 10/1 respectively. Mechanical testing on a fabricated rotating assembly and bearing system covered 1,000 cold start/stop cycles and three spins to 120 percent design speed (85,466 rpm).

  1. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  2. Advanced Jewelry Design. Art Education: 6684.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinaccio, Louis M.

    See SO 007 721 for an introduction to the Visual Arts Education Curriculum of which this course in jewelry design is a part. In the course students further skills in forming complex objects through experience with casting, bezeling stones, and welding. Course content includes an historical perspective on jewelry production and advanced methods in…

  3. Instructional Design Theory: Advancements from Cognitive Science and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…

  4. Cost and accuracy of advanced breeding trial designs in apple

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Julia M; Evans, Kate M; Hardner, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Trialing advanced candidates in tree fruit crops is expensive due to the long-term nature of the planting and labor-intensive evaluations required to make selection decisions. How closely the trait evaluations approximate the true trait value needs balancing with the cost of the program. Designs of field trials of advanced apple candidates in which reduced number of locations, the number of years and the number of harvests per year were modeled to investigate the effect on the cost and accuracy in an operational breeding program. The aim was to find designs that would allow evaluation of the most additional candidates while sacrificing the least accuracy. Critical percentage difference, response to selection, and correlated response were used to examine changes in accuracy of trait evaluations. For the quality traits evaluated, accuracy and response to selection were not substantially reduced for most trial designs. Risk management influences the decision to change trial design, and some designs had greater risk associated with them. Balancing cost and accuracy with risk yields valuable insight into advanced breeding trial design. The methods outlined in this analysis would be well suited to other horticultural crop breeding programs. PMID:27019717

  5. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  6. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  7. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-27

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model will be the major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal.

  8. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  9. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  10. Designing a Gas Test Loop for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Parry

    2005-11-01

    The Generation IV Reactor Program and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are investigating some new reactor concepts which require extensive materials and fuels testing in a fast neutron spectrum. The capability to test materials and fuels in a fast neutron flux in the United States is very limited to non-existent. It has been proposed to install a gas test loop (GTL) in one of the lobes of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory and harden the spectrum to provide some fast neutron flux testing capabilities in the United States. This paper describes the neutronics investigation into the design of the GTL for the ATR.

  11. Ergonomic Redesign of an Industrial Control Panel.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, S; Osqueizadeh, R; Maghsoudipour, M; Jafarpisheh, A S

    2016-07-01

    Operator's role in industrial control centers takes place in time, which is one of the most important determinants of whether an expected action is going to be successful or not. In certain situations, due to the complex nature of the work, the existing interfaces and already prepared procedures do not meet the dynamic requirements of operator's cognitive demands, making the control tasks unnecessarily difficult. This study was conducted to identify ergonomic issues with a specific industrial control panel, and redesign its layout and elements to enhance its usability. Task and link analysis methodologies were implemented. All essential functions and supporting operations were identified at the required trivial levels. Next, the weight of any possible link between the elements of the panel was computed as a composite index of frequency and importance. Finally, all components were rearranged within a new layout, and a computerized mockup was generated. A total of 8 primary tasks was identified, including 4 system failure handling tasks, switching between manual and automated modes, and 3 types of routine vigilance and control tasks. These tasks were broken down into 28 functions and 145 supporting operations, accordingly. Higher link values were observed between hand rest position and 2 elements. Also, 6 other components showed robust linkages. In conclusion, computer modeling can reduce the likelihood of accidents and near misses in industrial control rooms by considering the operators' misperception or mental burden and correcting poor design of the panels and inappropriate task allocation. PMID:27393326

  12. Ergonomic factors and production target evaluation in eucalyptus timber harvesting operations in mountainous terrains.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; Sanches, André Luis Petean; da Silva, Emília Pio; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    There are several forest operations involved in Eucalyptus timber harvesting. This study was carried out during brush-cutting; tree felling, bucking, delimbing, piling and manual extraction operations, with the following objectives: a) analyzing, ergonomically, two systems of brush-cutting: one manual and the other semi-mechanized, using two different machines; b) ergonomically evaluating three different brands of pruner machines used in delimbing felled trees. c) determining the feasible target of productivity as a function of ergonomic factors relevant to establish the time of resting pauses for workers in manual and semi-mechanized timber harvesting systems in mountainous terrain. Brush-cutting, either manual or semimechanized, is an activity carried out prior to timber harvesting. It is usually a hard work, with low productivity when compared with mechanized systems. Pruner machines have been used by forest companies, due to the great possibilities to improve productivity, quality and the health of workers. Ergonomics is a discipline that promotes the adequacy of work to the physical and mental characteristics of human beings, seeking to design production systems and products considering relevant aspects, including social, organizational and environmental factors. Companies should consider the ergonomic factor in the determination of daily worker production targets. PMID:22317486

  13. Design of the advanced regional aircraft, the DART-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, Steve; Gislason, Jason; Huffstetler, Mark; Mann, Jon; Withers, Ashley; Zimmerman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The need for regional aircraft stems from the problem of hub airport congestion. Regional travel will allow a passenger to commute from one spoke city to another spoke city without entering the congested hub airport. In addition, those people traveling longer routes may begin the flight at home instead of traveling to the hub airport. At this time, there is no American aerospace company that produces a regional transport for under 100 passengers. The intention of the Developmental Advanced Regional Transport (DART-75) is to fill this void with a modern, efficient regional aircraft. This design achieves the efficiency through a number of advanced features including three lifting surfaces, partial composite construction, and an advanced engine design. Efficiency is not the only consideration. Structural integrity, fatigue life, ease of maintenance, passenger comfort and convenience, and environmental aspects must all be considered. These factors force the design team to face many tradeoffs that are studied to find the best solution. The final consideration that cannot be overlooked is that of cost. The DART-75 is a 75-passenger medium-range regional transport intended for spoke-to-spoke, spoke-to-hub, and some hub-to-hub operations. Included are the general descriptions of the structures, weight and balance, stability and control, performance, and engine design.

  14. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  15. Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor

    2012-05-31

    Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.

  16. Towards a sustainable world through human factors and ergonomics: it is all about values.

    PubMed

    Lange-Morales, Karen; Thatcher, Andrew; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse two approaches that attempt to address how a human factors and ergonomics (HFE) perspective can contribute to the sustainability of the human race. We outline the principles, purposes and fields of application of ergoecology and green ergonomics, and thereafter deal with their context of emergence, and the overlaps in purpose, and principles. Shared values are deduced and related to socio-technical principles for systems' design. Social responsibility and environmental/ecospheric responsibility are the leading threads of ergoecology and green ergonomics, giving rise to the values of: respect for human rights, respect for the Earth, respect for ethical decision-making, appreciation of complexity, respect for transparency and openness, and respect for diversity. We discuss the consequences of considering these values in HFE theory and practice.

  17. Participatory ergonomic intervention for prevention of low back pain: assembly line redesign case.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain. PMID:22317739

  18. Importance and effects of altered workplace ergonomics in modern radiology suites.

    PubMed

    Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Blake, Michael A; Saksena, Mansi; Hahn, Peter F; Gervais, Debra; Zalis, Michael; da Silva Dias Fernandes, Leonor; Mueller, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The transition from a film-based to a filmless soft-copy picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based environment has resulted in improved work flow as well as increased productivity, diagnostic accuracy, and job satisfaction. Adapting to this filmless environment in an efficient manner requires seamless integration of various components such as PACS workstations, the Internet and hospital intranet, speech recognition software, paperless electronic hospital medical records, e-mail, office software, and telecommunications. However, the importance of optimizing workplace ergonomics has received little attention. Factors such as the position of the work chair, workstation table, keyboard, mouse, and monitors, along with monitor refresh rates and ambient room lighting, have become secondary considerations. Paying close attention to the basics of workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity and reducing fatigue, thus allowing full realization of the potential benefits of a PACS. Optimization of workplace ergonomics should be considered in the basic design of any modern radiology suite.

  19. Applying research to practice: generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.

  20. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  1. Ergonomic evaluation of a wheelchair for transfer of disabled passengers at a large airport.

    PubMed

    Rohmert, W; Löwenthal, I; Rückert, A

    1990-01-01

    Transferring disabled passengers to the aircraft, both arriving and departing, is one passenger service at a big airport. We use different ergonomic research methods (registration of heart rate, AET job analysis as well as a standardized questionnaire) to evaluate the present wheelchair design. Due to e.g. the high wheelchair backrest, the forces needed to handle the chair and other facts, the current wheelchair causes a strain bottleneck. The results of the AET analysis and the rating of the perceived exertion confirm this finding. A redesigned wheelchair based on ergonomic principles, which reduces stress on the employees and offers more comfort to disabled passengers, is presented.

  2. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  3. Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  4. Variable stream control engine for advanced supersonic aircraft design update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. B.; Howlett, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The updating of the engine concept for a second-generation supersonic transport, the variable stream control engine (VSCE), in terms of mechanical design definition and estimated performance is discussed. The design definition reflects technology advancements that improve system efficiency, durability and environments were established. The components unique to the VSCE concept, a high performance duct burner and a low noise coannular nozzle, and the high temperature components are identified as critical technologies. Technology advances for the high temperature components (main combustor and turbines) are also discussed. To address the requirements in this area, the technical approach for undertaking a high temperature validation program is defined. The multi-phased effort would include assorted rig and laboratory tests, then culminate with the demonstration of a flight-type main combustor and single-stage high pressure turbine at operating conditions envisioned for a VSCE.

  5. Preliminary aerodynamic design considerations for advanced laminar flow aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Yip, Long P.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Modern composite manufacturing methods have provided the opportunity for smooth surfaces that can sustain large regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) boundary layer behavior and have stimulated interest in developing advanced NLF airfoils and improved aircraft designs. Some of the preliminary results obtained in exploratory research investigations on advanced aircraft configurations at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed. Results of the initial studies have shown that the aerodynamic effects of configuration variables such as canard/wing arrangements, airfoils, and pusher-type and tractor-type propeller installations can be particularly significant at high angles of attack. Flow field interactions between aircraft components were shown to produce undesirable aerodynamic effects on a wing behind a heavily loaded canard, and the use of properly designed wing leading-edge modifications, such as a leading-edge droop, offset the undesirable aerodynamic effects by delaying wing stall and providing increased stall/spin resistance with minimum degradation of laminar flow behavior.

  6. AGBT Advanced Counter-Rotating Gearbox Detailed Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, D. C.; Sundt, C. V.; Mckibbon, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    An Advanced Counter-Rotating (CR) Gearbox was designed and fabricated to evaluate gearbox efficiency, durability and weight characteristics for emerging propfan-powered airplanes. Component scavenge tests showed that a constant volume collector had high scavenge effectiveness, which was uneffected by added airflow. Lubrication tests showed that gearbox losses could be reduced by controlling the air/oil mixture and by directing the oil jets radially, with a slight axial component, into the sun/planet gears.

  7. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  8. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  9. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  10. Advanced 3D inverse method for designing turbomachine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, T.

    1995-10-01

    To meet the goal of 60% plant-cycle efficiency or better set in the ATS Program for baseload utility scale power generation, several critical technologies need to be developed. One such need is the improvement of component efficiencies. This work addresses the issue of improving the performance of turbo-machine components in gas turbines through the development of an advanced three-dimensional and viscous blade design system. This technology is needed to replace some elements in current design systems that are based on outdated technology.

  11. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  12. Advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been concieved which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  13. An integrated computer system for preliminary design of advanced aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Sobieszczanski, J.; Landrum, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A progress report is given on the first phase of a research project to develop a system of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) which is intended to automate to the largest extent possible the preliminary and detailed design of advanced aircraft. The approach used is to build a pilot system and simultaneously to carry out two major contractual studies to define a practical IPAD system preparatory to programing. The paper summarizes the specifications and goals of the IPAD system, the progress to date, and any conclusion reached regarding its feasibility and scope. Sample calculations obtained with the pilot system are given for aircraft preliminary designs optimized with respect to discipline parameters, such as weight or L/D, and these results are compared with designs optimized with respect to overall performance parameters, such as range or payload.

  14. Ergonomics: Requirements for Adjusting the Height of Laparoscopic Operating Tables

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Peter; Giebmeyer, Carsten; Rückauer, Klaus D.; Farthmann, Eduard H.

    2001-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the last few years many new instruments and devices have been developed and introduced into the operating room (OR). A debate has been ongoing about the optimal ergonomic posture for the operating staff. From practical experience, we have learned that the operating tables cannot be adjusted adequately to allow surgeons of different stature to maintain a comfortable posture. The goal of this study was to establish the most ergonomic table height for the particular physique of the surgeon and the different types of laparoscopic instrument handles that he or she uses. Methods: In a simulated model, two probands of different stature (50th {BS 50} and 95th {BS 95} percentile) used laparoscopic instruments with four different handle designs (shank, pistol, axial, and rod). The instruments were inserted into a board in three different angles ({IA} = 20°, 30°, 40°). Additionally the elbow angles (EA) of the volunteers were fixed to either 90° or 120°. For every variable (size of surgeon and his or her elbow angle, design of handle, insertion angle of the instrument) the height of the board, as a parameter for the level of the abdominal wall of a patient with pneumoperitioneum, was measured from the floor. Results: All parameters had an effect on the optimal operating table height. The lowest required operating table level was 30 cm, the highest was 60.5 cm. In laparoscopic surgery–long shafted instruments and patients with pneumoperitoneum–the tabletops are too high for over 95% of all surgeons. As skin incision and wound suture are performed the conventional way, the operating tabletop must be adjustable up to the common height of 122 cm. The maximal difference between the optimal heights of the ORtable for one volunteer using two different handles with different insertion angles of the instruments (BS 95, EA 90°, IA 20°, rod handle to BS 50, EA 120°, IA 40°, axial handle) was about 27 cm. Conclusion: New operating tables with a

  15. Aerodynamic Design Study of an Advanced Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An Advanced Active Twist Rotor (AATR) is currently being developed by the U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. As a part of this effort, an analytical study was conducted to determine the impact of blade geometry on active-twist performance and, based on those findings, propose a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR. The process began by creating a baseline design which combined the dynamic design of the original Active Twist Rotor and the aerodynamic design of a high lift rotor concept. The baseline model was used to conduct a series of parametric studies to examine the effect of linear blade twist and blade tip sweep, droop, and taper on active-twist performance. Rotor power requirements and hub vibration were also examined at flight conditions ranging from hover to advance ratio = 0.40. A total of 108 candidate designs were analyzed using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) code. The study concluded that the vibration reduction capabilities of a rotor utilizing controlled, strain-induced twisting are enhanced through the incorporation of blade tip sweep, droop, and taper into the blade design, while they are degraded by increasing the nose-down linear blade twist. Based on the analysis of rotor power, hub vibration, and active-twist response, a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR consisting of a blade with approximately 10 degrees of linear blade twist and a blade tip design with 30 degree sweep, 10 degree droop, and 2.5:1 taper ratio over the outer five percent of the blade is proposed.

  16. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors.

  17. Avoid Workplace Injury through Ergonomics | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Ergonomics is “the scientific study of people at work,” with the goal of reducing stress and eliminating injuries associated with overused muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that working ergonomically reduces muscle fatigue, increases productivity, and decreases the number and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). MSDs affect the muscles, nerves, and tendons, and are a leading cause of lost workdays due to injury or illness.

  18. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  19. Ergonomic and Anthropometric Considerations of the Use of Computers in Schools by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jermolajew, Anna M.; Newhouse, C. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been an explosion in the provision of computing facilities in schools for student use. However, there is concern that the development of these facilities has often given little regard to the ergonomics of the design for use by children, particularly adolescents. This paper reports on a study that investigated the…

  20. Ergonomics Factors in English as a Foreign Language Testing: The Case of PLEVALEX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Magal-Royo, Teresa; de Siqueira Rocha, Jose Macario; Alvarez, Miguel Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Although much has been said about ergonomics in interface and in computer tools and interface design, very few articles in major journals have addressed this topic in relation to language testing. This article describes an experiment carried out at the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, in which 27 Media and Communication students provided…

  1. Roles of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Meeting the Challenge of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics research focuses on questions pertaining to the design of devices, systems, and procedures with the goal of making sure that they are well suited to human use and focuses on studies of the interaction of people with simple and complex systems and machines. Problem areas studied include the allocation of function to…

  2. Setting Up CD-ROM Work Areas. Part I: Ergonomic Considerations, User Furniture, Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasi, John; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    The first of a two-part series on design of CD-ROM work areas in libraries discusses (1) space and location considerations; (2) ergonomics, including work surface, chairs, lighting, printers, other accessories, and security; and (3) other considerations, including staff assistance, reference tools, literature racks, and promotional materials. (MES)

  3. Ergonomic analyses of downhill skiing.

    PubMed

    Clarys, J P; Publie, J; Zinzen, E

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide electromyographic feedback for (1) pedagogical advice in motor learning, (2) the ergonomics of materials choice and (3) competition. For these purposes: (1) EMG data were collected for the Stem Christie, the Stem Turn and the Parallel Christie (three basic ski initiation drills) and verified for the complexity of patterns; (2) integrated EMG (iEMG) and linear envelopes (LEs) were analysed from standardized positions, motions and slopes using compact, soft and competition skis; (3) in a simulated 'parallel special slalom', the muscular activity pattern and intensity of excavated and flat snow conditions were compared. The EMG data from the three studies were collected on location in the French Alps (Tignes). The analog raw EMG was recorded on the slopes with a portable seven-channel FM recorder (TEAC MR30) and with pre-amplified bipolar surface electrodes supplied with a precision instrumentation amplifier (AD 524, Analog Devices, Norwood, USA). The raw signal was full-wave rectified and enveloped using a moving average principle. This linear envelope was normalized according to the highest peak amplitude procedure per subject and was integrated in order to obtain a reference of muscular intensity. In the three studies and for all subjects (elite skiers: n = 25 in studies 1 and 2, n = 6 in study 3), we found a high level of co-contractions in the lower limb extensors and flexors, especially during the extension phase of the ski movement. The Stem Christie and the Parallel Christie showed higher levels of rhythmic movement (92 and 84%, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8064970

  4. Ergonomics and simulation tools for service & industrial process improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A.; García, M.

    2012-04-01

    Human interaction within designed processes is a really important factor in how efficiently any process will operate. How a human will function in relation to a process is not easy to predict. All the ergonomic considerations traditionally have been evaluated outside of the 3D product design. Nowadays technologies of 3D process design and simulation tools give us this opportunity from the earliest stages of the design process. Also they can be used to improve current process in order to increase human comfort, productivity and safety. This work shows a methodology using 3D design and simulation tools to improve industrial and service process. This methodology has as an objective the detection, evaluation, control of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

  5. Forest fire advanced system technology (FFAST) conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. David; Warren, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service completed a conceptual design study that defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s. Potential system configuration options in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include airborne mounted, thermal infrared (IR) linear array detectors, automatic onboard georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communications links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. The conceptual design study defined the preferred system configuration that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  6. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  7. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  8. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.0

    2002-06-13

    Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools is a 5-level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c)Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the processmore » of having MEMS fabricated at SNL e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with the software AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. NOTE: THE CUSTOMER MUST PURCHASE HIS/HER OWN COPY OF AutoCAD TO USE WITH THESE FILES.« less

  9. Recent advances in cardiac SPECT instrumentation and system design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in clinical cardiac SPECT instrumentation are reviewed from a systems perspective. New hardware technologies include pixelated scintillator and semiconductor detector elements; photodetectors such as position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), avalanche photodiodes (APD) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM); and novel cardiac collimation methods. There are new approaches for positioning detectors and controlling their motion during cardiac imaging. Software technology advances include iterative image reconstruction with modeling of Poisson statistics and depth-dependent collimator response. These new technologies enable faster acquisitions, the lowering of administered activity and radiation dose, and improved image resolution. Higher sensitivity collimators are a significant factor enabling faster acquisitions. Several clinical systems incorporating new technologies are discussed and different system designs can achieve similar performance. With detector elements such as APDs, SiPMs and semiconductors that are insensitive to magnetic fields, the potential for cardiac SPECT imagers that are MRI compatible opens up new frontiers in clinical cardiac research and patient care. PMID:23832650

  10. Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors: Design, Specifications and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Insertion of new types of commercial, high volumetric efficiency wet tantalum capacitors in space systems requires reassessment of the existing quality assurance approaches that have been developed for capacitors manufactured to MIL-PRF-39006 requirements. The specifics of wet electrolytic capacitors is that leakage currents flowing through electrolyte can cause gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure and rupture of the case. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. This presentation gives a review of specifics of the design, performance, and potential reliability risks associated with advanced wet tantalum capacitors. Problems related to setting adequate requirements for DPA, leakage currents, hermeticity, stability at low and high temperatures, ripple currents for parts operating in vacuum, and random vibration testing are discussed. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  11. FAST ERGO_X - a tool for ergonomic auditing and work-related musculoskeletal disorders prevention.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Isabel L

    2009-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders associated with repetitive and strenuous working conditions continue to represent one of the biggest occupational problems in companies. Despite the variety of efforts to control them, including engineering design changes, organizational modifications and working methods training programs, work-related musculoskeletal disorders account for a huge amount of human suffering and economic costs to companies and to healthcare systems. This paper presents an ergonomic analysis tool, FAST ERGO_X, designed to support ergonomic auditing activities related with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This tool can be used to analyze workplaces regarding potential ergonomic risk factors. The FAST ERGO_X is a fuzzy expert system designed to help the identification, assessment and control of the risk factors present in the work system, due to lack of adequate ergonomics. Based on objective and subjective data, the system evaluates the risk factors that can lead to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and presents the findings resulting from such evaluation. The system also presents recommendations to eliminate or at least reduce the risk factors present in the work situation under analysis.

  12. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  13. On-Line NDE for Advanced Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Inanc, F.; Thompson, R. B.; Junker, W. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Beatty, J. M.; Arlia, N. G.

    2003-03-01

    This expository paper introduces the concept of on-line sensor methodologies for monitoring the integrity of components in next generation power systems, and explains general benefits of the approach, while describing early conceptual developments of suitable NDE methodologies. The paper first explains the philosophy behind this approach (i.e. the design-for-inspectability concept). Specifically, we describe where and how decades of accumulated knowledge and experience in nuclear power system maintenance are utilized in Generation IV power system designs, as the designs are being actively developed, in order to advance their safety and economy. Second, we explain that Generation IV reactor design features call for the replacement of the current outage-based maintenance by on-line inspection and monitoring. Third, the model-based approach toward design and performance optimization of on-line sensor systems, using electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and radiation detectors, will be explained. Fourth, general types of NDE inspections that are considered amenable to on-line health monitoring will be listed. Fifth, we will describe specific modeling developments to be used for radiography, EMAT UT, and EC detector design studies.

  14. Advanced integrated spectrometer designs for miniaturized optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, B. I.; Považay, B.; Chang, L.; Alex, A.; Wörhoff, K.; de Ridder, R. M.; Drexler, W.; Pollnau, M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinical applications that revolutionized in vivo medical diagnostics. Nevertheless, its current limitations owing to cost, size, complexity, and the need for accurate alignment must be overcome by radically novel approaches. Exploiting integrated optics, the central components of a spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system can be integrated on a chip. Arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometers with their high spectral resolution and compactness are excellent candidates for on-chip SD-OCT systems. However, specific design-related issues of AWG spectrometers limit the performance of on-chip SD-OCT systems. Here we present advanced AWG designs which could overcome the limitations arising from free spectral range, polarization dependency, and curved focal plane of the AWG spectrometers. Using these advanced AWG designs in an SD-OCT system can provide not only better overall performance but also some unique aspects that a commercial system does not have. Additionally, a partially integrated OCT system comprising an AWG spectrometer and an integrated beam splitter, as well as the in vivo imaging using this system are demonstrated.

  15. Case studies of ergonomic interventions in automotive parts distribution operations.

    PubMed

    Ulin, Sheryl S; Keyserling, W Monroe

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomic job analysis, intervention design, and intervention implementation are essential components of an ergonomics program designed to reduce worker exposure to risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders. As part of a 4-year study to reduce overexertion injuries in the service parts division of a major automaker, intervention case studies were identified that could be used at multiple facilities across the division. Interventions were developed and implemented. The three case studies include 1) self-elevating powered vehicle for transporting parts throughout the facility and for reaching to high bin locations; 2) lift and tilt pallet jacks for packing small parts into large bin-like containers; and 3) single-level telescoping conveyor used for delivering hand-held totes for subsequent sorting operations. Several analysis methods were used to assess worker exposure before and after intervention implementation (biomechanical analysis, posture analysis, worker interviews, and activity analysis). Following implementation, a decrease in exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders was documented. Worker interviews revealed acceptance and agreement that risk factors associated with the targeted tasks were reduced. Each case study includes a description of the implementation hurdles and can serve as both primary and secondary prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. Future work should document worker health and/or symptom changes as well as changes in risk factor exposure. PMID:15638260

  16. Case studies of ergonomic interventions in automotive parts distribution operations.

    PubMed

    Ulin, Sheryl S; Keyserling, W Monroe

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomic job analysis, intervention design, and intervention implementation are essential components of an ergonomics program designed to reduce worker exposure to risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders. As part of a 4-year study to reduce overexertion injuries in the service parts division of a major automaker, intervention case studies were identified that could be used at multiple facilities across the division. Interventions were developed and implemented. The three case studies include 1) self-elevating powered vehicle for transporting parts throughout the facility and for reaching to high bin locations; 2) lift and tilt pallet jacks for packing small parts into large bin-like containers; and 3) single-level telescoping conveyor used for delivering hand-held totes for subsequent sorting operations. Several analysis methods were used to assess worker exposure before and after intervention implementation (biomechanical analysis, posture analysis, worker interviews, and activity analysis). Following implementation, a decrease in exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders was documented. Worker interviews revealed acceptance and agreement that risk factors associated with the targeted tasks were reduced. Each case study includes a description of the implementation hurdles and can serve as both primary and secondary prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. Future work should document worker health and/or symptom changes as well as changes in risk factor exposure.

  17. Advanced dive monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Sternberger, W I; Goemmer, S A

    1999-01-01

    The US Navy supports deep diving operations with a variety of mixed-gas life support systems. A systems engineering study was conducted for the Naval Experimental Dive Unit (Panama City, FL) to develop a concept design for an advanced dive monitoring system. The monitoring system is intended primarily to enhance diver safety and secondarily to support diving medicine research. Distinct monitoring categories of diver physiology, life support system, and environment are integrated in the monitoring system. A system concept is proposed that accommodates real-time and quantitative measurements, noninvasive physiological monitoring, and a flexible and expandable implementation architecture. Human factors and ergonomic design considerations have been emphasized to assure that there is no impact on the diver's primary mission. The Navy has accepted the resultant system requirements and the basic design concept. A number of monitoring components have been implemented and successfully support deep diving operations.

  18. Implantation of an ergonomics administration system in a company: report of an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Berla; Andrade, Valéria Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe step-by-step the implementation of an ergonomics administration system in a company from March 2009 till March 2011 by an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics based on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines and the Regulatory Norms 17 manual. The process began with the definition of five requisites with bases on the manual of application of the Regulatory Norms 17: survey; materials individual transportation and discharge; workplace furniture; workplace equipments; work environment and organization of the work to be managed with bases on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines. The following steps were established: sensitization of the company high administration, elaboration and institution of an ergonomics politics, development of ergonomics committees, ergonomics analysis of the work with recommendation of ergonomic improvements, implantation of improvements and evaluation or the results. This research experiment suggests the importance not only of a guiding axle but also of a professional qualification and participation of the company on the implementation of an ergonomics management system.

  19. Kaizen and ergonomics: the perfect marriage.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Martin Antonio; Lopez, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an approach of how Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Ergonomics could be implemented in the field of work. The Toyota's Team Members are the owners of this job, applying tools and techniques to improve work conditions using the Kaizen Philosophy in a QCC Activity (Quality Control Circle).

  20. Advances in aircraft design: Multiobjective optimization and a markup language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shubhangi

    Today's modern aerospace systems exhibit strong interdisciplinary coupling and require a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach. Analysis methods that were once considered feasible only for advanced and detailed design are now available and even practical at the conceptual design stage. This changing philosophy for conducting conceptual design poses additional challenges beyond those encountered in a low fidelity design of aircraft. This thesis takes some steps towards bridging the gaps in existing technologies and advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft design. The first part of the thesis proposes a new Pareto front approximation method for multiobjective optimization problems. The method employs a hybrid optimization approach using two derivative free direct search techniques, and is intended for solving blackbox simulation based multiobjective optimization problems with possibly nonsmooth functions where the analytical formof the objectives is not known and/or the evaluation of the objective function(s) is very expensive (very common in multidisciplinary design optimization). A new adaptive weighting scheme is proposed to convert a multiobjective optimization problem to a single objective optimization problem. Results show that the method achieves an arbitrarily close approximation to the Pareto front with a good collection of well-distributed nondominated points. The second part deals with the interdisciplinary data communication issues involved in a collaborative mutidisciplinary aircraft design environment. Efficient transfer, sharing, and manipulation of design and analysis data in a collaborative environment demands a formal structured representation of data. XML, a W3C recommendation, is one such standard concomitant with a number of powerful capabilities that alleviate interoperability issues. A compact, generic, and comprehensive XML schema for an aircraft design markup language (ADML) is proposed here to provide a common language for data

  1. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  2. A new fuel loading design for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, J.C.; Renier, J.P.; Worley, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    A new fuel loading design has been developed for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor. In this reactor the combination of a small core volume and high power results in a very high power density. Using a direct optimization procedure the thermal-hydraulic margins for oxide temperature drop, centerline temperature and incipient boiling (and thus critical heat flux) were maximized to increase the limiting thermal power from 298 MW to 346 MW compared to the previous fuel grading, while maintaining the desired peak reflector thermal flux.

  3. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  4. Design Advances in Particulate Systems for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Catarina; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Mano, João F

    2016-07-01

    The search for more efficient therapeutic strategies and diagnosis tools is a continuous challenge. Advances in understanding the biological mechanisms behind diseases and tissues regeneration have widened the field of applications of particulate systems. Particles are no more just protective systems for the encapsulated drugs, but they play an active role in the success of the therapy. Moreover, particles have been explored for innovative purposes as templates for cells growth and as diagnostic tools. Until few years ago the most relevant parameters in particles formulation were the chemistry and the size. Currently, it is known that other physical characteristics can remarkably affect the performance of particulate systems. Particles with non-conventional shapes exhibit advantages due to the increasing circulation time in blood stream, less clearance by the immune system and more efficient cell internalization and trafficking. Creation of compartments has been found useful to control drug release, to tune the transport of substances across biological barriers, to supply the target with more than one bioactive agent or even to act as theranostic systems. It is expected that such complex shaped and compartmentalized systems improve the therapeutic outcomes and also the patient's compliance, acting as advanced devices that serve for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of the disease, combining agents of very different features, at the same time. In this review, we overview and analyse the most recent advances in particle shape and compartmentalization and applications of newly designed particulate systems in the biomedical field.

  5. Analysis of ergonomic furniture made of wood and sub-products from renewable forests.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Fialho, Patrícia Bhering; Minette, Luciano José; de Torres, Fernanda Freitas Costa

    2012-01-01

    The furniture ergonomic evaluation was carried out through the use of questionnaires and forms in industries. For the ergonomic product analysis, it was used the methodology "Object Ergonomics - Ergonomic System Technical Reading" (design goals and management actions), and measurements of products. The values achieved were compared with the standard dimensions, and the compliance or non-compliance of the furniture to it was assessed. In relation to the dimensions of the bed, the following variables did not comply with the norms: external and internal length, external and internal width, height and width of the sidebar and distance to the floor. The dimensions of these variables were above the recommended values. The double bed was inadequate for management actions and maintenance. Since the kitchen cabinet is a product that went through physical testing and follows national standards; the finish used is powder coating. The kitchen cabinet proved to be appropriate in all design requirements and for management actions. Both furniture pieces were inadequate, considering the difficulty for maintenance when a product or part of it was damaged. It was recommended the creation of regulatory standards for the production of safe and comfortable furniture.

  6. Advances in low aspect ratio stellarator coil design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valanju Miner, P. M., Jr.; Hirshman, S. P.; Brooks, A.; Pomphrey, N.

    1999-11-01

    Recent advances have led to two new exciting low aspect ratio stellarator plasma configurations - QA: Quasi-Axisymmetric and QO: Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarators. The difficult task of designing an optimal set of stellarator coils to produce these configurations is critical to the success of these new ideas. Since existing computational tools were found to be inadequate for these low aspect ratio configurations, new methods, consisting of singular value decomposition, surface displacement targeting, and Genetic Algorithms, have been developed. These new methods have led to successful designs of optimal, low current density coils which reproduce the target plasma configurations with good accuracy and flexibility while satisfying various engineering constraints. Results for modular and saddle coil sets for both QA and QO machines will be presented.

  7. Optimal design application on the advanced aeroelastic rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, F. S.; Jones, R.

    1985-01-01

    The vibration and performance optimization procedure using regression analysis was successfully applied to an advanced aeroelastic blade design study. The major advantage of this regression technique is that multiple optimizations can be performed to evaluate the effects of various objective functions and constraint functions. The data bases obtained from the rotorcraft flight simulation program C81 and Myklestad mode shape program are analytically determined as a function of each design variable. This approach has been verified for various blade radial ballast weight locations and blade planforms. This method can also be utilized to ascertain the effect of a particular cost function which is composed of several objective functions with different weighting factors for various mission requirements without any additional effort.

  8. Modern transform design for advanced image/video coding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Trac D.; Topiwala, Pankaj N.

    2008-08-01

    This paper offers an overall review of recent advances in the design of modern transforms for image and video coding applications. Transforms have been an integral part of signal coding applications from the beginning, but emphasis had been on true floating-point transforms for most of that history. Recently, with the proliferation of low-power handheld multimedia devices, a new vision of integer-only transforms that provide high performance yet very low complexity has quickly gained ascendency. We explore two key design approaches to creating integer transforms, and focus on a systematic, universal method based on decomposition into lifting steps, and use of (dyadic) rational coefficients. This method provides a wealth of solutions, many of which are already in use in leading media codecs today, such as H.264, HD Photo/JPEG XR, and scalable audio. We give early indications in this paper, and more fully elsewhere.

  9. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  10. Design of vibration compensation interferometer for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Li, G S; Liu, H Q; Jie, Y X; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Zhu, X; Wang, Z X; Zeng, L; Zou, Z Y; Wei, X C; Lan, T

    2014-11-01

    A vibration compensation interferometer (wavelength at 0.532 μm) has been designed and tested for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). It is designed as a sub-system for EAST far-infrared (wavelength at 432.5 μm) poloarimeter/interferometer system. Two Acoustic Optical Modulators have been applied to produce the 1 MHz intermediate frequency. The path length drift of the system is lower than 2 wavelengths within 10 min test, showing the system stability. The system sensitivity has been tested by applying a periodic vibration source on one mirror in the system. The vibration is measured and the result matches the source period. The system is expected to be installed on EAST by the end of 2014.

  11. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Violette, John A.; Sullivan, William E.; Turnberg, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the design analysis of a very thin, highly swept, propeller blade to be used in the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) test program. The report includes: design requirements and goals, a description of the blade configuration which meets requirements, a description of the analytical methods utilized/developed to demonstrate compliance with the requirements, and the results of these analyses. The methods described include: finite element modeling, predicted aerodynamic loads and their application to the blade, steady state and vibratory response analyses, blade resonant frequencies and mode shapes, bird impact analysis, and predictions of stalled and unstalled flutter phenomena. Summarized results include deflections, retention loads, stress/strength comparisons, foreign object damage resistance, resonant frequencies and critical speed margins, resonant vibratory mode shapes, calculated boundaries of stalled and unstalled flutter, and aerodynamic and acoustic performance calculations.

  12. Design of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight particle fuel tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the newly formed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the next generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature monitoring and control combined with on-line fission product monitoring of the sweep gas. The final design phase has just been completed on the first experiment (AGR-1) in this series and the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation. This paper discusses the development of the experimental hardware and support system designs and the status of the experiment.

  13. Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters with application to advanced propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.

  14. The importance of an ergonomic workstation to practicing sonographers.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joan P; Coffin, Carolyn T

    2013-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders have been described in a number of professions over the years. They are defined as injuries that are caused by or aggravated by workplace activities, and they account for up to 60% of all workplace illnesses. They are known by different names, such as musculoskeletal disorder, repetitive strain injury, cumulative trauma disorder, and repetitive motion injury. Musculoskeletal disorders have only been identified in sonographers since 1997 but are increasing in incidence. Surveys done among American and Canadian sonographers in 1997 showed an 84% incidence; however, this incidence had increased to 90% by 2008. Understanding the importance of optimal body mechanics and how to maintain neutral postures will enable sonographers to reduce the risk factors associated with their profession. Even with the most advanced equipment, an ergonomic workstation is only as effective as the person using it.

  15. Ergonomics evaluation and redesign of a hospital meal cart.

    PubMed

    Das, Biman; Wimpee, Julia; Das, Bijon

    2002-07-01

    The ergonomic, design and other problems of a conventional hospital meal cart were evaluated with a view to redesign a hospital meal cart by incorporating ergonomic principles and data. The operators encountered difficulty in setting the cart in motion, seeing over the cart, turning the cart and stopping the cart while in motion. The operators expressed postural discomfort in the shoulder, neck, back, lower back, knee and leg, and ankle and foot. The cart with meal trays and food was found to exceed the acceptable initial turning push force requirement of 5th percentile females. Recommendations were made for proper placement of cart handles and handle diameter, provision of large-diameter cart wheel made of hard rubber tire, reduction of cart height, use of plastic material for cart construction, provision of emergency brake, provision of individually (electrically) heated plates for soup and main meal, provision of thick air-tight transparent plastic doors, and reduction of the meal tray size. Several recommendations were adopted by the manufacturer in the new model. PMID:12160335

  16. Micromechanics Based Design/Analysis Codes for Advanced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced high temperature Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) hold an enormous potential for use in aero and space related applications specifically for propulsion system components. Consequently, this has led to a multitude of research activities pertaining to fabrication, testing and modeling of these materials. The efforts directed at the development of ceramic matrix composites have focused primarily on improving the properties of the constituents as individual phases. It has, however, become increasingly clear that for CMC to be successfully employed in high temperature applications, research and development efforts should also focus on optimizing the synergistic performance of the constituent phases within the as-produced microstructure of the complex shaped CMC part. Despite their attractive features, the introduction of these materials in a wide spectrum of applications has been excruciatingly slow. The reasons are the high costs associated with the manufacturing and a complete experimental testing and characterization of these materials. Often designers/analysts do not have a consistent set of necessary properties and design allowables to be able to confidently design and analyze structural components made from these composites. Furthermore, the anisotropy of these materials accentuates the burden both on the test engineers and the designers by requiring a vastly increased amount of data/characterization compared to conventional materials.

  17. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  18. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  19. Human factors/ergonomics implications of big data analytics: Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors annual lecture.

    PubMed

    Drury, Colin G

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in sensor technology, connectedness and computational power have come together to produce huge data-sets. The treatment and analysis of these data-sets is known as big data analytics (BDA), and the somewhat related term data mining. Fields allied to human factors/ergonomics (HFE), e.g. statistics, have developed computational methods to derive meaningful, actionable conclusions from these data bases. This paper examines BDA, often characterised by volume, velocity and variety, giving examples of successful BDA use. This examination provides context by considering examples of using BDA on human data, using BDA in HFE studies, and studies of how people perform BDA. Significant issues for HFE are the reliance of BDA on correlation rather than hypotheses and theory, the ethics of BDA and the use of HFE in data visualisation.

  20. An ergonomic analysis of premixing and compounding processes in an animal health plant.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Goggins, W B

    1999-01-01

    This study is based on an ergonomic job analysis designed to develop a hazard prevention program for the premixing and compounding processes in animal health products plants. Animal health products plants are "pharmaceutical facilities" for livestock or domestic animals. A hazardous aerosol (highly concentrated antibiotics, anthelmintics, mineral oil, and animal hormones) is generated in the premixing or compounding processes. The animal health premixing jobs are heavy-duty jobs and have high potential for chemical exposure, heat stress, and ergonomic hazards. Ergonomic job analysis was used to recognize, identify, and evaluate actuarial and potential risks of injures or irritations. Chemical hazards and eight ergonomic factors were discussed: (1) forceful exertions, (2) awkward postures, (3) localized contract stresses, (4) vibration, (5) noise, (6) temperature extremes, (7) repetitive activities, and (8) prolonged activities. The results show that (1) current practices do not violate occupational safety and health regulations or recommended guidelines, but that hazards should be identified to protect worker health and safety; (2) for chemical hazards prevention, operators wear whole-body protection equipment, which also causes heat stress and increases the noise level in the work zone; and (3) the loading weight of the bags used needs to be reduced. PMID:10386360

  1. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, Victor; Allen, James; Lantz, Jeffery; Priddy, Brian; & Westling, Belinda

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  2. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external tomore » Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.« less

  3. Exploration of Advanced Probabilistic and Stochastic Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the three year research effort was to explore advanced, non-deterministic aerospace system design methods that may have relevance to designers and analysts. The research pursued emerging areas in design methodology and leverage current fundamental research in the area of design decision-making, probabilistic modeling, and optimization. The specific focus of the three year investigation was oriented toward methods to identify and analyze emerging aircraft technologies in a consistent and complete manner, and to explore means to make optimal decisions based on this knowledge in a probabilistic environment. The research efforts were classified into two main areas. First, Task A of the grant has had the objective of conducting research into the relative merits of possible approaches that account for both multiple criteria and uncertainty in design decision-making. In particular, in the final year of research, the focus was on the comparison and contrasting between three methods researched. Specifically, these three are the Joint Probabilistic Decision-Making (JPDM) technique, Physical Programming, and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory. The next element of the research, as contained in Task B, was focused upon exploration of the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) methodology developed at ASDL, especially with regards to identification of research needs in the baseline method through implementation exercises. The end result of Task B was the documentation of the evolution of the method with time and a technology transfer to the sponsor regarding the method, such that an initial capability for execution could be obtained by the sponsor. Specifically, the results of year 3 efforts were the creation of a detailed tutorial for implementing the TIES method. Within the tutorial package, templates and detailed examples were created for learning and understanding the details of each step. For both research tasks, sample files and

  4. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. government announced in February 2006 the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) based on a fast spectrum is one of the three major technologies to be demonstrated in GNEP. In FY06, a pre-conceptual design study was performed to develop an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) that supports development of a prototype full-scale ABR, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR were (1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics (TRU) as part of an advanced fuel cycle, (2) to qualify the TRU-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR, (3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these objectives, core design and fuel cycle studies were performed to develop ABTR core designs, which can accommodate the expected changes of the TRU feed and the conversion ratio. Various option and trade-off studies were performed to determine the appropriate power level and conversion ratio. Both ternary metal alloy (U-TRU-10Zr) and mixed oxide (UO{sub 2}-TRUO{sub 2}) fuel forms have been considered with TRU feeds from weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and TRU recovered from light water reactor spent fuel (LWR-SF). Reactor performances were evaluated in detail including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow, power distribution, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficient, reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins, and spent fuel characteristics. Trade-off studies on power level suggested that about 250 MWt is a reasonable compromise to allow a low project cost, at the same time providing a reasonable prototypic irradiation environment for demonstrating

  5. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-12-31

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  6. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A. ); Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P. . Langley Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  7. Advanced Silicon Solar Cell Device Physics and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deceglie, Michael Gardner

    A fundamental challenge in the development and deployment of solar photovoltaic technology is a reduction in cost enabling direct competition with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. A key driver in this cost reduction is optimized device efficiency, because increased energy output leverages all photovoltaic system costs, from raw materials and module manufacturing to installation and maintenance. To continue progress toward higher conversion efficiencies, solar cells are being fabricated with increasingly complex designs, including engineered nanostructures, heterojunctions, and novel contacting and passivation schemes. Such advanced designs require a comprehensive and unified understanding of the optical and electrical device physics at the microscopic scale. This thesis focuses on a microscopic understanding of solar cell optoelectronic performance and its impact on cell optimization. We consider this in three solar cell platforms: thin-film crystalline silicon, amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions, and thin-film cells with nanophotonic light trapping. The work described in this thesis represents a powerful design paradigm, based on a detailed physical understanding of the mechanisms governing solar cell performance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of understanding not just the individual mechanisms, but also their interactions. Such an approach to device optimization is critical for the efficiency and competitiveness of future generations of solar cells.

  8. Design of advanced ultrasonic transducers for welding devices.

    PubMed

    Parrini, L

    2001-11-01

    A new high frequency ultrasonic transducer has been conceived, designed, prototyped, and tested. In the design phase, an advanced approach was used and established. The method is based on an initial design estimate obtained with finite element method (FEM) simulations. The simulated ultrasonic transducers and resonators are then built and characterized experimentally through laser interferometry and electrical resonance spectra. The comparison of simulation results with experimental data allows the parameters of FEM models to be adjusted and optimized. The achieved FEM simulations exhibit a remarkably high predictive potential and allow full control of the vibration behavior of the transducer. The new transducer is mounted on a wire bonder with a flange whose special geometry was calculated by means of FEM simulations. This flange allows the transducer to be attached on the wire bonder, not only in longitudinal nodes, but also in radial nodes of the ultrasonic field excited in the horn. This leads to a total decoupling of the transducer to the wire bonder, which has not been achieved so far. The new approach to mount ultrasonic transducers on a welding device is of major importance, not only for wire bonding, but also for all high power ultrasound applications and has been patented.

  9. Design of the Advanced Rare Isotope Separator ARIS at FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, M.; Aaron, A. M.; Amthor, A. M.; Avilov, M.; Bandura, L.; Bennett, R.; Bollen, G.; Borden, T.; Burgess, T. W.; Chouhan, S. S.; Graves, V. B.; Mittig, W.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pellemoine, F.; Portillo, M.; Ronningen, R. M.; Schein, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Zeller, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotopes Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University will use projectile fragmentation and induced in-flight fission of heavy-ion primary beams at energies of 200 MeV/u and higher and at a beam power of 400 kW to generate rare isotope beams for experiments in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental symmetries, as well as for societal needs. The Advanced Rare Isotope Separator (ARIS) has been designed as a three-stage fragment separator for the efficient collection and purification of the rare isotope beams of interest. A vertically bending preseparator (first stage) with production target and beam dump is fully integrated into a production target facility hot cell with remote handling. The new separator compresses the accepted momentum width of up to ±5% of the beam by a factor of three in the standard operational mode. Provisions for alternate operational modes for specific cases are included in the design. This preseparator is followed by two, horizontally-bending separator stages (second and third stages) utilizing the magnets from the existing A1900 fragment separator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). These stages can alternatively be coupled to a single high-resolution separator stage, resulting in the flexibility to optimize the operation for different experiments, including momentum tagging and in-flight particle identification of rare isotope beams. The design of ARIS will be presented with an emphasis on beam physics characteristics, and anticipated operational modes will be described.

  10. Advanced neutron source final preconceptual reference core design

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.; Gambill, W.R.; Harrington, R.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Peretz, F.J.; Reutler, H.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Selby, D.L.; West, C.D.; Yoder, G.L.

    1989-08-01

    The preconceptual design phase of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project ended with the selection of a reference reactor core that will be used to begin conceptual design work. The new reference core consists of two involute fuel elements, of different diameters, aligned axially with a small axial gap between them. The use of different element diameters permits a separate flow of coolant to be provided for each one, thus enhancing the heat removal capability and increasing the thermal-hydraulic margins. The improved cooling allows the elements to be relatively long and thin, so self-shielding is reduced and an acceptable core life can be achieved with a relatively small loading of highly enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminium. The new reference design has a fueled volume 67.4 L, each element having a heated length of 474 mm and a radial fuel thickness of 66 mm. The end-of-cycle peak thermal flux in the large heavy-water reflector tank around the core is estimated to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 /times/ 10/sup 20/ m/sup /minus/2/ /center dot/ s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 23 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  12. Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Propulsion Design Options Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Future propulsion options for advanced single-aisle transports have been investigated in a number of previous studies by the authors. These studies have examined the system level characteristics of aircraft incorporating ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) turbofans (direct drive and geared) and open rotor engines. During the course of these prior studies, a number of potential refinements and enhancements to the analysis methodology and assumptions were identified. This paper revisits a previously conducted UHB turbofan fan pressure ratio trade study using updated analysis methodology and assumptions. The changes incorporated have decreased the optimum fan pressure ratio for minimum fuel consumption and reduced the engine design trade-offs between minimizing noise and minimizing fuel consumption. Nacelle drag and engine weight are found to be key drivers in determining the optimum fan pressure ratio from a fuel efficiency perspective. The revised noise analysis results in the study aircraft being 2 to 4 EPNdB (cumulative) quieter due to a variety of reasons explained in the paper. With equal core technology assumed, the geared engine architecture is found to be as good as or better than the direct drive architecture for most parameters investigated. However, the engine ultimately selected for a future advanced single-aisle aircraft will depend on factors beyond those considered here.

  13. Optical design and characterization of an advanced computational imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, R. Hamilton; Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Raskar, Ramesh; Shi, Boxin; Barsi, Christopher; Zhao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    We describe an advanced computational imaging system with an optical architecture that enables simultaneous and dynamic pupil-plane and image-plane coding accommodating several task-specific applications. We assess the optical requirement trades associated with custom and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) optics and converge on the development of two low-cost and robust COTS testbeds. The first is a coded-aperture programmable pixel imager employing a digital micromirror device (DMD) for image plane per-pixel oversampling and spatial super-resolution experiments. The second is a simultaneous pupil-encoded and time-encoded imager employing a DMD for pupil apodization or a deformable mirror for wavefront coding experiments. These two testbeds are built to leverage two MIT Lincoln Laboratory focal plane arrays - an orthogonal transfer CCD with non-uniform pixel sampling and on-chip dithering and a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) with advanced on-chip per-pixel processing capabilities. This paper discusses the derivation of optical component requirements, optical design metrics, and performance analyses for the two testbeds built.

  14. Cost effectiveness of ergonomic redesign of electronic motherboard.

    PubMed

    Sen, Rabindra Nath; Yeow, Paul H P

    2003-09-01

    A case study to illustrate the cost effectiveness of ergonomic redesign of electronic motherboard was presented. The factory was running at a loss due to the high costs of rejects and poor quality and productivity. Subjective assessments and direct observations were made on the factory. Investigation revealed that due to motherboard design errors, the machine had difficulty in placing integrated circuits onto the pads, the operators had much difficulty in manual soldering certain components and much unproductive manual cleaning (MC) was required. Consequently, there were high rejects and occupational health and safety (OHS) problems, such as, boredom and work discomfort. Also, much labour and machine costs were spent on repairs. The motherboard was redesigned to correct the design errors, to allow more components to be machine soldered and to reduce MC. This eliminated rejects, reduced repairs, saved US dollars 581495/year and improved operators' OHS. The customer also saved US dollars 142105/year on loss of business. PMID:12963331

  15. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Linear Accelerator: design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator (linac) system consists of a 200-MeV, 2856-MHz S-band electron linac and a 2-radiation-length- thick tungsten target followed by a 450-MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past two years to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies, and to provide beam for the experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA, and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described, and its operation and performance are discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  17. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  18. Advanced ICRF antenna design for R-TOKAMAK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kako, E.; Ando, R.; Ichimura, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Amano, T.; Watari, T.

    1986-01-01

    The advanced ICRF antennas designed for the R-TOKAMAK (a proposal in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University) are described. They are a standard loop antenna and a panel heater antenna for fast wave heating, and a waveguide antenna for ion Bernstein wave heating. The standard loop antenna is made of Al-alloy and has a simple structure to install because of radioactivation by D-T neutrons. For high power heating, a new type antenna called Panel heater antenna is proposed. It has a wide radiation area and is able to select a parallel wave number k. The field pattern of the panel heater antenna is measured. The feasibility of the waveguide antenna is discussed for ion Bernstein wave heating. The radiation from the aperture of the double ridge waveguide is experimentally estimated with a load simulating the plasma.

  19. [Ergonomic evaluation of assembly line of tractors].

    PubMed

    Dellera, L; Buratti, G

    2012-01-01

    In the assembly lines in the engineering sector, ever more guided by the theories of lean production, is increasingly important ergonomic factor working conditions to preserve the health of workers and ensuring the performance. This analysis has focused on the study of biomechanical and postural stress of work tasks of an assembly line of the tractor, characterized by different weights and volumes from that of the car. Comparison with the technical standard of EN 1005-4 has allowed the identification as the machining assembly of small components result in conditions of acceptability, while most of the other processes aren't reliable. The emergence of these problems pushed to find several ergonomic solutions including the development of a special reclining seat to enable a proper posture during the working. PMID:23405593

  20. The Ergonomics of Human Space Flight: NASA Vehicles and Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Space...the final frontier...these are the voyages of the starship...wait, wait, wait...that's not right...let's try that again. NASA is currently focusing on developing multiple strategies to prepare humans for a future trip to Mars. This includes (1) learning and characterizing the human system while in the weightlessness of low earth orbit on the International Space Station and (2) seeding the creation of commercial inspired vehicles by providing guidance and funding to US companies. At the same time, NASA is slowly leading the efforts of reestablishing human deep space travel through the development of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) known as Orion and the Space Launch System (SLS) with the interim aim of visiting and exploring an asteroid. Without Earth's gravity, current and future human space travel exposes humans to micro- and partial gravity conditions, which are known to force the body to adapt both physically and physiologically. Without the protection of Earth's atmosphere, space is hazardous to most living organisms. To protect themselves from these difficult conditions, Astronauts utilize pressurized spacesuits for both intravehicular travel and extravehicular activities (EVAs). Ensuring a safe living and working environment for space missions requires the creativity of scientists and engineers to assess and mitigate potential risks through engineering designs. The discipline of human factors and ergonomics at NASA is critical in making sure these designs are not just functionally designed for people to use, but are optimally designed to work within the capacities specific to the Astronaut Corps. This lecture will review both current and future NASA vehicles and spacesuits while providing an ergonomic perspective using case studies that were and are being carried out by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  1. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. PMID:25680494

  2. Accessibility and ergonomic analysis for banking cash.

    PubMed

    Kaizer, A; Ramos, F; Ferro, E

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics and accessibility in banking has been the subject of numerous discussions, and in this work proposed by the partnership of companies and NR TN Mobile Work Safety and Occupational Medicine, aimed to analyze the service box and propose the development of a project to the teller accessible account of both the legal aspects regarding the factors inherent in banking, focusing primarily on the interface of the worker and the client user.

  3. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  4. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  5. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  6. Engineering aesthetics and aesthetic ergonomics: theoretical foundations and a dual-process research methodology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yili

    Although industrial and product designers are keenly aware of the importance of design aesthetics, they make aesthetic design decisions largely on the basis of their intuitive judgments and "educated guesses". Whilst ergonomics and human factors researchers have made great contributions to the safety, productivity, ease-of-use, and comfort of human-machine-environment systems, aesthetics is largely ignored as a topic of systematic scientific research in human factors and ergonomics. This article discusses the need for incorporating the aesthetics dimension in ergonomics and proposes the establishment of a new scientific and engineering discipline that we can call "engineering aesthetics". This discipline addresses two major questions: How do we use engineering and scientific methods to study aesthetics concepts in general and design aesthetics in particular? How do we incorporate engineering and scientific methods in the aesthetic design and evaluation process? This article identifies two special features that distinguish aesthetic appraisal of products and system designs from aesthetic appreciation of art, and lays out a theoretical foundation as well as a dual-process research methodology for "engineering aesthetics". Sample applications of this methodology are also described.

  7. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  8. Advanced process control with design-based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjo; Kim, Jungchan; Hong, Jongkyun; Yim, Donggyu; Kim, Jinwoong; Hasebe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    K1 factor for development and mass-production of memory devices has been decreased down to below 0.30 in recent years. Process technology has responded with extreme resolution enhancement technologies (RET) and much more complex OPC technologies than before. ArF immersion lithography is expected to remain the major patterning technology through under 35 nm node, where the degree of process difficulties and the sensitivity to process variations grow even higher. So, Design for manufacturing (DFM) is proposed to lower the degree of process difficulties and advanced process control (APC) is required to reduce the process variations. However, both DFM and APC need much feed-back from the wafer side such as hot spot inspection results and total CDU measurements at the lot, wafer, field and die level. In this work, we discuss a new design based metrology which can compare SEM image with CAD data and measure the whole CD deviations from the original layouts in a full die. It can provide the full information of hot spots and the whole CD distribution diagram of various transistors in peripheral regions as well as cell layout. So, it is possible to analyze the root cause of the CD distribution of some specific transistors or cell layout, such as OPC error, mask CDU, lens aberrations or etch process variation and so on. The applications of this new inspection tool will be introduced and APC using the analysis result will be presented in detail.

  9. Recent advances in designing substrate-competitive protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki-Cheol; Kim, So Yeon; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinases play central roles in cellular signaling pathways and their abnormal phosphorylation activity is inseparably linked with various human diseases. Therefore, modulation of kinase activity using potent inhibitors is an attractive strategy for the treatment of human disease. While most protein kinase inhibitors in clinical development are mainly targeted to the highly conserved ATP-binding sites and thus likely promiscuously inhibit multiple kinases including kinases unrelated to diseases, protein substrate-competitive inhibitors are more selective and expected to be promising therapeutic agents. Most substrate-competitive inhibitors mimic peptides derived from substrate proteins, or from inhibitory domains within kinases or inhibitor proteins. In addition, bisubstrate inhibitors are generated by conjugating substrate-competitive peptide inhibitors to ATP-competitive inhibitors to improve affinity and selectivity. Although structural information on protein kinases provides invaluable guidance in designing substrate-competitive inhibitors, other strategies including bioinformatics, computational modeling, and high-throughput screening are often employed for developing specific substrate-competitive kinase inhibitors. This review focuses on recent advances in the design and discovery of substrate-competitive inhibitors of protein kinases.

  10. Advanced modeling and simulation to design and manufacture high performance and reliable advanced microelectronics and microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2007-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Laboratory-Based Drug Design and Synthesis Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Ashok; Stephens, Mark; Mitchell, Sheila L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide students with an opportunity to participate in medicinal chemistry research within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Design. We designed and implemented a 3-course sequence in drug design or drug synthesis for pharmacy students consisting of a 1-month advanced elective followed by two 1-month research advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). To maximize student involvement, this 3-course sequence was offered to third-year and fourth-year students twice per calendar year. Assessment. Students were evaluated based on their commitment to the project’s success, productivity, and professionalism. Students also evaluated the course sequence using a 14-item course evaluation rubric. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Students found the experience to be a valuable component of their pharmacy curriculum. Conclusion. We successfully designed and implemented a 3-course research sequence that allows PharmD students in the traditional 4-year program to participate in drug design and synthesis research. Students report the sequence enhanced their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills and helped them develop as independent learners. Based on the success achieved with this sequence, efforts are underway to develop research APPEs in other areas of the pharmaceutical sciences. PMID:25995518

  12. Antenna Design Considerations for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakula, Casey J.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios

    2015-01-01

    NASA is designing an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU)to support future manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A key component of the AEMU is the communications assembly that allows for the wireless transfer of voice, video, and suit telemetry. The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) currently used on the International Space Station (ISS) contains a radio system with a single omni-directional resonant cavity antenna operating slightly above 400 MHz capable of transmitting and receiving data at a rate of about 125 kbps. Recent wireless communications architectures are calling for the inclusion of commercial wireless standards such as 802.11 that operate in higher frequency bands at much higher data rates. The current AEMU radio design supports a 400 MHz band for low-rate mission-critical data and a high-rate band based on commercial wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to support video, communication with non-extravehicular activity (EVA) assets such as wireless sensors and robotic assistants, and a redundant path for mission-critical EVA data. This paper recommends the replacement of the existing EMU antenna with a new antenna that maintains the performance characteristics of the current antenna but with lower weight and volume footprints. NASA has funded several firms to develop such an antenna over the past few years, and the most promising designs are variations on the basic patch antenna. This antenna technology at UHF is considered by the authors to be mature and ready for infusion into NASA AEMU technology development programs.

  13. Ergonomics method for prevention of the musculoskeletal discomforts among female industrial workers: physical characteristics and work factors.

    PubMed

    Chavalitsakulchai, P; Shahnavaz, H

    1993-12-01

    In industrial work, working postures play an important role, separately and combined with other strain factors. The combined effects may be worse than those of single factors. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the body size, work postures and musculoskeletal discomforts between a group of female workers in a pharmaceutical plant and another group in a textile plant. Two hundred workers have participated in the following studies; (i) measuring anthropometric data in the standing and sitting positions, (ii) using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), and (iii) using the detail Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for analyzing the musculoskeletal troubles in different parts of the body. The investigation has identified five main factors associated with the musculoskeletal discomforts: (i) lack of worker selection and lack of appropriate training to prevent occupational hazards or work-related diseases, (ii) poor ergonomic design of the work place and task including work organization, (iii) poor working postures, (iv) lack of task variation, and (v) insufficient rest breaks. These could be improved by introducing ergonomic interventions for both adjusting the individual work places and the task performed. It is necessary to consider preventive measures for musculoskeletal disorders, especially for female workers in industrially developing countries. Ergonomic aspects of the preventive measures should include: (a) consideration of appropriate worker selection for various works with sufficient training and instruction, (b) ergonomic redesign of work places, and (c) ergonomic considerations in work organization.

  14. Translating concepts of complexity to the field of ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P; Rafferty, Laura

    2010-10-01

    Since 1958 more than 80 journal papers from the mainstream ergonomics literature have used either the words 'complex' or 'complexity' in their titles. Of those, more than 90% have been published in only the past 20 years. This observation communicates something interesting about the way in which contemporary ergonomics problems are being understood. The study of complexity itself derives from non-linear mathematics but many of its core concepts have found analogies in numerous non-mathematical domains. Set against this cross-disciplinary background, the current paper aims to provide a similar initial mapping to the field of ergonomics. In it, the ergonomics problem space, complexity metrics and powerful concepts such as emergence raise complexity to the status of an important contingency factor in achieving a match between ergonomics problems and ergonomics methods. The concept of relative predictive efficiency is used to illustrate how this match could be achieved in practice. What is clear overall is that a major source of, and solution to, complexity are the humans in systems. Understanding complexity on its own terms offers the potential to leverage disproportionate effects from ergonomics interventions and to tighten up the often loose usage of the term in the titles of ergonomics papers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews and discusses concepts from the study of complexity and maps them to ergonomics problems and methods. It concludes that humans are a major source of and solution to complexity in systems and that complexity is a powerful contingency factor, which should be considered to ensure that ergonomics approaches match the true nature of ergonomics problems.

  15. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  16. Poor sitting posture and a heavy schoolbag as contributors to musculoskeletal pain in children: an ergonomic school education intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Syazwan, AI; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Anita, AR; Azizan, HS; Shaharuddin, MS; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Muhaimin, AA; Nizar, AM; Rafee, B Mohd; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Kasani, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multidisciplinary, interventional, ergonomic education program designed to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal problems by reducing schoolbag weight and correcting poor sitting posture. Methods Data were collected twice before and twice following intervention using the Standardized Nordic Body Map Questionnaire, a rapid upper limb assessment for posture evaluation, and schoolbag weight measurement in children aged 8 and 11 years attending two schools within the central region of Malaysia. Results Students who received the ergonomic intervention reported significant improvements in their sitting posture in a classroom environment and reduction of schoolbag weight as compared with the controls. Conclusion A single-session, early intervention, group ergonomics education program for children aged 8 and 11 years is appropriate and effective, and should be considered as a strategy to reduce musculoskeletal pain among schoolchildren in this age group. PMID:22003301

  17. 77 FR 56241 - Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive 1000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) ``retire'' the final design approval (FDA) for the Advanced Passive 1000 (AP1000) design upon the completion of rulemaking for the amendment to the...

  18. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  19. Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minyard, Glen E.; Lambarski, Timothy J.

    1997-02-01

    The Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems contract is a Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) cost-shared contract under Phase 4A1 for Product Driven Systems and Component Technologies. Phase 4A1 has the goals to improve the cost-effectiveness and manufacturing efficiency of PV end-products, optimize manufacturing and packaging methods, and generally improve balance-of-system performance, integration and manufacturing. This contract has the specific goal to reduce the installed PV system life cycle costs to the customer with the ultimate goal of increasing PV system marketability and customer acceptance. The specific objectives of the project are to develop certified, standardized, modular, pre-engineered products lines of our main stand-alone systems, the Modular Autonomous PV Power Supply (MAPPS) and PV-Generator Hybrid System (Photogenset). To date, we have designed a 200 W MAPPS and a 1 kW Photogenset and are in the process of having the MAPPS certified by Underwriters Laboratories (UL Listed) and approved for hazardous locations by Factory Mutual (FM). We have also developed a manufacturing plan for product line expansion for the MAPPS. The Photogenset will be fabricated in February 1997 and will also be UL Listed. Functionality testing will be performed at NREL and Sandia with the intentions of providing verification of performance and reliability and of developing test-based performance specifications. In addition to an expansion on the goals, objectives and status of the project, specific accomplishments and benefits are also presented in this paper.

  20. WHO DOES WHAT IN HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS IN MALAYSIA?

    PubMed

    Ahasan, Rabiul

    2014-12-01

    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions.

  1. Ergonomics and occupational safety and health: an ILO perspective.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shengli

    2010-10-01

    The ILO has a mandate to protect workers against sickness, diseases and injuries due to workplace hazards and risks including ergonomic and work organization risk factors. One of the main functions for the ILO is to develop international standards related to labour and work. ILO standards have exerted considerable influence on the laws and regulations of member States. The ILO standards take the form of international Conventions and Recommendations. ILO Conventions and Recommendations relevant to protection of workers against ergonomic risk factors at the workplace include Convention No. 127 and Recommendation No.128 which specify the international requirements concerning the manual transport of a load. To help member States in applying the ILO standards, the ILO produces practical guides and training manuals on ergonomics at work and collects and analyses national practices and laws on ergonomics at the workplace. The ILO also conducts technical cooperation activities in many countries on ergonomics to support and strengthen the capacities of its tripartite constituents in dealing with workplace ergonomic and work organization risks. The ILO's technical cooperation activities give priorities on the promotion of voluntary, participatory and action-oriented actions to improve working conditions and work organizations of the small and medium sized enterprises. This paper reviews ILO's policies and activities on ergonomics in relation to occupational safety and health and prescribes ILO's considerations for its future work on ergonomics.

  2. Ergonomics and occupational safety and health: an ILO perspective.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shengli

    2010-10-01

    The ILO has a mandate to protect workers against sickness, diseases and injuries due to workplace hazards and risks including ergonomic and work organization risk factors. One of the main functions for the ILO is to develop international standards related to labour and work. ILO standards have exerted considerable influence on the laws and regulations of member States. The ILO standards take the form of international Conventions and Recommendations. ILO Conventions and Recommendations relevant to protection of workers against ergonomic risk factors at the workplace include Convention No. 127 and Recommendation No.128 which specify the international requirements concerning the manual transport of a load. To help member States in applying the ILO standards, the ILO produces practical guides and training manuals on ergonomics at work and collects and analyses national practices and laws on ergonomics at the workplace. The ILO also conducts technical cooperation activities in many countries on ergonomics to support and strengthen the capacities of its tripartite constituents in dealing with workplace ergonomic and work organization risks. The ILO's technical cooperation activities give priorities on the promotion of voluntary, participatory and action-oriented actions to improve working conditions and work organizations of the small and medium sized enterprises. This paper reviews ILO's policies and activities on ergonomics in relation to occupational safety and health and prescribes ILO's considerations for its future work on ergonomics. PMID:20347066

  3. Good ergonomics and team diversity reduce absenteeism and errors in car manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Lars; Wegge, Jürgen; Schmauder, Martin; Kliegel, Matthias; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that ergonomics work design and mixed teams (in age and gender) may compensate declines in certain abilities of ageing employees. This study investigates simultaneous effects of both team level factors on absenteeism and performance (error rates) over one year in a sample of 56 car assembly teams (N = 623). Results show that age was related to prolonged absenteeism and more mistakes in work planning, but not to overall performance. In comparison, high-physical workload was strongly associated with longer absenteeism and increased error rates. Furthermore, controlling for physical workload, age diversity was related to shorter absenteeism, and the presence of females in the team was associated with shorter absenteeism and better performance. In summary, this study suggests that both ergonomics work design and mixed team composition may compensate age-related productivity risks in manufacturing by maintaining the work ability of older employees and improving job quality.

  4. The ergonomics approach for thin film transistor-liquid crystal display manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Yao, Chia-Chun; Kuo, Chein-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) has been used all over the world. Although the manufacture process of TFT-LCD was highly automated, employees are hired to do manual job in module assembly process. The operators may have high risk of musculoskeletal disorders because of the long work hours and the repetitive activities in an unfitted work station. The tools of this study were questionnaire, checklist and to evaluate the work place design. The result shows that the participants reported high musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in shoulder (59.8%), neck (49.5%), wrist (39.5%), and upper back (30.6%). And, to reduce the ergonomic risk factors, revising the height of the work benches, chairs and redesigning the truck to decrease the chance of unsuitable positions were recommended and to reduce other ergonomics hazards and seta good human machine interface and appropriate job design.

  5. Good ergonomics and team diversity reduce absenteeism and errors in car manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Lars; Wegge, Jürgen; Schmauder, Martin; Kliegel, Matthias; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that ergonomics work design and mixed teams (in age and gender) may compensate declines in certain abilities of ageing employees. This study investigates simultaneous effects of both team level factors on absenteeism and performance (error rates) over one year in a sample of 56 car assembly teams (N = 623). Results show that age was related to prolonged absenteeism and more mistakes in work planning, but not to overall performance. In comparison, high-physical workload was strongly associated with longer absenteeism and increased error rates. Furthermore, controlling for physical workload, age diversity was related to shorter absenteeism, and the presence of females in the team was associated with shorter absenteeism and better performance. In summary, this study suggests that both ergonomics work design and mixed team composition may compensate age-related productivity risks in manufacturing by maintaining the work ability of older employees and improving job quality. PMID:24428619

  6. Analysis of accessibility for buildings of a graduation school--an experiment in ergonomics training curriculum.

    PubMed

    Acioly, A S G; Oliveira, M D; Freitas, V H F

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a description of a study experience developed in the Discipline of Supervised Internship of the Industrial Design Course of the Federal University of Paraíba. The study is based on focused on ergonomics analysis and accessibility as an object of study, access into and out of buildings of classrooms and laboratories of the same institution. Among the buildings selected, which encompass where the course is established, is a contemporary building and a renovated building of historical and artistic values for current use. The study is characterized by a description of the objects of study, analysis of the reference literature and recommendations for adjustments in the event of any inconsistency with the accessibility standards. The experience of this supervised training provided an opportunity to perform design activities to a group of students in applied ergonomics, as well as enabling contact with professional practice, adding the contact with the appropriate guidelines governing intervention in historic heritage buildings.

  7. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  8. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  9. C/SiC advanced mirror system demonstrator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Brian E.; Mehle, Gregory V.; Seilonen, Martin A.; Papenburg, Ulrich; Mueller, Claus E.; Pfrang, Wilhelm; Kutter, G. Siegfried; Ruch, Eric; Mercier, Renaud; Lightsey, Paul A.; Streetman, Scott; Neam, Douglas C.

    2000-07-01

    Challenges in high-resolution space telescopes have led to the desire to create large primary mirror apertures. One such telescope is the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST, 8-m primary). In order to accommodate launch vehicles, the optical systems using these large apertures are being designed to accommodate extremely lightweight, deployable, segmented primary mirrors. The requirements for these segments include: meter-class diameter, areal densities of the order of 15 kg/m2, aspheric surface figure, near infrared and visible spectrum operation, diffraction limited surface figure, high stiffness, tight radius of curvature matching, and excellent thermal stability. Operating temperatures for various systems include ambient as well as cryogenic ranges. A unique ceramic, carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide, developed by the Industrieanlagen- Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, has shown potential for use as a mirror substrate. This paper presents the deign and predicted performance of this mirror system in various applications. Also included are issues related to the fabrication of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator.

  10. Advanced Biomatrix Designs for Regenerative Therapy of Periodontal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.H.; Park, C.H.; Perez, R.A.; Lee, H.Y.; Jang, J.H.; Lee, H.H.; Wall, I.B.; Shi, S.; Kim, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes loss of the tooth-supporting apparatus, including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. A broad range of treatment options is currently available to restore the structure and function of the periodontal tissues. A regenerative approach, among others, is now considered the most promising paradigm for this purpose, harnessing the unique properties of stem cells. How to make full use of the body’s innate regenerative capacity is thus a key issue. While stem cells and bioactive factors are essential components in the regenerative processes, matrices play pivotal roles in recapitulating stem cell functions and potentiating therapeutic actions of bioactive molecules. Moreover, the positions of appropriate bioactive matrices relative to the injury site may stimulate the innate regenerative stem cell populations, removing the need to deliver cells that have been manipulated outside of the body. In this topical review, we update views on advanced designs of biomatrices—including mimicking of the native extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stimulation, activating cell-driven matrices, and delivering bioactive factors in a controllable manner—which are ultimately useful for the regenerative therapy of periodontal tissues. PMID:25139364

  11. Advances in the design and development of oncolytic measles viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hutzen, Brian; Raffel, Corey; Studebaker, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    A successful oncolytic virus is one that selectively propagates and destroys cancerous tissue without causing excessive damage to the normal surrounding tissue. Oncolytic measles virus (MV) is one such virus that exhibits this characteristic and thus has rapidly emerged as a potentially useful anticancer modality. Derivatives of the Edmonston MV vaccine strain possess a remarkable safety record in humans. Promising results in preclinical animal models and evidence of biological activity in early phase trials contribute to the enthusiasm. Genetic modifications have enabled MV to evolve from a vaccine agent to a potential anticancer therapy. Specifically, alterations of the MV genome have led to improved tumor selectivity and delivery, therapeutic potency, and immune system modulation. In this article, we will review the advancements that have been made in the design and development of MV that have led to its use as a cancer therapy. In addition, we will discuss the evidence supporting its use, as well as the challenges associated with MV as a potential cancer therapeutic. PMID:27512675

  12. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  13. Integrated design and analysis of advanced airfoil shapes for gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.A.; Rooney, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integral process in the mechanical design of gas turbine airfoils is the conversion of hot or running geometry into cold or as-manufactured geometry. New and advanced methods of design and analysis must be created that parallel new and technologically advanced turbine components. In particular, to achieve the high performance required of today's gas turbine engines, the industry is forced to design and manufacture increasingly complex airfoil shapes using advanced analysis and modeling techniques. This paper describes a method of integrating advanced, general purpose finite element analysis techniques in the mechanical design process.

  14. Participatory ergonomics that builds on local solutions.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1995-06-01

    Ergonomic interventions must be a local process that responds to the particular needs of local people. In view of the many constraints, a special attention is drawn to participatory ergonomics as an effective means of finding locally workable solutions. Recent experiences show that the best way to utilize its practical advantage is to focus on solutions. The practical steps in providing necessary support for participatory ergonomics should include (1) a good starting point for group discussion and subsequent participatory action based on locally achieved examples; (2) prioritizing different elements of the workplace by means of checklists of available solutions; and (3) making small improvements with a view to learning-by-doing through small wins. Good local examples that have been achieved in the given local conditions can show how improvements can be done in the local conditions and thus motivate people in making improvements. The next important step is to help the participants determine priority solutions by means of "action checklists" that list the available solutions. It is necessary to concentrate on those aspects in which both better working conditions and higher productivity are accessible simultaneously. They include operational, cognitive and organizational aspects. Through learning-by-doing, the participants must be able to base their judgement on the results of relative assessment of locally available solutions and to implement the chosen solutions. To sustain active initiatives of the participants, support and advice must be provided which are suitable for working in small groups, sharing experiences and identifying workable solutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Computer-Related Posture and Discomfort in Primary School Children: The Effects of a School-Based Ergonomic Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, Sara; Earle, Deirdre; Galvin, Rose

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a school-based ergonomic intervention on childrens' posture and discomfort while using computers using a pre/post test study design. The sample comprised 23 children age 9 and 10 years. Posture was assessed with Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and a workstation assessment was completed using a Visual…

  16. Work-related musculoskeletal complaints: some ergonomics challenges upon the start of a new century.

    PubMed

    Westgaard, R H

    2000-12-01

    Three themes likely to be important within health-related ergonomics in the coming years are discussed. The first two themes concern methods for risk analysis of low-level biomechanical and psychosocial exposures. The third theme is approaches to successful implementation of ergonomics interventions. Evidence on the assessment of low-level biomechanical and psychosocial exposures by instrumented measurements is discussed. It is concluded that, despite recent advances in our understanding of exposure-effect associations under these exposure conditions, we must at present rely on more subjective methods, employed in a collaboration between expert and worker. This approach to risk analysis identifies in most cases critical exposures in a work situation. The focus should then be on the successful implementation of measures against those exposures, as identification alone does not solve problems. The aim of improved health for the workers further requires that the full complement of risk factors be considered, including work, leisure time and person-based risk factors. Finally, the need to put ergonomics intervention initiatives in an organisational context is emphasised, and examples of approaches used by Norwegian companies are presented.

  17. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  18. Through the Past Decade: How Advanced Energy Design Guides have influenced the Design Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Athalye, Rahul A.

    2015-07-31

    Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) were originally developed intended to provide a simple approach to building professionals seeking energy efficient building designs better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Since its first book was released in 2004, the AEDG series provided inspiration for the design industry and were seen by designers as a starting point for buildings that wished to go beyond minimum codes and standards. In addition, U.S. Department of Energy’s successful Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program leveraged many of the recommendations from the AEDGs to achieve 50% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 for prototypical designs of large commercial entities in the retail, banking and lodging sectors. Low-energy technologies and strategies developed during the CBP process have been applied by commercial partners throughout their national portfolio of buildings. Later, the AEDGs served as the perfect platform for both Standard 90.1 and ASHRAE’s high performance buildings standard, Standard 189.1. What was high performance a few years ago, however, has become minimum code today. Indeed, most of the prescriptive envelope component requirements in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 are values recommended in the 50% AEDGs several years ago. Similarly, AEDG strategies and recommendations have penetrated the lighting and HVAC sections of both Standard 189.1 and Standard 90.1. Finally, as we look to the future of codes and standards, the AEDGs are serving as a blueprint for how minimum code requirements could be expressed. By customizing codes to specific building types, design strategies tailored for individual buildings could be prescribed as minimum code, just like in the AEDGs. This paper describes the impact that AEDGs have had over the last decade on the design industry and how they continue to influence the future of codes and Standards. From design professionals to code officials, everyone in the building industry has been affected by the AEDGs.

  19. Designing and Testing Contols to Mitigate Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.; Stol, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads of wind turbines. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we show the design and simulation testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control design methods.

  20. Ergonomic analysis of the use of open-plan offices in Brazilian public sector offices.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Paula Lima; Villarouco, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    The open-plan office is a layout used in government offices in Brazil aimed at saving on space occupied and integrating employees. However, the design of these work-stations must follow the characteristics of tasks and their interrelationships, since adverse physical and organizational conditions may have a negative impact on work productivity. From this perspective, this study sought to identify, from the viewpoint of the ergonomics of the built environment, the adequacy of the open-plan government offices for financial auditing accounts and analyzing documents. Use was made of the Ergonomic Methodology for Evaluating the Built Environment--MEAC (in Portuguese) which systematically analyzes the physical space, by using a mix of physical-spatial assessments and tools for identifying how the environment is perceived. The MEAC was employed in three analytical phases of the physical aspects, namely: an analytical phase of the user's perception; a diagnostic phase; and a final phase of propositions.

  1. Vision ergonomics at recycling centres.

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Hillevi; Kihlstedt, Annika; Eklund, Jörgen

    2010-05-01

    All municipalities in Sweden offer their inhabitants a service for disposing of large-size and hazardous waste at local recycling centres. Opening hours at these centres include hours of darkness. The aims of this study were to 1) describe user and employee experiences of lighting and signs at Swedish recycling centres, 2) measure and assess the lighting system at the two recently built recycling centres in Linköping and to assess the legibility and visibility of the signs used and 3) propose recommendations regarding lighting and signs for recycling centres. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess experiences of employees and users, and light measurements were performed. By observing users, activities with different visual demands at different areas within the recycling centres were identified. Based on the literature, standards and stakeholder experiences, recommendations regarding lighting systems and sign design, illuminance, luminance and uniformity are proposed for recycling centres.

  2. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, design, construction and testing requirements are defined for developing an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is composed of the advanced cab and visual system and the rotorcraft system motion generator, and is part of an existing simulation facility. User's applications for the simulator include rotorcraft design development, product improvement, threat assessment, and accident investigation.

  3. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  4. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  5. ADVANCED DEHYDRATOR DESIGN SAVES GAS AND REDUCES HAP EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glycol dehydrators remove water from gas pipe lines. An advanced dehydrator by Engineered Concepts, Farmington, NM, saves a significant amount of gas, while reducing hazardous air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and CO2 air pollutants

  6. Roles of human factors and ergonomics in meeting the challenge of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Raymond S

    2011-09-01

    Human factors and ergonomics research focuses on questions pertaining to the design of devices, systems, and procedures with the goal of making sure that they are well suited to human use and focuses on studies of the interaction of people with simple and complex systems and machines. Problem areas studied include the allocation of function to people and machines, person-system interface design, accident prevention, risk assessment, human performance under various types of stress, crisis management, search and rescue operations, decision aiding, the training and coordination of teams, and negotiation and conflict resolution, among many others. Much human factors and ergonomics work has been directed at responding to accidents (train wrecks, airplane crashes, nuclear plant mishaps) and natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, floods). Although most of this work has not been motivated by the reality of terrorism or, in particular, by the attacks of 9/11, much of it is relevant to one or another aspect of terrorism in its various manifestations, and human factors and ergonomics researchers are increasingly making the connection. The purpose of this article is to illustrate this relevance by noting a few studies, from among the many that could be cited, that have implications for helping to prevent terrorism or for dealing with the effects of terrorist incidents when they occur.

  7. Geometric dimension model of virtual astronaut body for ergonomic analysis of man-machine space system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qianxiang, Zhou

    2012-07-01

    It is very important to clarify the geometric characteristic of human body segment and constitute analysis model for ergonomic design and the application of ergonomic virtual human. The typical anthropometric data of 1122 Chinese men aged 20-35 years were collected using three-dimensional laser scanner for human body. According to the correlation between different parameters, curve fitting were made between seven trunk parameters and ten body parameters with the SPSS 16.0 software. It can be concluded that hip circumference and shoulder breadth are the most important parameters in the models and the two parameters have high correlation with the others parameters of human body. By comparison with the conventional regressive curves, the present regression equation with the seven trunk parameters is more accurate to forecast the geometric dimensions of head, neck, height and the four limbs with high precision. Therefore, it is greatly valuable for ergonomic design and analysis of man-machine system.This result will be very useful to astronaut body model analysis and application.

  8. Roles of human factors and ergonomics in meeting the challenge of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Raymond S

    2011-09-01

    Human factors and ergonomics research focuses on questions pertaining to the design of devices, systems, and procedures with the goal of making sure that they are well suited to human use and focuses on studies of the interaction of people with simple and complex systems and machines. Problem areas studied include the allocation of function to people and machines, person-system interface design, accident prevention, risk assessment, human performance under various types of stress, crisis management, search and rescue operations, decision aiding, the training and coordination of teams, and negotiation and conflict resolution, among many others. Much human factors and ergonomics work has been directed at responding to accidents (train wrecks, airplane crashes, nuclear plant mishaps) and natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, floods). Although most of this work has not been motivated by the reality of terrorism or, in particular, by the attacks of 9/11, much of it is relevant to one or another aspect of terrorism in its various manifestations, and human factors and ergonomics researchers are increasingly making the connection. The purpose of this article is to illustrate this relevance by noting a few studies, from among the many that could be cited, that have implications for helping to prevent terrorism or for dealing with the effects of terrorist incidents when they occur. PMID:21823775

  9. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  10. Using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to improve ergonomics programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marcelo Vicente Forestieri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology to improve the strategic view of ergonomics inside the organizations. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of investing on an ergonomic program to obtain good results in quality and production, as well as health maintenance. It is explained the basics of balanced scorecard, and how ergonomists could use this to work with strategic enterprises demand. Implications of this viewpoint for the development of a new methodology for ergonomics strategy views are offered.

  11. Successful integration of ergonomics into continuous improvement initiatives.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Kimberly; Fick, Faye; Joshi, Madina

    2012-01-01

    Process improvement initiatives are receiving renewed attention by large corporations as they attempt to reduce manufacturing costs and stay competitive in the global marketplace. These initiatives include 5S, Six Sigma, and Lean. These programs often take up a large amount of available time and budget resources. More often than not, existing ergonomics processes are considered separate initiatives by upper management and struggle to gain a seat at the table. To effectively maintain their programs, ergonomics program managers need to overcome those obstacles and demonstrate how ergonomics initiatives are a natural fit with continuous improvement philosophies. PMID:22316947

  12. The ergonomics of child care: conducting worksite analyses.

    PubMed

    King, P M; Gratz, R; Scheuer, G; Claffey, A

    1996-01-01

    This paper examined the ergonomics of child care at a large metropolitan, university-based child care center. A case study approach was used to describe the job analysis process and results. Center staff were involved in the identification of health risk factors by completing an ergonomics survey and responding to questions posed during the job analysis (n=36). Two occupational therapists analyzed six different rooms, accommodating different age groups of children. Specific activities were identified as stressors and/or health risk factors inherent in the jobs according to the age of the children cared for. A list of ergonomic health risk factors and recommendations was generated.

  13. Using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to improve ergonomics programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marcelo Vicente Forestieri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology to improve the strategic view of ergonomics inside the organizations. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of investing on an ergonomic program to obtain good results in quality and production, as well as health maintenance. It is explained the basics of balanced scorecard, and how ergonomists could use this to work with strategic enterprises demand. Implications of this viewpoint for the development of a new methodology for ergonomics strategy views are offered. PMID:22317682

  14. Design considerations of advanced supercritical low drag suction airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, W.; Reed, H. L.; Dagenhart, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Supercritical low drag suction laminar flow airfoils were laid out for shock-free flow at design freestream Mach = 0.76, design lift coefficient = 0.58, and t/c = 0.13. The design goals were the minimization of suction laminarization problems and the assurance of shock-free flow at freestream Mach not greater than design freestream Mach (for design lift coefficient) as well as at lift coefficient not greater than design lift coefficient (for design freestream Mach); this involved limiting the height-to-length ratio of the supersonic zone at design to 0.35. High design freestream Mach numbers result with extensive supersonic flow (over 80% of the chord) on the upper surface, with a steep Stratford-type rear pressure rise with suction, as well as by carrying lift essentially in front- and rear-loaded regions of the airfoil with high static pressures on the carved out front and rear lower surface.

  15. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  16. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  17. Computational Enzyme Design: Advances, hurdles and possible ways forward

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This mini review addresses recent developments in computational enzyme design. Successful protocols as well as known issues and limitations are discussed from an energetic perspective. It will be argued that improved results can be obtained by including a dynamic treatment in the design protocol. Finally, a molecular dynamics-based approach for evaluating and refining computational designs is presented. PMID:24688650

  18. Importance and effects of altered workplace ergonomics in modern radiology suites.

    PubMed

    Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Blake, Michael A; Saksena, Mansi; Hahn, Peter F; Gervais, Debra; Zalis, Michael; da Silva Dias Fernandes, Leonor; Mueller, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The transition from a film-based to a filmless soft-copy picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based environment has resulted in improved work flow as well as increased productivity, diagnostic accuracy, and job satisfaction. Adapting to this filmless environment in an efficient manner requires seamless integration of various components such as PACS workstations, the Internet and hospital intranet, speech recognition software, paperless electronic hospital medical records, e-mail, office software, and telecommunications. However, the importance of optimizing workplace ergonomics has received little attention. Factors such as the position of the work chair, workstation table, keyboard, mouse, and monitors, along with monitor refresh rates and ambient room lighting, have become secondary considerations. Paying close attention to the basics of workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity and reducing fatigue, thus allowing full realization of the potential benefits of a PACS. Optimization of workplace ergonomics should be considered in the basic design of any modern radiology suite. PMID:15026606

  19. Evaluating models in systems ergonomics with a taxonomy of model attributes.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    A model, as the term is used here, is a way of representing knowledge for the purpose of thinking, communicating to others, or implementing decisions as in system analysis, design or operations. It can be said that to the extent that we can model some aspect of nature we understand it. Models can range from fleeting mental images to highly refined mathematical equations of computer algorithms that precisely predict physical events. In constructing and evaluating models of ergonomic systems it is important that we consider the attributes of our models in relation to our objectives and what we can reasonably aspire to. To that end this paper proposes a taxonomy of models in terms of six independent attributes: applicability to observables, dimensionality, metricity, robustness, social penetration and conciseness. Each of these attributes is defined along with the meaning of different levels of each. The attribute taxonomy may be used to evaluate the quality of a model. Examples of system ergonomics models having different combinations of attributes at different levels are provided. Philosophical caveats regarding models in system ergonomics are discussed, as well as the relation to scientific method. PMID:23615659

  20. An analytical study for the design of advanced rotor airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical study has been conducted to design and evaluate two airfoils for helicopter rotors. The best basic shape, designed with a transonic hodograph design method, was modified to meet subsonic criteria. One airfoil had an additional constraint for low pitching-moment at the transonic design point. Airfoil characteristics were predicted. Results of a comparative analysis of helicopter performance indicate that the new airfoils will produce reduced rotor power requirements compared to the NACA 0012. The hodograph design method, written in CDC Algol, is listed and described.

  1. Ergonomic Enhancement for Older Readers with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gale R.; Ramsey, Vincent; De l'Aune, William; Elk, Arona

    2004-01-01

    This study found that the provision of ergonomic workstations for 12 older persons with age-related macular degeneration who used low vision devices significantly increased the participants' reading speed and decreased their discomfort when reading.

  2. Motivating ergonomic computer workstation setup: sometimes training is not enough.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Artnak, Melissa; Needham, Mick; Wirth, Oliver; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders lead to pain and suffering and result in high costs to industry. There is evidence to suggest that whereas conventional ergonomics training programs result in knowledge gains, they may not necessarily translate to changes in behavior. There were 11 participants in an ergonomics training program, and a subsample of participants received a motivational intervention in the form of incentives for correct workstation setup. Training did not yield any changes in ergonomics measures for any participant. Incentives resulted in marked and durable changes in targeted workstation measures. The data suggest that improving worker knowledge about ergonomically correct workstation setup does not necessarily lead to correct workstation setup, and that motivational interventions may be needed to achieve lasting behavior change.

  3. [The forestry work environment and its ergonomic requirements].

    PubMed

    Sever, S

    1995-03-01

    The paper describes chief instruments of forest production and their ergonomic requirements. The level of mechanization in the forestry production differs from high in logging and roadbuilding to a considerably lower one in silviculture, where nursery production stands out with the level of mechanization equalling that of agriculture. Ergonomic requirements greatly depend on the attitude of a particular social environment towards work safety. Some ergonomic requirements take the form of standards, recommendations or agreements. The chain saw is characterized not only by ergonomic-technical properties but also by mass, noise and vibration. Over the past three and a half decades, each of these parameters has come to conform to stricter and stricter requirements. Mass has been reduced to less than 8 kg, noise near the cutter's ear to about 100 dB(A), and the estimated acceleration transfer to the hand/arm system (WAS) below 12.5 m/s2 (frequently even below 10 m/s2).

  4. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  5. Hydrodynamics and electromyography: ergonomics aspects in aquatics.

    PubMed

    Clarys, J P

    1985-03-01

    In a quadruple approach we have suggested the ergonomics links between fundamental hydrodynamics, applied dynamics of swimming, electromyographical aspects and specific training. Fundamental and applied hydrodynamics were investigated in a Dutch Marine Ship model test station allowing for the measurement of passive drag in different positions and of active (swimming) drag. It was found that drag in a prone position under the water surface was greater than at the water surface, but active drag while swimming reached twice the drag values of any passive drag condition. This indicates that body form has no influence on drag and propulsion. Since it is merely the technical execution of the swimming movement that will influence performance, telemetric EMG of the involved musculature has allowed a complete kinesiological picture of the front crawl movements to be made. This knowledge is basic for the study of specific and alternative training systems, such as specific dry land training.

  6. Hands-on lessons in ergonomics for youth

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K

    2005-09-29

    Ergonomics risk factors apply to everybody. Numerous adults have experienced disabling injuries related to use of computers and other forms of technology. Now children are using technology even more than adults. Increasingly ergonomics risk factors are being recognized as present in the world of children. Outreach to schools and the surrounding community by employers may help protect the future work force. A growing body of researchers believe that children can benefit from the early introduction of ergonomics awareness and preventative measures. While individual representatives of the educational system may embrace the concept of introducing ergonomics into the classroom, a number of barriers can prevent implementation of integrated programs. Some of the barriers to introducing ergonomics in schools have been absence of a tie to educational standards, the existing demands on teaching hours, and the absence of easily executable lesson plans. Ergonomics is rarely included in teacher training and professional ergonomics expertise is needed for the development of a class-based program. As part of Strategic Vision plan for 2025, a National Laboratory identified community outreach and the future workforces as key areas for initiatives. A series of hands-on interactive modules have been developed by professional ergonomics specialists. They are being tested with elementary, middle and high school students. Where possible, the content has been tied to the educational standards in the State of California in the USA. Currently the modules include grip strength, effective breathing, optimal keyboard and mouse positions, optimizing chairs, posture and movement, backpack safety and safe lifting. Each module takes the students through a related activity or experience. An individual worksheet asks them questions about the experience and guides them to consider implications in their activities of daily living. A module on hearing is under development. The goal is to have a

  7. Robust Design of Advanced Thermoelectric Conversion Systems: Probabilistic Design Impacts on Specific Power and Power Flux Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.

    2008-04-30

    Advanced, direct thermal energy conversion technologies are receiving increased research attention in order to recover waste thermal energy in advanced vehicles and industrial processes. Advanced thermoelectric (TE) systems necessarily require integrated system-level analyses to establish accurate optimum system designs. Past system-level design and analysis has relied on well-defined deterministic input parameters even though many critically important environmental and system design parameters in the above mentioned applications are often randomly variable, sometimes according to complex relationships, rather than discrete, well-known deterministic variables. This work describes new research and development creating techniques and capabilities for probabilistic design and analysis of advanced TE power generation systems to quantify the effects of randomly uncertain design inputs in determining more robust optimum TE system designs and expected outputs. Selected case studies involving stochastic TE .material properties demonstrate key stochastic material impacts on power, optimum TE area, specific power, and power flux in the TE design optimization process. Magnitudes and directions of these design modifications are quantified for selected TE system design analysis cases

  8. The thermal ergonomics of firefighting reviewed.

    PubMed

    Barr, David; Gregson, Warren; Reilly, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The occupation of firefighting is one that has repeatedly attracted the research interests of ergonomics. Among the activities encountered are attention to live fires, performing search and rescue of victims, and dealing with emergencies. The scientific literature is reviewed to highlight the investigative models used to contribute to the knowledge base about the ergonomics of firefighting, in particular to establish the multi-variate demands of the job and the attributes and capabilities of operators to cope with these demands. The job requires individuals to be competent in aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity, muscle strength, and have an appropriate body composition. It is still difficult to set down thresholds for values in all the areas in concert. Physiological demands are reflected in metabolic, circulatory, and thermoregulatory responses and hydration status, whilst psychological strain can be partially reflected in heart rate and endocrine measures. Research models have comprised of studying live fires, but more commonly in simulations in training facilities or treadmills and other ergometers. Wearing protective clothing adds to the physiological burden, raising oxygen consumption and body temperature, and reducing the time to fatigue. More sophisticated models of cognitive function compatible with decision-making in a fire-fighting context need to be developed. Recovery methods following a fire-fighting event have focused on accelerating the restoration towards homeostasis. The effectiveness of different recovery strategies is considered, ranging from passive cooling and wearing of cooling jackets to immersions in cold water and combinations of methods. Rehydration is also relevant in securing the safety of firefighters prior to returning for the next event in their work shift.

  9. Integration of time as a factor in ergonomic simulation.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mario; Muñoz, Begoña Toledo

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the application of a simulation based ergonomic evaluation. Within a pilot project, the algorithms of the screening method of the European Assembly Worksheet were transferred into an existing digital human model. Movement data was recorded with an especially developed hybrid Motion Capturing system. A prototype of the system was built and is currently being tested at the Volkswagen Group. First results showed the feasibility of the simulation based ergonomic evaluation with Motion Capturing. PMID:22317391

  10. Integration of time as a factor in ergonomic simulation.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mario; Muñoz, Begoña Toledo

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the application of a simulation based ergonomic evaluation. Within a pilot project, the algorithms of the screening method of the European Assembly Worksheet were transferred into an existing digital human model. Movement data was recorded with an especially developed hybrid Motion Capturing system. A prototype of the system was built and is currently being tested at the Volkswagen Group. First results showed the feasibility of the simulation based ergonomic evaluation with Motion Capturing.

  11. NASA/USRA advanced design program activity, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrity, J. Lewis; Patel, Suneer

    1992-01-01

    The School of Textile and Fiber Engineering continued to pursue design projects with the Mechanical Engineering School giving the students an outstanding opportunity to interact with students from another discipline. Four problems were defined which had aspects which would be reasonably assigned to an interdisciplinary team. The design problems are described. The projects included lunar preform manufacturing, dust control for Enabler, an industrial sewing machine variable speed controllor, Enabler operation station, and design for producing fiberglass fabric in a lunar environment.

  12. Adaptive Design of Confirmatory Trials: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip W.; Tsang, Ka Wai

    2015-01-01

    The past decade witnessed major developments in innovative designs of confirmatory clinical trials, and adaptive designs represent the most active area of these developments. We give an overview of the developments and associated statistical methods in several classes of adaptive designs of confirmatory trials. We also discuss their statistical difficulties and implementation challenges, and show how these problems are connected to other branches of mainstream Statistics, which we then apply to resolve the difficulties and bypass the bottlenecks in the development of adaptive designs for the next decade. PMID:26079372

  13. The BWR advanced fuel design experience using Studsvik CMS

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovine, A.S.; Gibbon, S.H.; Wiksell, G.

    1996-12-31

    The current trend within the nuclear industry is to maximize generation by extending cycle lengths and taking outages as infrequently as possible. As a result, many utilities have begun to use fuel designed to meet these more demanding requirements. These fuel designs are significantly more heterogeneous in mechanical and neutronic detail than prior designs. The question arises as to how existing in-core fuel management codes, such as Studsvik CMS perform in modeling cores containing these designs. While this issue pertains to both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), this summary focuses on BWR applications.

  14. Design and fabrication of advanced EUV diffractive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2003-11-16

    As extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography approaches commercial reality, the development of EUV-compatible diffractive structures becomes increasingly important. Such devices are relevant to many aspects of EUV technology including interferometry, illumination, and spectral filtering. Moreover, the current scarcity of high power EUV sources makes the optical efficiency of these diffractive structures a paramount concern. This fact has led to a strong interest in phase-enhanced diffractive structures. Here we describe recent advancements made in the fabrication of such devices.

  15. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  16. Ergonomics oriented to processes becomes a tool for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Getty, R L; Getty, J M

    1999-01-01

    A holistic view is essential for quality initiatives such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1994), Concurrent Engineering, Business Reengineering, and Business Process Improvement. The challenge is knowing how to transition from this theoretical concept to implementation. The relationship between quality interest and an ergonomics program will be the focus of this discussion. An ergonomics oriented improvement program includes (a) ergonomics or fitting the job to the person; (b) integration of operations management, safety engineering, medical management, and employees as co-owners of the process; (c) the emphasis of ergonomic precepts in the engineering of new processes and improvement of current processes; and (d) the emphasis of employees taking responsibility for their own well being and the improvement of their work environment. The parallel between the continuous improvement process delineated by the quality-system requirements in Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (ISO, 1994) and the improvement contributions of ergonomics are very revealing (Getty, Abbott, & Getty, 1995). It is the contention of this approach that if the precepts of ergonomics were applied to the work environment, it would support the objective of world class quality and productivity, resulting in improved global competitiveness of businesses. PMID:10602645

  17. Developing measures for information ergonomics in knowledge work.

    PubMed

    Franssila, Heljä; Okkonen, Jussi; Savolainen, Reijo

    2016-03-01

    Information ergonomics is an evolving application domain of ergonomics focusing on the management of workload in the real-world contexts of information-intensive tasks. This study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, five key dimensions of information ergonomics were identified: contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity. In total, 24 measures focusing on the above dimensions were constructed. The measures include, for example, the number of fragmented work tasks per work day. The measures were preliminarily tested in two Finnish organisations, making use of empirical data gathered by interviews, electronic questionnaires and log data applications tracking work processes on personal computers. The measures are applicable to the evaluation of information ergonomics, even though individual measures vary with regard to the amount of work and time needed for data analysis. Practitioner Summary: The study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, 24 measures were constructed and tested empirically. The measures focus on contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity.

  18. Ergonomics oriented to processes becomes a tool for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Getty, R L; Getty, J M

    1999-01-01

    A holistic view is essential for quality initiatives such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1994), Concurrent Engineering, Business Reengineering, and Business Process Improvement. The challenge is knowing how to transition from this theoretical concept to implementation. The relationship between quality interest and an ergonomics program will be the focus of this discussion. An ergonomics oriented improvement program includes (a) ergonomics or fitting the job to the person; (b) integration of operations management, safety engineering, medical management, and employees as co-owners of the process; (c) the emphasis of ergonomic precepts in the engineering of new processes and improvement of current processes; and (d) the emphasis of employees taking responsibility for their own well being and the improvement of their work environment. The parallel between the continuous improvement process delineated by the quality-system requirements in Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (ISO, 1994) and the improvement contributions of ergonomics are very revealing (Getty, Abbott, & Getty, 1995). It is the contention of this approach that if the precepts of ergonomics were applied to the work environment, it would support the objective of world class quality and productivity, resulting in improved global competitiveness of businesses.

  19. Advanced design for lightweight structures: Review and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Daniel F. O.; Tavares, S. M. O.; da Silva, Lucas F. M.; Moreira, P. M. G. P.; de Castro, Paulo M. S. T.

    2014-08-01

    Current demand for fuel efficient aircraft has been pushing the aeronautical sector to develop ever more lightweight designs while keeping safe operation and required structural strength. Along with light-weighting, new structural design concepts have also been established in order to maintain the aircraft in service for longer periods of time, with high reliability levels. All these innovations and requirements have led to deeply optimized aeronautical structures contributing to more sustainable air transport. This article reviews the major design philosophies which have been employed in aircraft structures, including safe-life, fail-safe and damage tolerance taking into account their impact on the structural design. A brief historical review is performed in order to analyse what led to the development of each philosophy. Material properties are related to each of the design philosophies. Damage tolerant design has emerged as the main structural design philosophy in aeronautics, requiring deep knowledge on materials fatigue and corrosion strength, as well as potential failure modes and non-destructive inspection techniques, particularly minimum detectable defect and scan times. A discussion on the implementation of structural health monitoring and self-healing structures within the current panorama of structures designed according to the damage tolerant philosophy is presented. This discussion is aided by a review of research on these two subjects. These two concepts show potential for further improving safety and durability of aircraft structures.

  20. Advanced Compressor Designs for High Energy Petawatt Pulse Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D N; Wattellier, B; Barty, C P J

    2003-09-09

    We discuss compressor designs for a proposed multikilojoule, sub-picosecond beamline at the National Ignition Facility. A novel grating configuration reduces the size of the compressor chamber. Optimization of the design leads to a 4.7 x 1.4 x 0.4 m{sup 3} minimum compressor volume.

  1. Advanced robust design optimization of FRP sandwich floor panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Z. K.; Gonzalez, F.; Aravinthan, T.

    2010-06-01

    FRP composite is now being used in the construction of main structural elements, such as the FRP sandwich panel for flooring system and bridges. The objective of this research is to use multi-objective optimization and robust design techniques to minimize the weight of the FRP sandwich floor panel design as well as maximizing the natural frequency. An Australian manufactures has invented a new FRP composite panel suitable for civil engineering constructions. This research work aims to develop an optimal design of structural fibre composite sandwich floor panel by coupling a Finite Element FE and robust design optimization method. The design variables are the skin plies thickness and the core thickness as a robust variable. Results indicate that there is a trade-off between the objectives. The robust design technique is used then to select a set of candidate geometry, which has a high natural frequency, low weight and low standard deviation. The design simulation was formulated by depending on the EUROCOMP standard design constraints.

  2. Advanced Simulation and Computing Co-Design Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, James A.; Hoang, Thuc T.; Kelly, Suzanne M.; McPherson, Allen; Neely, Rob

    2015-11-01

    This ASC Co-design Strategy lays out the full continuum and components of the co-design process, based on what we have experienced thus far and what we wish to do more in the future to meet the program’s mission of providing high performance computing (HPC) and simulation capabilities for NNSA to carry out its stockpile stewardship responsibility.

  3. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  4. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  5. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  6. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  7. Specification, Design, and Analysis of Advanced HUMS Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of domain-specific architectures for HUMS. In particular, we looked at using scenario-based approach for the design and designed a language for describing such architectures. The language is now being used in all aspects of our HUMS design. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1) We have employed scenarios in the development of HUMS in three main areas. They are: (a) To improve reusability by using scenarios as a library indexing tool and as a domain analysis tool; (b) To improve maintainability by recording design rationales from two perspectives - problem domain and solution domain; (c) To evaluate the software architecture. 2) We have defined a new architectural language called HADL or HUMS Architectural Definition Language. It is a customized version of xArch/xADL. It is based on XML and, hence, is easily portable from domain to domain, application to application, and machine to machine. Specifications written in HADL can be easily read and parsed using the currently available XML parsers. Thus, there is no need to develop a plethora of software to support HADL. 3) We have developed an automated design process that involves two main techniques: (a) Selection of solutions from a large space of designs; (b) Synthesis of designs. However, the automation process is not an absolute Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach though it uses a knowledge-based system that epitomizes a specific HUMS domain. The process uses a database of solutions as an aid to solve the problems rather than creating a new design in the literal sense. Since searching is adopted as the main technique, the challenges involved are: (a) To minimize the effort in searching the database where a very large number of possibilities exist; (b) To develop representations that could conveniently allow us to depict design knowledge evolved over many years; (c) To capture the required information that aid the

  8. Advances in growth chart design and use: the UK experience.

    PubMed

    Wright, Charlotte M; Williams, Anthony F; Cole, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    As part of the process of adopting the WHO standard in the United Kingdom, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) was commissioned by the UK Department of Health to design new UK-WHO growth charts. The working group for this project combined expertise ranging from statistics and graphic design to qualitative research, as well as paediatrics, nursing and dietetics. New charts for children under 4 years were published in 2009 and are now widely used in the UK and beyond (www.growthcharts.rcpch.ac.uk). This paper will describe what we have learned in general about the process of designing charts and how these principles were applied to the design of a novel chart designed specifically for sick and premature infants. A successful design first requires clarity about the exact purpose of the chart and who will use it. The layout of the chart can then be varied in many ways to fit that use and ensure users are not misled. Users need consistent and well-evidenced rules for chart use. Drafting the instructions serves as a powerful test of the validity and clarity of the design. However, charts need also to be formally evaluated, as expert views will not reflect those of the average user. The Neonatal and Infant Close Monitoring (NICM) chart included various novel design features, including date boxes for gestational age adjustment and low SD lines to help assess very small infants. It was evaluated at three stages using plotting exercises and each phase led to substantial design changes. Growth charts are conceptually very complex, with the capacity to mislead as well as inform and should always be formally evaluated before implementation.

  9. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  10. Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education: Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J., Ed.; Kozma, Robert B., Ed.

    This collection of essays consists of current work that addresses the challenge not just to put the newest technologies in schools, but to identify advanced ways to design and use these new technologies to advance learning. These essays are intended for science and mathematics educators, educational and cognitive researchers, instructional…

  11. An advancing front Delaunay triangulation algorithm designed for robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A new algorithm is described for generating an unstructured mesh about an arbitrary two-dimensional configuration. Mesh points are generated automatically by the algorithm in a manner which ensures a smooth variation of elements, and the resulting triangulation constitutes the Delaunay triangulation of these points. The algorithm combines the mathematical elegance and efficiency of Delaunay triangulation algorithms with the desirable point placement features, boundary integrity, and robustness traditionally associated with advancing-front-type mesh generation strategies. The method offers increased robustness over previous algorithms in that it cannot fail regardless of the initial boundary point distribution and the prescribed cell size distribution throughout the flow-field.

  12. An advancing front Delaunay triangulation algorithm designed for robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    A new algorithm is described for generating an unstructured mesh about an arbitrary two-dimensional configuration. Mesh points are generated automatically by the algorithm in a manner which ensures a smooth variation of elements, and the resulting triangulation constitutes the Delaunay triangulation of these points. The algorithm combines the mathematical elegance and efficiency of Delaunay triangulation algorithms with the desirable point placement features, boundary integrity, and robustness traditionally associated with advancing-front-type mesh generation strategies. The method offers increased robustness over previous algorithms in that it cannot fail regardless of the initial boundary point distribution and the prescribed cell size distribution throughout the flow-field.

  13. ABWR (advanced boiling water reactor) Design Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ABWR Design Verification Program is aimed at restoring confidence in the US licensing process by demonstrating its workability by obtaining USNRC preapproval of GE's ABWR Standard Plant. The purpose of this work is to achieve full NRC approval of the ABWR through the award of an NRC Staff final design approval (FDA) and design certification. The approach is to (1) establish a licensing basis with the NRC Staff for the ABWR, (2) prepare and submit, for NRC Staff review, an SSAR to obtain an FDA, and (3) participate in a rulemaking process to obtain certification of the ABWR design. This program was initiated August 27, 1986. This report, the fourth annual progress report, summarizes progress on this program from October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. 9 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  15. A Review of Advanced Sewer System Design Technologies (WERF Report INFR4SG09d)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: This document seeks to collect into one place current and new technologies about sewerage system design. The document organizes the information found in the 295 documents that were reviewed into six subject areas: Advanced Onsite Technologies; Alternative Wastewater C...

  16. Advanced Information Technology in Simulation Based Life Cycle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.

    2003-01-01

    In this research a Collaborative Optimization (CO) approach for multidisciplinary systems design is used to develop a decision based design framework for non-deterministic optimization. To date CO strategies have been developed for use in application to deterministic systems design problems. In this research the decision based design (DBD) framework proposed by Hazelrigg is modified for use in a collaborative optimization framework. The Hazelrigg framework as originally proposed provides a single level optimization strategy that combines engineering decisions with business decisions in a single level optimization. By transforming this framework for use in collaborative optimization one can decompose the business and engineering decision making processes. In the new multilevel framework of Decision Based Collaborative Optimization (DBCO) the business decisions are made at the system level. These business decisions result in a set of engineering performance targets that disciplinary engineering design teams seek to satisfy as part of subspace optimizations. The Decision Based Collaborative Optimization framework more accurately models the existing relationship between business and engineering in multidisciplinary systems design.

  17. Preconceptual design requirements for the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.; Goldstein, S.A.; Cereghino, S.J.; MacLeod, G.

    1998-09-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source represents the next step in providing the US Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray source for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation, Inertial Confinement Fusion, and Weapon Physics Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories` Z Accelerator provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. The X-1 plan follows a strategy based on scaling the 2 MJ x-ray output on Z via a 3-fold increase in z-pinch load current. The large volume (>5 cm{sup 3}), high temperature (>150 eV), temporally long (>10 ns) hohlraums are unique outside of underground nuclear weapon testing. Analytical scaling arguments and hydrodynamic simulations indicate that these hohlraums at temperatures of 230--300 eV will ignite thermonuclear fuel and drive the reaction to a yield of 200 to 1,000 MJ in the laboratory. X-1 will provide the high-fidelity experimental capability to certify the survivability and performance of non-nuclear weapon components in hostile radiation environments. Non-ignition sources will provide cold x-ray environments (<15 keV), and high yield fusion burn sources will provide high fidelity warm x-ray environments (15 keV--80 keV).

  18. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic-composite nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordstrom, K. E.; Marsh, A. H.; Sargisson, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual studies were conducted to assess the impact of incorporating advanced technologies in the nacelles of a current wide-bodied transport and an advanced technology transport. The improvement possible in the areas of fuel consumption, flyover noise levels, airplane weight, manufacturing costs, and airplane operating cost were evaluated for short and long-duct nacelles. Use of composite structures for acoustic duct linings in the fan inlet and exhaust ducts was considered as well as for other nacelle components. For the wide-bodied transport, the use of a long-duct nacelle with an internal mixer nozzle in the primary exhaust showed significant improvement in installed specific fuel consumption and airplane direct operating costs compared to the current short-duct nacelle. The long-duct mixed-flow nacelle is expected to achieve significant reductions in jet noise during takeoff and in turbo-machinery noise during landing approach. Recommendations were made of the technology development needed to achieve the potential fuel conservation and noise reduction benefits.

  19. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  20. Effect of NASA advanced designs on thermal behavior of Ni-H2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Sanabria, Olga D.

    1987-01-01

    As part of an overall effort to advance the technology of nickel-hydrogen batteries for low Earth orbit (LEO) applications, advanced designs for individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cells have been conceived. These designs incorporate alternative methods of oxygen recombination which affect the thermal behavior of the cells. The effect of these oxygen recombination methods on the cell temperature profiles is examined.